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  • 1.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Brabant Water NV, 5200 BC 's-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands.
    Evaluation and optimization of advanced oxidation coagulation filtration (AOCF) to produce drinking water with less than 1 μg/L of arsenic2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic is an extremely poisonous element. It has been reported to cause contamination of drinking water sources in many parts of the world. The current drinking water permissible limit for arsenic in the European Union is 10 μg/L. The World Health Organization has a general rule that no substance may have a higher lifetime risk of more than 1 in 100,000. However, several studies on toxicity of arsenic suggest that purely based on health effects the arsenic limit of 10 μg/L is not sufficient. The main goal of this research was to develop an efficient arsenic removal technology that could be able to produce drinking water with an arsenic concentration of less than 1 μg/L. For this purpose, an innovative three step technique, Advanced Oxidation - Coagulation - Filtration (AOCF), was investigated through bench-scale and pilot scale experiments in the Netherlands at the water treatment plant of Dorst. Firstly, prior to the investigations on AOCF, the existing arsenic removal at the water treatment plant was investigated. Secondly, through a series of bench-scale experiments, the optimum type of coagulant, its combination dose with the selected chemical oxidant and optimum process pH were determined. Eventually, the partially optimized technique from the bench-scale was implemented at the pilot scale physical model of water treatment plant Dorst where AOCF was evaluated for arsenic removal and its effect on the removal of other common undesirable groundwater constituents. The optimized AOCF technology consistently removed arsenic from groundwater to below 1 ug/L when implemented at pilot scale. The overall effluent quality also remained acceptable. The method is efficient with both types of filtration media tested in this research i.e., virgin sand and metal oxide coated sand, however virgin sand media showed slightly better arsenic removal efficiency.

  • 2.
    Annaduzzaman, Md.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Deshpande, Paritosh Chakor
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Ersoz, M.
    Lazarova, Z.
    Chitosan biopolymer: a treatment option for uranium(VI) removal from drinking waterManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Annaduzzaman, Md.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Ersoz, M.
    Lazarova, Z.
    Characterization of a chitosan biopolymer and arsenate removal for drinking water treatment2014Ingår i: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, CRC Press, 2014, s. 745-747Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chitosan biopolymer with a deacetylation degree of 85%, was assessed for its capability to adsorb As(V) from drinking water by batch experiments. To characterize the chitosan biopolymer, chitosan was analyzed by FTIR and SEM. The results showed that chitosan is an effective and promising sorbent for As(V) from drinking water. From the batch tests, results showed a maximum adsorption of 355 μg/L of As(V) with 1.18 μg g-1 adsorption capacity at pH 6. The kinetic data, obtained at pH 6 could be fitted with pseudo-second order equation (adsorption capacity: 0.923 μg g-1) and the process was suitably described by a Freundlich (R2 = 0.9933) model than by a Langmuir model (R2 = 0.9741). The results above indicated that chitosan is a very favorable sorbent for As(V) removal from aqueous solution.

  • 4.
    Annaduzzaman, Md.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Ersoz, M.
    Lazarova, Z.
    Evaluation and optimization of chitosan biopolymer as an adsorbent for arsenic(V) in drinking watert treatmentManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5. Asim, Muhammad
    et al.
    Kumar, N. T. Uday
    Martin, Andrew R.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Feasibility analysis of solar combi-system for simultaneous production of pure drinking water via membrane distillation and domestic hot water for single-family villa: pilot plant setup in Dubai2016Ingår i: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 57, nr 46, s. 21674-21684Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the feasibility study of installation of a solar-driven integrated MD desalination system for simultaneous production of pure drinking water and solar domestic hot water in United Arab Emirates (UAE) for a single-family villa comprising of 4-5 persons. In order to satisfy the current and future demand of water for domestic purposes, the desalination of seawater is considered to be one of the most effective and strategic technique in UAE. The stress on the underground water aquifers, rapid industrial growth, and increase in urban population in UAE results in the tremendous increase in fresh water demand during the past few decades. Since the local municipalities also provide the desalinated fresh water to the people but they mostly rely on bottled water for drinking purpose. In this paper, the pilot setup plant is designed, commissioned, and installed on site in UAE using air gap membrane distillation desalination process to fulfill the demand of 15-25 L/d of pure drinking water and 250 L/d of domestic hot water for a single-family villa. Experimental analyses have been performed on this setup during summer on flat plate solar collectors having different aperture areas (Experiments have been performed for aperture area of 11.9 m(2) in this research study for feasibility purpose). The average hot-side temperature ranges from 50 to 70 degrees C and average cold-side temperature of 35 degrees C.

  • 6.
    Axelsson, Karolin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Konstanzer, Vera
    KTH.
    Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Terenius, Olle
    Seriot, Lisa
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Nordenhem, Henrik
    Nordlander, Goran
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. Tartu University, Estonia.
    Antifeedants Produced by Bacteria Associated with the Gut of the Pine Weevil Hylobius abietis2017Ingår i: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 74, nr 1, s. 177-184Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, is a severe forest pest insect as it feeds on newly planted conifer seedlings. To identify and develop an antifeedant could be one step towards the protection of seedlings from feeding damage by the pine weevil. With the aim to trace the origin of the antifeedants previously found in feces of the pine weevil, we investigated the culturable bacteria associated with the gut and identified the volatiles they produced. Bacterial isolates were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis. The volatile emissions of selected bacteria, cultivated on NB media or on the grated phloem of Scots pine twigs dispersed in water, were collected and analyzed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The bacterial isolates released a variety of compounds, among others 2-methoxyphenol, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide. A strong antifeedant effect was observed by 2-phenylethanol, which could thus be a good candidate for use to protect planted conifer seedlings against feeding damage caused by H. abietis.

  • 7.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Von Brömssen, M.
    Groundwater arsenic pollution: A conceptual framework for sustainable mitigation strategy2014Ingår i: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, CRC Press, 2014, s. 881-885Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tubewells installed by local drillers, provide access of drinking water in rural Bangladesh. Significant proportion of these wells contains arsenic (As) above the WHO guideline and the Bangladesh Drinking Water Standard. Various attempts for mitigation at household and community scale have resulted in limited success, but through the local driller's initiatives, the tubewells are the source of priority drinking water supply. We have developed a concept of Sustainable Arsenic Mitigation (SASMIT) to identify and target the safe aquifers through detailed hydrogeological studies for scientific validation of the water quality with respect to the color of the shallow sediments as perceived by local drillers. Together with water quality monitoring, we have also targeted the Intermediate Depth Aquifers (IDA) for providing As-safe and low manganese (Mn) water. SASMIT intervention logic also considered the relevant socio-economic scenario, such as household distribution, poverty issues and available safe water access for prioritizing safe well installation.

