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  • 1.
    Adler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematics (Div.). Elekta, Box 7593, 103 93 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ringh, Axel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Öktem, Ozan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematics (Div.).
    Karlsson, Johan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Learning to solve inverse problems using Wasserstein lossManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose using the Wasserstein loss for training in inverse problems. In particular, we consider a learned primal-dual reconstruction scheme for ill-posed inverse problems using the Wasserstein distance as loss function in the learning. This is motivated by miss-alignments in training data, which when using standard mean squared error loss could severely degrade reconstruction quality. We prove that training with the Wasserstein loss gives a reconstruction operator that correctly compensates for miss-alignments in certain cases, whereas training with the mean squared error gives a smeared reconstruction. Moreover, we demonstrate these effects by training a reconstruction algorithm using both mean squared error and optimal transport loss for a problem in computerized tomography.

  • 2.
    Afkham, Heydar Maboudi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Ek, Carl Henrik
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Carlsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Gradual improvement of image descriptor quality2014In: ICPRAM 2014 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition Applications and Methods, 2014, p. 233-238Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a framework for gradually improving the quality of an already existing image descriptor. The descriptor used in this paper (Afkham et al., 2013) uses the response of a series of discriminative components for summarizing each image. As we will show, this descriptor has an ideal form in which all categories become linearly separable. While, reaching this form is not feasible, we will argue how by replacing a small fraction of these components, it is possible to obtain a descriptor which is, on average, closer to this ideal form. To do so, we initially identify which components do not contribute to the quality of the descriptor and replace them with more robust components. Here, a joint feature selection method is used to find improved components. As our experiments show, this change directly reflects in the capability of the resulting descriptor in discriminating between different categories.

  • 3.
    Agerskov, Niels
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Carrizo, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Application for Deriving 2D Images from 3D CT Image Data for Research Purposes2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden, has long desired to plan hip prostheses with Computed Tomography (CT) scans instead of plain radiographs to save time and patient discomfort. This has not been possible previously as their current software is limited to prosthesis planning on traditional 2D X-ray images. The purpose of this project was therefore to create an application (software) that allows medical professionals to derive a 2D image from CT images that can be used for prosthesis planning.

    In order to create the application NumPy and The Visualization Toolkit (VTK) Python code libraries were utilised and tied together with a graphical user interface library called PyQt4. The application includes a graphical interface and methods for optimizing the images for prosthesis planning.

    The application was finished and serves its purpose but the quality of the images needs to be evaluated with a larger sample group. 

  • 4.
    Angelopoulos, A.
    et al.
    -.
    Apostolakis, A.
    -.
    Aslanides, E.
    -.
    Backenstoss, G.
    -.
    Bargassa, P.
    -.
    Behnke, O.
    -.
    Benelli, A.
    -.
    Bertin, V.
    -.
    Blanc, F.
    -.
    Bloch, P.
    -.
    Danielsson, Mats
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    K 0–K̄0 mass and decay-width differences: CPLEAR evaluation1999In: Physics Letters B, ISSN 0370-2693, E-ISSN 1873-2445, Vol. 471, no 2, p. 332-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CPT-violation parameters Re(δ) and Im(δ) determined recently by CPLEAR are used to evaluate the K0 mass and decay-width differences, as given by the difference between the diagonal elements of the neutral-kaon mixing matrix (M−iΓ/2). The results – GeV and GeV – are consistent with CPT invariance. The CPT invariance is also shown to hold within a few times 10−3–10−4 for many of the amplitudes describing neutral-kaon decays to different final states.

  • 5.
    Angelopoulos, Angelos
    et al.
    -.
    Locher, M P
    -.
    Markushin, V E
    -.
    Danielsson, Mats
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Dispersion relation analysis of the neutral kaon regeneration amplitude in carbon1999In: The European Physical Journal C-Particles and Fields, ISSN 434-6044, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 19-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply a forward dispersion relation to the regeneration amplitude for kaon scattering on 12" style="position: relative;" tabindex="0" id="MathJax-Element-1-Frame" class="MathJax">12C using all available data. The CPLEAR data at low energies allow the determination of the net contribution from the subthreshold region which turns out to be much smaller than earlier evaluations, solving a long standing puzzle.

  • 6.
    Apostolakis, A.
    et al.
    -.
    Aslanides, E.
    -.
    Backenstoss, G.
    -.
    Bargassa, P.
    -.
    Behnke, O.
    -.
    Benelli, A.
    -.
    Bertin, V.
    -.
    Blanc, F.
    -.
    Bloch, P.
    -.
    Carlson, P.
    Danielsson, Mats
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Measurement of the energy dependence of the form factor f+ in K 0 e3 decay2000In: Physics Letters B, ISSN 0370-2693, E-ISSN 1873-2445, Vol. 473, no 1, p. 186-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutral-kaon decays to πeν were analysed to determine the q2 dependence of the K0e3 electroweak form factor f+. Based on 365612 events, this form factor was found to have a linear dependence on q2 with a slope λ+=0.0245±0.0012stat±0.0022syst.

  • 7. Azar, J.C.
    et al.
    Hamid Muhammed, Hamed
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Automated Tracking of the Carotid Artery in Ultrasound Image Sequences Using a Self Organizing Neural Network2010In: Proceedings of 20th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2010), Istanbul, Turkey, Istanbul, Turkey, 2010, p. 2548-2551Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An automated method for the segmentation and tracking of moving vessel walls in 2D ultrasound image sequences is introduced. The method was tested on simulated and real ultrasound image sequences of the carotid artery. Tracking was achieved via a self organizing neural network known as Growing Neural Gas. This topology-preserving algorithm assigns a net of nodes connected by edges that distributes itself within the vessel walls and adapts to changes in topology with time. The movement of the nodes was analyzed to uncover the dynamics of the vessel wall. By this way, radial and longitudinal strain and strain rates have been estimated. Finally, wave intensity signals were computed from these measurements. The method proposed improves upon wave intensity wall analysis, WIWA, and opens up a possibility for easy and efficient analysis and diagnosis of vascular disease through noninvasive ultrasonic examination.

  • 8.
    Baranowski, Jacek
    et al.
    Linköping Heart Centre, University Hospital, Linköping University.
    Ahn, Henrik
    Linköping Heart Centre, University Hospital, Linköping University.
    Freter, Wolfgang
    Linköping Heart Centre, University Hospital, Linköping University.
    Nielsen, Niels-Erik
    Linköping Heart Centre, University Hospital, Linköping University.
    Nylander, Eva
    Linköping Heart Centre, University Hospital, Linköping University.
    Janerot-Sjöberg, Birgitta
    Linköping Heart Centre, University Hospital, Linköping University.
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping Heart Centre, University Hospital, Linköping University.
    Wallby, Lars
    Linköping Heart Centre, University Hospital, Linköping University.
    Echo-guided presentation of the aortic valve minimises contrast exposure in transcatheter valve recipients2011In: Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions, ISSN 1522-1946, E-ISSN 1522-726X, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 272-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: We have developed a method using transthoracic echocardiography in establishing optimal visualization of the aortic root, to reduce the amount of contrast medium used in each patient.

    BACKGROUND: During transcatheter aortic valve implantation, it is necessary to obtain an optimal fluoroscopic projection for deployment of the valve showing the aortic ostium with the three cusps aligned in the beam direction. This may require repeat aortic root angiograms at this stage of the procedure with a high amount of contrast medium with a risk of detrimental influence on renal function.

