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  • 1.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Brabant Water NV, 5200 BC 's-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands.
    Evaluation and optimization of advanced oxidation coagulation filtration (AOCF) to produce drinking water with less than 1 μg/L of arsenic2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic is an extremely poisonous element. It has been reported to cause contamination of drinking water sources in many parts of the world. The current drinking water permissible limit for arsenic in the European Union is 10 μg/L. The World Health Organization has a general rule that no substance may have a higher lifetime risk of more than 1 in 100,000. However, several studies on toxicity of arsenic suggest that purely based on health effects the arsenic limit of 10 μg/L is not sufficient. The main goal of this research was to develop an efficient arsenic removal technology that could be able to produce drinking water with an arsenic concentration of less than 1 μg/L. For this purpose, an innovative three step technique, Advanced Oxidation - Coagulation - Filtration (AOCF), was investigated through bench-scale and pilot scale experiments in the Netherlands at the water treatment plant of Dorst. Firstly, prior to the investigations on AOCF, the existing arsenic removal at the water treatment plant was investigated. Secondly, through a series of bench-scale experiments, the optimum type of coagulant, its combination dose with the selected chemical oxidant and optimum process pH were determined. Eventually, the partially optimized technique from the bench-scale was implemented at the pilot scale physical model of water treatment plant Dorst where AOCF was evaluated for arsenic removal and its effect on the removal of other common undesirable groundwater constituents. The optimized AOCF technology consistently removed arsenic from groundwater to below 1 ug/L when implemented at pilot scale. The overall effluent quality also remained acceptable. The method is efficient with both types of filtration media tested in this research i.e., virgin sand and metal oxide coated sand, however virgin sand media showed slightly better arsenic removal efficiency.

  • 2.
    Annaduzzaman, Md.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Deshpande, Paritosh Chakor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ersoz, M.
    Lazarova, Z.
    Chitosan biopolymer: a treatment option for uranium(VI) removal from drinking waterManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Annaduzzaman, Md.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ersoz, M.
    Lazarova, Z.
    Characterization of a chitosan biopolymer and arsenate removal for drinking water treatment2014In: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, CRC Press, 2014, p. 745-747Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chitosan biopolymer with a deacetylation degree of 85%, was assessed for its capability to adsorb As(V) from drinking water by batch experiments. To characterize the chitosan biopolymer, chitosan was analyzed by FTIR and SEM. The results showed that chitosan is an effective and promising sorbent for As(V) from drinking water. From the batch tests, results showed a maximum adsorption of 355 μg/L of As(V) with 1.18 μg g-1 adsorption capacity at pH 6. The kinetic data, obtained at pH 6 could be fitted with pseudo-second order equation (adsorption capacity: 0.923 μg g-1) and the process was suitably described by a Freundlich (R2 = 0.9933) model than by a Langmuir model (R2 = 0.9741). The results above indicated that chitosan is a very favorable sorbent for As(V) removal from aqueous solution.

  • 4.
    Annaduzzaman, Md.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ersoz, M.
    Lazarova, Z.
    Evaluation and optimization of chitosan biopolymer as an adsorbent for arsenic(V) in drinking watert treatmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5. Asim, Muhammad
    et al.
    Kumar, N. T. Uday
    Martin, Andrew R.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Feasibility analysis of solar combi-system for simultaneous production of pure drinking water via membrane distillation and domestic hot water for single-family villa: pilot plant setup in Dubai2016In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 57, no 46, p. 21674-21684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the feasibility study of installation of a solar-driven integrated MD desalination system for simultaneous production of pure drinking water and solar domestic hot water in United Arab Emirates (UAE) for a single-family villa comprising of 4-5 persons. In order to satisfy the current and future demand of water for domestic purposes, the desalination of seawater is considered to be one of the most effective and strategic technique in UAE. The stress on the underground water aquifers, rapid industrial growth, and increase in urban population in UAE results in the tremendous increase in fresh water demand during the past few decades. Since the local municipalities also provide the desalinated fresh water to the people but they mostly rely on bottled water for drinking purpose. In this paper, the pilot setup plant is designed, commissioned, and installed on site in UAE using air gap membrane distillation desalination process to fulfill the demand of 15-25 L/d of pure drinking water and 250 L/d of domestic hot water for a single-family villa. Experimental analyses have been performed on this setup during summer on flat plate solar collectors having different aperture areas (Experiments have been performed for aperture area of 11.9 m(2) in this research study for feasibility purpose). The average hot-side temperature ranges from 50 to 70 degrees C and average cold-side temperature of 35 degrees C.

  • 6.
    Axelsson, Karolin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Konstanzer, Vera
    KTH.
    Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Terenius, Olle
    Seriot, Lisa
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Nordenhem, Henrik
    Nordlander, Goran
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. Tartu University, Estonia.
    Antifeedants Produced by Bacteria Associated with the Gut of the Pine Weevil Hylobius abietis2017In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 177-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, is a severe forest pest insect as it feeds on newly planted conifer seedlings. To identify and develop an antifeedant could be one step towards the protection of seedlings from feeding damage by the pine weevil. With the aim to trace the origin of the antifeedants previously found in feces of the pine weevil, we investigated the culturable bacteria associated with the gut and identified the volatiles they produced. Bacterial isolates were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis. The volatile emissions of selected bacteria, cultivated on NB media or on the grated phloem of Scots pine twigs dispersed in water, were collected and analyzed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The bacterial isolates released a variety of compounds, among others 2-methoxyphenol, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide. A strong antifeedant effect was observed by 2-phenylethanol, which could thus be a good candidate for use to protect planted conifer seedlings against feeding damage caused by H. abietis.

  • 7.
    Azeem, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. COMSATS Inst Informat Technol, Dept Chem, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan.
    Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Terenius, Olle
    Nordlander, Goran
    Nordenhem, Henrik
    Nagahama, Kazuhiro
    Norin, Emil
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Borg Karlsson, Anna Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    A fungal metabolite masks the host plant odor for the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis)2015In: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, E-ISSN 1878-0083, Vol. 13, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine weevil is one of the most important pest insects of conifer reforestation areas in Europe. Female pine weevils cover their eggs with chewed bark and feces (frass) resulting in avoidance behavior of feeding conspecifics towards egg laying sites. It has been suggested that microorganisms present in the frass may be responsible for producing deterrent compounds for the pine weevil. The fungi Ophiostoma canum, O. pluriannulatum, and yeast Debaryomyces hansenii were isolated from aseptically collected pine-weevil frass. The isolated fungi were cultured on weevil frass broth and their volatiles were collected by SPME and identified by GC MS. D. hansenii produced methyl salicylate (MeS) as a major compound, whereas, in addition, O. canum and O. pluriannulatum produced 6-protoilludene. In a multi-choice lab bioassay, MeS strongly reduced pine weevil's attraction to the Pinus sylvestris volatiles. Thus, a fungal metabolite was found that strongly affects the pine weevil host-odor search. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Land & Water Resources Engn, KTH Int Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Land & Water Resources Engn, KTH Int Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nath, B.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Geosci, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Chatterjee, D.
    Univ Kalyani, Dept Chem, Kalyani, W Bengal, India..
    Mukherjee, A.
    Indian Inst Technol, Dept Geol & Geophys, Kharagpur, W Bengal, India..
    Tubewell platform color: Assessment of a tool for rapid screening of arsenic and manganese in well water2012In: UNDERSTANDING THE GEOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL INTERFACE OF ARSENIC, AS 2012 / [ed] Ng, JC Noller, BN Naidu, R Bundschuh, J Bhattacharya, P, CRC PRESS-TAYLOR & FRANCIS GROUP , 2012, p. 515-518Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to make a statistical comparison between Tubewell (TW) platform color and the level of Arsenic (As) and Manganese (Mn) concentration in groundwater abstracted from a set of 423 Tubewells (TWs) in Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal, India to validate platform color as a screening tool for both As and Mn in groundwater. The results indicate that water extracted from TWs with black colored platform in 93% cases was safe for As while water extracted from TWs with red colored platform is contaminated with As with 38% certainty, compared to drinking water standard of India (50 mu g/L). At this standard the respective efficiency, sensitivity and specificity of the tool are 65, 85 and 59%. If WHO drinking water guideline (10 mu g/L) is considered, the certainty increases to 73% and 84% respectively for black and red colored platform with respective efficiency, sensitivity and specificity values of 79, 77 and 81%. Furthermore, the black colored platform with 78% certainty indicates well water is enriched with Manganese (Mn), while red colored platform indicates water is low in Mn with 64% certainty evaluated against Indian national standard of 300 mu g/L. This study demonstrates that platform color can be potentially used as an initial screening tool for As and Mn, to assess the safe water acess for drinking purposes.