  • 8.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    Department of Soil and Water Environment Ramböll Sweden AB.
    Targeting Arsenic-Safe Aquifers in Regions with High Arsenic Groundwater and its Worldwide Implications (TASA)2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Nath, Bibhash
    Alexanderson, Helena
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Shallow hydrostratigraphy in an arsenic affected region of Bengal Basin: Implication for targeting safe aquifers for drinking water supply2014Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 485, s. 12-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To delineate arsenic (As) safe aquifer(s) within shallow depth, the present study has investigated the shallow hydrostratigraphic framework over an area of 100 km(2) at Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal. Drilling of 29 boreholes and subsequent hydrostratigraphic modeling has identified three types of aquifer within 50 m below ground level (bgl). Aquifer-1 represents a thick paleochannel sequence, deposited parallel to the River Hooghly and Ichamati. Aquifer-2 is formed locally within the overbank deposits in the central floodplain area and its vertical extension is strictly limited to 25 m bgl. Aquifer-3 is distributed underneath the overbank deposits and represents an interfluvial aquifer of the area. Aquifer-3 is of Pleistocene age (similar to 70 ka), while aquifer-1 and 2 represent the Holocene deposits (age <951 ka), indicating that there was a major hiatus in the sediment deposition after depositing the aquifer-3. Over the area, aquifer-3 is markedly separated from the overlying Holocene deposits by successive upward sequences of brown and olive to pale blue impervious clay layers. The groundwater quality is very much similar in aquifer-1 and 2, where the concentration of As and Fe very commonly exceeds 10 mu g/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. Based on similar sediment color, these two aquifers have jointly been designated as the gray sand aquifer (GSA), which constitutes 40% (1.84 x 10(9) m(3)) of the total drilled volume (4.65 x 10(9) m(3)). In aquifer-3, the concentration of As and Fe is very low, mostly <2 mu g/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. This aquifer has been designated as the brown sand aquifer (BSA) according to color of the aquifer materials and represents 10% (4.8 x 10(8) m(3)) of the total drilled volume. This study further documents that though the concentration of As is very low at BSA, the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines.

  • 10.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Neidhardt, Harald
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Berner, Zsolt
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Role of competing ions in the mobilization of arsenic in groundwater of Bengal Basin: Insight from surface complexation modeling2014Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 55, s. 30-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the role of competing ions in the mobilization of arsenic (As) by surface complexation modeling of the temporal variability of As in groundwater. The potential use of two different surface complexation models (SCMs), developed for ferrihydrite and goethite, has been explored to account for the temporal variation of As(III) and As(V) concentration, monitored in shallow groundwater of Bengal Basin over a period of 20 months. The SCM for ferrihydrite appears as the better predictor of the observed variation in both As(III) and As(V) concentrations in the study sites. It is estimated that among the competing ions, PO43- is the major competitor of As(III) and As(V) adsorption onto Fe oxyhydroxide, and the competition ability decreases in the order PO43- >> Fe(II) > H4SiO4 = HCO- (3.) It is further revealed that a small change in pH can also have a significant effect on the mobility of As(III) and As(V) in the aquifers. A decrease in pH increases the concentration of As(III), whereas it decreases the As(V) concentration and vice versa. The present study suggests that the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxide alone cannot explain the observed high As concentration in groundwater of the Bengal Basin. This study supports the view that the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxide followed by competitive sorption reactions with the aquifer sediment is the processes responsible for As enrichment in groundwater.

  • 11.
    Bodlund, Ida
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Coagulant Protein from plant materials: Potential Water Treatment Agent2013Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to fresh water is a human right, yet more than 780 million people, especially in rural areas, rely on unimproved sources and the need for finding ways of treating water is crucial. Although the use of natural coagulant protein in drinking water treatment has been discussed for a long time, the method is still not in practice, probably due to availability of material and limited knowledge. In this study, about hundred different crude extracts made from plant materials found in Southern India were screened for coagulation activity. Extracts of three Brassica species (Mustard, Cabbage and Cauliflower) were showing activity comparable to that of Moringa oleifera and were further investigated. Their protein content and profile were compared against each other and with coagulant protein from Moringa. Mustard (large) and Moringa seed proteins were also studied for their effect against clinically isolated bacterial strains. The protein profiles of Brassica extract showed predominant bands around 9kDa and 6.5kDa by SDS-PAGE. The peptide sequence analysis of Mustard large identified the 6.5kDa protein as Moringa coagulant protein (MO2.1) and the 9kDa protein band as seed storage protein napin3. Of thirteen clinical strains analysed, Moringa and Mustard large were proven effective in either aggregation activity or growth kinetic method or both in all thirteen and nine strains respectively. To my knowledge this is the first report on the presence of coagulant protein in Brassica seeds. Owing to the promising results Brassica species could possibly be used as a substitute to Moringa coagulating agent and chemicals in drinking water treatment. 

  • 12. Borghei, Seyed Mahmood
    et al.
    Nekooie, Mohammad Ali
    Sadeghian, Hadi
    Ghazizadeh, Mohammad Reza Jalili
    Parvaneh, Ali
    Yang, James
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Vattendragsteknik.
    Javaheri, Amir
    Kabiri-Samani, Abdorreza
    Discussion: Triangular labyrinth side weirs with one and two cycles2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Water Management, ISSN 1741-7589, E-ISSN 1751-7729, Vol. 169, nr 3, s. 111-114Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13. Brenner, A.
    et al.
    Persson, K. M.
    Russell, L.
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Kozisek, F.
    Technical and mineral level effects of water treatment2015Ingår i: Drinking Water Minerals and Mineral Balance: Importance, Health Significance, Safety Precautions, Springer, 2015, s. 103-117Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Reverse Osmosis is used for desalination of especially sea water in areas suffering from water shortage, and there are thousands and thousands of desalination plants around the world and more to come. The produced high–purity water tends to be corrosive, and lacks minerals, causing decreased daily intake and loss of minerals from the body. Thus, such water needs re–mineralization. Water with toxic substances is harmful, and is also often treated with RO. There are indexes to be used as guides to choose re–mineralization method after RO. However, mineral balance is not reached by remineralization, as only concentrations of calcium and bicarbonate, and in some cases magnesium is increased. Treatment with dissolution of dolomitic–calcitic limestone or other limestone with low levels of toxic elements is preferable. Hard water, on the other hand, may cause scaling, and is often softened, making the concentrations of calcium and magnesium low or extremely low. General advices on choice of treatment method to preserve or improve the mineral content and mineral balance of a water is presented in the chapter.

  • 14.
    Cameli, Fabio
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Microbial Fuel Cell for Waste Water Treatment2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial Fuel Cell is a novel technology that can be used for a waste water treatment in order to simultaneously remove carbonaceous matter and nitrogen while producing electrical power.

    Even if it is not an established technology so far, MFC could be a cost effective option for waste water treatment and the major challenge of this process will be the device scale-up. Exoelectrogenic bacteria are capable of converting the chemical energy of organic matter into electrical energy by transferring the electrons produced in the oxidation to the anode electrode.

    This project focused on developing a single device for nitrification, denitrification and carbon removal. Two double air-cathode single chamber MFCs are used to test the feasibility of this process that could replace the biological unit in a waste water treatment train.

    The cells tested in this study were manufactured with the purpose of achieving a high surface area on both the anode electrode (vitreous carbon foam) and the air-cathode electrodes (metallic mesh with diffusion layer and active layer) with different catalysts for the reduction reaction (cobalt and platinum). The bacterial biofilm growth is a fundamental step and the cells Open Circuit Potential was monitored during all the start-up period to determine the microorganism acclimation: a three days lag period was observed in both cells before the potential rise. The second cell was forced to reach higher voltage through an anode polarization and that seems to positively affect the biofilm stability at lower voltages transferring a greater amount of electrons and hence obtaining a higher current and power generation. For this reason after three weeks of inoculation the second cell reached an open circuit potential of 0.76 V which is a promising value for such a system.

    Electrochemical and biological tests were conduced in order to test the power production of the cell and the substrate removal from the waste water. Polarization curves were used to evaluate power generation (and the maximum production under a specific external load) and the cell voltage trend which is characterized by activation and ohmic losses: 32 mW/ and 41 mW/  are the power density normalized by cathode surface (72 ) reached by respectively first and second cell. The experimental conditions were varied from low to high temperature and from low to high inlet flow rate but the most affecting phenomenon seems to be the biofilm formation since significant voltage drops were noticed after long closed circuit operation. Higher cell voltage characterized the second cell thanks to more active cathode (platinum catalyst used) and more negative bacterial biofilm but a bigger drop in current generation over time affects the system performance and the most reliable reason is the shorter acclimation time compared to the first cell.