    METHODS: We studied the conventional way and an echo guided way to optimize visualisation of the aortic root. Echocardiography was used initially allowing easier alignment of the image intensifier with the transducer's direction.

    RESULTS: Contrast volumes, radiation/fluoroscopy exposure times, and postoperative creatinine levels were significantly less in patients having the echo-guided orientation of the optimal fluoroscopic angles compared with patients treated with the conventional approach.

    CONCLUSION: We present a user-friendly echo-guided method to facilitate fluoroscopy adjustment during transcatheter aortic valve implantation. In our series, the amounts of contrast medium and radiation have been significantly reduced, with a concomitant reduction in detrimental effects on renal function in the early postoperative phase.

  • 9. Bassan, Gioia
    et al.
    Larsson, David
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Nordenfur, Tim
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Larsson, Matilda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Acquisition of multiple mode shear wave propagation in transversely isotropic medium using dualprobe setup2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Berggren, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Physics of Medical Imaging. Philips Healthcare, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Physics of Medical Imaging.
    Fredenberg, Erik
    Philips Healthcare, Sweden.
    Rayleigh imaging in spectral mammography2016In: MEDICAL IMAGING 2016: PHYSICS OF MEDICAL IMAGING, 2016, article id 97830AConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectral imaging is the acquisition of multiple images of an object at different energy spectra. In mammography, dual-energy imaging (spectral imaging with two energy levels) has been investigated for several applications, in particular material decomposition, which allows for quantitative analysis of breast composition and quantitative contrast-enhanced imaging. Material decomposition with dual-energy imaging is based on the assumption that there are two dominant photon interaction effects that determine linear attenuation: the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering. This assumption limits the number of basis materials, i.e. the number of materials that are possible to differentiate between, to two. However, Rayleigh scattering may account for more than 10% of the linear attenuation in the mammography energy range. In this work, we show that a modified version of a scanning multi-slit spectral photon-counting mammography system is able to acquire three images at different spectra and can be used for triple-energy imaging. We further show that triple-energy imaging in combination with the efficient scatter rejection of the system enables measurement of Rayleigh scattering, which adds an additional energy dependency to the linear attenuation and enables material decomposition with three basis materials. Three available basis materials have the potential to improve virtually all applications of spectral imaging.

  • 11.
    Bergholm, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Hamid Muhammed, Hamed
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Larsolle, A.
    Acquiring instantaneous multispectral imagery using a single image sensor with multiple filter mosaic2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12. Bernard, Olivier
    et al.
    Bosch, J G
    Heyde, Brecht
    Alessandrini, Martino
    Barbosa, Daniel
    Camarasu-Pop, S
    Cervenansky, F
    Valette, S
    Mirea, O
    Bernier, M
    Jodoin, P M
    Domingos, J S
    Stebbing, R V
    Keraudren, K
    Oktay, O
    Caballero, J
    Shi, W
    Rueckert, D
    Milletari, F
    Ahmadi, S A
    Smistad, E
    Lindseth, F
    van Stralen, M
    Wang, Chunliang
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Image Processing and Visualization.
    Smedby, Örjan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Image Processing and Visualization.
    Donal, E
    Monaghan, M
    Papachristidis, A
    Geleijnse, M L
    Galli, E
    Dhooge, Jan
    Standardized evaluation system for left ventricular segmentation algorithms in 3D echocardiography.2015In: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, ISSN 0278-0062, E-ISSN 1558-254XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time 3D Echocardiography (RT3DE) has been proven to be an accurate tool for left ventricular (LV) volume assessment. However, identification of the LV endocardium remains a challenging task, mainly because of the low tissue/blood contrast of the images combined with typical artifacts. Several semi and fully automatic algorithms have been proposed for segmenting the endocardium in RT3DE data in order to extract relevant clinical indices, but a systematic and fair comparison between such methods has so far been impossible due to the lack of a publicly available common database. Here, we introduce a standardized evaluation framework to reliably evaluate and compare the performance of the algorithms developed to segment the LV border in RT3DE. A database consisting of 45 multivendor cardiac ultrasound recordings acquired at different centers with corresponding reference measurements from 3 experts are made available. The algorithms from nine research groups were quantitatively evaluated and compared using the proposed online platform. The results showed that the best methods produce promising results with respect to the experts' measurements for the extraction of clinical indices, and that they offer good segmentation precision in terms of mean distance error in the context of the experts' variability range. The platform remains open for new submissions.

  • 13.
    Björklund, Tomas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Automatic evaluation of breast density in mammographic images2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this master thesis is to develop a computerized method for automatic estimation of the mammographic density of mammographic images from 5 different types of mammography units.

     

    Mammographic density is a measurement of the amount of fibroglandular tissue in a breast. This is the single most attributable risk factor for breast cancer; an accurate measurement of the mammographic density can increase the accuracy of cancer prediction in mammography. Today it is commonly estimated through visual inspection by a radiologist, which is subjective and results in inter-reader variation.

     

    The developed method estimates the density as a ratio of #pixels-containing-dense-tissue over #pixels-containing-any-breast-tissue and also according to the BI-RADS density categories. To achieve this, each mammographic image is:

    • corrected for breast thickness and normalized such that some global threshold can separate dense and non-dense tissue.
    • iteratively thresholded until a good threshold is found.  This process is monitored and automatically stopped by a classifier which is trained on sample segmentations using features based on different image intensity characteristics in specified image regions.
    • filtered to remove noise such as blood vessels from the segmentation.
    • Finally, the ratio of dense tissue is calculated and a BI-RADS density class is assigned based on a calibrated scale (after averaging the ratings of both craniocaudal images for each patient). The calibration is based on resulting density ratio estimations of over 1300 training samples against ratings by radiologists of the same images.

     

    The method was tested on craniocaudal images (not included in the training process) acquired with different mammography units of 703 patients which had also been rated by radiologists according to the BI-RADS density classes. The agreement with the radiologist rating in terms of Cohen’s weighted kappa is substantial (0.73). In 68% of the cases the agreement is exact, only in 1.2% of the cases the disagreement is more than 1 class.

  • 14. Blystad, Ida
    et al.
    Warntjes, J. B. Marcel
    Smedby, Örjan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Image Processing and Visualization. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Tisell, Anders
    Quantitative MRI for analysis of peritumoral edema in malignant gliomas2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, article id e0177135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose Damage to the blood-brain barrier with subsequent contrast enhancement is a hallmark of glioblastoma. Non-enhancing tumor invasion into the peritumoral edema is, however, not usually visible on conventional magnetic resonance imaging. New quantitative techniques using relaxometry offer additional information about tissue properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate longitudinal relaxation R-1, transverse relaxation R-2, and proton density in the peritumoral edema in a group of patients with malignant glioma before surgery to assess whether relaxometry can detect changes not visible on conventional images. Methods In a prospective study, 24 patients with suspected malignant glioma were examined before surgery. A standard MRI protocol was used with the addition of a quantitative MR method (MAGIC), which measured R-1, R-2, and proton density. The diagnosis of malignant glioma was confirmed after biopsy/surgery. In 19 patients synthetic MR images were then created from the MAGIC scan, and ROIs were placed in the peritumoral edema to obtain the quantitative values. Dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion was used to obtain cerebral blood volume (rCBV) data of the peritumoral edema. Voxel-based statistical analysis was performed using a mixed linear model. Results R-1, R-2, and rCBV decrease with increasing distance from the contrast-enhancing part of the tumor. There is a significant increase in R1 gradient after contrast agent injection (P<.0001). There is a heterogeneous pattern of relaxation values in the peritumoral edema adjacent to the contrast-enhancing part of the tumor. Conclusion Quantitative analysis with relaxometry of peritumoral edema in malignant gliomas detects tissue changes not visualized on conventional MR images. The finding of decreasing R-1 and R-2 means shorter relaxation times closer to the tumor, which could reflect tumor invasion into the peritumoral edema. However, these findings need to be validated in the future.