  • 9.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Von Brömssen, M.
    Groundwater arsenic pollution: A conceptual framework for sustainable mitigation strategy2014In: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, CRC Press, 2014, p. 881-885Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tubewells installed by local drillers, provide access of drinking water in rural Bangladesh. Significant proportion of these wells contains arsenic (As) above the WHO guideline and the Bangladesh Drinking Water Standard. Various attempts for mitigation at household and community scale have resulted in limited success, but through the local driller's initiatives, the tubewells are the source of priority drinking water supply. We have developed a concept of Sustainable Arsenic Mitigation (SASMIT) to identify and target the safe aquifers through detailed hydrogeological studies for scientific validation of the water quality with respect to the color of the shallow sediments as perceived by local drillers. Together with water quality monitoring, we have also targeted the Intermediate Depth Aquifers (IDA) for providing As-safe and low manganese (Mn) water. SASMIT intervention logic also considered the relevant socio-economic scenario, such as household distribution, poverty issues and available safe water access for prioritizing safe well installation.

  • 10.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    Department of Soil and Water Environment Ramböll Sweden AB.
    Targeting Arsenic-Safe Aquifers in Regions with High Arsenic Groundwater and its Worldwide Implications (TASA)2015Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Nath, Bibhash
    Alexanderson, Helena
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Shallow hydrostratigraphy in an arsenic affected region of Bengal Basin: Implication for targeting safe aquifers for drinking water supply2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 485, p. 12-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To delineate arsenic (As) safe aquifer(s) within shallow depth, the present study has investigated the shallow hydrostratigraphic framework over an area of 100 km(2) at Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal. Drilling of 29 boreholes and subsequent hydrostratigraphic modeling has identified three types of aquifer within 50 m below ground level (bgl). Aquifer-1 represents a thick paleochannel sequence, deposited parallel to the River Hooghly and Ichamati. Aquifer-2 is formed locally within the overbank deposits in the central floodplain area and its vertical extension is strictly limited to 25 m bgl. Aquifer-3 is distributed underneath the overbank deposits and represents an interfluvial aquifer of the area. Aquifer-3 is of Pleistocene age (similar to 70 ka), while aquifer-1 and 2 represent the Holocene deposits (age <951 ka), indicating that there was a major hiatus in the sediment deposition after depositing the aquifer-3. Over the area, aquifer-3 is markedly separated from the overlying Holocene deposits by successive upward sequences of brown and olive to pale blue impervious clay layers. The groundwater quality is very much similar in aquifer-1 and 2, where the concentration of As and Fe very commonly exceeds 10 mu g/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. Based on similar sediment color, these two aquifers have jointly been designated as the gray sand aquifer (GSA), which constitutes 40% (1.84 x 10(9) m(3)) of the total drilled volume (4.65 x 10(9) m(3)). In aquifer-3, the concentration of As and Fe is very low, mostly <2 mu g/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. This aquifer has been designated as the brown sand aquifer (BSA) according to color of the aquifer materials and represents 10% (4.8 x 10(8) m(3)) of the total drilled volume. This study further documents that though the concentration of As is very low at BSA, the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines.

  • 12.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Neidhardt, Harald
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Berner, Zsolt
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Role of competing ions in the mobilization of arsenic in groundwater of Bengal Basin: Insight from surface complexation modeling2014In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 55, p. 30-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the role of competing ions in the mobilization of arsenic (As) by surface complexation modeling of the temporal variability of As in groundwater. The potential use of two different surface complexation models (SCMs), developed for ferrihydrite and goethite, has been explored to account for the temporal variation of As(III) and As(V) concentration, monitored in shallow groundwater of Bengal Basin over a period of 20 months. The SCM for ferrihydrite appears as the better predictor of the observed variation in both As(III) and As(V) concentrations in the study sites. It is estimated that among the competing ions, PO43- is the major competitor of As(III) and As(V) adsorption onto Fe oxyhydroxide, and the competition ability decreases in the order PO43- >> Fe(II) > H4SiO4 = HCO- (3.) It is further revealed that a small change in pH can also have a significant effect on the mobility of As(III) and As(V) in the aquifers. A decrease in pH increases the concentration of As(III), whereas it decreases the As(V) concentration and vice versa. The present study suggests that the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxide alone cannot explain the observed high As concentration in groundwater of the Bengal Basin. This study supports the view that the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxide followed by competitive sorption reactions with the aquifer sediment is the processes responsible for As enrichment in groundwater.

  • 13. Blum, K. M.
    et al.
    Gallampois, C.
    Andersson, P. L.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Haglund, P.
    Comprehensive assessment of organic contaminant removal from on-site sewage treatment facility effluent by char-fortified filter beds2019In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 361, p. 111-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To remove organic contaminants from wastewater using cost-efficient and currently existing methods, our study investigated char-fortified filter beds for on-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs) in a long-term field setting. OSSFs are commonly used in rural and semi-urban areas worldwide to treat wastewater when municipal wastewater treatment is not economically feasible. First, we screened for organic contaminants with gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based targeted and untargeted analysis and then we developed quantitative structure-property relationship models to search for key molecular features responsible for the removal of organic contaminants. We identified 74 compounds (24 confirmed by reference standards) including plasticizers, UV stabilizers, fragrances, pesticides, surfactant and polymer impurities, pharmaceuticals and their metabolites, and many biogenic compounds. Sand filters that are used as a secondary step after the septic tank in OSSFs could remove hydrophobic contaminants. The addition of biochar significantly increased the removal of these and a few hydrophilic compounds (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, α = 0.05). Besides hydrophobicity-driven sorption, biodegradation was suggested to be the most important removal pathway in this long-term field application. However, further improvements are necessary to remove very hydrophilic contaminants as they were not removed with sand and biochar-fortified sand.

  • 14.
    Bodlund, Ida
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Coagulant Protein from plant materials: Potential Water Treatment Agent2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to fresh water is a human right, yet more than 780 million people, especially in rural areas, rely on unimproved sources and the need for finding ways of treating water is crucial. Although the use of natural coagulant protein in drinking water treatment has been discussed for a long time, the method is still not in practice, probably due to availability of material and limited knowledge. In this study, about hundred different crude extracts made from plant materials found in Southern India were screened for coagulation activity. Extracts of three Brassica species (Mustard, Cabbage and Cauliflower) were showing activity comparable to that of Moringa oleifera and were further investigated. Their protein content and profile were compared against each other and with coagulant protein from Moringa. Mustard (large) and Moringa seed proteins were also studied for their effect against clinically isolated bacterial strains. The protein profiles of Brassica extract showed predominant bands around 9kDa and 6.5kDa by SDS-PAGE. The peptide sequence analysis of Mustard large identified the 6.5kDa protein as Moringa coagulant protein (MO2.1) and the 9kDa protein band as seed storage protein napin3. Of thirteen clinical strains analysed, Moringa and Mustard large were proven effective in either aggregation activity or growth kinetic method or both in all thirteen and nine strains respectively. To my knowledge this is the first report on the presence of coagulant protein in Brassica seeds. Owing to the promising results Brassica species could possibly be used as a substitute to Moringa coagulating agent and chemicals in drinking water treatment. 