    Cyclic voltammetry tests were carried out on both electrodes to study the potential range of activity and determine an optimal operational voltage despite of mass transport or kinetic limitations.

    Substrate removal tests at different retention times in power generation conditions (external load 100 Ω) showed a relatively high total nitrogen consumption (maximum 72.2 %) for the first cell while lower values were achieved by the second system meaning that a longer acclimation period is beneficial for nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria to thrive on the cathode biofilm.

    Effluent pH level are almost similar to the initial values probably because of nitrification and denitrification protons offset.

  • 15.
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    Atasoy, Merve
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    Biodegradation and inhibitory effects of antibiotics on biological wastewater treatment systems2018Ingår i: Toxicity and Biodegradation Testing, Humana Press, 2018, nr 9781493974245, s. 29-55Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotics are one of the most consumed drugs and have become new emerging pollutants in the environment as antibiotics lead to long-term adverse effects on the ecosystem. They are produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of other bacteria in nature as a defense mechanism. Furthermore, after discovering their therapeutical features, synthetic production methods were developed. In general, antibiotics are widely used in human medicine, veterinary medicine, farming and aquaculture for the prevention and treatment of diseases. Approximately 90% of the consumed antibiotics are excreted via urinary or fecal pathways from the human body after partial, or no metabolism, and they are transferred to the domestic sewage plants or directly to the environment. Conventional biological treatment of domestic sewage provides very low—if any—reduction for the antibiotics, which usually by-pass treatment and accumulate in the receiving waters, sediments, plants, and animals. The concentration of these materials in domestic wastewaters and surface waters is observed in a range between 0.3 μg/L and 150 μg/L. However, pharmaceutical plants, hospitals, concentrated animal feeding operations, and aquaculture generate effluents having much higher antibiotics concentrations in the range 100–500 mg/L. Consequently, it is essential to gather information on the fate and effect of these compounds at high concentrations for setting the basis for related practical treatment schemes. Inhibitory action of the antibiotics is experimentally evaluated in two different approaches: Short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) tests: Acute experiments involve a microbial community selected and sustained by the selected organic substrate in the system and not previously exposed to the inhibitor. In long-term experiments with continuous feeding of the inhibitor, the test may reflect, aside from changes in substrate removal and utilization, adaptation and/or resistance of the microbial community or even shifts in microbial composition in response to continuous exposure to the selected inhibitor. However, a full insight on the inhibitory action can only be acquired when the response of the microbial community is tested for both acute and chronic inhibition impacts. In this chapter, the most commonly used antibiotic classes such as β-lactams, tetracycline, macrolides, sulfonamides, quinolones are examined. Their fate and transformation during wastewater treatment as well as their inhibitory and toxic effects on the microbial community are discussed by using various toxicity and inhibition tests.

  • 16.
    Dremé, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    EXERGIOPTIMERING PÅ KÄPPALAVERKET2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Käppalaverket är ett kommunalt avloppsreningsverk på Lidingö öster om Stockholm, som under 2009 hade en belastning motsvarande ungefär 540 000 personekvivalenter. Käppalaverket drivs av Käppalaförbundet, som ägs av elva kommuner i norra och östra Storstockholmsområdet som gått samman för att gemensamt rena medlemskommunernas avloppsvatten.

    Käppalaverket arbetar ständigt med att optimera sin verksamhet för att göra den mer miljövänlig och mer ekonomiskt hållbar. En viktig del i strävan att optimera Käppalaverket är att uppnå en så energieffektiv reningsprocess som möjligt och att därigenom nå minsta möjliga resursförbrukning. Detta innebär dels att tillvara på de resurser som når verket genom inkommande vatten i form av exempelvis organiskt material och värme, dels att utnyttja de produkter som bildas (slam, biogas) på bästa möjliga vis.

    En metod för att mäta denna resurseffektivitet är att omvandla in- och utgående komponenter och energislag till deras motsvarande exergivärden och göra en s.k. exergibalans översystemet. Från exergivärdena kan exergiindex för Käppalaverket tas fram enligt en modell framtagen av Svenskt Vatten [1], vilket sedan möjliggör jämförelser mellan Käppalaverkets och andra svenska reningsverks exergieffektivitet.

    Inom ramen för ett examensarbete för civilingenjörsexamen i kemiteknik vid Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan i Stockholm har ovan nämnda exergibalans och exergiindex beräknats för åren 2009 och 2010. Resultaten visar att Käppalaverket under 2009 uppnådde en hög reningsgrad, men exergieffektiviteten var låg jämfört med andra verk. Detta beror främst på att Käppalaverket fram till juni 2010 använt biogas för produktion av fjärrvärme, vilket resulterar i dåliga exergiindex. Resultaten för 2010, då man började leverera fordonsgas, visar att Käppalaverket nu förbättrat sin exergieffektivitet och därmed också sina exergiindex.

    Som en ytterligare del i projektet genomfördes en analys av slamavvattningen ur exergisynpunkt med hänsyn till kemikalietillsatser, elenergiförbrukning, minskning av transporter och utnyttjande av slam i jordbruket. Denna analys visade att dagens slamavvattning står sig bra jämfört med alternativet centrifuger, och en fördel med dagens slamavvattning är att slammet även hygieniseras av behandlingen, utan energikrävande termofil rötning.

  • 17. Engqvist, A.
    et al.
    Stenström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Pierce, Kena
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Modelling the effects of a pumping program for increasing water circulation in a semi-enclosed bay in the Stockholm archipelago2006Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, 2006, s. 253-269Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Brunnsviken in the inner Stockholm archipelago, close to the City of Stockholm and popular for recreational activities, is a semi-enclosed bay with a very narrow passage to the adjacent archipelago and consequently has a limited water exchange. Various attempts have been made over the past three decades to improve the water quality in the bay. Since 1986, the drinking water authorities of Stockholm withdraw bottom water by pumping it from one of the deep basins of the bay through a pipe to be eventually discharged into the nearest embayment of the archipelago. There are, however, some questions regarding the cost-benefit aspect of this strategy. In particular, it is unclear if the location and the rate of pumping are well chosen in order to increase the ventilation of the bay at large. In addition, it should be possible to eventually optimize the pumping schedule, so that these energy-demanding and thus costly efforts are concentrated to times when they act in concert with natural forcing to increase water exchange. To help improve the pumping program, a modelling project was started in spring 2004. First, a one-dimensional (1-D) layer model that resolves the bay into one basin with multiple-layer stratification was attempted. Second, a three-dimensional (3-D) model with the capacity to be run under non-hydrostatic assumptions was set up at high resolution to study a number of scenarios. Both models were forced by wind, river discharge, surface temperature and the exchange driven by density fluctuations across the boundary to the adjacent archipelago. In the 3-D model, the pumping is included as a virtual divergence of the flow at the location of the pipe. The main results are that the 1-D model performs considerably better than the 3-D model in simulating the measured salinity profiles, even though it does not resolve the basin in the horizontal direction. The poor performance of the 3-D model with regard to salinity is however mainly due to boundary problems: too little inflow of saline water through the narrow and shallow entrance channel, and underestimation of the freshwater supply. The dynamics of the thermocline is better captured by the 3-D model but can certainly also be improved.