  • 15.
    Boltshauser, Rasmus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    Zheng, Jimmy
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    Automatisering av skjuvvågselastografidata för kärldiagnostisk applikation.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Hjärt- och kärlsjukdommar är den ledande dödsorsaken i världen. En av det vanligaste hjärt- och kärlsjukdomarna är åderförkalkning. Sjukdomen kännetecknas av förhårdning samt plackansamling i kärl och bidrar till stroke och hjärtinfarkt. Information om kärlväggens styvhet kan spela en viktig roll vid diagnostiseringen av bland annat åderförkalkning. Skjuvvågselastografi (SWE) är en noninvasiv ultraljudsbaserad metod som idag används för att mäta elasticitet och styvhet av större mjuka vävnader som lever- och bröstvävnad. Dock används inte metoden inom kärlapplikationer, då få genomgående studier har utförts på SWE för kärl. Målet med projektet är att automatisera kvantifieringen av skjuvvågshastigheten för SWE och undersöka hur automatiseringens förmåga och begränsningar beror av automatiseringsinställningar. Med verktyg erhållna från CBH (skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa) skapades ett MATLAB-program med denna förmåga. Programmet applicerades på två fantommodeller. Automatiseringsinställningarna påverkade automatiseringen av dessa modeller olika, vilket innebar att generella optimala inställningar inte kunde finnas. Optimala inställningar beror på vad automatiseringen skall undersöka.

     

  • 16.
    Bornefalk, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Medical Imaging.
    Task-based weights for photon counting spectral x-ray imaging2011In: Medical physics (Lancaster), ISSN 0094-2405, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 6065-6073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To develop a framework for taking the spatial frequency composition of an imaging taskinto account when determining optimal bin weight factors for photon counting energy sensitivex-ray systems. A second purpose of the investigation is to evaluate the possible improvement comparedto using pixel based weights.Methods: The Fourier based approach of imaging performance and detectability index d0 is appliedto pulse height discriminating photon counting systems. The dependency of d0 on the bin weightfactors is made explicit, taking into account both differences in signal and noise transfer characteristicsacross bins and the spatial frequency dependency of interbin correlations from reabsorbedscatter. Using a simplified model of a specific silicon detector, d0 values for a high and a low frequencyimaging task are determined for optimal weights and compared to pixel based weights.Results: The method successfully identifies bins where a large point spread function degradesdetection of high spatial frequency targets. The method is also successful in determining how todownweigh highly correlated bins. Quantitative predictions for the simplified silicon detectormodel indicate that improvements in the detectability index when applying task-based weightsinstead of pixel based weights are small for high frequency targets, but could be in excess of 10%for low frequency tasks where scatter-induced correlation otherwise degrade detectability.Conclusions: The proposed method makes the spatial frequency dependency of complex correlationstructures between bins and their effect on the system detective quantum efficiency easier toanalyze and allows optimizing bin weights for given imaging tasks. A potential increase in detectabilityof double digit percents in silicon detector systems operated at typical CT energies (100kVp) merits further evaluation on a real system. The method is noted to be of higher relevancefor silicon detectors than for cadmium (zink) telluride detectors.

  • 17.
    Broomé, Michael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Frenckner, Björn
    Broman, Mikaeö
    Bjällmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Recirculation during veno-venous extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation: a simulation study2015In: International Journal of Artificial Organs, ISSN 0391-3988, E-ISSN 1724-6040, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 23-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    Veno-venous ECMO is indicated in reversible life-threatening respiratory failure without life-threatening circulatory failure. Recirculation of oxygenated blood in the ECMO circuit decreases efficiency of patient oxygen delivery but is difficult to measure. We seek to identify and quantify some of the factors responsible for recirculation in a simulation model and compare with clinical data.

    METHODS:

    A closed-loop real-time simulation model of the cardiovascular system has been developed. ECMO is simulated with a fixed flow pump 0 to 5 l/min with various cannulation sites - 1) right atrium to inferior vena cava, 2) inferior vena cava to right atrium, and 3) superior+inferior vena cava to right atrium. Simulations are compared to data from a retrospective cohort of 11 consecutive adult veno-venous ECMO patients in our department.

    RESULTS:

    Recirculation increases with increasing ECMO-flow, decreases with increasing cardiac output, and is highly dependent on choice of cannulation sites. A more peripheral drainage site decreases recirculation substantially.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Simulations suggest that recirculation is a significant clinical problem in veno-venous ECMO in agreement with clinical data. Due to the difficulties in measuring recirculation and interpretation of the venous oxygen saturation in the ECMO drainage blood, flow settings and cannula positioning should rather be optimized with help of arterial oxygenation parameters. Simulation may be useful in quantification and understanding of recirculation in VV-ECMO.

  • 18.
    Broomé, Michael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Maksuti, Elira
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Frenckner, Björn
    Janerot-Sjöberg, Birgitta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Closed-loop real-time simulation model of hemodynamics and oxygen transport in the cardiovascular system2013In: Biomedical engineering online, ISSN 1475-925X, E-ISSN 1475-925X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 69-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Computer technology enables realistic simulation of cardiovascular physiology. The increasing number of clinical surgical and medical treatment options imposes a need for better understanding of patient-specific pathology and outcome prediction. Methods: A distributed lumped parameter real-time closed-loop model with 26 vascular segments, cardiac modelling with time-varying elastance functions and gradually opening and closing valves, the pericardium, intrathoracic pressure, the atrial and ventricular septum, various pathological states and including oxygen transport has been developed. Results: Model output is pressure, volume, flow and oxygen saturation from every cardiac and vascular compartment. The model produces relevant clinical output and validation of quantitative data in normal physiology and qualitative directions in simulation of pathological states show good agreement with published data. Conclusion: The results show that it is possible to build a clinically relevant real-time computer simulation model of the normal adult cardiovascular system. It is suggested that understanding qualitative interaction between physiological parameters in health and disease may be improved by using the model, although further model development and validation is needed for quantitative patient-specific outcome prediction.

  • 19.
    Cahn, R N
    et al.
    -.
    Cederström, B.
    -.
    Danielsson, Mats
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hall, A.
    -.
    Lundqvist, M.
    -.
    Nygren, D.
    -.
    Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography1999In: Medical physics, Vol. 26, no 12, p. 2680-2683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An evaluation of the dependence of detective quantum efficiency (DQE) on the incident energy spectrum has been made for mammography. The DQE dependence on the energy spectrum has been evaluated for energy-integrating detectors, photon-counting detectors, and detectors that measure the energy of each photon. To isolate the effect of the x-ray energy spectrum the detector has been assumed to be ideal, i.e., all noise sources are assumed to be zero except for quantum fluctuations. The result shows that the improvement in DQE, if the energy-integrating detector is compared to a single-photon counting detector, is of the order of 10%. Comparing the energy-integrating detector and the detector measuring the energy for each photon the improvement is around 30% using a molybdenumanodespectrum typical in mammography. It is shown that the optimal weight factors to combine the data in the case the energy is measured are very well approximated if the weight factors are proportional to E&#x2212;3." style="position: relative;" tabindex="0" id="MathJax-Element-1-Frame" class="MathJax">E−3. Another conclusion is that in calculating the DQE, a detector should be compared to one that uses ideal energy weighting for each photon since this provides the best signal-to-noise ratio. This has generally been neglected in the literature.