  • 15.
    Bodlund, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Pavankumar, Asalapuram Ramachand
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Chelliah, R.
    Anna University, Chennai.
    Kasi, S.
    Anna University, Chennai.
    Sankaran, K.
    Anna University, Chennai.
    Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Coagulant proteins identified in Mustard: a potential water treatment agent2014In: International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1735-1472, E-ISSN 1735-2630, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 873-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of natural coagulant protein in drinking water treatment has been discussed for a long time, though the method is still not in practice, probably due to limited knowledge and availability of material. In the present work, different Mustard varieties were tested for the presence of coagulant protein compared with Moringa seed extract and their potential application in water treatment. The coagulation activity of the protein extract was measured using synthetic clay solution as well as water from pond. The protein content was determined by Bradford method, molecular mass determined by Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and peptide sequence was analyzed by Mass spectrometry. Extract of Mustard (large) and Moringa seed showed coagulation activity of a parts per thousand...70 and a parts per thousand...85 % after 90 min, respectively. Interestingly, seed extracts from other Mustard varieties had coagulation activity after heat activation at 95 A degrees C for 5 h. However, the coagulation activity of Mustard seed extract against turbid pond water was higher (a parts per thousand...60 %) compared to Moringa seed extract (a parts per thousand...50 %). The peptide sequence analysis of 6.5 and 9 kDa proteins was found to be homologous to Moringa coagulant protein and napin3, respectively. To our knowledge, this could be the first report on Mustard seed having coagulant protein. The coagulation activity of Mustard (large) against highly turbid pond water suggested that it could be a potential natural coagulant for water treatment.

  • 16.
    Bodlund, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Environmental Microbiology.
    Sabarigirisan, K
    Anna University, Chennai.
    Chelliah, R
    Anna University, Chennai.
    Sankaran, K
    Anna University, Chennai.
    Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Environmental Microbiology.
    Screening of Coagulant Proteins from Plant Materials in Southern IndiaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 17. Borghei, Seyed Mahmood
    et al.
    Nekooie, Mohammad Ali
    Sadeghian, Hadi
    Ghazizadeh, Mohammad Reza Jalili
    Parvaneh, Ali
    Yang, James
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Javaheri, Amir
    Kabiri-Samani, Abdorreza
    Discussion: Triangular labyrinth side weirs with one and two cycles2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Water Management, ISSN 1741-7589, E-ISSN 1751-7729, Vol. 169, no 3, p. 111-114Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18. Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Unit operations for production of clean hydrogen-rich synthesis gas from gasified biomass2011In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, p. S8-S15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rebuild of the Vaxjo Varnamo Biomass Gasification Center (VVBGC) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant into a plant for production of a clean hydrogen rich synthesis gas requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical and physical needs found in a gasified biomass environment. The CHRISGAS project has, in a multitude of areas, been responsible for the research and development activities associated with the rebuild. In this paper the present status and some of the issues concerning the upgrading of the product gas from gasified biomass into synthesis gas are addressed. The purpose is to serve as an introduction to the scientific papers written by the partners in the consortium concerning the unit operations of the process.

  • 19. Brenner, A.
    et al.
    Persson, K. M.
    Russell, L.
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Kozisek, F.
    Technical and mineral level effects of water treatment2015In: Drinking Water Minerals and Mineral Balance: Importance, Health Significance, Safety Precautions, Springer, 2015, p. 103-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reverse Osmosis is used for desalination of especially sea water in areas suffering from water shortage, and there are thousands and thousands of desalination plants around the world and more to come. The produced high–purity water tends to be corrosive, and lacks minerals, causing decreased daily intake and loss of minerals from the body. Thus, such water needs re–mineralization. Water with toxic substances is harmful, and is also often treated with RO. There are indexes to be used as guides to choose re–mineralization method after RO. However, mineral balance is not reached by remineralization, as only concentrations of calcium and bicarbonate, and in some cases magnesium is increased. Treatment with dissolution of dolomitic–calcitic limestone or other limestone with low levels of toxic elements is preferable. Hard water, on the other hand, may cause scaling, and is often softened, making the concentrations of calcium and magnesium low or extremely low. General advices on choice of treatment method to preserve or improve the mineral content and mineral balance of a water is presented in the chapter.

  • 20.
    Cameli, Fabio
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Microbial Fuel Cell for Waste Water Treatment2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial Fuel Cell is a novel technology that can be used for a waste water treatment in order to simultaneously remove carbonaceous matter and nitrogen while producing electrical power.

    Even if it is not an established technology so far, MFC could be a cost effective option for waste water treatment and the major challenge of this process will be the device scale-up. Exoelectrogenic bacteria are capable of converting the chemical energy of organic matter into electrical energy by transferring the electrons produced in the oxidation to the anode electrode.

    This project focused on developing a single device for nitrification, denitrification and carbon removal. Two double air-cathode single chamber MFCs are used to test the feasibility of this process that could replace the biological unit in a waste water treatment train.

    The cells tested in this study were manufactured with the purpose of achieving a high surface area on both the anode electrode (vitreous carbon foam) and the air-cathode electrodes (metallic mesh with diffusion layer and active layer) with different catalysts for the reduction reaction (cobalt and platinum). The bacterial biofilm growth is a fundamental step and the cells Open Circuit Potential was monitored during all the start-up period to determine the microorganism acclimation: a three days lag period was observed in both cells before the potential rise. The second cell was forced to reach higher voltage through an anode polarization and that seems to positively affect the biofilm stability at lower voltages transferring a greater amount of electrons and hence obtaining a higher current and power generation. For this reason after three weeks of inoculation the second cell reached an open circuit potential of 0.76 V which is a promising value for such a system.

    Electrochemical and biological tests were conduced in order to test the power production of the cell and the substrate removal from the waste water. Polarization curves were used to evaluate power generation (and the maximum production under a specific external load) and the cell voltage trend which is characterized by activation and ohmic losses: 32 mW/ and 41 mW/  are the power density normalized by cathode surface (72 ) reached by respectively first and second cell. The experimental conditions were varied from low to high temperature and from low to high inlet flow rate but the most affecting phenomenon seems to be the biofilm formation since significant voltage drops were noticed after long closed circuit operation. Higher cell voltage characterized the second cell thanks to more active cathode (platinum catalyst used) and more negative bacterial biofilm but a bigger drop in current generation over time affects the system performance and the most reliable reason is the shorter acclimation time compared to the first cell.

    Cyclic voltammetry tests were carried out on both electrodes to study the potential range of activity and determine an optimal operational voltage despite of mass transport or kinetic limitations.

    Substrate removal tests at different retention times in power generation conditions (external load 100 Ω) showed a relatively high total nitrogen consumption (maximum 72.2 %) for the first cell while lower values were achieved by the second system meaning that a longer acclimation period is beneficial for nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria to thrive on the cathode biofilm.

    Effluent pH level are almost similar to the initial values probably because of nitrification and denitrification protons offset.

  • 21.
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    et al.
    Istanbul Tech Univ, Fac Civil Engn, Dept Environm Engn.
    Akyol, Cagri
    Ince, Orham
    Coban, Halil
    Koksel, Gozde
    Oz, Nilgun Ayman
    Ince, Bahar
    Individual and combined inhibitory effects of methanol and toluene on acetyl-CoA synthetase expression level of acetoclastic methanogen, Methanosaeta concilii2015In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic solvents found in waste streams can be inhibitory to microbial communities in wastewater treatment plants. In this study, possible inhibitory effects of commonly used organic solvents, methanol and toluene, were investigated in batch anaerobic digestion tests. Anaerobic sludges were fed with acetate repeatedly and exposed to various concentrations of toluene, methanol and mixture of them. Expression level of the key enzyme of acetoclastic methanogenesis, acetyl-CoA synthetase 1 (Acs1), was determined by reverse transcriptase real time PCR. Additionally, active populations of Methanosaeta spp. were monitored and quantified by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Transcript abundance of Acs1 was 1.31 x 10(6) mRNAs ml(-1) in the control reactors; whereas, singular methanol exposure of 0.1 M, 0.3 M, 0.5 M and 1.0 M and methanol + toluene combination of 1.0 M + 0.5 mM and 1.0 M + 1.5 mM did not cause any significant effect on the acetyl-CoA expression level. However, singular toluene-exposed serum bottle reactors were completely inhibited after 3rd exposure at all concentrations from 0.5 mM to 4.0 mM. FISH results for singular methanol and toluene additions as well as their combination in the ranges studied showed no particular effect on the relative abundance of Methanosaeta spp. cells. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Atasoy, Merve
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Biodegradation and inhibitory effects of antibiotics on biological wastewater treatment systems2018In: Toxicity and Biodegradation Testing, Humana Press, 2018, no 9781493974245, p. 29-55Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotics are one of the most consumed drugs and have become new emerging pollutants in the environment as antibiotics lead to long-term adverse effects on the ecosystem. They are produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of other bacteria in nature as a defense mechanism. Furthermore, after discovering their therapeutical features, synthetic production methods were developed. In general, antibiotics are widely used in human medicine, veterinary medicine, farming and aquaculture for the prevention and treatment of diseases. Approximately 90% of the consumed antibiotics are excreted via urinary or fecal pathways from the human body after partial, or no metabolism, and they are transferred to the domestic sewage plants or directly to the environment. Conventional biological treatment of domestic sewage provides very low—if any—reduction for the antibiotics, which usually by-pass treatment and accumulate in the receiving waters, sediments, plants, and animals. The concentration of these materials in domestic wastewaters and surface waters is observed in a range between 0.3 μg/L and 150 μg/L. However, pharmaceutical plants, hospitals, concentrated animal feeding operations, and aquaculture generate effluents having much higher antibiotics concentrations in the range 100–500 mg/L. Consequently, it is essential to gather information on the fate and effect of these compounds at high concentrations for setting the basis for related practical treatment schemes. Inhibitory action of the antibiotics is experimentally evaluated in two different approaches: Short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) tests: Acute experiments involve a microbial community selected and sustained by the selected organic substrate in the system and not previously exposed to the inhibitor. In long-term experiments with continuous feeding of the inhibitor, the test may reflect, aside from changes in substrate removal and utilization, adaptation and/or resistance of the microbial community or even shifts in microbial composition in response to continuous exposure to the selected inhibitor. However, a full insight on the inhibitory action can only be acquired when the response of the microbial community is tested for both acute and chronic inhibition impacts. In this chapter, the most commonly used antibiotic classes such as β-lactams, tetracycline, macrolides, sulfonamides, quinolones are examined. Their fate and transformation during wastewater treatment as well as their inhibitory and toxic effects on the microbial community are discussed by using various toxicity and inhibition tests.