  • 18.
    Engström, Emma
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Transport and Fate of Escherichia coli in Unsaturated Porous Media2011Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The unsaturated zone could provide an effective barrier against pathogenic microbes entering the groundwater. Knowledge relating to microbial fate in this zone is therefore important for increased understanding of groundwater vulnerability. This thesis examines the published literature that is related to the transport, retention and survival processes that apply to the fecal indicator bacterium Escherichia coli in unsaturated porous media. The main focus concerns the research findings under steady-state flow in homogeneous filter media, and under unfavorable attachment conditions, which are the most common in the natural environment. Experimental results in the literature for the pore-, column- and field-scale are examined and compared to commonly applied theories and modeling approaches. An analysis of the main factors that influence attenuation and biofilm formation is provided. Further, the findings are illustrated in a model of an unplanted, vertical flow constructed wetland. The results indicate that retention at the solid-air-water interface is a major attenuation process. In addition, they suggest that the flow velocity (as dependent on the grain size and the saturation) is a key influencing factor. However, it has not yet been established how the research findings relating to the main processes and influencing factors can be incorporated into predictive models; in the literature, a multitude of models have been proposed and alternative theories could describe the same observation. In this study, the transport and fate of Escherichia coli in different sand filters is, therefore, modeled using various literature models - derived under similar experimental conditions - in order to assess the possibility to compare and generalize the equations, evaluate their implications considering the different saturation settings and filter depths, and to define the spectra of the reduction efficiencies. It is discovered that the bacterial attenuation behaviors vary largely. This calls for clarification regarding the underlying processes. Future research is also recommended to include the ef-fects of structured filter media and sudden changes in the flow rate.

  • 19.
    Engström, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Modeling bacterial transport and removal in a constructed wetland system2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the COMSOL Conference, 2010, Paris, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Engström, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Predicting the transport and fate of Escherichia coli in unsaturated sand filters2011Ingår i: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Engström, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Kulabako, Robinah
    Department of Civil Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Escherichia coli transport and fate in unsaturated porous media: a literature review of experimental findings and theories relating to processes, models and influencing factors2011Ingår i: Critical reviews in environmental science and technology, ISSN 1064-3389, E-ISSN 1547-6537Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Fatima, Masoom
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Farooq, R.
    Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Saeed, M.
    A review on biocatalytic decomposition of azo dyes and electrons recovery2017Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Liquids, ISSN 0167-7322, E-ISSN 1873-3166, Vol. 246, s. 275-281Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Discharge of waste water from textile industry during coloring processes contains high concentrations of biologically difficult-to-degrade dye chemicals along with antifouling agents. Azo dyes considered to be the largest class of synthetic dyes used in the textile industries and are present in significant amounts in its effluents. These are highly stable because of its complex aromatic structure and covalent azo bonds. Traditional physico-chemical methods are not considered sufficient because of their high cost, partial degradation and more sludge production. The use of biocatalysts for decolorization is a gaining momentum due to having redox-active molecules. Current review explored techniques for the decomposition of textile dyes, their merits, limitations and recommended the emerging microbial fuel cell technology followed by aerobic treatment for complete degradation of dye intermediate metabolites.

  • 23.
    Grönlund, Lisa
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    OPTIMERING AV KVÄVEAVSKILJNINGEN PÅ AVLOPPSRENINGSVERKET I HALLSBERGS KOMMUN: EN TEKNISK-, EKONOMISK- OCH MILJÖMÄSSIG UTVÄRDERING2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avloppsreningsverket i Hallsberg kommun är beläget i direkt anslutning till Hallsberg, med Ralaån som recipient. Tekniken på reningsverket bygger på principerna för en klassisk aktivslamanläggning med mekanisk rening, kemisk rening, biologisk rening och en slambehandling där rötning av primär- och sekundärslam används för utvinning av biogas.

    Hallsberg ARV har under en längre tid haft problem med kvävereningen. Under senaste åren har man överskridit riktvärdet för kväveutsläpp vid ett flertal tillfällen och under 2009 överskreds även gränsvärdet. Riktvärdet för Hallsberg ARV är i dagsläget satt till 10mg NH4-N/l som medelvärde per månad, gränsvärdet är satt till 10 mg NH4-N/l som medelvärde per kalenderår. Då Hallsberg ARV inte drivs vid full kapacitet antas en minskning av kväveutsläppen vara möjlig att genomföra genom trimning av befintligutrustning och processer på verket. Detta antagande låg till grund för det här examensarbetet som syftar till att optimera kvävereningen på Hallsberg ARV. I optimeringen ingick en teknisk, ekonomisk och miljömässig utvärdering av olika alternativa lösningarna för att förbättra funktionen hos anläggningen. Extra hänsyn togs till energi- och kemikalieåtgång i syfte att få en så effektiv drift av verket som möjligt. Arbetet genomfördes genom en initial litteraturstudie på området, vartefter en provtagningsserie om fyra veckor realiserades på verket. Data som ligger till grund för slutsatserna i projektet har också inhämtats från onlinemätare på verket samt från äldre externt analyserade prover.

    Efter analys av insamlad data antas orsakerna till Hallsberg ARV:s höga utsläpp av kväve bero på en kombination av flera faktorer:

    -Vid vår och höst kan brunnsslamintaget vara så stort att bräddning sker ut till verket. Detta leder till att kvävebelastningen höjs så kraftigt att nitrifierarna inte hinner acklimatisera sig och får förhöjda kväveutsläpp till följd.

    -Mycket kväve följer med slammet från simultanfällningen till rötningen. Detta kan påverka halten kväve i rejektet från rötkamrarna som i sin tur kan leda till störningar i kvävereningen.

    -Centrifugens rejekt innehåller mycket kväve och körs idag endast under ett par dagar i veckan vilket leder till stora variationer i inkommande kvävehalt.

    -En hög förfällning av fosfor och organiskt material har bidragit till en låg halt av organiskt material i denitrifikationen.

    Sammantaget föreslås att vidare studier bör genomföras av ovan nämnda områden för att driften på Hallsberg ARV ska kunna drivas med så låga miljömässiga och ekonomiska kostnader som möjligt.

  • 24.
    Hamisi, Rajabu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Wörman, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Modelling phosphorus sorption kinetics and the longevity of reactive filter materials used for on-sitewastewater treatment2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikel-id 811Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of reactive filter media (RFM) is an emerging technology in small-scale wastewater treatment to improve phosphorus (P) removal and filter material longevity for making this technology sustainable. In this study, long-term sorption kinetics and the spatial dynamics of sorbed P distribution were simulated in replaceable P-filter bags filled with 700 L of reactive material and used in real on-site treatment systems. The input data for model calibration were obtained in laboratory trials with Filtralite P®, Polonite® and Top16. The P concentration breakthrough threshold value was set at an effluent/influent (C/C 0 ) ratio of 1 and simulations were performed with P concentrations varying from 1 to 25 mg L -1 . The simulation results showed that influent P concentration was important for the breakthrough and longevity, and that Polonite performed best, followed by Top16 and Filtralite P. A 100-day break in simulated intermittent flow allowed the materials to recover, which for Polonite involved slight retardation of P saturation. The simulated spatial distribution of P accumulated in the filter bags showed large differences between the filter materials. The modelling insights from this study can be applied in design and operation of on-site treatment systems using reactive filter materials.