  • 20.
    Carrizo, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Organ Segmentation Using Deep Multi-task Learning with Anatomical Landmarks2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis is the study of multi-task learning to train a neural network to segment medical images and predict anatomical landmarks. The paper shows the results from experiments using medical landmarks in order to attempt to help the network learn the important organ structures quicker. The results found in this study are inconclusive and rather than showing the efficiency of the multi-task framework for learning, they tell a story of the importance of choosing the tasks and dataset wisely. The study also reflects and depicts the general difficulties and pitfalls of performing a project of this type.

  • 21. Chew, MS
    et al.
    Brandberg, J
    Janerot-Sjöberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University Hospital, Sweden.
    Sloth, E
    Hasenkam, JM
    Ask, P
    Color Doppler flow measurements using surface integration of velocity vectors (SIVV): Effect of colour flow gain, pulse repetition frequency and number of imaging planes2008In: Open Medical Imaging Journal, ISSN 1874-3471, Vol. 2, p. 56-61Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Chowdhury, Manish
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Jörgens, Daniel
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Image Processing and Visualization.
    Wang, Chunliang
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Image Processing and Visualization. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Smedby, Örjan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Image Processing and Visualization.
    Moreno, Rodrigo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Image Processing and Visualization.
    Segmentation of Cortical Bone using Fast Level Sets2017In: MEDICAL IMAGING 2017: IMAGE PROCESSING / [ed] Styner, MA Angelini, ED, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2017, article id UNSP 1013327Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cortical bone plays a big role in the mechanical competence of bone. The analysis of cortical bone requires accurate segmentation methods. Level set methods are usually in the state-of-the-art for segmenting medical images. However, traditional implementations of this method are computationally expensive. This drawback was recently tackled through the so-called coherent propagation extension of the classical algorithm which has decreased computation times dramatically. In this study, we assess the potential of this technique for segmenting cortical bone in interactive time in 3D images acquired through High Resolution peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (HR-pQCT). The obtained segmentations are used to estimate cortical thickness and cortical porosity of the investigated images. Cortical thickness and Cortical porosity is computed using sphere fitting and mathematical morphological operations respectively. Qualitative comparison between the segmentations of our proposed algorithm and a previously published approach on six images volumes reveals superior smoothness properties of the level set approach. While the proposed method yields similar results to previous approaches in regions where the boundary between trabecular and cortical bone is well defined, it yields more stable segmentations in challenging regions. This results in more stable estimation of parameters of cortical bone. The proposed technique takes few seconds to compute, which makes it suitable for clinical settings.

  • 23.
    Chowdhury, Manish
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Klintström, Benjamin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). Linköping University, Sweden.
    Klintström, E.
    Smedby, Örjan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Image Processing and Visualization. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Moreno, Rodrigo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Image Processing and Visualization.
    Granulometry-based trabecular bone segmentation2017In: 20th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis, SCIA 2017, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10270, p. 100-108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accuracy of the analyses for studying the three dimensional trabecular bone microstructure rely on the quality of the segmentation between trabecular bone and bone marrow. Such segmentation is challenging for images from computed tomography modalities that can be used in vivo due to their low contrast and resolution. For this purpose, we propose in this paper a granulometry-based segmentation method. In a first step, the trabecular thickness is estimated by using the granulometry in gray scale, which is generated by applying the opening morphological operation with ball-shaped structuring elements of different diameters. This process mimics the traditional sphere-fitting method used for estimating trabecular thickness in segmented images. The residual obtained after computing the granulometry is compared to the original gray scale value in order to obtain a measurement of how likely a voxel belongs to trabecular bone. A threshold is applied to obtain the final segmentation. Six histomorphometric parameters were computed on 14 segmented bone specimens imaged with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), considering micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) as the ground truth. Otsu’s thresholding and Automated Region Growing (ARG) segmentation methods were used for comparison. For three parameters (Tb.N, Tb.Th and BV/TV), the proposed segmentation algorithm yielded the highest correlations with micro-CT, while for the remaining three (Tb.Nd, Tb.Tm and Tb.Sp), its performance was comparable to ARG. The method also yielded the strongest average correlation (0.89). When Tb.Th was computed directly from the gray scale images, the correlation was superior to the binary-based methods. The results suggest that the proposed algorithm can be used for studying trabecular bone in vivo through CBCT.

  • 24.
    Chowdhury, Manish
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Image Processing and Visualization.
    Rota Bulò, S.
    Moreno, Rodrigo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Image Processing and Visualization.
    Kundu, M.K.
    Smedby, Örjan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Image Processing and Visualization.
    An Efficient Radiographic Image Retrieval System Using Convolutional Neural Network2016In: 2016 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, p. 3134-3139, article id 7900116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Content-Based Medical Image Retrieval (CBMIR) is an important research field in the context of medical data management. In this paper we propose a novel CBMIR system for the automatic retrieval of radiographic images. Our approach employs a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to obtain high- level image representations that enable a coarse retrieval of images that are in correspondence to a query image. The retrieved set of images is refined via a non-parametric estimation of putative classes for the query image, which are used to filter out potential outliers in favour of more relevant images belonging to those classes. The refined set of images is finally re-ranked using Edge Histogram Descriptor, i.e. a low-level edge-based image descriptor that allows to capture finer similarities between the retrieved set of images and the query image. To improve the computational efficiency of the system, we employ dimensionality reduction via Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed system on medical data from the “Image Retrieval in Medical Applications” (IRMA) benchmark database. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed CBMIR system in the field of medical image retrieval.

  • 25.
    Darvish, Darvish
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Öçba, F.Nadideh
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Presentation and evaluation of gated-SPECT myocardial perfusion images: Radial Slices - data reduction without  loss  of  information2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) data from myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) are normally displayed as a set of three slices orthogonal to the left ventricular (LV) long axis for both ECG-gated (GSPECT) and non-gated SPECT studies. The total number of slices presented for assessment depends on the size of the heart, but is typically in excess of 30. 

    A requirement for data presentation is that images should be orientated about the LV axis; therefore, a set of radial slice would fulfill this need. Radial slices are parallel to the LV long axis and arranged diametrically. They could provide a suitable alternative to standard orthogonal slices, with the advantage of requiring far fewer slices to adequately represent the data.

    In this study a semi-automatic method was developed for displaying MPI SPECT data as a set of radial slices orientated about the LV axis, with the aim of reducing the number of slices viewed, without loss of information and independent on the size of the heart. Input volume data consisted of standard short axis slices orientated perpendicular to the LV axis chosen at the time of reconstruction.

     The true LV axis was determined by first determining the boundary on a central long axis slice, the axis being in the direction of the y-axis in the matrix. The skeleton of the myocardium were found and the true LV axis determined for that slice. The angle of this axis with respect to the y-axis was calculated. The process was repeated for an orthogonal long axis slice. The input volume was then rotated by the angles calculated.

    Radial slices generated for presentation were integrated over a sector equivalent to the imaging resolution (1.2 cm); assuming the diameter of the heart is about 8cm then non-gated data could be represented by 20 radial slices integrated over an 18 degree section. Gated information could be represented with four slices spaced at 45 intervals, integrated over a 30 degree sector.