  • 23.
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Ince, Bahar
    Anaerobic sulfamethoxazole degradation is driven by homoacetogenesis coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis2016In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, microbial community dynamics were assessed in two lab-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs). One of the reactors was fed by synthetic pharmaceutical industry wastewater with sulfamethoxazole (SMX) as the test reactor and the other without sulfamethoxazole as the control reactor. DNA based DGGE results indicated that Clostiridum sp. became dominant in the SMX reactor while the inoculum was dominated with Firmicutes (61%) and Methanomicrobiales (28%). However their abundances in active community decreased through the last phase. Also the abundance of hydro-genotrophs was high in each phase, while acetoclastic methanogens disappeared in the last phase. Q-PCR analysis revealed that there is a significant reduction in the bacterial community approximately 84%, while methanogens increased to 97% through the operation. Additionally an increase in the expression level of bacterial and methanogenic 16S rRNA (60% and 20%, respectively) was detected. Significant correlation between microbial community and the reactor operation data was found. The study demonstrated that the microbial community maintains the system stability under high antibiotic concentration and long-term operation by homoacetogenesis coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis.

  • 24.
    Chelliah, R
    et al.
    Anna University, Chennai.
    Bodlund, Ida
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Environmental Microbiology.
    Sankaran, K
    Anna University, Chennai.
    Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Environmental Microbiology.
    Antibacterial activity of Mustard and Moringa seed extracts against pathogenic organismsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Dremé, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    EXERGIOPTIMERING PÅ KÄPPALAVERKET2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Käppala wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is situated on the island of Lidingö east of Stockholm. In 2009 the load to the plant was approximately 540 000 person equivalents (p.e). The Käppala WWTP is owned by the Käppala Association, which is a union of eleven municipalities in the northern and eastern parts of the Stockholm area, treat the waste water from those municipalities.

    Käppalaverket is aiming to continuously optimize its activities, regarding both environmental and economical aspects. An important factor in the optimization of Käppalaverket is to create a sewage treatment process that is as energy and resource efficient as possible. This implies a good utilization of the resources that reach the plant through the waste water in the form of organic material and heat, but also to exploit the products that are formed (e.g. sludge and biogas).

    One way of measuring and evaluating this resource efficiency is to establish an exergy balance over the system by converting all energy flows in and out of the system into their corresponding exergy values. Svenskt Vatten (The Swedish Water & Waste Water Association) is in the process of developing a benchmarking tool where these values are used to calculate indices [1]. These indices can then be used to make comparisons between the exergy efficiency of the Käppala WWTP and other plants.

    Within the scope of a master’s thesis in Chemical Engineering at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, the above mentioned exergy balance and exergy indices have been calculated for both years 2009 and 2010. The results of these calculations for 2009 show that Käppalaverket reached a high degree of treatment, but its exergy efficiency was low compared to other waste water treatment plants. The main reason for this was that the Käppala WWTP until June 2010 used its biogas for production of district heating, which resulted in poor exergy indices. The results for 2010, when the plant started producing vehicle fuel, show that the Käppala WWTP has now improved its exergy efficiency, and consequently its exergy indices are also better.

    As a further part of the project, an exergy analysis of the current sludge dewatering process at the Käppala WWTP was performed. The factors taken into consideration were the demand of electricity and chemicals, decrease of sludge transports from the plant, and the use of sludge as a fertilizer. The exergy efficiency of this process was then compared to the exergy efficiency of two other options for dewatering of sludge. The conclusion that could be drawn from this comparison was that the current dewatering process is very exergy efficient, much thanks to the fact that the sludge is hygienized without the energy-intensive thermophilic digestion.

  • 26. Engqvist, A.
    et al.
    Stenström, Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Pierce, Kena
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Modelling the effects of a pumping program for increasing water circulation in a semi-enclosed bay in the Stockholm archipelago2006In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, 2006, p. 253-269Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brunnsviken in the inner Stockholm archipelago, close to the City of Stockholm and popular for recreational activities, is a semi-enclosed bay with a very narrow passage to the adjacent archipelago and consequently has a limited water exchange. Various attempts have been made over the past three decades to improve the water quality in the bay. Since 1986, the drinking water authorities of Stockholm withdraw bottom water by pumping it from one of the deep basins of the bay through a pipe to be eventually discharged into the nearest embayment of the archipelago. There are, however, some questions regarding the cost-benefit aspect of this strategy. In particular, it is unclear if the location and the rate of pumping are well chosen in order to increase the ventilation of the bay at large. In addition, it should be possible to eventually optimize the pumping schedule, so that these energy-demanding and thus costly efforts are concentrated to times when they act in concert with natural forcing to increase water exchange. To help improve the pumping program, a modelling project was started in spring 2004. First, a one-dimensional (1-D) layer model that resolves the bay into one basin with multiple-layer stratification was attempted. Second, a three-dimensional (3-D) model with the capacity to be run under non-hydrostatic assumptions was set up at high resolution to study a number of scenarios. Both models were forced by wind, river discharge, surface temperature and the exchange driven by density fluctuations across the boundary to the adjacent archipelago. In the 3-D model, the pumping is included as a virtual divergence of the flow at the location of the pipe. The main results are that the 1-D model performs considerably better than the 3-D model in simulating the measured salinity profiles, even though it does not resolve the basin in the horizontal direction. The poor performance of the 3-D model with regard to salinity is however mainly due to boundary problems: too little inflow of saline water through the narrow and shallow entrance channel, and underestimation of the freshwater supply. The dynamics of the thermocline is better captured by the 3-D model but can certainly also be improved.