  • 25.
    Hermelin, Samuel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Suokko, Joel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Rening av kontaminerat vatten med hjälp av biomassa: En alternativ reningsmetod för metallkontaminerat vatten i Uganda2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att en hållbar utveckling ska kunna nås enligt de 17 miljömålen från Paris krävs en enkel och billig metod för vattenrening. Denna rapport behandlar en relativt oprövad metod som innebär att man ska rena metallförorenat vatten med hjälp av adsorptionsytor hos biomassa. Syftet med rapporten är att ta reda på ifall koppar- och koboltjoner skulle kunna bindas till vassväxten Cyperus papyrus och bomullsväxten Imperata cylindrica. Hur konkurrensen mellan kopparn och kobolten påverkar adsorptionen till biomassan samt vilken av biomassorna som lämpar sig bäst för rening skall också fastställas. Området som granskades var den koppar- och koboltförorenade floden River Nyamwamba i Uganda vilket gjorde att metallerna koppar och kobolt studerades. Biomassorna Cyperus papyrus och Imperata cylindrica växer i stor utsträckning i Uganda så dessa valdes ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv då eventuella transporter kan minimeras. Adsorptionsförmågan av metallerna bestämdes genom en laboration där biomassorna kunde adsorbera mellan 45,55 - 69,84 % av kobolten och 63,74 -77,54 % av kopparn hos de fyra olika lösningarna som testades. Imperata cylindrica visade sig ha en något bättre adsorptionsförmåga. Möjliga metoder som skulle kunna implementeras i samhället kan vara filter tillverkade av biomassa men det krävs fortfarande mer forskning inom området innan dessa kan tas i bruk. 

  • 26.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. NGO Forum Publ Hlth, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Frape, Shaun K.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Ramboll Sweden AB, Soil & Water Environm, SE-10462 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Shahiruzzaman, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Intermediate Deep Aquifer (IDA) : A potential source for Arsenic-safe and low-Manganese drinking waterManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. NGO Forum Publ Hlth, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Frape, Shaun K.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Islam, M. Mainul
    Rahman, M. Moklesur
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Ramboll Sweden AB, Soil & Water Environm, SE-10462 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Sediment color tool for targeting arsenic-safe aquifers for the installation of shallow drinking water tubewells2014Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 493, s. 615-625Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In rural Bangladesh, drinking water supply mostly comes from shallow hand tubewells installed manually by the local drillers, the main driving force in tubewell installation. This study was aimed at developing a sediment color tool on the basis of local driller's perception of sediment color, arsenic (As) concentration of tubewell waters and respective color of aquifer sediments. Laboratory analysis of 521 groundwater samples collected from 144 wells during 2009 to 2011 indicate that As concentrations in groundwater were generally higher in the black colored sediments with an average of 239 mu g/L. All 39 wells producing water from red sediments provide safe water following the Bangladesh drinking water standard for As (50 mu g/L) where mean and median values were less than the WHO guideline value of 10 mu g/L. Observations for off-white sediments were also quite similar. White sediments were rare and seemed to be less important for well installations at shallow depths. A total of 2240 sediment samples were collected at intervals of 1.5 m down to depths of 100 m at 15 locations spread over a 410 km(2) area in Matlab, Bangladesh and compared with the Munsell Color Chart with the purpose of direct comparison of sediment color in a consistent manner. All samples were assigned with Munsell Color and Munsell Code, which eventually led to identify 60 color shade varieties which were narrowed to four colors (black, white, off-white and red) as perceived and used by the local drillers. During the process of color grouping, participatory approach was considered taking the opinions of local drillers, technicians, and geologists into account. This simplified sediment color tool can be used conveniently during shallow tubewell installation and thus shows the potential for educating local drillers to target safe aquifers on the basis of the color characteristics of the sediments.

  • 28.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. NGO Forum Publ Hlth, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
    Frape, Shaun K.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Rahman, M. Moklesur
    Alam, M. S.
    Hoque, M. A.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Ramboll Sweden AB, Soil & Water Environm, SE-10462 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hydrogeological variation in Shallow, Intermediate and Deep Aquifers in Matlab of Southeastern Bangladesh: implications for the installation of arsenic-safe drinking water tubewells and their sustainabilityManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29.
    Khan, MD. Ershad Ullah
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Martin, Andrew R.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Optimization of hybrid renewable energy polygeneration system with membrane distillation for rural households in Bangladesh2015Ingår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 93, s. 1116-1126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the country's rural electrification program, kerosene is the predominant source for lighting, and woody biomass is virtually the only option available for cooking. The rural population also struggles with unsafe drinking water in terms of widespread arsenic contamination of well water. Biogas plants and pV are individually impractical to serve both cooking, lighting and water purification systems, and their combined applications are extremely limited. This study considers a holistic approach towards tackling both of these issues via integrated renewable energy-based polygeneration employed at the village level. The polygeneration unit under consideration provides electricity via a pV array and animal and agriculture waste-fed digester, which in turn is coupled to a gas engine. Excess digester gas is employed for cooking and lighting, while waste heat from the process drives a membrane distillation unit for water purification. Technical assessments and optimization have been conducted with HOMER (Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources). Results show that daily electricity demand can be met with such a system while simultaneously providing 0.4 m3 cooking fuel and 2e3 L pure drinking water. Cost estimates indicate that this approach is highly favorable to other renewable options. The pay back period of such system is between 3 and 4 years.

  • 30. Kibria, M. G.
    et al.
    Kirk, M. F.
    Datta, S.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Hydrogeochemistry and microbial geochemistry on different depth aquifer sediments from Matlab, Bangladesh2014Ingår i: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, 2014, s. 101-103Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) poses the greatest hazard towards drinking water quality in Bangladesh. Tubewell drinking water is one of the main sources for household based water options in rural Bangladesh. Our study area is in Matlab Upazila, in Bangladesh. The overall objective of this research and the SASMIT project is to develop a community based initiative for sustainable As mitigation by developing a sediment color based tool for the local drillers prioritizing on the hydrogeological and biogeochemical investigations. For this purpose we analyzed different depth colored sediments and water for find out the sustainable low Arsenic contaminated aquifer.

  • 31. Kumar, M.
    et al.
    Ramanathan, A. L.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Evaluation of arsenic and its controlling factors in aquifer sands of district Samastipur, Bihar, India2014Ingår i: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, CRC Press, 2014, s. 108-109Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of 96 water samples from shallow tubewells and 14 sediment samples from Samastipur district to know the level of arsenic (As) and its controlling factors were analyzed. Groundwater samples were collected from tubewells of different depths, and a wide range of concentrations in the range 0.19-135 μg L-1 was found. Scanning electron micrograph study of the sediments shows intense chemical weathering. Present study also support reductive dissolution of FeOOH triggered by organic matter oxidation as an As mobility factor in the aquifer sands.

  • 32.
    Kårelid, Victor
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Towards application of activated carbon treatment for pharmaceutical removal in municipal wastewater2016Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Many pharmaceuticals are found in municipal wastewater effluents due to their persistence in the human body as well as in conventional wastewater treatment processes. This discharge to the environment can lead to adverse effects in aquatic species, such as feminization of male fish. During the past decade, these findings have spawned investigations and research into suitable treatment technologies that could severely limit the discharge. Adsorption onto activated carbon has been identified as one of the two main technologies for implementation of (future) full-scale treatment.

    Recent research has put a closer focus on adsorption with powdered activated carbon (PAC) than on granular activated carbon (GAC). Studies where both methods are compared in parallel operation are thus still scarce and such evaluation in pilot-scale was therefore a primary objective of this thesis. Furthermore, recirculation of PAC can be used to optimize the treatment regarding the carbon consumption. Such a setup was evaluated as a separate treatment stage to comply with Swedish wastewater convention. Additionally, variation of a set of process parameters was evaluated.

    During successive operation at three different wastewater treatment plants an overall pharmaceutical removal of 95% could consistently be achieved with both methods. Furthermore, treatment with GAC was sensitive to a degraded effluent quality, which severely reduced the hydraulic capacity. Both treatment methods showed efficient removal of previously highlighted substances, such as carbamazepine and diclofenac, however in general a lower adsorption capacity was observed for GAC. By varying the input of process parameters, such as the continuously added dose or the contact time, during PAC treatment, a responsive change of the pharmaceutical removal could be achieved. The work in this thesis contributes some valuable field experience towards wider application of these treatment technologies in full-scale.

