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  • 1.
    Ahlfors, Charlotta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Bergkrantz, Malin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Energieffektivisering av en bandybana: Analys av kompressorkylteknik och fjärrvärmedriven absorptionskylteknik2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the energy consumption in the world is increasing and Sweden is not an exception. Therefore, the continued work towards a sustainable development is essential in order for future generations to have the same opportunities as the people today. An important step towards this goal is to improve the energy efficiency until the next generations technology has been developed. As a result of this the energy resources of the earth could be saved which would lead to cost savings, due to the fact that operating costs would decrease with reduced energy consumption. A reduced electrical power generation would lead to reduced emissions of substances that affect the environment as well. The municipality of Västervik has worked towards a sustainable development for a long time; therefore energy efficiency in the public sector has been implemented.

    An analysis is done, based on a literature study and calculations, in purpose to decide if a change of the cooling system used for the outdoor ice rink in Gamleby would lead to reduced energy consumption and cost savings. The two different machines analysed are the existing compressor cooling machine and an alternative absorption cooling machine in combination with district heat from a local source. If excess of distinct heat could be used as heat source it would be positive for the environment and for sustainable development.

    Through calculations of the cooling demand, the sustainable economy and the CO2-emissions the following conclusions have been made. Since the coefficient of cooling performance is lower for the absorption cooling machine a switch of cooling system would result in a higher demand of energy (heat and power). Due to the different CO2-emission coefficients of the two energy sources a switch would lead to increase of CO2-emissions as well as reduce the efficiency of the resources of the earth.

    The investment cost for an absorption cooling machine is double the investment cost for a commercial compressor cooling machine. Therefore, calculations have shown that it would take 18 years until a change of the cooling system can be seen as cost-effective. This calculation is based on the most optimal conditions such as free district heating and a high value on the coefficient of performance. As well if the district heat would cost, a change would never be cost-effective. The life span of a cooling machine is approximately 25 years and due to the fact that the calculations for the optimal case are based on assumptions that are not confirmed, for instance the energy from the district heat would be free of charge, the authors of this study cannot recommend the change of cooling method for the ice rink seen through an economical perspective. To sum up, the conclusion is that a switch to absorption cooling will not result in an improvement in terms of energy efficiency, cost benefits or emission reduction. Instead, an analysis of the existing system should be made in order to identify efficiency improvement opportunities in areas such as optimization of the control system and reducing the cooling demand of the bandy ice by reducing heat transfer from the environment. 

  • 2.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Action Research In Waste Management: Application to construction and demolition waste in the Stockholm region2010In: Linnaeus ECO-TECH ´10 / [ed] Fabio Kaczala, Linnaeus University , 2010, 1009-1019 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The action research methodology and several of its methods have previously been highlighted and described by the authors as a fitting and rigorous framework approach for complex waste management systems.  This was in response to criticism of the ex ante selection of traditional empiric systems analysis tools to provide decision support and ‘sustainable improvement’ in such complex systems which often involve strong human and political factors.   Several of the action research methods described have recently been utilized in a case study around mineral (aggregate) construction and demolition waste in the Stockholm region.  These methods were integrated through a series of workshops and work areas undergone together with project members from several private and public sectors.  Leaving the problem fuzzy (loosely defined) in the beginning; utilizing convergent interviewing, rich pictures and focus groups allowed the researchers and partner stakeholders to identify not one but several problem areas within the system of focus.  Indicator creation and a dialectic processes were then used to identify qualitative and quantitative aspects of salience around these problem areas.  These resulting indicators were strengthened through a process of verification.  Each indicator was then analyzed by what was deemed to be appropriate and transparent means.  It is argued that this approach may create better communication, transparency, and understanding by the stakeholders.  These factors in turn allowing stronger stakeholder ownership of the process and assisting in more informed decisions and help to provide stability for desired change. However the process was not without its drawbacks such as intense communication and time requirements.

  • 3. Alnaami, Zurya
    et al.
    Duenas, José
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Wind Power Integration and Operational Challenges2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power generation has gained considerable relevance in global energy markets in the last few decades. The technology behind wind turbines and their integration to the power grid are still the focus of considerable research. How exactly does this energy source influence the existing power distribution grid is still a matter of interest to many parties. The method used in this report is based on a literature study which intends to examine what is the current state of energy generation based on wind power in Sweden. In the report we have analyzed some of the integration and operational challenges of connecting a large amount of wind generated electricity to the power grid and attempted to provide an accurate and up to date summary of what these challenges will entail in the coming decade. Our results show that further research would greatly improve the current technology used in wind power generation to allow such a high level penetration. 

  • 4.
    Ambell, Christine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Xu, Yixuan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Waste of Opportunities - A Holistic Study of the Current Situation of Municipal Waste Management in Shandong Province, China2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China’s growth and development have opened the door to a new world. Shandong province’s 90 million inhabitants are entering into a consumption society and the waste stream from households, restaurants and commercials has become a challenge. So far, the waste has mostly been burned in backyards, thrown into rivers, put on open dumps or taken to landfills. The environmental consequence is strong. This study was carried out in Shandong province and presents the current situation of the municipal waste management. The result of the study is organised into social, economical, technical and environmental parameters. It mostly covers the years 2006 to 2010. In the discussion, the strength, weakness, opportunities, and threats to the management are analysed, which gives an overview of the complex situation.

    The final conclusion is that there are a lot of opportunities in developing municipal solid waste management in Shandong province since the work and planning is new and economy is good. Threats are for example a larger waste stream. The municipal waste management has some strengths, such as a lot of projects going on, but also a lot of weakness for instance implementation of the regulations and laws.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Olausson, Linus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Identifiering av mervärden i EPC-projekt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report a study is carried out with the aim to identify added values of EPC projects implemented in schools in order to increase the interest of EPC projects on the market. The report examines how the planned maintenance, supervision, maintenance and corrective maintenance is affected, how insurance premiums and terms are affected, the indoor environment and how the tasks of the operating staff is changing. A literature study of energy savings, energy use in schools, maintenance and insurance as well as how energy efficiency improvements are related to the Swedish environmental objectives has been made. Visits were carried out in Ludvika, interviews were also carried out with operation technicians and local strategists in Ludvika as well as employees of insurance companies.

    Schools often have neglected maintenance and problems with ventilation and indoor environment. Schools also have a large energy saving potential due to their low utilization, mainly because they are empty parts of the year. All Swedish schools could reduce their electricity consumption by 1 TWh per year, which in money equivalents to the salary costs of about 2,000 teaching positions.

    8 schools in Ludvika and 10 schools in Piteå who has completed EPC projects have been studied. The time periods studied are seven years for Ludvika, 2006 – 2012, and for Piteå five years, 2010 – 2014. The data of fault reports and maintenance costs are taken from the municipalities, and descriptions of schools and EPC projects have been received from Caverion who has carried out the EPC projects. Data for maintenance has to some extent been selected in consultation with employees at the municipalities.

    The number of error reports in Piteå schools have shown a slight downward trend with a peak while the EPC project was carried out and one year after. Ludvika has shown an upward trend in maintenance costs, but this is probably due to previously accumulated maintenance. The amount of corrective maintenance is reduced, but only after the project when newly found errors have been fixed and the systems have been properly adjusted. The tasks related to supervisory and maintenance has changed when remote control of systems was installed which leads to a better overview and simplifies troubleshooting. The indoor temperature got more stable, but only after they fixed the weaknesses revealed in connection with the operational optimization. However, there are complaints in Ludvika of low temperatures, but it is caused the target temperature being set too low by the municipality. Insurance is only marginally affected, and only when damage prevention measures are implemented in the properties, which is not done in the studied properties. However, the underlying data sets are too small and over a too small time period to prove any certain changes.

    An added value identified is the ability to use EPC projects as a tool to address deferred maintenance in the real estate portfolio outside the normal budgetary framework while achieving energy savings. 

  • 6.
    Andersson, Niklas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Malmös strategi för social hållbarhet med fokus på förorten2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report covers the social sustainability agenda in the suburbs Rosengård and Kroksbäck, situated in Malmö. These suburbs where constructed mainly in the years 1960-1975 and are now in need of refurbishing. There is also a housing shortage in Malmö and the demand is mainly for inexpensive apartments. Young adults, students, immigrants, senior citizens and families alike are looking for places where they can afford to live. The high demand for living space and the need of renovation could spark a gentrification process which would not be socially sustainable. The main actors whose social sustainability agendas are reviewed are the municipality of Malmö and the municipal owned housing company of MKB as well as the tenants’ association. The report also covers how the dialogue between the residents in Rosengård, the civil servants of the city and the landlords is carried out. Reactions from the residents in Rosengård have been researched in newspapers, but it proved hard to find while criminal reports where abundant. Lastly two examples on how the social sustainability agenda have been carried out in Gothenburg is presented. The methodology which the results are based on is a literature review.