  • 27.
    Engström, Emma
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Transport and Fate of Escherichia coli in Unsaturated Porous Media2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The unsaturated zone could provide an effective barrier against pathogenic microbes entering the groundwater. Knowledge relating to microbial fate in this zone is therefore important for increased understanding of groundwater vulnerability. This thesis examines the published literature that is related to the transport, retention and survival processes that apply to the fecal indicator bacterium Escherichia coli in unsaturated porous media. The main focus concerns the research findings under steady-state flow in homogeneous filter media, and under unfavorable attachment conditions, which are the most common in the natural environment. Experimental results in the literature for the pore-, column- and field-scale are examined and compared to commonly applied theories and modeling approaches. An analysis of the main factors that influence attenuation and biofilm formation is provided. Further, the findings are illustrated in a model of an unplanted, vertical flow constructed wetland. The results indicate that retention at the solid-air-water interface is a major attenuation process. In addition, they suggest that the flow velocity (as dependent on the grain size and the saturation) is a key influencing factor. However, it has not yet been established how the research findings relating to the main processes and influencing factors can be incorporated into predictive models; in the literature, a multitude of models have been proposed and alternative theories could describe the same observation. In this study, the transport and fate of Escherichia coli in different sand filters is, therefore, modeled using various literature models - derived under similar experimental conditions - in order to assess the possibility to compare and generalize the equations, evaluate their implications considering the different saturation settings and filter depths, and to define the spectra of the reduction efficiencies. It is discovered that the bacterial attenuation behaviors vary largely. This calls for clarification regarding the underlying processes. Future research is also recommended to include the ef-fects of structured filter media and sudden changes in the flow rate.

  • 28.
    Engström, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Modeling bacterial transport and removal in a constructed wetland system2010In: Proceedings of the COMSOL Conference, 2010, Paris, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Engström, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Predicting the transport and fate of Escherichia coli in unsaturated sand filters2011In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Engström, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Kulabako, Robinah
    Department of Civil Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Escherichia coli transport and fate in unsaturated porous media: a literature review of experimental findings and theories relating to processes, models and influencing factors2011In: Critical reviews in environmental science and technology, ISSN 1064-3389, E-ISSN 1547-6537Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Eriksson, Louise
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    En mikrobiologisk studie av Tranås nya vattentäkt2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 32.
    Fatima, Masoom
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Farooq, R.
    Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Saeed, M.
    A review on biocatalytic decomposition of azo dyes and electrons recovery2017In: Journal of Molecular Liquids, ISSN 0167-7322, E-ISSN 1873-3166, Vol. 246, p. 275-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discharge of waste water from textile industry during coloring processes contains high concentrations of biologically difficult-to-degrade dye chemicals along with antifouling agents. Azo dyes considered to be the largest class of synthetic dyes used in the textile industries and are present in significant amounts in its effluents. These are highly stable because of its complex aromatic structure and covalent azo bonds. Traditional physico-chemical methods are not considered sufficient because of their high cost, partial degradation and more sludge production. The use of biocatalysts for decolorization is a gaining momentum due to having redox-active molecules. Current review explored techniques for the decomposition of textile dyes, their merits, limitations and recommended the emerging microbial fuel cell technology followed by aerobic treatment for complete degradation of dye intermediate metabolites.

  • 33.
    Galanopoulos, Christos
    et al.
    Bremen Univ, Inst Environm Sci & Technol, D-28359 Bremen, Germany..
    Yan, Jinying
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering. Vattenfall AB, R&D, SE-16992 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Malardalen Univ, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Liu, Longcheng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Impacts of acidic gas components on combustion of contaminated biomass fuels2018In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 111, p. 263-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of high concentrations of acid gases; in combustion with large variations in fuel qualities, represents a major challenge for energy production from contaminated biomass fuels. This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of acid gas formation and retention in the combustion of recycled wood fuels. A model has been developed based on the chemical reactions involved and empirical correlations from plant monitoring and testing. The model has been used to study the behaviour of acidic gas components in critical stages of a bubbling fluidised bed boiler process. Results indicate that the variation in type of fuel contamination is the most important issue to deal with in the combustion of recycled wood fuels. Peaks in the flue gas chlorine concentrations cannot be suppressed easily by conventional flue gas cleaning measures. Upon applying ammonium sulphate dosing for the protection of chlorine induced corrosions, it is sometimes difficult to maintain the required S/Cl ratio when large variations of fuel chlorine occur. Moreover, a high level of chlorine in the fuel can also indirectly affect the emission control of sulphur dioxide because it would require an increased level of ammonium sulphate decomposition, which results in a high level of SO2 in flue gas. The study also shows a beneficial effect of the recirculation of quench water from the flue gas condenser to the boiler. It offers opportunities for the optimisation of flue gas cleaning and flue gas condensation, for improving the efficiencies of water and wastewater treatment, as well as for emission reduction with a sustainable way.

  • 34.
    Goralski, Alma
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Removal of pharmaceutical residues from wastewater2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, pharmaceutical residues are widely found in nature as a cause of the extensive use of human and veterinary medicine. The pharmaceutical residues have shown to have a damaging impact on flora and fauna. Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs), today, are not designed for pharmaceutical removal, which calls for new methods and the implementation of these to avoid increased concentrations of pharmaceutical residues in nature.

    This thesis addresses three main areas. Firstly, a pre-study regarding the prevalence of pharmaceutical residues at different parts of a WWTP and in the nearby river, secondly, an evaluation of removal of pharmaceutical residues using ozone and, thirdly, the construction of a pilot plant scale Activated Carbon (AC) unit and an evaluation of its capacity for pharmaceutical and ozone removal. This work was done in order to verify the quality of a future full-scale unit including the advanced techniques ozone and AC that will be implemented at a WWTP for pharmaceutical removal.

    The pre-study shows that the total concentration of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) was largest at the inlet (93.8 mg/L) and decreased throughout the process steps to be the lowest at the outlet (5.6 mg/L). Paracetamol was found in the highest concentration (86.5 mg/L) at the inlet but could not be detected in the outlet. In the recipient none of the APIs could be found. However, caffeine was detected in the recipient.

    The pilot plant studies were performed in a batch process, one at high ozone generation and one at low ozone generation. The pilot test at high ozone generation showed that all of the measured APIs were below their Limit of Quantification (LOQ) after 2 minutes. The pilot test at low ozone generation showed a total API-removal of 44% after 7 minutes, 78% after 13 minutes, 97% after 20 minutes and more than 99% after 60 minutes. All of the APIs were below their LOQ after 180 min.

    The AC-filter construction mirrored the conditions within a full-scale unit as closely as possible and was scaled by the superficial velocity. The AC-filter showed an ozone removal of approximately 99% and removed all pharmaceutical residues apart from Ranitidine which was decreased by 76%.

  • 35.
    Grönlund, Lisa
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    OPTIMERING AV KVÄVEAVSKILJNINGEN PÅ AVLOPPSRENINGSVERKET I HALLSBERGS KOMMUN: EN TEKNISK-, EKONOMISK- OCH MILJÖMÄSSIG UTVÄRDERING2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The waste water treatment plant in Hallsberg municipal is situated adjacent to Hallsberg, with Ralaån as a recipient. The technique at the waste water treatment plant is based on the principles for a classical activated sludge treatment plant and includes mechanical treatment, chemical treatment, biological treatment, and a sludge treatment where the digestion of primary and secondary sludge is used for extraction of biogas.

    Hallsberg waste water treatment plant has during some time had problems with the nitrogen removal with high nitrogen emissions as a consequence. The target value has been exceeded a couple of times during the last years and in 2009 the limit value was exceeded as well. The target value for Hallsberg waste water treatment plant is 10 mgNH4-N/l as an average value per month, the limit value is set to 10 mg NH4-N/l, as an average value per year. Since the waste water treatment plant in Hallsberg not is operating at full capacity, a lowering of the nitrogen emissions is assumed to be possible though a trimming of the existing equipment and of the processes on the site. This assumption formed the basis for this thesis, designed to optimize the nitrogen removal at the waste water treatment plant in Hallsberg. A technical, economical and environmental evaluation was included in the optimization to improve the function of the plant. Extra evaluations were made in the energy- and chemical consumption in order to streamline the operations at the plant as much as possible. The project was carried out through an initial literature-investigation followed by a four week period of sampling and analyzing at the site. The data that form the conclusion in this project has also been collected through online measurements at the plant as well as through analyses of older samples.

    After analyzing the collected data, the reasons for the high emissions of nitrogen is thought to be due to a combination of reasons:

    -During the spring and the autumn the external intake of well sludge can lead to a direct release of sludge in to the plant. The change of nitrogen content will not give enough time for the nitrifying bacteria to acclimatize, with elevated emissions of nitrogen as a consequence.

    -The usage of simultaneous precipitation could lead to an irregular concentration of nitrogen released to the treatment plant from the digesters. This in turn could contribute to higher nitrogen emissions.

    -The irregularities of the usage of the centrifuge contribute to nitrogen irregularities and contribute to the difficulties of acclimatization of the nitrifying bacteria.