  • 26.
    del Aguila Pla, Pol
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.
    Jaldén, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.
    Cell detection by functional inverse diffusion and non-negative group sparsity – Part I: Modeling and Inverse Problems2018In: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ISSN 1053-587X, E-ISSN 1941-0476, Vol. 66, no 20, p. 5407-5421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this two-part paper, we present a novel framework and methodology to analyze data from certain image-based biochemical assays, e.g., ELISPOT and Fluorospot assays. In this first part, we start by presenting a physical partial differential equations (PDE) model up to image acquisition for these biochemical assays. Then, we use the PDEs' Green function to derive a novel parametrization of the acquired images. This parametrization allows us to propose a functional optimization problem to address inverse diffusion. In particular, we propose a non-negative group-sparsity regularized optimization problem with the goal of localizing and characterizing the biological cells involved in the said assays. We continue by proposing a suitable discretization scheme that enables both the generation of synthetic data and implementable algorithms to address inverse diffusion. We end Part I by providing a preliminary comparison between the results of our methodology and an expert human labeler on real data. Part II is devoted to providing an accelerated proximal gradient algorithm to solve the proposed problem and to the empirical validation of our methodology.

  • 27.
    del Aguila Pla, Pol
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.
    Jaldén, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.
    Cell detection by functional inverse diffusion and non-negative group sparsity – Part II: Proximal optimization and Performance evaluation2018In: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ISSN 1053-587X, E-ISSN 1941-0476, Vol. 66, no 20, p. 5422-5437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this two-part paper, we present a novel framework and methodology to analyze data from certain image-based biochemical assays, e.g., ELISPOT and Fluorospot assays. In this second part, we focus on our algorithmic contributions. We provide an algorithm for functional inverse diffusion that solves the variational problem we posed in Part I. As part of the derivation of this algorithm, we present the proximal operator for the non-negative group-sparsity regularizer, which is a novel result that is of interest in itself, also in comparison to previous results on the proximal operator of a sum of functions. We then present a discretized approximated implementation of our algorithm and evaluate it both in terms of operational cell-detection metrics and in terms of distributional optimal-transport metrics.

  • 28.
    del Aguila Pla, Pol
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.
    Jaldén, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.
    Cell detection on image-based immunoassays2018In: 2018 IEEE 15th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2018), IEEE, 2018, p. 431-435Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell detection and counting in the image-based ELISPOT and Fluorospot immunoassays is considered a bottleneck.The task has remained hard to automatize, and biomedical researchers often have to rely on results that are not accurate.Previously proposed solutions are heuristic, and data-based solutions are subject to a lack of objective ground truth data. In this paper, we analyze a partial differential equations model for ELISPOT, Fluorospot, and assays of similar design. This leads us to a mathematical observation model forthe images generated by these assays. We use this model to motivate a methodology for cell detection. Finally, we provide a real-data example that suggests that this cell detection methodology and a human expert perform comparably.

  • 29.
    del Aguila Pla, Pol
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.
    Jaldén, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.
    Cell detection on image-based immunoassays2018In: 2018 IEEE 15Th International Symposium On Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2018), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 431-435Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell detection and counting in the image-based ELISPOT and Fluorospot immunoassays is considered a bottleneck. The task has remained hard to automatize, and biomedical researchers often have to rely on results that are not accurate. Previously proposed solutions are heuristic, and data-based solutions are subject to a lack of objective ground truth data. In this paper, we analyze a partial differential equations model for ELISPOT, Fluorospot, and assays of similar design. This leads us to a mathematical observation model for the images generated by these assays. We use this model to motivate a methodology for cell detection. Finally, we provide a real-data example that suggests that this cell detection methodology and a human expert perform comparably.

  • 30.
    Demeulemeester, Kilian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Needle Localization in Ultrasound Images: FULL NEEDLE AXIS AND TIP LOCALIZATION IN ULTRASOUND IMAGES USING GPS DATA AND IMAGE PROCESSING2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many medical interventions involve ultrasound based imaging systems to safely localize and navigate instruments into the patient body. To facilitate visual tracking of the instruments, we investigate the techniques and methodologies best suited for solving the problem of needle localization in ultrasound images.

    We propose a robust procedure that automatically determines the position of a needle in 2D ultrasound images. Such a task is decomposed into the localization of the needle axis and its tip. A first estimation of the axis position is computed with the help of multiple position sensors, including one embedded in the transducer and another in the needle. Based on this, the needle axis is computed using a RANSAC algorithm. The tip is detected by analyzing the intensity along the axis and a Kalman filter is added to compensate for measurement uncertainties.

    The algorithms were experimentally verified on real ultrasound images acquired by a 2D scanner scanning a portion of a cryogel phantom that contained a thin metallic needle. The experiments shows that the algorithms are capable of detecting a needle at millimeter accuracy.The computational time of the order of milliseconds permits real time needle localization.

  • 31.
    Elmstedt, Nina
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Prenatal Tisse Velocity Imaging of the Heart: A new approach to assess fetal myocardial function2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this thesis has been to evaluate color‐coded tissue velocity imaging (TVI) as an approach to developing a new, non‐invasive assessment method for fetal myocardial function. Such a method could hypothetically give early indications of fetal pathology, as myocardial dysfunction is often the consequence when the circulation tries to adapt to deteriorating situations. This would be beneficial in clinical decision making when evaluating fetal well‐being in a wide range of pregnancy associated conditions, to facilitate risk assessment and to monitor the benefit of therapeutic interventions.

    TVI is an ultrasound technique that enables quantification of longitudinal myocardial motion with high temporal resolution, which is essential in the identification of fetal myocardial movements of short duration. Furthermore, the longitudinal motion is mainly determined by subendocardial fibers that usually become abnormal in the very early stages of cardiac dysfunction as they are sensitive to milder degrees of hypoxia. Thus, TVI has the potential to give early indications of impaired fetal myocardial function and hypothetically facilitate the detection of intrauterine hypoxia. Hypoxia is a common phenomenon of many pathological conditions in pregnancy, from which a substantial number of children either die or acquire permanent brain injury during delivery every year.

    After having established optimal sampling requirements and ensured an acceptable reproducibility for TVI measurements of the fetal myocardium, normal reference values were determined feasible and sensitive enough to provide insight into maturational changes in myocardial function. This provided a foundation that should enable further investigations and was partly accomplished using the cardiac state diagram (CSD) to accurately time the myocardial events during a cardiac cycle according to the motion shifts of the atrioventricular plane.

    The demonstrated results are promising and the general conclusion of this thesis is that TVI contributes to increasing the knowledge and understanding of fetal myocardial function and dysfunction. Used together with CSD this technique has great potential as an assessment method. However, further testing of the clinical potential is needed in larger study populations concerning the pathological or physiological questions at issue, and additional development of the method is required to render the method simple enough to be of potential aid in clinical practice.