    The report finds that both Malmö and Gothenburg are using a matrix formed decision tool in order to incorporate social aspects in all planning decisions. This is something which works well in both cities. The municipality of Malmö took a decision in 2014 that the social justice will increase when building new apartments. They do however realize the most of the newly constructed homes might be too expensive but they hope that this will eventually free up cheaper apartments. Different investment programs have been initiated in Rosengård, Rosengård I förvandling is one of them. Part of this program was based on local farming and different pedagogical activities. MKB are using social clauses when hiring different contractors, they stipulate that ten percent of the workforce should be locals or people who previously have been unemployed. This would be one the few tangible solutions which MKB is contributing with to solving the problem with lack of social sustainability. The tenants’ association is mainly focusing on minimizing the rent increase. They do however see a potential in so called neighborhood effects such as social learning were tenants are affecting other tenants in a positive way. The tennants’ association believes, as do the municipality of Malmö, that this can be achieved partly by constructing new houses among the older ones.

    The dialogue between the residents and the municipality used to be characterized as too little too late in the planning process. The revised aim with the dialogue is now to bring the citizens opinions into the decision process at an earlier stage. A potential problem could be the language barriers as there are many immigrants living in suburban Malmö. However in projects where the dialogue where given a priority the outcome became a success and the decision enjoys a broad support. As a recommendation for future research, a survey or deep interviews with the residents on their thoughts about actions taken to increase the social sustainability could be carried out. This is something which this report is lacking, good feedback from the residents. 

  • 7.
    André, Hampus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Jonsson, Max
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Svaret är 42, men vad är frågan?: En analys av EMEC-modellen och dess effekter på svensk klimatpolitik2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    EMEC is a computational general equilibrium (CGE) model used for calculation of societal costs and evaluation of cost-effectiveness in the decision basis of Swedish climate policy. The model has been criticized for exaggerating societal costs of policies, exemplified by Sweden's relative decoupling of GDP and carbon dioxide emissions during 1990-2010. Thereby, one could argue that the model results possibly have led to less ambitious climate targets in Sweden. With the model's suitability being questioned and an expressed need for better climate policy evaluation, this master thesis aims to analyse EMEC and its effects on Sweden's climate policy. It also aims to highlight key aspects for improved climate policy evaluation. Literature and interview studies were conducted in order to form a balanced framework of different actors' perspectives on the issue. This related to several identified aspects that were considered important by the authors in the context of the EMEC model. The subsequent empirical study of three periods of Swedish climate-political processes used these results as a basis for discussion.

    The results imply that the critique about exaggerated costs very likely is justified, which probably also has affected Sweden's climate-political direction. Regarding the model itself, the principal reasons are argued to be its static nature and the difficulties associated with predicting future technological- and world-market price developments. Connected to the model's role, the principal reasons are argued to be rooted in its relatively short-term perspective and one-dimensional definition of benefits, compared to the long-term and multi-dimensional nature of a transition to a low-carbon society. These features have, in this study, been argued to weaken the long-term cost-effectiveness of Sweden's climate policy. The EMEC-model's principal effects in this respect have been constituted in the arguments for general policies over sector-specific goals as well as emission reductions abroad.

    An alternative evaluation framework would include a wider range of benefits and costs associated with climate policy, for example dynamic costs of lock-in effects in carbon intensive structures. This would decrease the costs of climate policy in a counter-factual comparison. It could be argued that a qualitative decision basis would be more appropriate considering the complexities and difficulties associated with modelling a largely uncertain future. Especially, since model results are based on the same historic trends that need to be abandoned in order to reach future climate targets. However, considering that the climate-political process demands a quantitative decision-basis, qualitative aspects should function as a complement and gain increased emphasis in the Swedish climate- political decision basis. This would purposively broaden the framework and serve as a necessary balance to the indications given by results on GDP. Given that the EMEC model to some extent continues to constitute a basis for climate policy, suggestions for alternative interpretations of the model results have also been provided. 

  • 8.
    Apostolopoulou - Kalkavoura, Varvara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Effects of Varying Sludge Quality on the Permeability of a Membrane Bioreactor2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis firstly includes a theory part describing, the conventional municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and especially the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process. As Stockholm municipality want to retrofit the current activated sludge system at Henriksdal into a membrane bioreactor (MBR), an extensive description of the MBR and its advantages and disadvantages are included.

    Fouling is considered a really important issue for the operation of an MBR since it reduces an MBR’s productivity over time. Therefore, description of the fouling mechanisms and the potential foulants is included as well as a description of the membrane cleaning procedures. Sludge composition is considered a very important parameter which contributes to membrane fouling and thus this master thesis aims to identify the effects of varying sludge quality on the membranes operation. Precipitation chemicals used for phosphorus chemical precipitation and especially ferrous sulphate which is examined in this master thesis are also affecting the sludge quality and the membranes operation.

    The report includes description of Henriksdal reningsverk and line 1 of the pilot MBR at Hammarby Sjöstadsverk where the experimental work was performed. The following chapter describes the experimental work performed in the laboratory including the determination of total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), sludge volume index (SVI) and sludge’s filterability. The filterability was determined by performing the time to filter (TTF) method and the sludge filtration index (SFI) method. Furthermore, the samples were also examined in the optical microscope to determine their bulkiness and their filaments content. The iron content in the sludge was also measured from Eurofins Environment Testing Sweden AB.

    In the results section, the different parameters measured are illustrated in charts and they are compared to each other in order to define which factors contribute positively or negatively to the sludge’s filterability and thus affect the sludge quality and the membranes operation. The results indicate that SFI is a more reliable method for measuring filterability compared to TTF. Furthermore, the iron content in the sludge is proportional to the permeability as well as the filaments content observed during microscopy is proportional to the SFI or TTF. Finally, this master thesis includes recommendations for future research which basically include more analyses to identify the sludge biology and more samples taken for longer time periods. 

  • 9. Arm, Maria
    et al.
    Wik, Ola
    Engelsen, Christian J.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Hjelmar, Ole
    Wahlström, Margareta
    How Does the European Recovery Target for Construction & Demolition Waste Affect Resource Management?2017In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 8, no 5, 1491-1504 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The revised EU Waste Framework Directive (WFD) includes a 70 % target for recovery of construction and demolition (C&D) waste. In order to study the potential change in the resource management of the main C&D waste fractions, as a consequence of fulfilling the WFD target, a Nordic project (ENCORT-CDW) has been performed. Waste fractions studied included asphalt, concrete, bricks, track ballast, gypsum-based construction materials and wood. Recovery scenarios were identified and estimations were made regarding expected savings of primary materials, impact on transport, and pollution and emissions. For wood waste, the main differences between re-use, material recycling and energy recovery were evaluated in a carbon footprint screening based on life cycle assessment methodology. The study concluded that the EU recovery target does not ensure a resource efficient and environmentally sustainable waste recovery in its present form since: It is very sensitive to how the legal definitions of waste and recovery are interpreted in the Member States. This means that certain construction material cycles might not count in the implementation reports while other, less efficient and environmentally safe, recovery processes of the same material will count. It is weight-based and consequently favours large and heavy waste streams. The result is that smaller flows with equal or larger resource efficiency and environmental benefit will be insignificant for reaching the target. It does not distinguish between the various recovery processes, meaning that resource efficient and environmentally safe recovery cannot be given priority. Improved knowledge on C&D waste generation and handling, as well as on content and emissions of dangerous substances, is required to achieve a sustainable recovery.

  • 10.
    Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Edlund, Lena
    Fallgren, Per
    Forsberg, Lars
    Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus
    Gustavii, Jonathan
    Herzing, Mathias
    Häckner, Jonas
    Jacobsson, Adam
    Jacobsson, Eva-Maria
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Källmén, Håkan
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Lundström, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Muren, Astri
    Sjöberg, Eric
    Thuresson, Björn
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Tjörnhammar, Edward
    Wickström, Hans
    Effektiv miljötillsyn: Slutrapport2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Målsättningen har varit att ta fram ny kunskap inom miljötillsynen och därigenom uppnå en effektivare miljötillsyn samt att få in nya vetenskapliga perspektiv på miljötillsyn.

    I rapporten studeras metoder för inspektioner och det kommunikativa samspelet mellan inspektören och företrädare för den verksamhet som inspekteras, hur den institutionella ramen för inspektionsprocessen fungerar samt visar på möjligheter att mäta effekterna av inspektioner och tillsyn.