    -A high pre-precipitation of phosphorus and organic matter has contributed to a level of organic material in the denitrifikation below what is recommended.

    To sum up, further investigations are suggested in the above mentioned areas to make the operations at the plant carried trough at the lowest possible environmental and economically cost.

  • 36.
    Hamisi, Rajabu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Wörman, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Modelling phosphorus sorption kinetics and the longevity of reactive filter materials used for on-sitewastewater treatment2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of reactive filter media (RFM) is an emerging technology in small-scale wastewater treatment to improve phosphorus (P) removal and filter material longevity for making this technology sustainable. In this study, long-term sorption kinetics and the spatial dynamics of sorbed P distribution were simulated in replaceable P-filter bags filled with 700 L of reactive material and used in real on-site treatment systems. The input data for model calibration were obtained in laboratory trials with Filtralite P®, Polonite® and Top16. The P concentration breakthrough threshold value was set at an effluent/influent (C/C 0 ) ratio of 1 and simulations were performed with P concentrations varying from 1 to 25 mg L -1 . The simulation results showed that influent P concentration was important for the breakthrough and longevity, and that Polonite performed best, followed by Top16 and Filtralite P. A 100-day break in simulated intermittent flow allowed the materials to recover, which for Polonite involved slight retardation of P saturation. The simulated spatial distribution of P accumulated in the filter bags showed large differences between the filter materials. The modelling insights from this study can be applied in design and operation of on-site treatment systems using reactive filter materials.

  • 37.
    Herath, Indika
    et al.
    Natl Inst Fundamental Studies, Chem & Environm Syst Modeling Res Grp, Hantana Rd, Kandy, Sri Lanka.;Univ Southern Queensland, Fac Hlth Engn & Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Vithanage, Meththika
    Natl Inst Fundamental Studies, Chem & Environm Syst Modeling Res Grp, Hantana Rd, Kandy, Sri Lanka.;Univ Southern Queensland, Sch Civil Engn & Surveying, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    Univ Southern Queensland, Deputy Vice Chancellors Off Res & Innovat, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Maity, Jyoti Prakash
    Natl Chung Cheng Univ, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Minxiong Township, Chiayi County, Taiwan.;Univ Southern Queensland, Sch Civil Engn & Surveying, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Univ Southern Queensland, Sch Civil Engn & Surveying, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Natural Arsenic in Global Groundwaters: Distribution and Geochemical Triggers for Mobilization2016In: CURRENT POLLUTION REPORTS, ISSN 2198-6592, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 68-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The elevated concentration of arsenic (As) in the groundwaters of many countries worldwide has received much attention during recent decades. This article presents an overview of the natural geochemical processes that mobilize As from aquifer sediments into groundwater and provides a concise description of the distribution of As in different global groundwater systems, with an emphasis on the highly vulnerable regions of Southeast Asia, the USA, Latin America, and Europe. Natural biogeochemical processes and anthropogenic activities may lead to the contamination of groundwaters by increased As concentrations. The primary source of As in groundwater is predominantly natural (geogenic) and mobilized through complex biogeochemical interactions within various aquifer solids and water. Sulfide minerals such as arsenopyrite and As-substituted pyrite, as well as other sulfide minerals, are susceptible to oxidation in the near-surface environment and quantitatively release significant quantities of As in the sediments. The geochemistry of As generally is a function of its multiple oxidation states, speciation, and redox transformation. The reductive dissolution of As-bearing Fe(III) oxides and sulfide oxidation are the most common and significant geochemical triggers that release As from aquifer sediments into groundwaters. The mobilization of As in groundwater is controlled by adsorption onto metal oxyhydroxides and clay minerals. According to recent estimates, more than 130 million people worldwide potentially are exposed to As in drinking water at levels above the World Health Organization's (WHO's) guideline value of 10 mu g/L. Hence, community education to strengthen public awareness, the involvement and capacity building of local stakeholders in targeting As-safe aquifers, and direct action and implementation of best practices in identifying safe groundwater sources for the installation of safe drinking water wells through action and enforcement by local governments and international water sector professionals are urgent necessities for sustainable As mitigation on a global scale.

  • 38.
    Hermelin, Samuel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Suokko, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Rening av kontaminerat vatten med hjälp av biomassa: En alternativ reningsmetod för metallkontaminerat vatten i Uganda2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att en hållbar utveckling ska kunna nås enligt de 17 miljömålen från Paris krävs en enkel och billig metod för vattenrening. Denna rapport behandlar en relativt oprövad metod som innebär att man ska rena metallförorenat vatten med hjälp av adsorptionsytor hos biomassa. Syftet med rapporten är att ta reda på ifall koppar- och koboltjoner skulle kunna bindas till vassväxten Cyperus papyrus och bomullsväxten Imperata cylindrica. Hur konkurrensen mellan kopparn och kobolten påverkar adsorptionen till biomassan samt vilken av biomassorna som lämpar sig bäst för rening skall också fastställas. Området som granskades var den koppar- och koboltförorenade floden River Nyamwamba i Uganda vilket gjorde att metallerna koppar och kobolt studerades. Biomassorna Cyperus papyrus och Imperata cylindrica växer i stor utsträckning i Uganda så dessa valdes ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv då eventuella transporter kan minimeras. Adsorptionsförmågan av metallerna bestämdes genom en laboration där biomassorna kunde adsorbera mellan 45,55 - 69,84 % av kobolten och 63,74 -77,54 % av kopparn hos de fyra olika lösningarna som testades. Imperata cylindrica visade sig ha en något bättre adsorptionsförmåga. Möjliga metoder som skulle kunna implementeras i samhället kan vara filter tillverkade av biomassa men det krävs fortfarande mer forskning inom området innan dessa kan tas i bruk. 

  • 39.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. NGO Forum Publ Hlth, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Frape, Shaun K.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Ramboll Sweden AB, Soil & Water Environm, SE-10462 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Shahiruzzaman, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Intermediate Deep Aquifer (IDA) : A potential source for Arsenic-safe and low-Manganese drinking waterManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. NGO Forum Publ Hlth, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Frape, Shaun K.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Islam, M. Mainul
    Rahman, M. Moklesur
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Ramboll Sweden AB, Soil & Water Environm, SE-10462 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Sediment color tool for targeting arsenic-safe aquifers for the installation of shallow drinking water tubewells2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 493, p. 615-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In rural Bangladesh, drinking water supply mostly comes from shallow hand tubewells installed manually by the local drillers, the main driving force in tubewell installation. This study was aimed at developing a sediment color tool on the basis of local driller's perception of sediment color, arsenic (As) concentration of tubewell waters and respective color of aquifer sediments. Laboratory analysis of 521 groundwater samples collected from 144 wells during 2009 to 2011 indicate that As concentrations in groundwater were generally higher in the black colored sediments with an average of 239 mu g/L. All 39 wells producing water from red sediments provide safe water following the Bangladesh drinking water standard for As (50 mu g/L) where mean and median values were less than the WHO guideline value of 10 mu g/L. Observations for off-white sediments were also quite similar. White sediments were rare and seemed to be less important for well installations at shallow depths. A total of 2240 sediment samples were collected at intervals of 1.5 m down to depths of 100 m at 15 locations spread over a 410 km(2) area in Matlab, Bangladesh and compared with the Munsell Color Chart with the purpose of direct comparison of sediment color in a consistent manner. All samples were assigned with Munsell Color and Munsell Code, which eventually led to identify 60 color shade varieties which were narrowed to four colors (black, white, off-white and red) as perceived and used by the local drillers. During the process of color grouping, participatory approach was considered taking the opinions of local drillers, technicians, and geologists into account. This simplified sediment color tool can be used conveniently during shallow tubewell installation and thus shows the potential for educating local drillers to target safe aquifers on the basis of the color characteristics of the sediments.