  • 32.
    Elmstedt, Nina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Johnson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Lind, Britta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Ferm-Widlund, Kjerstin
    CFM, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset.
    Westgren, Magnus
    CFM, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Reference values for fetal tissue velocity imaging and a new approach to evaluate fetal myocardial function2013In: Cardiovascular Ultrasound, ISSN 1476-7120, E-ISSN 1476-7120, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 29-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Myocardial function can be evaluated using color-coded tissue velocity imaging (TVI) to analyze the longitudinal myocardial velocity profile, and by expressing the motion of the atrioventricular plane during a cardiac cycle as coordinated events in the cardiac state diagram (CSD). The objective of this study was to establish gestational age specific reference values for fetal TVI measurements and to introduce the CSD as a potential aid in fetal myocardial evaluation. Methods: TVI recordings from 125 healthy fetuses, at 18 to 42 weeks of gestation, were performed with the transducer perpendicular to the apex to provide a four-chamber view. The myocardial velocity data was extracted from the basal segment of septum as well as the left and right ventricular free wall for subsequent offline analysis. Results: During a cardiac cycle the longitudinal peak velocities of septum increased with gestational age, as did the peak velocities of the left and right ventricular free wall, except for the peak velocity of post ejection. The duration of rapid filling and atrial contraction increased during pregnancy while the duration of post ejection decreased. The duration of pre ejection and ventricular ejection did not change significantly with gestational age. Conclusion: Evaluating fetal systolic and diastolic performance using TVI together with CSD could contribute to increase the knowledge and understanding of fetal myocardial function and dysfunction. The pre and post ejection phases are the variables most likely to indicate fetuses with abnormal myocardial function.

  • 33.
    Elmstedt, Nina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Lind, Britta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Ferm-Widlund, Kjerstin
    CFM, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset.
    Westgren, Magnus
    CFM, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Reproducibility and variability in the assessment of color-coded tissue velocity imaging of the fetal myocardium2013In: Journal of biomedical graphics and computing, ISSN 1925-4008, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The introduction of color-coded tissue velocity imaging (TVI) in fetal medicine is quite recent, and as this method is presently evaluated and developed in regard to diagnostic precision it is of outmost importance to evaluate the reproducibility for adequate clinical use. In this study, reproducibility and intra- and inter-observer variability was assessed for offline analysis as well as echocardiography investigations. Also, we evaluated the importance of exact placement of the region of interest (ROI).

    Methods: TVI recordings from 21 fetuses, at a gestational age of 27 to 41 weeks, were acquired at 208-239 frames/s for subsequent offline analysis. All recordings were performed with the transducer positioned to provide an apical four-chamber view and the myocardial velocity data was obtained from basal inferoseptum. The data set was analyzed according to Bland-Altman and reproducibility was expressed as the standard error of a single determination, estimated from duplicate determinations in percentage of the total.

    Results: The variation of reproducibility for the echocardiography investigation ranged from 2.0% to 9.8%. The duration of left ventricular ejection, and the peak velocities of early diastolic filling and atrial contraction being the most robust events measured. The variation of inter-observer variability for the echocardiography investigation ranged from 1.5% to 8.4%, and the variation of intra- and inter-observer variability for the offline analysis ranged from 1.2% to 10.4%. Least robust were the events of shortest duration, including isovolumetric contraction and relaxation.

    Conclusion: We believe that TVI measurements of the fetal myocardium could be performed in the clinical routine with acceptable reproducibility.

  • 34.
    Gasser, T. Christian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Bringing vascular biomechanics into clinical practice. Simulation-based decisions for elective abdominal aortic aneurysms repair2012In: Lecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics, ISSN 2212-9391, E-ISSN 2212-9413, Vol. 5, p. 1-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the industrialized countries and some of the associated risk factors are increasing. A multi-disciplinary approach including biomechanics is needed to better understand and more effectively treat these diseases. Despite the tremendous progress made in modeling the biomechanics of the vasculature, so far this research has accomplished only very limited clinical relevance or acceptance. Establishing vascular biomechanical simulations in the clinical work-flow requires integrating (i) a robust reconstruction of vascular bodies from medical images, (ii) a non-linear biomechanical analysis and (iii) a clinically relevant interpretation of the derived results. Such an approach is outlined for the biomechanical rupture risk assessment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs), i.e. a local dilatation of the infrarenal aorta that may form through irreversible pathological remodeling of the aortic wall. Rupture of an AAA is a frequent cause of death in the elderly male population and assessing this risk plays a central role in the clinical management of aneurysms. Specifically, the present chapter details an operator-insensitive method to reconstruct vascular bodies from Computer Tomography-Angiography data. The approach is based on beam and shell-like deformable (active) contour models and allows a hexahedral-dominated mesh generation for an efficient Finite Element computation. Laboratory experiments and histo-mechanical constitutive modeling of AAA tissue are reviewed. Finally, the clinical application of the biomechanical rupture risk assessment is demonstrated through the especially developed software A4clinics. Most critically, individual biomechanical parameters are related to the ‘average AAA patient’, which in turn provides a biomechanics-based index for elective AAA repair indication. © 2012, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  • 35.
    Grishenkov, Dmitry
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Adrian, Gonon
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Janerot Sjöberg, Birgitta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    In search of the optimal ultrasound heart perfusion imaging platform2015In: Journal of ultrasound in medicine, ISSN 0278-4297, E-ISSN 1550-9613, Vol. 34, no 9, p. 1599-1605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Quantification of the myocardial perfusion by contrast echocardiography (CEC) remains a challenge. Existing imaging phantoms used to evaluate the performance of ultrasound scanners do not comply with perfusion basics in the myocardium, where perfusion and motion are inherently coupled.

    Methods

    To contribute towards an improvement, we developed a CEC perfusion imaging platform based on isolated rat heart coupled to the ultrasound scanner. Perfusion was assessed using three different types of contrast agent: dextran-based Promiten®, phospholipid-shelled SonoVue®, and polymer-shelled MB-pH5-RT. The myocardial video-intensity was monitored over time from contrast administration to peak and two characteristic constants were calculated using exponential fit (A representing capillary volume and b representing inflow velocity).

    Results

    Acquired experimental evidence demonstrates that the application of all three types of contrast agent allow ultrasonic estimation of myocardial perfusion in the isolated rat heart. Video-intensity maps show that an increase in contrast concentration increases the late plateau values, A, mimicking increased capillary volume. Estimated values of the flow, proportional to Axb, increase when the pressure of the perfusate column increases from 80 to 110 cm of water. This finding is in agreement with the true values of the coronary flow increase measured by the flowmeter attached to the aortic cannula.

    Conclusions

    The described CEC perfusion imaging platform holds promise for standardized evaluation and optimization of ultrasound contrast perfusion imaging where real time inflow curves at low acoustic power semi-quantitatively reflect coronary flow.

  • 36.
    Grönberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Physics of Medical Imaging.
    Sjölin, Martin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Physics of Medical Imaging.
    Danielsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Physics of Medical Imaging.
    Count statistics and pileup correction for nonparalyzable photon counting detectors with finite pulse length2018In: Medical Imaging 2018: Physics Of Medical Imaging / [ed] Lo, JY Schmidt, TG Chen, GH, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2018, article id UNSP 105730ZConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photon counting detectors are expected to be the next big step in the development of medical computed tomography. Accurate modeling of the behavior of photon counting detectors in the high count rate regime is therefore important for detector performance evaluations and the development of accurate image reconstruction methods. The commonly used ideal nonparalyzable detector model is based on the assumption that photon interactions are converted to pulses with zero extent in time, which is too simplistic to accurately predict the behavior of photon counting detectors in both low and high count rate regimes. In this work we develop a statistical count model for a nonparalyzable detector with finite pulse length and use it to derive the asymptotic mean and variance of the output count distribution using tools from renewal theory. We use the statistical moments of the distribution to construct an estimator of the true number of counts for pileup correction. We con firm the accuracy of the model and evaluate the pileup correction using Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that image quality is preserved for surprisingly high count rates.