    Naturvårdsverket kommer att ha resultatet som ett kunskapsunderlag i fortsatt arbete med tillsynsvägledning och utveckling av hur tillsyn och tillsynsvägledning kan följas upp och utvärderas.

  • 11.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ekener Petersen, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Moberg, Asa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Coroama, Vlad C.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    A framework for sustainability assessment of ICT futures Scenarios and sustainability impacts of future ICT-societies2015In: PROCEEDINGS OF ENVIROINFO AND ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY 2015, Atlantis Press , 2015, 1-9 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) has an influence on all societal sectors and can have both positive and negative consequences. To support ICT for sustainability (ICT4S), we need to learn when and how ICT can enable sustainable development. It is important to take into account all types of potential impacts environmental and social, direct and indirect. Looking at future ICT societies and their potential environmental and social implications is of special interest, as this can provide valuable knowledge for planning and policy-making today to enable ICT4S. A methodological framework for environmental and social assessment of future ICT societies with a consumption perspective was developed as a part of a joint project with researchers at KTH, ICT industry, municipality and county. The overall goal of the project was to develop five different future scenarios for Swedish ICT societies and to assess the risks and opportunities for environmental and social consequences in those scenarios. This paper presents the framework for environmental and social assessment of future scenarios and discusses the challenges experienced and lessons learned in the process of the framework development. The framework is aimed to deal with a broad and complex object and scope of assessment, the inherent uncertainty and data restrictions of future scenarios, and is applying qualitative analysis.

  • 12.
    Arvanitis, Konstantinos
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    MACROALGAE IN THE BIOREFINERY: A SUBSTANCE FLOW ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN EXTRACTION PROCESS OF THE MAJOR COMPONENTS IN SACCHARINA LATISSIMA2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A turn to more sustainable resources has lead the research during the last decades to algae. Algae is a resource that has been utilized for thousands of years offering a variety of possibilities. Nevertheless modern technology were able to uncover algae’s great potential and pave the way for alternative uses such as biofuel and biomaterial production. Towards that direction, ‘Seafarm’ aims in utilizing algae in the most efficient and sustainable way. For that purpose various steps have been established, including the biorefinery step which entail among other the extraction of carbohydrates from brown algae.

    The current thesis is based on an extraction of carbohydrates from Saccharina latissima, a brown algae species, which was developed by Viktor Öberg during his master thesis at KTH. The aim of this work is to assist in the scaling up of that laboratory process by analyzing the basic steps and substances of the process, investigating its environmental performance and identifying improvement areas for theoretical optimization. The results of the aforementioned analysis include a substance flow analysis which reveals the basic steps of the process and constitute the basis for further analysis. The second step examines the environmental performance of the process based on the chemical selection. Hence the results are a risk assessment of chemicals with performance indicators for each chemical as well as the whole process. The final part provides a theoretical optimization of the process based on literature studies where the recommendations are divided in production optimization and environmental performance.

    The above results constitute the basis of the analysis of the process and sets the foundations for scaling up the process at an industrial level. The current analysis in combination with an energy and economic assessment could be used for the designing of the process and its integration in the biorefinery. 

  • 13. Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Nordborg, Maria
    Cederberg, Christel
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Sörme, Louise
    Palm, Viveka
    Stamyr, Kristin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Molander, Sverker
    The Zinc Paradox – a Problem for USETox-based indicators of national chemical footprint2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the immense problem of chemical pollution worldwide, there is a great need for methods that can be used to calculate indicators of chemical footprints. Such indicators can be calculated for products and services using life cycle assessment (LCA), but also for whole nations. Indicators of natio- nal chemical footprints may include emissions within the nation’s borders only, or also emissions related to consumption (thus having a life cycle perspective). A limited number of studies (< 5) have attempted to calculate indicators of national chemical footprints using the USEtox consensus model for toxicity impact assessment in LCA. One of these is our calculation of indicators of a national chemical footprint for Sweden. Two other studies have made similar assessments for Europe. Using the national perspective of these studies enables a rough validation of USEtox results, since the indicators of national chemiABSTRACTS 62 63 cal footprint based on USEtox can be compared to non-LCA toxicity assessments done on national levels. Such validations are not possible for LCA studies of single products. Notably, the results of existing assessments of indicators of national chemical footprints, including our Swedish study, all pinpoint zinc as the dominating substance. Zinc typically accounts for >50% of the toxicity impacts for both ecotoxicity and human toxicity. For ecotoxicity, this is not unreasonable considering the notable toxicity of zinc to aquatic organisms. For human toxicity, this result is more surprising. Zinc is an essential trace element for humans that many take as a dietary supplement to prevent zinc deficiency. Non-LCA sources describe zinc as “relatively harmless” to human health. The World Health Organisation (WHO) does not list zinc among the top ten chemicals of major public health concern, although there are other metals on the list (mercury, lead, cadmium and arsenic). These contradictory claims about zinc’s health impact seem to constitute a paradox. We present a review of existing studies assessing indicators of national chemical footprints, and of toxicological research related to zinc. We further discuss potential causes of this zinc paradox, as well as implications for assessments of indicators of national chemical footprints with USEtox.

  • 14.
    Askew, Robin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Carlberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Office chairs in circular business models2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a master’s thesis project of 30 credits written with guidance from the Swedish research institute ICT Viktoria and Industrial Ecology at KTH. This thesis is conducted by two students at KTH, one with a background in Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Ecology and the other with a background in Energy and Environmental Technology. This study focuses on circular economy linked to the furniture industry in Sweden and how the transition from theoretical to practical concepts can be improved.

    The methods of this thesis consist of three semi-structured interviews, a survey and an analytical comparative literature review. The interviews, survey and literature review is analyzed with the purpose of finding important criteria relevant for office chairs in circular business models. The interviews are performed face-to-face with three different key persons; an office supply manager, a CEO at a refurbishing company and a product manager.

    The study focuses on product design within the Swedish furniture industry although some aspects regarding circular business models, logistics and psychological values are included.

    The results are design criteria for office chairs in circular business models and a design evaluation program for the industry built on these. The program, based on multi criteria analysis, can help reduce the gap between theory and practice of how circular economy should be implemented in the industry. By giving early feedback during the design phase on how well an office chair and a company’s structure meet circular economy criteria the authors hope to ease and speed up this transition.

    The main characteristics of an office chair designed for circular business models are:

    • Durable

    • Easy to service

    • Adaptable

    • Modular

    • Homogeneous material composition in modules

      Although the transition to circular business models can be a comprehensive process the authors believe that if furniture manufacturers would integrate circular business models for office chairs into their business structure this would be both economically viable and highly beneficial for their environmental profile which can strengthen their position on the market. 
  • 15.
    Ast, Eric
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    The state of long-term climate action planning in megacities: Planning and demographic trends among 17 of the world’s leading cities aiming to reduce emissions by 80% by the year 20502015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report reviews the current state of long-term climate action planning in 17 cities which have publicly communicated carbon reducttargets in line with the IPCC recommended 80% reduction by 2050 (80x50) for stabilizing the impacts of climate change at 2°C.  The aim of this report is to provide a foundation of support for cities in achieving their deep carbon reduction goals through a comprehensive understanding of leading climate action plans and the context under which they were created, including current city emissions and demographic data, climate plan reduction strategies and targets, and feedback on plan creation and needs from city planning staff.  By achieving this aim, cities are in a better position to understand where their plans fit in the global context and connect with other cities around common issues, research institutions have a new benchmark analysis of leading action plans to build further research upon, and city-level climate action organizations have a clearer idea of how to focus efforts in helping cities achieve carbon reduction goals.  This aim is achieved through the application of a framework for comparing city plans and targets, an analysis of current city emissions and demographic data, and synthesis of key findings from city planning staff discussions.  

    Key findings show no clear demographic and environmental biases exist within these 17 cities, indicating long-term climate action planning can be undertaken by cities across the full spectrum of size, climate, and current per capita emissions output, though regional geographic and development bias exists.  Plans for carbon reduction are highly concentrated among a small number of actions, indicating the movement has coalesced around a standard set of strategies for achieving deep carbon reductions.  Finally, the relative newness of plans, with the majority less than 5 years old, and the lack of commonality among cities in emissions methodology and communication of reduction strategies, shifts a short-term focus towards standardization methodologies which enable deeper comparison between cities and plans.

  • 16.
    Axelsson, Elin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Jennerot, Mikaela
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Restaurangers förhållningssätt till hållbar matkonsumtion: En studie av restauranger på KTH campus med tonvikt på animaliska livsmedel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s food production constitutes nearly 30 % of the world’s total carbon dioxide emissions. The level of impact a food product has on climate depends on various factors such as production method and transportation, where previous research has shown that animal products have the biggest climate impact. Towards the goal of reaching a more sustainable food consumption it has become even more important to map food flows in order to decrease the consumption of food that has bad climate impact. The purpose of this study has been to examine in which amounts different types of food products, with emphasis on animal products, are served at restaurants on KTH campus and to examine the restaurants current work related to sustainable development. The study has been limited to two restaurants, Open Café and Restaurant Nymble, and the information that the study is based on has been obtained from the restaurants through data collections and interviews. 