  • 33.
    Kårelid, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Larsson, Gen
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Effects of recirculation in a three-tank pilot-scale system for pharmaceutical removal with powdered activated carbon2017Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 193, nr May, s. 163-Environmental Impact Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Slab Frame BridgesArtikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The removal of pharmaceutically active compounds by powdered activated carbon (PAC) in municipal wastewater is a promising solution to the problem of polluted recipient waters. Today, an efficient design strategy is however lacking with regard to high-level overall, and specific, substance removal in the large scale. The performance of PAC-based removal of pharmaceuticals was studied in pilot-scale with respect to the critical parameters; contact time and PAC dose using one PAC product selected by screening in bench-scale. The goal was a minimum of 95% removal of the pharmaceuticals present in the evaluated municipal wastewater. A set of 21 pharmaceuticals was selected from an initial 100 due to their high occurrence in the effluent water of two selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Sweden, whereof candidates discussed for future EU regulation directives were included. By using recirculation of PAC over a treatment system using three sequential contact tanks, a combination of the benefits of powdered and granular carbon performance was achieved. The treatment system was designed so that recirculation could be introduced to any of the three tanks to investigate the effect of recirculation on the adsorption performance. This was compared to use of the setup, but without recirculation. A higher degree of pharmaceutical removal was achieved in all recirculation setups, both overall and with respect to specific substances, as compared to without recirculation. Recirculation was tested with nominal contact times of 30, 60 and 120 min and the goal of 95% removal could be achieved already at the shortest contact times at a PAC dose of 10–15 mg/L. In particular, the overall removal could be increased even to 97% and 99%, at 60 and 120 min, respectively, when the recirculation point was the first tank. Recirculation of PAC to either the first or the second contact tank proved to be comparable, while a slightly lower performance was observed with recirculation to the third tank. With regards to individual substances, clarithromycin and diclofenac were ubiquitously removed according to the set goal and in contrast, a few substances (fluconazole, irbesartan, memantine and venlafaxine) required specific settings to reach an acceptable removal.

  • 34.
    Kårelid, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Larsson, Gen
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Pilot-scale removal of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater: Comparison of granular and powdered activated carbon treatment at three wastewater treatment plants2017Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 193, nr -1, s. 491-502Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adsorption with activated carbon is widely suggested as an option for the removal of organic micropollutants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in wastewater. In this study adsorption with granular activated carbon (GAC) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) was analyzed and compared in parallel operation at three Swedish wastewater treatment plants with the goal to achieve a 95% PhAC removal. Initially, mapping of the prevalence of over 100 substances was performed at each plant and due to low concentrations a final 22 were selected for further evaluation. These include carbamazepine, clarithromycin and diclofenac, which currently are discussed for regulation internationally. A number of commercially available activated carbon products were initially screened using effluent wastewater. Of these, a reduced set was selected based on adsorption characteristics and cost. Experiments designed with the selected carbons in pilot-scale showed that most products could indeed remove PhACs to the target level, both on total and individual basis. In a setup using internal recirculation the PAC system achieved a 95% removal applying a fresh dose of 15–20 mg/L, while carbon usage rates for the GAC application were much broader and ranged from <28 to 230 mg/L depending on the carbon product. The performance of the PAC products generally gave better results for individual PhACs in regards to carbon availability. All carbon products showed a specific adsorption for a specific PhAC meaning that knowledge of the target pollutants must be acquired before successful design of a treatment system. In spite of different configurations and operating conditions of the different wastewater treatment plants no considerable differences regarding pharmaceutical removal were observed.

  • 35.
    Lakshmanan, Ramnath
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Application of magnetic nanoparticles and reactive filter materials for wastewater treatment2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Lately sewage wastewater treatment processes (WWTP) are facing challenges due to strict regulations in quality of effluent standards and waste production. The reuse of wastewater treatment effluents is rapidly gaining attention as a means of achieving sustainable water supply. Therefore, new methods are required to achieve an efficient WWTP. The foremost emphasis of the present study is to investigate filter materials, synthesis, characterization, and application of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) for WWTP. Primarily commercially available reactive filter materials such as Polonite and Sorbulite were tested for the effective reduction of contaminants in recirculation batch mode system. Secondly, the magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized using different techniques such as water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion and co- precipitation methods and testing for their ability to remove contaminants from wastewater. Thirdly, toxicity test of magnetic NPs were performed using human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and endothelial (HMEC-1) cells (Papers I-VII).

    The magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MION) synthesized using the co-precipitation method were further functionalized with tri-sodium citrate (TSC), 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES), polyethylenimine (PEI) and chitosan. The functionalized MION were further characterized prior to use in removal of contaminants from wastewater. The sewage wastewater samples were collected from Hammarby Sjöstadsverk, Sweden and analyses were performed for the reduction of turbidity, color, total nitrogen, total organic carbon, phosphate and microbial content on the retrieval day.

    The experimental results imply that Polonite and Sorbulite require high pH for the efficient reduction of phosphate and the reduction of microbes. Microemulsion prepared magnetic nanoparticles (ME-MION) showed ≈100% removal of phosphate in 20 minutes. Results from TEM implied that the size of magnetic Nps were around 8 nm for core (uncoated MION), TSC (11.5 nm), APTES (20 nm), PEI (11.8 nm) and chitosan (15 nm). Optimization studies using central composite face centered (CCF) design showed the potential of magnetic nanoparticles for the removal of turbidity (≈83%) and total nitrogen (≈33%) in 60 minutes. The sludge water content was reduced significantly by ≈87% when magnetic NPs were used whilst compared to the chemical precipitant used in WWTP. PEI coated MION showed ≈50% removal of total organic carbon from wastewater in 60 minutes. Effluents from wastewater treated with magnetic NPs were comparable with effluent from the present WWTP. There was no significant change observed in mineral ion concentration before and after treatment with MION. In addition, toxicity results from HMEC-1 and HaCaT cells revealed no formation of reactive oxygen species in the presence of magnetic NPs. Furthermore, laboratory experiments revealed the effectiveness and reusability of magnetic NPs. Thus magnetic NPs are a potential wastewater treatment agent and can be used for effective removal of contaminants, thereby reducing the process time, sludge water content and complex process steps involved in conventional WWTP.

  • 36.
    Lakshmanan, Ramnath
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Bayat, Narges
    Stockholm University, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    R-Lopes, Viviana
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Cristobal, Susana
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Synthesis, characterization and toxicity assessment of magnetic nanoparticles on skin and endothelial cells in vitro: water treatment applicationManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37.
    Lakshmanan, Ramnath
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Effective water content reduction in sewage wastewater sludge using magnetic nanoparticlesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Lakshmanan, Ramnath
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Effective water content reduction in sewage wastewater sludge using magnetic nanoparticles2014Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 153, s. 333-339Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work compares the use of three flocculants for sedimentation of sludge and sludge water content from sewage wastewater i.e. magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MION), ferrous sulfate (chemical) and Moringa crude extract (protein). Sludge water content, wet/dry weight, turbidity and color were performed for, time kinetics and large-scale experiment. A 30% reduction of the sludge water content was observed when the wastewater was treated with either protein or chemical coagulant. The separation of sludge from wastewater treated with MION was achieved in less than 5. min using an external magnet, resulted in 95% reduction of sludge water content. Furthermore, MION formed denser flocs and more than 80% reduction of microbial content was observed in large volume experiments. The results revealed that MION is efficient in rapid separation of sludge with very low water content, and thus could be a suitable alternative for sludge sedimentation and dewatering in wastewater treatment processes.