  • 37.
    Gyllencreutz, E.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Ostersund Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Ostersund, Sweden..
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics. Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, P.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nordström, L.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Holzmann, M.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Abtahi, F.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Validation of a computerised algorithm to quantify fetal heart rate deceleration area: An observational study2018In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 125, p. 54-54Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Hamid Muhammed, Hamed
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Image Enhancement Combined with Reduction of X-Ray Dose During PCI-Operations2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Hamid Muhammed, Hamed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Azar, Jimmy C
    Centre for Image Analysis, Uppsala University.
    Semi-Automated Classification of the Physiological Condition of the Carotid Artery in 2D Ultrasound Image Sequences2014In: WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, ISSN 1109-9518, E-ISSN 2224-2902, ISSN E-ISSN 2224-2902, Vol. 11, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: -A novel automated method for the classification of the physiological condition of the carotid arteryin 2D ultrasound image sequences is introduced. Unsupervised clustering was applied for the segmentationprocess in which both spatial and temporal information was utilized. Radial distension is then measured in theinner surface of the vessel wall, and this characteristic signal is extracted to reveal the detailed radial motion ofthe variable inner part of the vessel wall that is in contact with flowing blood. Characteristic differences in thistime signal were noticed among healthy young, healthy elderly and pathological elderly cases. The discreteFourier transform of the radial distension signal is then computed, and the area subtended by the transform iscalculated and utilized as a diagnostic feature. The method was tested successfully and could differentiateamong the categories of patients mentioned above. Therefore, this computer-aided method would significantlysimplify the task of medical specialists in detecting any defects in the carotid artery and thereby in detectingearly cardiovascular symptoms. The significance of the proposed method is that it is intuitive, semi-automatic,reproducible, and significantly reduces the reliance upon subjective measures.

  • 40.
    Hamid Muhammed, Hamed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Darvish, Niloufar
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Öçba, Fatma Nadide
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Bone, Dianna
    Karolinska Hospital, SE-17671 Stockholm, Sweden.
    A New Approach to the Presentation of Myocardial SPECT Images: Radial Slices—Data Reduction without Loss of Information2013In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 5, no 10BArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: SPECT data from myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) are normally displayed as a set of three slices orthogonal to the left ventricular (LV) long axis. For data presentation, the images are orientated about the LV long axis. Therefore, radial slices provide a suitable alternative to standard orthogonal slices, with the advantage of requiring fewer slices to adequately represent the data. In this study, a semi-automatic method is developed for displaying MPI SPECT data as a set of radial slices orientated about the LV axis. The aim is to reduce the number of slices viewed without loss of information and independently from the heart size. Method: Standard short axis slices, orientated perpendicular to the LV axis, are utilized.The skeleton of the segmented myocardium is found and the true LV axis is determined in each central long slice. The LV axis of the whole volume is determined by aligning the axes of all slices. Result: Radial slices centered about this axis were generated by integration over a sector equal to the resolution of the imaging system which was of the order of 1.2 cm. Therefore, assuming a mean LV diameter of 8 cm, 20 slices were sufficient to represent a non-gated study. Gated information could be adequately displayed with 4 slices integrated over an angle of 45. Conclusion: A semi-automatic method for generating radial slices from SPECT MPI short axis slices has been developed.

  • 41.
    Hamid Muhammed, Hamed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Informatics, logistics and management (Closed 20130701).
    Zengin, Ziya
    Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.
    Monte Carlo Simulation and a Review of the Physics of the Positron Annihilation Process in PET2013In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 5, no 10BArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     In this paper, we investigate the physics of the positron annihilation process, which occurs in a PET imaging system. In particular, the diffusion of beta particles (positrons) within water was addressed. Beta particles are emitted isotropically from the same source point with random directions and randomly chosen energy levels. After traversing a certain distance within water, beta particles lose a certain amount of its energy. The inelastic collisions with atomic electrons are mainly responsible for the energy dissipation of charged particles, such as electrons and positrons (that have low mass). The energy loss rate due to inelastic process is estimated by using the Beta-Bloch formula. These results help in understanding how to develop and implement a computationally efficient Monte Carlo Simulation of the positron annihilation process.

  • 42.
    Hauptmann, Andreas
    et al.
    UCL, Dept Comp Sci, London WC1 6BT, England..
    Lucka, Felix
    UCL, Dept Comp Sci, London WC1 6BT, England.;Ctr Wiskunde & Informat, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Betcke, Marta
    UCL, Dept Comp Sci, London WC1 6BT, England..
    Huynh, Nam
    Adler, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematics (Div.). Elekta, S-10393 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cox, Ben
    UCL, Dept Med Phys & Biomed Engn, London WC1 6BT, England..
    Beard, Paul
    UCL, Dept Med Phys & Biomed Engn, London WC1 6BT, England..
    Ourselin, Sebastien
    UCL, Dept Comp Sci, London WC1 6BT, England..
    Arridge, Simon
    UCL, Dept Comp Sci, London WC1 6BT, England..
    Model-Based Learning for Accelerated, Limited-View 3-D Photoacoustic Tomography2018In: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, ISSN 0278-0062, E-ISSN 1558-254X, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 1382-1393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in deep learning for tomographic reconstructions have shown great potential to create accurate and high quality images with a considerable speed up. In this paper, we present a deep neural network that is specifically designed to provide high resolution 3-D images from restricted photoacoustic measurements. The network is designed to represent an iterative scheme and incorporates gradient information of the data fit to compensate for limited view artifacts. Due to the high complexity of the photoacoustic forward operator, we separate training and computation of the gradient information. A suitable prior for the desired image structures is learned as part of the training. The resulting network is trained and tested on a set of segmented vessels from lung computed tomography scans and then applied to in-vivo photoacoustic measurement data.

  • 43. Honarvar, H.
    et al.
    Strand, J.
    Perols, Anna
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology.
    Orlova, Anna
    Selvaraju, R. K.
    Eriksson Karlström, Amelie
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology.
    Tolmachev, V.
    Position for site-specific attachment of a DOTA chelator to synthetic affibody molecules has a different influence on the targeting properties of 68Ga-Compared to 111in-labeled conjugates2014In: Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1535-3508, E-ISSN 1536-0121, Vol. 13, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affibody molecules, small (7 kDa) scaffold proteins, are a promising class of probes for radionuclide molecular imaging. Radiolabeling of Affibody molecules with the positron-emitting nuclide 68Ga would permit the use of positron emission tomography (PET), providing better resolution, sensitivity, and quantification accuracy than single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The synthetic anti-HER2 ZHER2:S1 Affibody molecule was conjugated with DOTA at the N-terminus, in the middle of helix 3, or at the Cterminus. The biodistribution of 68Ga-and 111In-labeled Affibody molecules was directly compared in NMRI nu/nu mice bearing SKOV3 xenografts. The position of the chelator strongly influenced the biodistribution of the tracers, and the influence was more pronounced for 68Ga-labeled Affibody molecules than for the 111In-labeled counterparts. The best 68Ga-labeled variant was 68Ga-[DOTA-A1]-ZHER2:S1, which provided a tumor uptake of 13 ± 1 %ID/g and a tumor to blood ratio of 39 ± 12 at 2 hours after injection. 111In-[DOTA-A1]-ZHER2:S1 and 111In-[DOTA-K58]-ZHER2:S1 were equally good at this time point, providing a tumor uptake of 15 to 16 %ID/g and a tumor to blood ratio in the range of 60 to 80. In conclusion, the selection of the best position for a chelator in Affibody molecules can be used for optimization of their imaging properties. This may be important for the development of Affibody-based and other protein-based imaging probes.