    Based on the results of the study one can observe that both restaurants work with sustainable food consumption, however they have chosen different priority areas. Open Café has its main focus on KRAVPcertified products, while Restaurant Nymble work mainly with minimizing its food waste. Regarding the lunch courses, both animalP and vegetable products occur in the weekly menus. MeatP fishP and vegetarian dishes are provided, however, Open Café serves vegetarian dishes twice a week and Restaurant Nymble offers a vegetarian alternative everyday. 

    By mapping the animal products used in the lunch dishes, with the help of the tools “Köttguiden” and “Fiskguiden”, it turns out that both participating restaurants use products that are classified as better for the environment as well as products with negative impact. The amount of animal products that are served per lunch course may depend on the restaurants way of thinking related to sustainable development, their serving concept and if nutritional recommendations are used or not.

  • 17.
    Azcarate, Juan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Beyond impacts: Contextualizing strategic environmental assessment to foster the inclusion of multiple values in strategic planning2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has the potential to improve strategic planning. However, meeting this expectation is a major challenge since SEA practice still constraints itself to assess the impacts of strategic planning initiatives. To advance the role of SEA beyond impact assessment, it has been argued that SEA needs to adapt to strategic planning contexts. Yet, there is a lack of consensus on how SEA should adapt to strategic planning contexts as these are complex, vary considerably and carry high levels of uncertainty. Against this background, the aim of this thesis is to contribute to the development of SEA by creating knowledge on ways in which it can be contextualized to different strategic planning situations. Three case studies addressing different values and strategic planning contexts were designed from which experiences on SEA conceptualization were drawn. The results show that developing strategic focused SEA frameworks that enhance dialogue, collaboration and knowledge generation on multiple values can address issues such as: the lack of data and objectives in developing planning contexts; gaps in knowledge and uncertainty associated to environmental monitoring in transboundary contexts; and the recognition of the importance of ecosystem services and their needed green qualities in urbanizing contexts. Based on the gained case study experiences, it is argued that SEA contextualization can mean addressing strategic planning intentions, identifying and engaging actors, deriving and prioritizing key values, collaborating to generate knowledge on key issues, and using this knowledge to shape strategic planning. Due to the complexity of the issues involved, contextualizing SEA is considered to be challenging to achieve and requires time and resources. However, based on the SEA case studies, it can be argued that the value added to strategic planning outweighs these requirements. Continuing to study the practice of context adaptable, strategic focused and participatory based SEA processes may contribute to advance SEA’s role beyond impact assessment and enable reaching its expected potentials.

  • 18.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Andersson, Kim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Strategic Environmental Assessment Pre-study of Sonso Lagoon, Colombia.2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, a discussion has been going on in most western countries about the introduction of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in planning systems. As a result, SEA has been incorporated in national legislation for the assessment of government plans and programs. Additionally, developing nations have started to consider strategic environmental issues and SEA due to the stimulus that has been given by international environmental conventions like the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. However, until now few investigations have been carried out to assess how the current SEA framework suits developing nations. That is why an SEA pre-study that applies the current SEA process together with Ramsar specifications was developed in a case study for the Sonso Lagoon in Colombia. In this study an account of both the positive and negative experiences that resulted from applying the SEA/Ramsar framework is given, the importance of stakeholder participation throughout the SEA process is stressed, stakeholder inequalities created by social differences in developing nations are discussed, the importance of an interdisciplinary working approach is highlighted, and finally a strategic working methodology is proposed for the Sonso Lagoon.

  • 19.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Network Strategic Environmental Assessment for Capacity Development and Dialogue2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-governmental organisations are playing an increasingly important role in facilitating the inclusion of a diversity of perspectives in the debates and decisions that shape society by acting as platforms for dialogue. However, to enable and maintain dialogues that influence decision making it is acknowledged that these organisations need to focus on developing their key capacities and design appropriate approaches. For these purposes, planning and decision making support processes like strategic environmental assessment can be useful. This paper suggests a network approach for capacity development and dialogue generation for network based non-governmental organisations through the design of a network strategic environmental assessment process. Experiences are drawn from developing the network strategic environmental assessment in Samp Intercontinental Museum Network, a Swedish non-governmental organisation working with the development of museums and their communities. The results were process ownership, participant engagement and iterative dialogues. Even though it is challenging to develop network strategic environmental assessments, it is argued that these processes can benefit network organisations by setting the bases for their capacity development programmes and by operationalising and mainstreaming their higher level concepts, allowing these organisations to reach their goals and contribute to long lasting transformations in society.

  • 20.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Khoshkar, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Practitioner perspectives on conflicts and measures for green qualities in the Stockholm regionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Haas, Jan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Reaching compact green cities: A study of the provision of and pressure on cultural ecosystem services in StockholmManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Aziz, Md. Tanjil Al
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Potential Utilization of Municipal Organic Solid Waste: Case Study: Dhaka City Corporation Area, Bangladesh2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste management is a concern of high priority for any city authority. Without proper management of this waste great problems may occur for society. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is a developing city. The population load and energy demand is increasing day by day. The city authority, Dhaka City Corporation (DCC), is responsible for managing the city’s solid waste.

    In Dhaka city waste is collected from door to door then put into dustbins and finally transported and dumped in the landfill sites. This unplanned waste management system creates environmental problems, such as water pollution and metal contamination, as well as social and health problems, for example skin diseases, headache, vomiting, and increases in mosquitoes, flies, and bad odour. Since the generated waste has more than 50% organic content, it can be a good source for energy generation.

    New technological solutions and a systematic approach can be a great option for management of waste. In Dhaka City Corporation Area this study addresses anaerobic digestion as a new option for energy generation. Among various types of existing technologies based on the climatic factor, waste stream, social and cultural factors, and environmental factors, the anaerobic treatment method is considered the best possible alternative method. The environmental system analysis tool, cost benefit analysis, is used in combination with the technology for determining the suitability of the system.

    By analysing technological treatment methods and environmental system analysis tools, comparisons are conducted between the present situation and a proposed scenario. The comparisons were conducted based on various considerations, such as net present benefit of total life time, net present benefit considering only economic value, net present benefit considering economic value including environmental and social value, and so on. In all cases, values for the proposed project show positive outcomes and for the present scenario they show negative ones. By analysing an environmental system analysis approach of anaerobic digestion of proposed project, it can be considered as a beneficial project for the DCC authority from environmental, social, and economic points of view. 

  • 23.
    Azzi, Elias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Waste Management Systems in Lebanon: The benefits of a waste crisis for improvement of practices2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste management is a public service which, when it fails, can rapidly become overwhelming for communities and authorities. It is also during the deepest crisis that incentives change and new practices emerge. Lebanon went through an 8-months waste crisis after the closure of the country’s main landfill. Facing the incapacity of restoring basic services, the monopolistic centralised system was questioned: civil society, social businesses and municipalities organised, at a smaller scale, their own waste management. The thesis aims were to identify the role of the new waste stakeholders in the broader picture, assess the efficiency and needs of municipal projects and suggest some priorities for the country’s solid waste policies. The use of process-flow diagrams and a contextualised classification of actors were used to describe the Lebanese system. Case studies of recent initiatives were made using an adapted ISWM framework. The investigations have shown that, since the crisis, waste management is organised around three complementary systems, with their own legitimacy, supporters and challenges, but overall lacking of cooperation and mutual recognition. The nascent decentralised waste management tends to achieve better than the traditional central system, especially in terms of landfill space saved, resource management and inclusivity of users. However, it faces issues when tackling final disposal, energy recovery and financing. Any future waste policy should include all waste actors, set clear targets and reject any “one-size-fits-all” solution benefiting private corrupted interests.

  • 24.
    Bakhiet, Omnia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Mustafa, Riham
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Biogas Production in Abu Dhabi: An Evaluation based on Energy and Economy (Comparison of two plant designs)2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abu Dhabi, which is the capital city of the United Arab Emirates, is known for its fast and advanced development in a short period of time. The city however generates a large amount of waste on a daily basis and a large amount of this is dumped or landfilled. Landfilling of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and circa 80 % of the OFMSW is landfilled in Abu Dhabi. However, Abu Dhabi has shown its commitment to reducing GHG emissions by aiming to generate 7% renewable energy by 2030, improving waste management, and developing a strategy for green economy. In this study the approach evaluated is the waste-to-biogas system which utilizes anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Modules based on the Aikan® and REnescience® plant designs were simulated using SuperPro Designer® where energy and economic values were obtained and used for the evaluations. Excel was used to make a cash-flow analysis for both modules. A SWOT analysis was conducted to compare the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats between both modules.