  • 39.
    Lakshmanan, Ramnath
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Bioprocessteknik (stängd 20130101).
    Okoli, Chuka
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Kemisk teknologi. KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Bioprocessteknik (stängd 20130101).
    Boutonnet, Magali
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Kemisk teknologi.
    Järås, Sven
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Kemisk teknologi.
    Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Bioprocessteknik (stängd 20130101).
    Effect of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Surface Water Treatment: Trace Minerals and MicrobesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Lakshmanan, Ramnath
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Okoli, Chuka
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Boutonnet, Magali
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Kemisk teknologi.
    Järås, Sven
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Kemisk teknologi.
    Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Microemulsion prepared magnetic nanoparticles for phosphate removal: Time efficient studies2014Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 185-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the effective removal of phosphate in sewage wastewater using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MION). The microemulsion-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) of around 7-10 nm was synthesized using water-in-oil microemulsion method. The interaction of ME-MION and phosphate was studied using In situ FT-IR technique. Batch experiments were carried out with wastewater to determine the conc. and time efficiency using ME-MION for removal of phosphate. The vibration peak at 1004 cm-1 and the presence of hydroxyl group (OH-) at 3673 cm-1 confirms the binding of phosphate to ME-MION. ME-MION with 0.44 g L-1 exhibited more than 95% phosphate reduction in 5 min and close to 100% in 20 min. Conversely the experimental data obtained has been fitted with Langmuir isotherm model and also exhibited high correlation coefficients. The ME-MION was regenerated and can be reused for minimum 5 consecutive times. Efficient and fast reduction of phosphate was attained while the recovery of nanoparticles was achieved by an external magnetic field. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report that underscores around 100% phosphate removal from wastewater using ME-MION in 20 min. The approach utilized in this study offers a potential technique in the reduction of phosphate in wastewater whilst, reducing the time and reuse of nanoparticles.

  • 41.
    Lakshmanan, Ramnath
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Rajaraman, Premanand
    Sri Sairam Engineering College, Department of Physics.
    Okoli, Chuka
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Kemisk teknologi.
    Boutonnet, Magali
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Järås, Sven
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Application of Magnetic Nanoparticles for the removal of turbidity and total nitrogen from sewage wastewater: Modelling studiesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Lakshmanan, Ramnath
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Sanchez-Dominguez, Margarita
    Centro de Investigacion en Materials Avanzados (CIMAV) S.C., Mexico.
    Matutes-Aquino, Jose
    Centro de Investigacion en Materials Avanzados (CIMAV) S.C., Mexico.
    Wennmalm, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Experimentell biomolekylär fysik. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Removal of total organic carbon from sewage wastewater using poly(ethylenimine)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles2014Ingår i: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 1036-1044Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased levels of organic carbon in sewage wastewater during recent years impose a great challenge to the existing wastewater treatment process (WWTP). Technological innovations are therefore sought that can reduce the release of organic carbon into lakes and seas. In the present study, magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized, functionalized with poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), and characterized using TEM (transmission electron microscopy), X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), CCS (confocal correlation spectroscopy), SICS (scattering interference correlation spectroscopy), magnetism studies, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The removal of total organic carbon (TOC) and other contaminants using PEI-coated magnetic nanoparticles (PEI-NPs) was tested in wastewater obtained from the Hammarby Sjöstadsverk sewage plant, Sweden. The synthesized NPs were about 12 nm in diameter and showed a homogeneous particle size distribution in dispersion by TEM and CCS analyses, respectively. The magnetization curve reveals superparamagnetic behavior, and the NPs do not reach saturation because of surface anisotropy effects. A 50% reduction in TOC was obtained in 60 min when using 20 mg/L PEI-NPs in 0.5 L of wastewater. Along with TOC, other contaminants such as turbidity (89%), color (86%), total nitrogen (24%), and microbial content (90%) were also removed without significant changes in the mineral ion composition of wastewater. We conclude that the application of PEI-NPs has the potential to reduce the processing time, complexity, sludge production, and use of additional chemicals in the WWTP.

  • 43.
    Lindvall, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Avloppsrening med mikrobiella bränsleceller: En litteraturstudie om den senaste forskningens framsteg2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rening av avloppsvatten är en viktig samhällsfunktion med höga krav på reningskapacitet och effektivitet, men traditionella reningsme- toder kräver mycket energi. Med anledning av detta har avloppsrening med mikrobiella bränsleceller (MFC) blivit ett stort forskningsområde. En MFC använder sig av nedbrytande mikroorganismer i en elektroke- misk redoxreaktion och kan därför användas för rening av avloppsvatten samtidigt som elektrisk energi kan utvinnas. I den här litteraturstudien sammanfattas den senaste forskningen kring hur de hinder som åter- står för storskalig avloppsrening med MFC kan överbryggas. Hindren är både ekonomiska och driftstekniska och tyngdpunkten i denna studie ligger på kostnadseffektivitet och ekologisk hållbarhet samt vilken roll det är rimligt att MFC kan anta i framtidens avloppsreningssystem. Det analyserade forskningsmaterialet antyder att den mest kostnadseffektiva grundkonfigurationen av MFC för avloppsrening är membranlös och fri från kostsamma katalysatorer. Att utnyttja biologiska sätt att underlätta redoxreaktionen, såsom att använda sig av bioanod, biokatod och luftka- tod, är både ekonomiskt och ekologiskt hållbart jämfört med traditionell MFC-teknik. Vidare har forskning kring användning av naturmaterial samt kol-, metalloxid- eller polymerbaserade nanomaterial visat på lo- vande resultat, men mycket arbete återstår innan MFC-tekniken till ful- lo är både driftsäker och kostnadseffektiv. Sammantaget visar resultaten att MFC-forskningen kring ekonomiskt och ekologiskt hållbara material och konfigurationer gjort vissa framsteg de senaste åren, samt att dessa bör utnyttjas i sammanhang där MFC integreras med beprövad renings- teknik, såsom membranbioreaktorer eller konstgjorda våtmarker, för att öka möjligheterna till att finna ett ekonomiskt och ekologiskt hållbart avloppsreningssystem. 

  • 44. Maity, J. P.
    et al.
    Hsu, C. -M
    Lin, T. -J
    Lee, W. -C
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Chen, C. -Y
    Removal of fluoride from water through bacterial-surfactin mediated novel hydroxyapatite nanoparticle and its efficiency assessment: Adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetic and adsorption Thermodynamics2018Ingår i: Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring and Management, ISSN 2215-1532, Vol. 9, s. 18-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluoride contamination in water due to natural and anthropogenic activities has been documented as serious problems worldwide commanding a major threat to the environment. Present study focuses to synthesis bacterial-surfactin (Bacillus subtilis) mediated nano-hydroxyapatite (HAp), novel adsorbents for defluoridation. HAp particle size and morphology were controlled by varying temperature of 90–150 °C and pH of 7–11, respectively. The TEM and SEM micrographs reveal that the short-rod particle is observed 20–30 nm at 90 °C and pH 11. The ratio between the length (nm) and width (nm) of nanoparticle are decreased from 4.17 to 1.65 with increasing pH (7–11). The selected area diffraction (SAD) of particles are indicated uniform rod-like monocrystals. The XRD and FTIR observations were indicated the synthesized HAp nanoparticles were well-crystallized with purity phase and high quality. The study reflected that the fluoride removal from contaminated water by HAp was increased significantly (R2 = 99) with the increasing adsorbent concentration, temperature and time, with two-step adsorption process as the first portion a rapid adsorption occurs during first 90 min after which equilibrium is slowly achieved. The adsorption process is closer to Freundlich isotherm (R2 &gt; 98) than to Langmuir isotherm (R2 ≈ 92), indicating HAp as a good adsorbent (n &gt; 3). Above 97% of fluoride removal were noticed at a HAp dose of 0.06 g/10 mL. The adsorption kinetics more fit with pseudo-second-order (R2= 99) in compare to pseudo-first-order (R2 ≈ 91). The slope and intercept of Arrhenius equation indicated the activation/adsorption energy (Ea) of 3.199 kJ/mol and frequency factor (A) of 1.78 1/s. Adsorption thermodynamic parameters (free energy (ΔG &lt; 0), enthalpy (ΔH &gt; 0) and entropy (ΔS &gt; 0)) indicates the spontaneous and endothermic reactions of the adsorption process. Thus, newly synthesized HAp nanoparticles exhibit as a good adsorbent for fluoride removal, theoretically and experimentally being applicable for environmental pollution control.