  • 44. Hubbert, Laila
    et al.
    Peterzén, Bengt
    Ahn, Henrik
    Janerot-Sjoberg, Birgitta
    Second harmonic echocardiography and spontaneous contrast during implantation of a left ventricular assist device2010In: ASAIO journal (1992), ISSN 1058-2916, E-ISSN 1538-943X, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 417-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implantable mechanical left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are used as a bridge or alternative to heart transplantation. Peroperative transesophageal echocardiography is commonly applied during implantation. Significant air embolism may occur as a result of air leakage at connections and anastomoses when LV filling becomes inadequate, and this must be prevented. Early suspicion and detection of air is mandatory to avoid negative circulatory effects. We hypothesized that monitoring of heart chamber size and occurrence of single air bubbles using second harmonic imaging (SHI) echocardiography may prevent risk for significant air embolism. After implantation of the LVAD in 10 calves, invasive hemodynamic monitoring and epicardial SHI were performed while increasing pump speed. Air bubbles in the ascending aorta were monitored and the left heart visualized for off-line dimensional analysis. Detection of air bubbles in the ascending aorta preceded their appearance in the left ventricle. They occurred exclusively but not always after a decrease in left atrial (LA) size. Decrease in LA pressure did not predict bubble detection or reduction in LA size. We conclude that SHI detects spontaneous ultrasound contrast during implantation of a LVAD and that a decrease in LA size is a warning that air embolism is imminent.

  • 45.
    Häggmark, Ilian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Romell, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Lewin, Susanne
    Öhman, Caroline
    Hertz, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova.
    Cellular-Resolution Imaging of Microstructures in Rat Bone using Laboratory Propagation-Based Phase-Contrast X-ray Tomography2018In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, 2018, Vol. 24, p. 368-369Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Häggmark, Ilian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vågberg, William
    Hertz, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Burvall, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Comparison of quantitative multi-material phase-retrieval algorithms in propagation-based phase-contrast X-ray tomography2017In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 25, no 26, p. 33543-33558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Propagation-based phase-contrast X-ray imaging provides high-resolution, dose-efficient images of biological materials. A crucial challenge is quantitative reconstruction, referred to as phase retrieval, of multi-material samples from single-distance, and hence incomplete, data. In this work, the two most promising methods for multi-material samples, the parallel method, and the linear method, are analytically, numerically, and experimentally compared. Both methods are designed for computed tomography, as they rely on segmentation in the tomographic reconstruction. The methods are found to result in comparable image quality, but the linear method provides faster reconstruction. In addition, as already done for the parallel method, we show that the linear method provides quantitative reconstruction for monochromatic radiation.

  • 47.
    Häggmark, Ilian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vågberg, William
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Burvall, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Biomedical Applications of Multi-Material Phase Retrieval in Propagation-Based Phase-Contrast Imaging2018In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, Cambridge University Press, 2018, Vol. 24, p. 370-371Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Janerot-Sjöberg, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University Hospital, Sweden.
    Winter, Reidar
    Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engvall, Jan
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    Mobile bedside diagnostic techniques2008In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, no 43, p. 3025-30Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. Jimenez-del-Toro, Oscar
    et al.
    Muller, Henning
    Krenn, Markus
    Gruenberg, Katharina
    Taha, Abdel Aziz
    Winterstein, Marianne
    Eggel, Ivan
    Foncubierta-Rodriguez, Antonio
    Goksel, Orcun
    Jakab, Andres
    Kontokotsios, Georgios
    Langs, Georg
    Menze, Bjoern H.
    Fernandez, Tomas Salas
    Schaer, Roger
    Walleyo, Anna
    Weber, Marc-Andre
    Cid, Yashin Dicente
    Gass, Tobias
    Heinrich, Mattias
    Jia, Fucang
    Kahl, Fredrik
    Kechichian, Razmig
    Mai, Dominic
    Spanier, Assaf B.
    Vincent, Graham
    Wang, Chunliang
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Image Processing and Visualization.
    Wyeth, Daniel
    Hanbury, Allan
    Cloud-Based Evaluation of Anatomical Structure Segmentation and Landmark Detection Algorithms: VISCERAL Anatomy Benchmarks2016In: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, ISSN 0278-0062, E-ISSN 1558-254X, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 2459-2475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variations in the shape and appearance of anatomical structures in medical images are often relevant radiological signs of disease. Automatic tools can help automate parts of this manual process. A cloud-based evaluation framework is presented in this paper including results of benchmarking current state-of-the-art medical imaging algorithms for anatomical structure segmentation and landmark detection: the VISCERAL Anatomy benchmarks. The algorithms are implemented in virtual machines in the cloud where participants can only access the training data and can be run privately by the benchmark administrators to objectively compare their performance in an unseen common test set. Overall, 120 computed tomography and magnetic resonance patient volumes were manually annotated to create a standard Gold Corpus containing a total of 1295 structures and 1760 landmarks. Ten participants contributed with automatic algorithms for the organ segmentation task, and three for the landmark localization task. Different algorithms obtained the best scores in the four available imaging modalities and for subsets of anatomical structures. The annotation framework, resulting data set, evaluation setup, results and performance analysis from the three VISCERAL Anatomy benchmarks are presented in this article. Both the VISCERAL data set and Silver Corpus generated with the fusion of the participant algorithms on a larger set of non-manually-annotated medical images are available to the research community.

  • 50.
    Johnson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Manouras, Aristomenis
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Bergholm, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Brodin, Lars Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Agewall, S.
    Henareh, L.
    The early diastolic myocardial velocity: A marker of increased risk in patients with coronary heart disease2014In: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, ISSN 1475-0961, E-ISSN 1475-097X, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 389-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is a promising echocardiographic modality allowing quantification of myocardial performance. However, the prognostic potential of TDI in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is not yet investigated. We sought to explore the ability of TDI in identifying patients at risk for new cardiovascular events after AMI. Methods: One hundred and nineteen patients with AMI were recruited prospectively (mean age 61 years; range 32-81 years of age). Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) were excluded. Echocardiography was performed 3-12 months after AMI. Two-dimensional (2-D) and TDI variables were recorded. The patients were followed during a mean period of 4·6 years (range 1-8 years). The primary end-point was defined as any of the following: death from any cause, non-fatal reinfarction or stroke, unstable angina pectoris, congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization and coronary revascularization procedure. Results: Thirty patients had some form of cardiovascular events during follow-up. Seven patients had cardiovascular death, 13 patients had reinfarction and four patients had a stroke. New angina or unstable angina was recorded in 21 patients. Of these patients, 13 underwent percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The early diastolic myocardial velocity (Em) emerged as the only echocardiographic variable that offered a clear differentiation between patients that presented with new cardiovascular (CV) events as compared to the corresponding group without any CV events at follow-up (P&lt;0·05). In multivariate statistical analysis and after adjustment for age, sex, total cholesterol, body mass index (BMI) and other baseline characteristics, Em remained as independent predictors of CV events (HR, 1·18, 95% CI, 1·02-1·36; P&lt;0·05). However, none of the investigated variables evolved as an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Conclusion: Em appears to be a sensitive echocardiographic index in identifying non-diabetic patients with AMI at risk of new cardiovascular events.

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