  • 41.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. NGO Forum Publ Hlth, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
    Frape, Shaun K.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Rahman, M. Moklesur
    Alam, M. S.
    Hoque, M. A.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Ramboll Sweden AB, Soil & Water Environm, SE-10462 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hydrogeological variation in Shallow, Intermediate and Deep Aquifers in Matlab of Southeastern Bangladesh: implications for the installation of arsenic-safe drinking water tubewells and their sustainabilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Hurry, Jovin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Strategic negotiations towards sustainabilityfor entrepreneurs2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to find out what it takes for entrepreneurs to negotiate strategically in order to ultimately influence systemic change towards sustainability. It focuses on the challenges sustainability entrepreneurs face as they negotiate their twin objectives of social mission and positive cashflow during their collaborative processes. To answer this purpose, I conducted a participatory action research with the entrepreneurs at Hubs Westminster, King’s Cross and Islington in London. The Hub is a global community of people from every profession, background and culture working to tackle the world's most pressing social, cultural and environmental challenges. The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) was used as a lens for the overall research while the Seven Elements Theory of Negotiation targeted the negotiation process. The thesis demonstrates that some core challenges need to be addressed in the entrepreneur’s preparation for their negotiation; and that entrepreneurs can intentionally favourably position themselves through their strategic actions in their attempt to meet the need to combine economic objectives with concerns about social responsibility and environmentalism. The implication of the thesis lies in better awareness on how to aim at creative outcomes during collaborations. Its originality lies in shedding light in this niche and rarely touched combination of sustainability, entrepreneurship and negotiation.

  • 43.
    Khan, MD. Ershad Ullah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Martin, Andrew R.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Optimization of hybrid renewable energy polygeneration system with membrane distillation for rural households in Bangladesh2015In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 93, p. 1116-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the country's rural electrification program, kerosene is the predominant source for lighting, and woody biomass is virtually the only option available for cooking. The rural population also struggles with unsafe drinking water in terms of widespread arsenic contamination of well water. Biogas plants and pV are individually impractical to serve both cooking, lighting and water purification systems, and their combined applications are extremely limited. This study considers a holistic approach towards tackling both of these issues via integrated renewable energy-based polygeneration employed at the village level. The polygeneration unit under consideration provides electricity via a pV array and animal and agriculture waste-fed digester, which in turn is coupled to a gas engine. Excess digester gas is employed for cooking and lighting, while waste heat from the process drives a membrane distillation unit for water purification. Technical assessments and optimization have been conducted with HOMER (Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources). Results show that daily electricity demand can be met with such a system while simultaneously providing 0.4 m3 cooking fuel and 2e3 L pure drinking water. Cost estimates indicate that this approach is highly favorable to other renewable options. The pay back period of such system is between 3 and 4 years.

  • 44.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Evaluation of Innovative Rehabilitation Technologies Utilising Polymer Composites for Aging Sewer Systems2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water and wastewater sewer system maintenance is among the costliest aspects of infrastructure investment. The replacement of deteriorated lines is a difficult and expensive process that causes community disturbance and is generally not conducted fast enough to meet demand. To keep up with the rate of deterioration, the use of alternative rehabilitation technologies using polymer linings has increased significantly in recent years, both within Sweden and worldwide. Compared to the traditional pipe replacement method, these technologies are cost-effective, create less community disturbance, and offer a quick return to the service for the line. The main function of polymeric lining is to stabilise the condition of the pipeline, eliminate deterioration, and thereby extend the pipeline’s service life. Although rehabilitation technologies employing polymeric systems have been in use for over 30 years, there have been few technical assessments of either these technologies or the materials involved. Data gathered through the evaluation of these innovative technologies can make their benefits and limitations more widely understood, and can also be used to increase the effectiveness of the rehabilitation process in future.

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to an improved understanding of the most commonly used materials and methods employed in rehabilitation of wastewater and other applicable sewer lines in residential buildings in Sweden. The primary objective was not to prove that the emerging rehabilitation technologies work, but rather to increase knowledge of their weaknesses and strengths, identify any issues, and provide a technical assessment to support realistic expectations of pipeline rehabilitation. Gathering technical information in this way will help with the planning of future investigations; moreover, collecting extensive data will help to increase the effectiveness of the renewal works, aid progress in the field, and improve predictions regarding longevity and service life.

    As pipeline rehabilitation is still considered novel, and owing to the general lack of available data on the subject, a multi-approach study was carried out: this included evaluation of the polymeric materials’ performance in the presence of deteriorative factors, assessing the in-service state of the materials and lined sewers previously installed, monitoring the level of quality control implemented during previous rehabilitation works, and evaluating the environmental impacts of using pipe-lining technologies compared to pipe replacement. The techniques discussed included rehabilitation with epoxy and polyester resin-based lining materials, applied with brush-on and spray-on techniques, and cured-in-place pipe lining (installed by sending a resin-impregnated flexible tube inside the host pipe).

    Degradation of the resin-based lining materials was investigated via artificial aging involving immersion in water at elevated temperatures. The changes in materials that occurred during accelerated laboratory aging were tracked by means of various tests, including thermal and mechanical analyses, water absorption measurements and microscopy. The analysis focused on reinforced polyester-based and toughened epoxy-based lining materials in order to gain a better understanding of their performance as pipe lining. Moreover, the previously installed lined pipes and lining materials were also studied during laboratory examinations to evaluate the in-service performance of the materials and techniques under operating conditions over time, as well as to identify common defects. The state of the materials and the lined pipe were studied by means of different investigative methods, including visual inspection, microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thickness measurement, thermal and mechanical analyses. This PhD work also includes an investigation to determine the level of quality control carried during some previous rehabilitation works. Data on the quality evaluation of previous rehabilitation works were gathered during visits to the work sites, as well as by analysing lined pipes that had already been installed. Finally, a comparative life-cycle assessment was undertaken to compare the environmental impacts of pipe replacement with those of alternative innovative rehabilitations, such as CIPP and coatings with polyester and epoxy polymeric systems. Data obtained from an LCA tool were used to facilitate comparison from an environmental perspective.

    Results from artificial aging in the lab indicated that the properties of polymeric lining materials changed significantly when high temperatures were combined with water exposure. However, the aging testing conducted for this study also found that the materials performed relatively well at temperatures close to the average temperatures inside sewerage systems. The results revealed that the polyester-based lining material was less sensitive when compared with epoxy-based lining materials during stimulated aging. Moreover, results from the in-service field demonstration (involving examination of 12 samples with up to 10 years of service, including reinforced polyester and modified epoxy linings or cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) lining) showed minimal evidence that the materials underwent significant deterioration after installation; instead, a majority of the common defects were found to be related to poor-quality installation practices. Because very few field samples were available to study, conclusions regarding overall performance could not be drawn. However, there is no evidence that these materials will not perform as expected during their service life when properly installed.

    Evaluating quality control of previous rehabilitation work revealed a gap between theory and practice where the level of quality control and documentation was concerned; furthermore, it also emerged that quality control and documentation is crucial to both the prevention of common issues and the overall effectiveness of the rehabilitation. Accordingly, a series of recommendations regarding the development of comprehensive quality control and quality assurance procedures (QC/QA) are provided in this work. These recommendations highlight the aspects that are most important to consider at each of several key stages (before installation, during installation, and after rehabilitation work is completed).

    Results from comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA) showed that alternative technologies, including cured-in-place (flexible sleeve) and coating techniques, have some advantages over pipe replacement from an environmental perspective. However, the choice to use one rehabilitation technology over another is a multi-stage decision-making process that should not be based solely on a single factor.

    This PhD work promotes an improved understanding of the limitations and benefits of polymeric lining through the testing performed and analyses conducted. This work highlights the need for improved quality control, and further suggests that developing a detailed and comprehensive quality control plan for each technology would provide higher and more consistent quality overall. The study also demonstrates that the long-term strength of any rehabilitation work depends on various factors, and that selecting one method over another must be a process based on extensive knowledge and understanding of each rehabilitation technology. No evidence was found to indicate that the materials could not perform well under working conditions if selected and installed appropriately. However, a larger number of field samples with longer in-service time and a more detailed technical history, along with a more extended experimental plan for laboratory investigations based on the results of this PhD work, will allow for the gathering of the data required to answer questions regarding life expectancy with a higher degree of certainty.