    Energy Returned on Investment is an approach that calculates the efficiency of a fuel by dividing the energy acquired by the energy required in a process. Both modules give an energy returned on investment (EROI) ratio for biogas of slightly below 2:1, in regards to electricity which is considered relatively low when compared to other fuels. Three methods were used for calculating the profitability of the modules, internal rate of return, pay-back period and net present value (NPV). However the net present value (NPV) was found most reliable and showed an NPV of $500 000 and $3 000 000 for module one and two respectively and calculations show that module one has more risks while module two could result in a bigger risk monetarily. The results show that implementing such a system will have a minimal contribution to the city’s aim of 7 % renewable energy generation. However, it will contribute to the city’s target of reducing GHG emission, improve waste management, and lead to a green economy. 

  • 25.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Tools for reliable and transparent predictions in environmental assessment2007In: Habitat modelling: A tool for managing landscapes? / [ed] Brainerd, S.M., Seiler A. and Kastdalen, L, Norsk Institut for Naturforskning , 2007, 13-16 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Azcarate, Juan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Karlson, Mårten
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Odelius Gordon, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Impacts of urban development on biodiversity and ecosystem services2016In: Handbook on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in Impact Assessment / [ed] Davide Geneletti, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, 167-194 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global urbanization has increased rapidly and it is expected to continue. Due to the continuing urbanization process, green areas are transformed into areas for housing, industry and infrastructure. As a consequence, ecosystems in urbanizing areas are affected, which results in degradation of habitats, due to fragmentation and disturbances, with significant impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. In cities, green areas are of primary interest to support biodiversity as well as in their role as producers of ecosystem services; that is, services that ecosystems produce to the benefit of humans often without any costs. In addition, publicly accessible urban green areas enhance life quality for urban citizens. To strengthen biodiversity and ecosystem services considerations in the planning process and contribute to the preservation of biodiversity in the long term, a consistent assessment of potential impacts is required. In particular, a landscape approach in urban planning and assessment is needed to address the scales of ecological processes, to strengthen important landscape structures and functions in urban, regional and infrastructure planning. A landscape approach calls for methods for assessing the impacts of human actions on biodiversity at a landscape level, across administrative borders. Such methods should allow an analysis of cumulative impacts of many single planning decisions. Several of the processes involved have a temporal and spatial dimension and are possible to quantify, analyse, and visualize with geographical information systems (GIS) combined with spatial ecological models. This allows for localization and quantification of predicted effects of urbanization on biodiversity components over landscape and regional scales. This chapter addresses impacts of urbanization on biodiversity and urban green areas’ capacity in providing ecosystem services. A brief description of the role of biodiversity and ecosystem services provides a framework for a landscape approach in biodiversity assessments and for the practical examples from the Stockholm region. Related to the assessment, tools for predicting and assessing biodiversity impacts at a landscape level will be discussed as well as planning and management of urban green areas. The chapter concludes with lessons learned and key recommendations for best practice.

  • 27.
    Barås, Madeleine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Assessing the environmental sustainability of an apparel supply chain: the development of a conceptual model based on a comparative study of preferred tools and actual practices2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The apparel and textile industry is one of the largest in the world and is characterised by complex, global supply chains, water and chemical intensive processes as well as environmentally harmful raw material extraction and production. Because of this, environmental sustainability has become a key issue for the businesses in recent years. With this in mind, and considering an increasing demand for textile and apparel goods, the industry is in urgent need of improving the environmental footprint of its products. However, lack of transparency and available data throughout apparel supply chains decrease chances of producing accurate sustainability assessments, which in turn obstruct improvement measures. Moreover, companies often lack the in-house competence required to manage and create strategies for sustainability assessments.

    In this study an overview of an apparel supply chain is provided, highlighting phases, sub phases, input and environmental indicators. Appropriate tools for assessing the environmental sustainability of such a supply chain are inventoried and examined. Based on a case study, a literature review and a stakeholder opinion assessment, misalignments between actual practices within an apparel company and recommended practices of the researcher and stakeholder communities are uncovered. These identified misalignments enabled the development of a conceptual model, aiming at facilitating the process of developing an environmental sustainability assessment strategy within an apparel company. 

  • 28.
    Berger, Malin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    STADSODLINGAR: En litteraturstudie kring hållbarhet och byggnadsintegrerade stadsodlingar i Afrika och Nordamerika2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world population is increasing at a rapid pace and city farms may be a way to provide food to the growing population. How building integrated urban farms, with a focus on roofs, can be linked to sustainability, is examined in this report. The current situation in Africa and North America are examined and the question to be answered is: How does the priority of the dimensions of sustainability vary at different conditions for urban building integrated farms in Africa and North America?

    The aspects of sustainability linked to building integrated urban farms are determined to be ecological, social and economic. Urban farms can also be divided into four different business types, of which institutional farms, commercial farms and community farms are analyzed.

    The results show that Africa and North America differ in possibilities for urban farming to be sustainable. Africa currently consists of 1.1 billion people, and this is expected to rise to 2.4 billion in 2050. Climate is dry in most places and a large part of the population lives in poverty and starvation. North America has a colder climate with four seasons, and the population will remain stable until 2050. North America is classified as a more developed area, which means that the economics in this area also are more developed than they are in Africa. There are more large-sized farms in North America than in Africa, and there are also more examples in North America.

    The conclusions are that building integrated urban cultures have a better potential to develop in North America since they require a large investment expense. For building integrated urban farms to be a more sustainable solution both in Africa and North America requirements are that construction costs need to be lowered.

    Community farms and institutional cultures prioritize social sustainability while commercial plantations mainly focus on ecological and economic sustainability.

    Urban farming is and may become an increasingly important part of the food supply in cities. When the cities densify it reduces available spaces for cultivation and other solutions must be used. These types of farms are sustainable solution both economic and social. If the cost of a building integrated farm can reduce these farms may help to reduce hunger and poverty. 

  • 29.
    Berggren, Max
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Aerodynamisk optimering av vindkraftverks rotorblad med en genetisk algoritm, BEM-teori, och XFOIL2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a methodology that enables the annual average power of a wind turbine to be increased by automatically optimizing it’s airfoil, twist and chord dis- tribution. As a part of the study the software SiteOpt has been developed. This software connects the open source software XFOIL with the blade element momen- tum theory. XFOIL gives lift and drag coefficients which enable the blade element momentum theory to predict the power of a wind turbine at different wind and ro- tational speeds. An optimization algorithm of the type genetic algorithms is used to develop a new rotor blade. An academic benchmark case (Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase III) was selected as a starting point of the optimization because wind tunnel data was available for that campain. With the geometry developed by the genetic algoritm a theoretical increase of 15 % more power could be extracted. However, it has been shown that the model has shortcomings at high wind speeds where the predicted power does not match wind tunnel data. This is thought to be related to that the model assumes a completely rigid blade. In real world applica- tions a rotorblade will bend on higher wind speeds (about 8 m/s). It is therefore concluded that the model in its current form is flawed and that future work should aim to take these effects into account. However, a wind histogram for a specific loca- tion was used in order to calculate the annual average power for the wind turbine. The wind histogram used in this study to obtain the results has it’s wind speeds 81 % before 10 m/s where the model is acceptable. Therefore the results are largely to be considered accurate. 

  • 30.
    Bergstrand, Susanne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Bonnier, Thérèce
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Norra Djurgårdsstaden som nollstad: En studie av miljöprojektets sista etapp och dess potential2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All around the world more and more people move from rural areas to live in the cities. Because of this, the urban areas have become an important part in the debate about the effects on the environment and sustainability. In many countries word wide initiatives have been taken to build sustainable cities and eco cities, the Stockholm Royal Seaport is one example. The vision for the district is to become a world class sustainable city based on the three dimensions of sustainable development: social, economic and ecologic. The municipality of Stockholm has set requirements for the buildings’ energy usage, emissions and amount of waste generated during the building process. These requirements are dynamic and will become stricter for every phase. To fulfill the requirements new innovations and technologies are being developed, among other solutions to change how people live in order to

    become a sustainable city.

    This paper examines if it is possible for the last phase, Loudden, of Stockholm Royal Seaport to become a city of zero-net energy buildings, zero carbon and zero waste, and what it would take to achieve this. The results show that from a technical perspective, and with the delimitations of this study, it would be possible for Loudden to become completely self-sufficient on solar energy, but not to become a city of zero carbon and zero waste. 