  • 45. Kibria, M. G.
    et al.
    Kirk, M. F.
    Datta, S.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Hydrogeochemistry and microbial geochemistry on different depth aquifer sediments from Matlab, Bangladesh2014In: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, 2014, p. 101-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) poses the greatest hazard towards drinking water quality in Bangladesh. Tubewell drinking water is one of the main sources for household based water options in rural Bangladesh. Our study area is in Matlab Upazila, in Bangladesh. The overall objective of this research and the SASMIT project is to develop a community based initiative for sustainable As mitigation by developing a sediment color based tool for the local drillers prioritizing on the hydrogeological and biogeochemical investigations. For this purpose we analyzed different depth colored sediments and water for find out the sustainable low Arsenic contaminated aquifer.

  • 46. Kumar, M.
    et al.
    Ramanathan, A. L.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Evaluation of arsenic and its controlling factors in aquifer sands of district Samastipur, Bihar, India2014In: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, CRC Press, 2014, p. 108-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of 96 water samples from shallow tubewells and 14 sediment samples from Samastipur district to know the level of arsenic (As) and its controlling factors were analyzed. Groundwater samples were collected from tubewells of different depths, and a wide range of concentrations in the range 0.19-135 μg L-1 was found. Scanning electron micrograph study of the sediments shows intense chemical weathering. Present study also support reductive dissolution of FeOOH triggered by organic matter oxidation as an As mobility factor in the aquifer sands.

  • 47.
    Kårelid, Victor
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Towards application of activated carbon treatment for pharmaceutical removal in municipal wastewater2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many pharmaceuticals are found in municipal wastewater effluents due to their persistence in the human body as well as in conventional wastewater treatment processes. This discharge to the environment can lead to adverse effects in aquatic species, such as feminization of male fish. During the past decade, these findings have spawned investigations and research into suitable treatment technologies that could severely limit the discharge. Adsorption onto activated carbon has been identified as one of the two main technologies for implementation of (future) full-scale treatment.

    Recent research has put a closer focus on adsorption with powdered activated carbon (PAC) than on granular activated carbon (GAC). Studies where both methods are compared in parallel operation are thus still scarce and such evaluation in pilot-scale was therefore a primary objective of this thesis. Furthermore, recirculation of PAC can be used to optimize the treatment regarding the carbon consumption. Such a setup was evaluated as a separate treatment stage to comply with Swedish wastewater convention. Additionally, variation of a set of process parameters was evaluated.

    During successive operation at three different wastewater treatment plants an overall pharmaceutical removal of 95% could consistently be achieved with both methods. Furthermore, treatment with GAC was sensitive to a degraded effluent quality, which severely reduced the hydraulic capacity. Both treatment methods showed efficient removal of previously highlighted substances, such as carbamazepine and diclofenac, however in general a lower adsorption capacity was observed for GAC. By varying the input of process parameters, such as the continuously added dose or the contact time, during PAC treatment, a responsive change of the pharmaceutical removal could be achieved. The work in this thesis contributes some valuable field experience towards wider application of these treatment technologies in full-scale.

  • 48.
    Kårelid, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Larsson, Gen
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Effects of recirculation in a three-tank pilot-scale system for pharmaceutical removal with powdered activated carbon2017In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 193, no May, p. 163-Environmental Impact Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Slab Frame BridgesArticle, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The removal of pharmaceutically active compounds by powdered activated carbon (PAC) in municipal wastewater is a promising solution to the problem of polluted recipient waters. Today, an efficient design strategy is however lacking with regard to high-level overall, and specific, substance removal in the large scale. The performance of PAC-based removal of pharmaceuticals was studied in pilot-scale with respect to the critical parameters; contact time and PAC dose using one PAC product selected by screening in bench-scale. The goal was a minimum of 95% removal of the pharmaceuticals present in the evaluated municipal wastewater. A set of 21 pharmaceuticals was selected from an initial 100 due to their high occurrence in the effluent water of two selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Sweden, whereof candidates discussed for future EU regulation directives were included. By using recirculation of PAC over a treatment system using three sequential contact tanks, a combination of the benefits of powdered and granular carbon performance was achieved. The treatment system was designed so that recirculation could be introduced to any of the three tanks to investigate the effect of recirculation on the adsorption performance. This was compared to use of the setup, but without recirculation. A higher degree of pharmaceutical removal was achieved in all recirculation setups, both overall and with respect to specific substances, as compared to without recirculation. Recirculation was tested with nominal contact times of 30, 60 and 120 min and the goal of 95% removal could be achieved already at the shortest contact times at a PAC dose of 10–15 mg/L. In particular, the overall removal could be increased even to 97% and 99%, at 60 and 120 min, respectively, when the recirculation point was the first tank. Recirculation of PAC to either the first or the second contact tank proved to be comparable, while a slightly lower performance was observed with recirculation to the third tank. With regards to individual substances, clarithromycin and diclofenac were ubiquitously removed according to the set goal and in contrast, a few substances (fluconazole, irbesartan, memantine and venlafaxine) required specific settings to reach an acceptable removal.

  • 49.
    Kårelid, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Larsson, Gen
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Pilot-scale removal of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater: Comparison of granular and powdered activated carbon treatment at three wastewater treatment plants2017In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 193, no -1, p. 491-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adsorption with activated carbon is widely suggested as an option for the removal of organic micropollutants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in wastewater. In this study adsorption with granular activated carbon (GAC) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) was analyzed and compared in parallel operation at three Swedish wastewater treatment plants with the goal to achieve a 95% PhAC removal. Initially, mapping of the prevalence of over 100 substances was performed at each plant and due to low concentrations a final 22 were selected for further evaluation. These include carbamazepine, clarithromycin and diclofenac, which currently are discussed for regulation internationally. A number of commercially available activated carbon products were initially screened using effluent wastewater. Of these, a reduced set was selected based on adsorption characteristics and cost. Experiments designed with the selected carbons in pilot-scale showed that most products could indeed remove PhACs to the target level, both on total and individual basis. In a setup using internal recirculation the PAC system achieved a 95% removal applying a fresh dose of 15–20 mg/L, while carbon usage rates for the GAC application were much broader and ranged from <28 to 230 mg/L depending on the carbon product. The performance of the PAC products generally gave better results for individual PhACs in regards to carbon availability. All carbon products showed a specific adsorption for a specific PhAC meaning that knowledge of the target pollutants must be acquired before successful design of a treatment system. In spite of different configurations and operating conditions of the different wastewater treatment plants no considerable differences regarding pharmaceutical removal were observed.

  • 50.
    Ladhani, Laila
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    An electrostatic sampling device for point-of-care detection of bioaerosols2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioaerosols are not only a significant factor of air quality but contribute greatly to the spread of infectious diseases, specifically through expired pathogen-laden aerosols. Clear examples of airborne transmission include: the recent influenza pandemic of 2009, the ongoing tuberculosis epidemic, and yearly norovirus out- breaks, which affect millions of people worldwide and pose serious threats to public healthcare systems. Given these acute concerns and the critical lack of knowledge of the field, it is important to develop methods for sampling and detecting these air- borne pathogens. Specifically, detection at the point-of-care can play an important role in improving the outcome of patient care by providing rapid and convenient diagnostics.

    Electrostatic precipitation has emerged as a promising sampling tool for bio- aerosols, which together with a rapid analysis technique, can provide a powerful and integrated approach to pathogen detection or disease diagnosis at the point- of-care. Moreover, such a sampling-detection scheme could be a potentialy non- invasive breath sampling tool for diagnosis of respiratory infectious diseases.

    This thesis presents a sampling device based on electrostatic precipitation, for capture of bioaerosols, and designed for use at point-of-care settings. A multi-point- to-plane electrode configuration allows charging of aerosol particles and direct air- to-liquid capture within a miniaturized volume with potentential for concatenation with on-site detection methods. Performance of the device was evaluated, using non-biological aerosols, for geometric (inter-electrode distance), electrical (inter- electrode potential and corona current), and aerosol parameters (particle size and gas velocity). Moreover, four different collector designs were investigated for im- proved collection efficiency and other features suitable for point-of-care settings (e.g. easy sample extraction and minimized volume).

    The device was then validated, using bioaerosols, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro validation was performed by capturing aerosolized influenza virus and analyz- ing the device collection efficiency. Lastly, prototype devices, designed for point- of-care, were validated in vivo with patients at the clinical setting. A pilot study was performed to capture exhaled pathogens from infected patients, with success- ful capture of exhaled bacteria.

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