  • 31.
    Björk, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Åkerberg, Viktor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Data Acquisition Architecture for HVDC Grids2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate crisis has caused many countries around the world to invest in large amounts of renewable energy. To be able to handle the intrinsic unreliability and geographic de- pendency of many renewable energy sources, HVDC technology is considered due to its low cost when transferring electricity across great distances. Traditional AC grids are controlled with 15-minute intervals at control centers, but HVDC grids require a faster control due to more power fluctuations within the grid. The aim of this project was to propose an architecture for a gateway in a control center for an HVDC grid. The gateway was programmed in C and C++ and the data was sent using UDP packets. Testing of the gateway was done using a real-time simulation of an HVDC grid. The data was sent with intervals smaller than a second which satisfied the speed requirements for this project. A gateway like the one developed in this project can be implemented at control centers to display and process data and to improve the overall reliability of an HVDC grid. 

  • 32.
    Björn, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Dessle, Filip
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Foder och fisk i landet mittemellan: en litteraturstudie över utsikterna för det svenska vattenbruket2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is no doubt about aquacultures important role in producing high value protein with a substantially smaller ecological footprint than the meat industry. Even though aquaculture has relived the capture fish industry (about half of the food fish that is produced today comes from aquaculture) there is still a dependency on wild caught fish mainly for cultivation of carnivorous fish. With high uncertainties regarding future wild fish populations there are economical risks with a dependency on fish meal and fish oil. So there are both economic and environmental incentives for Swedish aquaculture to expand to alternative production lines where closed cultivations methods are used and with feed that is not based on animal protein. A great part of the expansion of the Swedish aquaculture will be cage cultivation of carnivorous species such as salmonids in nutrient-poor lakes and water power plants magazines as the availability of these are great. In connection to the aquaculture expansion we see a need to develop domestic feed productions where microbes are viewed

    as the most promising feed component. 

  • 33.
    Bo, Xu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sun, Qie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    An Analysis of Chinese Policy Instruments for Climate Change Mitigation2010In: International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, ISSN 1756-8692, Vol. 2, no 4, 380-392 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design/methodology/approach - First, the paper reviews Chinese energy consumption per unit of GDP (EC/GDP) in order to determine the overall effects of the combined policy instruments. Second, the different policy instruments are compared in terms of their effects. Third, the actual trends of EC/GDP in two provinces and the instruments adopted by them are analysed on the provincial level.

    Findings - The decline in EC/GDP can indirectly reflect the Chinese contribution to mitigation of CO2 emissions since fossil fuels dominate Chinese energy consumption. The national EC/GDP values have shown a declining trend from 2005 to date, indicating that the policy instruments are very important to mitigate climate change as regards reducing EC/GDP. The technological improvement regulations have made the greatest contribution to date to reduce EC/GDP values. The experiences from the Beijing and Shandong province indicate that their final targets in 2010 will be most likely achieved because the different provinces are not only following the national policy instruments but have also developed quite a few new instruments to assist in reaching the these reductions.

    Research limitations/implications - There are three limitations regarding Chinese policy instruments analysis. First, the paper does not go far to determine the other factors which can affect EC/GDP apart from policy instruments. Second, some data were lacking and there may be inaccuracies in the existing data that could affect the analysis results. Third, EC/GDP cannot reflect the Chinese contribution to mitigation of CO2 emissions if the composition of Chinese energy consumption changes significantly.

    Originality/value - The paper addresses the importance of various policy instruments in reducing EC/GDP. The results can be referenced by Chinese policy makers on both the national and provincial level.

  • 34.
    Bodin, Robert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Att välja färdsätt: En studie av de boendes resvanor och attityder samt av trafikens utsläpp i Hammarby Sjöstad2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since environmental concerns are currently considered more and more legitimate, an environmental debate is ongoing in many areas of society. Today, a worldwide urbanization is a fact, which makes it important to combine concepts like sustainability and the development of cities. Many areas can be included in such a discussion, and an example of that is urban transportation. The traveling habits of the denizens of cities are of great relevance to the development of a sustainable city, and in this report the traveling habits of residents in cities will be described and related to the current local transportation system. More specific, the aim of the report is to examine and to analyze traveling habits related to the inhabitants of the district of Hammarby Sjöstad in Stockholm and furthermore to describe the existing transportation system in the district and to account for its environmental impact. This analysis leads to a discussion about environmental issues related to energy consumption and to emissions in the transport sector, and a connection to the Hammarby model is being presented. The travel habits of the denizens have been examined by conducting a travel survey, which has been distributed to 250 households, where 72 responses have been collected. This material has then been analyzed quantitatively. The result shows that when it comes to the travels of the inhabitants made between Hammarby Sjöstad and other districts, most trips are made with a local tram, Tvärbanan. This transportation vessel can be considered to be the central means of transportation in the district, unlike bus traveling, which only makes up a small portion of the traveling. After the tram, traveling by car is the most common means of transportation to destinations outside Hammarby Sjöstad, with an average which seems to be lower than the national average. Concerning traveling made inside the district, over half of the trips are being made by foot, which can be explained by the limited size of Hammarby Sjöstad and by its long and narrow shape. Besides the travel survey a literature study has also been made with the goal of highlighting the environmental impact of the transport sector. Focus has been directed towards the main means of transportation in Stockholm, subway, tram, car and bus. This study shows that tram and subway are the most energy efficient means of transportation and preferable from an environmental standpoint thanks to their low emissions. The latter is also true for biogas buses, which do not emit any kind of carbon dioxide. The usage of cars and buses run by petrol or diesel is more problematic, with high energy consumption and emission levels. When this data is related to the result for the traveling survey, one can conclude that the tram Tvärbanan is a good alternative from an environmental standpoint and that its importance as main means of transportation in the district is positive. The traveling by car needs to decrease however, which will be a challenge considering how many of the respondents in the survey who stated they were dependent of their cars, but a transition to a greater usage of public transportation could be facilitated by an expanded departure frequency with few disruptions on the tram network or the bus services. Also, additional expansion of the public transportation could further decrease the usage of cars in the district. 

  • 35.
    Boley, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Kalkvärmelagring: Värmelagring med kalk genom kemiska reaktioner2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    store energy from solar panels in limestone through a chemical process, calcium hydroxide ⇔ calcium oxide. The product is designed for a small Swedish house according to the standards set out by the Central Bureau of Statistics. The energy is stored using the solar energy abundance in the summer and will be used to heat the house in winter when solar radiation is lacking.

    To verify what is possible for such a product has this report compiled relevant physical and chemical data and used this data to calculate the system efficiency.

    The conclusion of the report is that the proposed product and the method works but with large energy losses. These energy losses are based on the low power and inadequate insulation. The system has potential, but the product is not viable in its current state. 

  • 36.
    Book, Tony
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Svensson, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Hållbarhetsanalys av ett cykelinfrastrukturprojekt inom Stockholms stad: Utvärdering av ett cykelinfrastrukturprojekt via samhällsekonomisk nyttoanalys2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Striving towards sustainable development, in all of its aspects, is currently exceedingly relevant. Particularly since the awareness of the negative side effects caused by emissions, pollution and noise have increased. These effects are all present while developing one of society’s most vital functions, namely transport infrastructure. The transport system is, and has long been, unsustainable as cars and other motor vehicles, having a large environmental impact, have been prioritized. To reduce transport emissions the European Commission has stated that other modes of transportation, such as commuting, walking and cycling, should be given higher priority. Several major European cities have implemented visions and plans to improve the possibility to bicycle. Stockholm is one of these cities and a handful of projects have thus been implemented to renovate the city’s cycling network. Despite these bicycle investments few sustainability analyses are made for bicycle infrastructure projects, which can be problematic since decision makers often lack proper support to justify investments.

    This work has examined the social, economic and ecological sustainability of a bicycle infrastructure project by comparing the investment costs of the project against its social benefits in a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). These benefits include health, time, comfort, accident risk and environment, which have been calculated through a cost benefit analysis (CBA). The examined project consists of a roughly 440 yard path for pedestrians and bicyclists located along Skärholmsvägen, southwest of the Stockholm city centre. Previously the road was lined with two bicycle fields on either side of the road with no path for pedestrians existing prior to the renovation. The project is planned to end during 2015 and the estimated cost amounts to 4,16-5 million SEK.

    In a CBA the effects which the project generates are initially investigated to assess which of the effects to consider in the analysis. In this work, health benefits, time benefits, comfort benefits, traffic accidents and environmental benefits have been analyzed. After the effects have been quantified these quantities are converted into monetary values to enable a comparison between the effects and the budget of the project. The value for health benefit is determined through decreased mortality risk and the value of a statistical life (VSL), the time benefit is calculated through an increased average velocity, the comfort benefit is determined through separating cyclists from car traffic, accident risk is estimated through the change in the bicyclists traffic conditions and the environmental benefit is calculated through the share of new cyclists who previously commuted by car.

    The project will, according to performed calculations, result in a societal benefit of in between 1.05 million SEK and 2.88 million SEK depending on the amount of performed assumptions. The effect which contributed the most to this benefit is the health benefit with a contribution of in between 919,000 SEK and 2.76 million SEK. The effect which contributed the least to the societal benefit is the environmental benefit with a contribution of in between 168 SEK and 630 SEK. The benefit can then be compared with the budget of the project which is estimated to amount to at least 4.16 million SEK. However the planned cost for the project amounts to 5 million SEK. The project will thus eventually yield a societal cost of in between 1.28 million SEK and 3.95 million SEK according to the calculations performed.

    The project can possibly be considered sustainable if the percentage of the width of the path corresponds to the percentage of its cost. Since the environmental effect could be neglected in this project compared to the other effects additional tools would thus be required to assess the environmental aspects of the project. This is an indication of CBA being an incomplete analysis tool to assess sustainability. 

  • 37.
    Bramsäter, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Lundgren, Kajsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Study on the Dynamic Control of Dam Operating Water Levels of Yayangshan Dam in Flood Season2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water levels up- and downstream of dams are strongly affected by water levels in the reservoir as well as the discharge of the dam. To ensure that no harm comes to buildings, bridges or agricultural land it is important to ensure that the water level in the reservoir is adjusted to handle large floods. This report studies within what range the water level in the reservoir of the Yayangshan dam, located in Lixian River, can vary without causing any flooding downstream the dam or at the Old and New Babian Bridge located upstream the dam. By calculation of the designed flood, flood routing- and backwater computation, initial water level ranges in the reservoir have been set for the pre-flood, main flood and latter flood season for damages to be avoided. Due to the far distance between the dam site and the bridges, backwater effects had no influence on the limitations of the initial water level in the reservoir. 

  • 38.
    Brandt, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Fahlberg, Kristin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Johansson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Uppföljning av åtgärder inom Stockholms stads Handlingsprogram mot växthusgaser 2000-20052007Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Brandt, Robert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Miljösystemanalys av förorenade muddermassor utifrån ett Livscykelperspektiv2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bottom sediments in the ports around the Baltic Sea have become significantly contaminated by pollutants. The need for dredging operations is therefore significant. Traditional ways of handling sediments have been tipping it at sea or disposal in landfill. More recently, stabilization of masses has been a popular way of handling sediments, from an environmental point of view.

    This study has using a life cycle perspective. It shows that stabilization of masses is a good way of handling sediments and that landfill gives a large environmental impact within the investigated environmental impact categories. The investigated categories were global warming, acidification, eutrophication, use of abiotic resources and energy consumption.

    A Life Cycle Assessment was performed with the port of Gävle as a case study. The port is planning to dredge 4 millions cubic meters of sediments. One million is considered contaminated and must be handled carefully. The port of Gävle has chosen to stabilize the contaminated sediments and a goal has been to investigate whether stabilization is the best handling alternative for the port of Gävle.

    The study shows that stabilization of dredged material leaves a small environmental impact in comparison to the other alternatives. That is partly explained by the transport of sediments you can avoid.

    An important environmental aspect is that the production of material for stabilization causes a big impact which is avoided with stabilization.

    From an overall point of view, it is hard to say which alternative is best or worst, all alternatives have booth advantages and disadvantages.

    Advisable for the Port of Gävle is stabilization, landfilling resulted in the largest environmental impacts for all studied alternatives in all impact categories.

    The study indicates that there is always a need to do a specific case study because ports are site specific, where the properties of the sediments and handling alternatives of them have to be analyzed correctly.

    This study was of a screening nature, where only large impacts were considered and quantified. More studies should be performed for more accurate results. 

  • 40.
    Brandt, Robert
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Miljösystemanalys av förorenade muddermassor utifrån ett Livscykelperspektiv2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bottom sediments in the ports around the Baltic Sea have become significantly contaminated by pollutants. The need for dredging operations is therefore significant. Traditional ways of handling sediments have been tipping it at sea or disposal in landfill. More recently, stabilization of masses has been a popular way of handling sediments, from an environmental point of view.

    This study has using a life cycle perspective. It shows that stabilization of masses is a good way of handling sediments and that landfill gives a large environmental impact within the investigated environmental impact categories. The investigated categories were global warming, acidification, eutrophication, use of abiotic resources and energy consumption.

    A Life Cycle Assessment was performed with the port of Gävle as a case study. The port is planning to dredge 4 million cubic meters of sediments. One million is considered contaminated and must be handled carefully. The port of Gävle has chosen to stabilize the contaminated sediments and a goal has been to investigate whether stabilization is the best handling alternative for the port of Gävle.

    The study shows that stabilization of dredged material leaves a small environmental impact in comparison to the other alternatives. That is partly explained by the transport of sediments you can avoid.

    An important environmental aspect is that the production of material for stabilization causes a big impact which is avoided with stabilization.

    From an overall point of view, it is hard to say which alternative is best or worst, all alternatives have booth advantages and disadvantages.

    Advisable for the Port of Gävle is stabilization, landfilling resulted in the largest environmental impacts for all studied alternatives in all impact categories.

    The study indicates that there is always a need to do a specific case study because ports are site specific, where the properties of the sediments and handling alternatives of them have to be analyzed correctly.

    This study was of a screening nature, where only large impacts were considered and quantified. More studies should be performed for more accurate results.

  • 41.
    Briggner, Viktor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Grahn, Pontus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Johansson, Linus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Centralized Versus Distributed State Estimation for Hybrid AC/DC Grid2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    State estimation enables for values throughout a power transmission grid to be known with a higher level of certainty. New technologies for bulk power transmission and power grid measuring enables for new possibilities in the energy sector and it is required that state estimation algorithms are developed to adapt to these new technologies. This project aims to develop a state estimator (SE) that is modified for hybrid AC/HVDC grids with voltage source converters (VSC) and phasor measurement units (PMU). Two different sets of architectures are tested. The centralized architecture where one common SE is implemented for both AC and DC grids or the distributed where a separate SE for every grid is used. The method used for the SE is the weighted least square (WLS) method. The SE will be developed based on the power grid model ’The CIGRE B4 DC Grid Test System’, designed by the International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRE) as a benchmark system. The SE is subject to four different scenarios in order to evaluate the quality of the SE, benefits of added phasor measurements and choice of architecture for the SE. The results of the tests show that the developed SE improves the accuracy of state values on the DC grid. However, regarding the AC state values of the converters the results of the test are ambiguous. Furthermore the distributed architecture offered slightly less accurate AC values than the centralized. The addition of PMU measurements improved the error of the estimated values. 

  • 42.
    Brinck, Tore
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Introduction to Green Energetic Materials2014In: Green Energetic Materials, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 1-14 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter begins with a short summary of the history of energetic materials. It is emphasized that developments generally have been driven by the objectives of improving performance and safety of handling. In addition to these objectives, new materials should also be green. This requirement is considered in relation to green chemistry and other tools for improving the sustainability of new products. A definition of a green energetic materials from the principles of green chemistry is presented. The chapter goes on to analyze past and present attempts to introduce green propulsion technologies to civil space travel. This analysis shows that the development of a green propellant system and its associated engine system is a lengthy and expensive process. The chances of succeeding seem to largely depend on the size of the engine system.

  • 43.
    Brown, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Wintzell, Helene
    Value creation for tenants in environmentally certified buildings2016In: Building Research & Information, ISSN 0961-3218, E-ISSN 1466-4321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests that environmental certification (EC) affects rental rates in non-residential buildings, but there is still little understanding of how tenants differentiate such buildings from those without EC. This paper examines whether and how tenants perceive value creation in EC premises in Sweden. The findings (based on 29 questionnaire responses and 14 interviews with tenants in EC buildings) inform landlords and tenants on the development of EC strategies for improved organizational outcomes. EC creates value for tenants principally as support for their environmental management and reporting (e.g., low energy demand). EC is important for tenants internally, raising employee environmental awareness and improving employee attraction and retention. Tenants are generally positive about employee morale, indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and rental costs. However, it is not clear if such perceptions are dependent on features of modern premises in general, such as new fixtures, fittings and furnishings, and space-efficiency or from some EC-related feature. Tenants do not identify health or productivity increase in their EC premises. Findings suggest that the research focus should be shifted from investigating health and productivity increases through IEQ improvement to understanding the motivational improvement through value alignment with employees through EC.

  • 44.
    Brown, Nils W. O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Basic Energy and Global Warming Potential Calculations at an Early Stage in the Development of Residential Properties2013In: Sustainability in Energy and Buildings: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference in Sustainability in Energy and Buildings (SEB´12) / [ed] Anne Hakansson, Mattias Höjer, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C Jain, Springer, 2013, 613-622 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper three different structural alternatives (wooden frame, solid wood and concrete) for multifamily buildings are compared in terms of global warming potential (GWP) due to material production and bought energy-in-use from a life-cycle perspective using the ENSLIC tool [1]. The work has been performed in the pre-programming phase of a real construction project, aiming at achieving passive house standard and certification with the Swedish environmental rating tool Miljöbyggnad (MB).

    The results suggest that the wooden structural alternatives are better in terms of GWP (1.8 to 1.9 kg CO2-e/m2, year) compared to the concrete alternative (4.9 kg CO2-e/m2, year). Having said that, there is considerable uncertainty in key input parameters in the calculation. Firstly, construction contractors in question could not supply standardized data for GWP and lifetime for their structural elements, and a combination of generic data and assumptions were used. Secondly, GWP for different energy sources was not available in such a way that it could be analyzed for reliability.

  • 45.
    Brown, Nils W. O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Managing high environmental performance?: Applying life cycle approaches and environmental certification tools in the building and real estate sectors2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this thesis is  to demonstrate and critically assess life cycle approaches’ and environmental certification (EC) tools’ potential for supporting decisions for improved environmental performance in the building and real estate sectors.

    Using life cycle approaches, the thesis shows that for new build and renovation cases aiming for low operational energy use that embodied global warming potential (GWP) due to material production can constitute a large portion of a building’s lifetime GWP. Therefore life cycle based information about materials’ embodied GWP needs to be made available to and utilized by design process decision makers.

    It was also shown that applying the Swedish EC tool Miljöbyggnad was useful in highlighting potential positive and negative changes in indoor environmental quality arising from renovation packages aiming at significant operational energy use reduction in existing multifamily buildings. However such renovation packages are not profitable from a property owner perspective. Miljöbyggnad may be useful when designing policy instruments to overcome this.   

    The thesis also showed that EC and related environmental enhancements contribute to achieving property owners’ and tenants’ overall strategic objectives for value creation. For property owners this arises for example through lower energy costs and attracting desirable tenants. For tenants, value creation arises as support for internal and external environmental communication.

    For the further development of life cycle approaches’ and EC tools’ application to buildings and real estate it is important to consider how they can be adapted to consider ‘distance to sustainable’ targets referencing for instance the planetary boundaries approach. It is also interesting to investigate how valuation of buildings and real estate may be performed in a way that expands from the current narrow focus on the economic perspective to also include environmental and social perspectives.

  • 46.
    Brown, Nils W. O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Wintzell, Helene
    Mervärden för fastighetsägare vid miljöcertifiering av byggnader – en enkätstudie av fastighetsägare medmiljöcertifierade lokalfastigheter2014Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Brydolf, Ludvig
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Wiklund, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Installation av låglutande fingaller för främjande av ekologisk funktion i vattenkraftverk: En fallstudie av ett kraftverk i Umeälven2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this bachelor degree thesis is to analyze technical issues associated with an implementation of a low sloping trash rack with narrow spacing. A hydropower plant in Umeälven was used as a case study. The basis for the study was a model where trash racks were dimensioned for inclinations between 25 and 45 degrees. Corresponding head loss, durability and water speed through the rack were then determined for each inclination. Necessary measures are thereafter discussed for the installation. Finally some of the estimated costs and incomes regarding the installation are presented.

    An implementation of a narrow spaced trash rack (10 mm) with an inclination of 30 degrees will cause an exceeding of the tolerance speed through the rack 15 percent of the operational time when there is no clogging. Furthermore, the change of intake screens result in an increase of the head loss of 4.8 millimeters, which corresponds to an income loss of 25000 SEK annually due to reduced production. Complimentary measures include supporting beams, new lower attachment point and an extension of the intake walls. The final cost is strongly dependent on how the installation work is done. A high cost may occur due to an interruption in the production and when extensive arrangements for the implementation are needed, such as the construction of a cofferdam. In total a replacement of trash racks will cost at least 8 184 000 SEK, in addition to 216 000 SEK/day due to loss of production. Moreover expenses for the supporting beams and extension of the intake are added as well. 

  • 48.
    Brännlund, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Henriksson, Joakim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Comparative simulation of heat transfer in a cylinder of phase changing material: How does the orientation impact the energy discharge?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A computer simulation was done in COMSOL Mulitphysics 5.1, on heat transfer in rods filled with phase change material (PCM). The main objective was to compare the rods rate of heat transfer at two different orientations, horizontal and vertical. Information about the viscosity gradient, velocity magnitude and temperature gradient were used to analyze the result. The vertical orientation showed a faster rate of heat transfer with a large initial difference. The horizontal placement shows tendencies to provide a more even rate of heat transfer. To analyze the simulation a literature study was conducted on the theory behind modeling phase change heat transfer coupled with fluid flow. The societal implications of better PCM technology were also discussed. 

  • 49.
    Bysell, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Grundström, Linnea
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Hållbar matkonsumtion: En undersökning av studenters relation, åsikter och vanor gällande miljömässigt hållbar matkonsumtion2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Som ett resultat av det senaste århundradets snabba populationstillväxt i kombination med en livsstil vilken inneburit ökad konsumtion, större naturresursuttag och ökande miljöpåfrestningar, står vi nu inför stora utmaningar för framtiden. En viktig del av begreppet hållbar utveckling är konsumtionen som i stor grad blivit en del av vår livsstil. Mat och dryck utgör i Europeiska Unionen ungefär en fjärdedel av hushållens totala miljöpåverkan, och hur vi väljer att konsumera livsmedel har således en stor inverkan. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka studenters, vid Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, förhållningssätt, kunskap och agerande kring miljömässigt hållbar matkonsumtion. De mål som arbetet avser är att undersöka vilka vetenskapliga belägg som finns utifrån de fyra olika konsumtionsvalen; kött (i relation till vegetariskt), matsvinn, närproducerat och ekologiskt. Referensramen utgörs av en litteraturstudie som definierar hållbarhetsbegreppet relaterat till de olika konsumtionsvalen och utgör därför grunden för det fortsatta arbetet. Utifrån detta utformades sedan en enkät vilken delades ut till 40 stycken studenter vid lärosätet. Därefter analyserades resultatet och jämfördes med tidigare studier i ämnet. Litteraturstudien resulterade i en rangordning av de olika konsumtionsvalen, där 1 är det val av störst vikt för miljömässigt hållbar matkonsumtion; 1 kött, 2 matsvinn, 3 ekologiskt och 4 närproducerat. Detta jämfördes sedan med resultat från enkätundersökningen som visade att studenterna överskattar närproducerat. Många av studenterna ansåg att minska köttkonsumtionen var den viktigaste åtgärden för en mer hållbar matkonsumtion. Trots detta finns det en skillnad mellan denna åsikt, i relation till hur de väljer att agera. Att minska matsvinnet är den åtgärd där studenterna lägger ner störst ansträngning och varannan student konsumerar kött dagligen. Det var svårt att dra generella slutsatser kring vad skillnaderna beror på, men det finns en differens i studenternas uppfattning om vad som är hållbar matkonsumtion och hur de handlar. Det finns även en skillnad mellan vilket vetenskapligt stöd som finns och studenternas uppfattning av vad som är hållbar konsumtion av livsmedel. 

  • 50.
    Bywall, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Rosendal, Timmy
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Conversion to a Circular Industry: Success and limiting factors to convert Högdalen Industrial Area into an eco-industrial park2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of eco-industrial parks is a way to minimize environmental impact and resource use from an industrial area, and in this study the concept is applied to Högdalen industrial area in Stockholm. An interview study has been conducted with key actors in the area, which found for instance that there were a good cooperation will among the actors and some material and energy exchanges occurring. This was then compared to a literature study of the limiting and success factors of the development of an eco-industrial parks. A quarter of the identified factors were determined to have good prospects, a fifth was partly fulfilled, a fifth had bad prospects, a fifth was unknown and 15 % was unknown but relevant to uncover in this stage of development.  For the future, it is suggested that: more interviews should be done with more actors in the area, Cleantech Högdalen should change focus to develop an eco-industrial park, more energy and material flows should be mapped and to gather information of unknown and relevant factors. The conclusion of this study is that there is potential to develop Högdalen Industrial Area into an eco-industrial park but there are some knowledge gaps about the quantitative minimization of resources and environmental impact. 

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