  • 45.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Anammox-based systems for nitrogen removal from mainstream municipal wastewater2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater with the application of deammonification process offers an operational cost reduction, especially if it is combined with a maximal use of organic content of wastewater for biogas production. In this thesis, two approaches for integration of the deammonification process into the municipal wastewater treatment scheme were studied.

    The first approach is based on ammonium concentration from municipal wastewater by ion exchange followed by biological removal of ammonium from the concentrated stream by deammonification process. Experiments with synthetic and real municipal wastewater showed that strong acid cation resin is suitable for ammonium concentration due to its high exchange capacity and fast regeneration. Since NaCl was used for regeneration of ion exchange materials, spent regenerant had elevated salinity. The deammonification biomass was adapted to NaCl content of 10-15 g/L by step-wise salinity increase. The technology was tested in batch mode with 99.9 % of ammonium removal from wastewater with ion exchange and up to 95 % of nitrogen removal from spent regenerant by deammonification process.

    The second studied approach was to apply anammox process to low-concentrated municipal wastewater in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) system without a pre-concentration step. After a 5 months period of transition to mainstream wastewater the pilot plant was operated during 22 months and stable performance of one-stage deammonification was proven. Clear advantage of IFAS system was shown. The highest stable nitrogen removal efficiency of 70 % and a nitrogen removal rate of 55 g N/(m3·d) was reached. Moreover, the influence of operation conditions on competition between ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was studied by literature review, batch tests and continuous pilot plant operation.

  • 46.
    Marques, Marcia
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Kemiteknik.
    Da Costa, M. F.
    Mayorga, M. I. D. O.
    Pinheiro, P. R. C.
    Water environments: Anthropogenic pressures and ecosystem changes in the Atlantic drainage basins of Brazil2004Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 1508-3652, Vol. 33, nr 1-2, s. 68-77Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Densely occupied drainage basins and coastal zones in developing countries that are facing economic growth are likely to suffer from moderate to severe environmental impacts regarding different issues. The catchment basins draining towards the Atlantic coast from northeastern to southern Brazil include a wide range of climatic zones and diverse ecosystems. Within its borders lies the Atlantic rain forest, significant extensions of semiarid thorn forests (caatinga), vast tree and scrub woodlands (cerrado) and most of the 6670 km of the Brazilian coast and its marine ecosystems. In recent decades, human activities have increasingly advanced over these natural resources. Littoralization has imposed a burden on coastal habitats and communities. Most of the native vegetation of the cerrado and caatinga was removed and only 7% of the original Atlantic rainforest still exists. Estuaries, bays and coastal lagoons have been irreversibly damaged. Land uses, damming and water diversion have become the major driving forces for habitat loss and aquatic ecosystem modification. Regardless of the contrast between the drought-affected northeastern Brazil and the much more prosperous and industrialized southeastern/southern Brazil, the impacts on habitat and communities were found equally severe in both cases. Attempts to halt environmental degradation have not been effective. Instead of focusing on natural resources separately, it is suggested that more integrated environmental policies that focus on aquatic ecosystems integrity are introduced.

  • 47. McConville, Jennifer
    et al.
    Kain, Jaan-Henrik
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Bridging sanitation engineering and planning: theory and practice in Burkina Faso2011Ingår i: Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, ISSN 2043-9083, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 205-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The global challenge of providing sanitation services to the un-served underlines a need to change the way in which sanitation planning and service provision is approached. This paper offers a framework for categorizing sanitation projects planning processes based on planning steps and procedural planning theory to help engineers and sanitation planners gain a deeper understanding of the dynamics of these processes. The analysis identifies and discusses trends in both guidelines and actual sanitation programs. The results show that contemporary sanitation planning guidelines and field projects utilize patchwork processes of different planning modes, although the step of designing options is dominated by an expert-driven, rational-comprehensive approach. The use of planning theory can help engineers to ask critical questions about the objectives of the planning process and to develop context-appropriate planning processes that will make a difference for improving sanitation service provision.

  • 48.
    McGivney, Eric
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Carnegie Mellon University, United States.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Effects of UV-C and Vacuum-UV TiO2 Advanced Oxidation Processes on the Acute Mortality of Microalgae2015Ingår i: Photochemistry and Photobiology, ISSN 0031-8655, E-ISSN 1751-1097, Vol. 91, nr 5, s. 1142-1149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced oxidation processes/technologies (AOT) that combine a semiconductor, such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), with a UV source have been used to eliminate microorganisms in various water treatment applications. To facilitate the applicability of this technique, the gain in efficiency from the semiconductor compared to the UV source alone with respect to different target organisms requires evaluation. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of TiO2 and UV wavelength on a freshwater alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and a marine alga, Tetraselmis suecica. For each species, dose-response experiments were conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LC50) of the following treatments: UV light emitted with a peak of 254nm, UV light emitted with a peak of 254nm in the presence of TiO2 and UV light emitted with a peak of 254 and 185nm in the presence of TiO2. In both species, the presence of TiO2 significantly increased mortality. Across all three treatments, P.subcapitata was more sensitive than T.suecica; moreover, the addition of the 185nm wavelength significantly increased cell mortality in P.subcapitata but not in T.suecica.

  • 49. Mukherjee, A. B.
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630). KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630). KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630). Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Karlsruhe, Germany .
    Occurrences of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater - A global overview2010Ingår i: Arsenic in Geosphere and Human Diseases, As 2010 - 3rd International Congress: Arsenic in the Environment, 2010, s. 3-5Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 50.
    Mutafela, Richard Nasilele
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    High Value Organic Waste Treatment via Black Soldier Fly Bioconversion: Onsite Pilot Study2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The desire for value addition to the organic waste management chain at Högbytorp using the Black Soldier Fly (BSF) process, as well as the problem of the escalating demand for protein in livestock feed motivated this study. Good quality crop land is devoted to growing feed for animals at the expense of human food, and ironically with a full understanding of the associated environmental footprints. Black Soldier Fly Larvae (BSFL) feed on organic waste voraciously while building their body composition of 40% protein and 30% fat. Their protein can be used in animal feedstock and pet food, replacing the more expensive but nutritionally comparable fishmeal, while their fat can be used for biodiesel production. They can also reduce a waste pile significantly, minimizing possible pollution. In this study, the process was tried on various waste streams (fruits, manure and ‘slurry reject’) at Högbytorp. Biomass conversion, larval fat and protein content, compost by-product characteristics and residence time requirements for each stream were assessed. The study involved literature review, chemical analyses and experimental design (rearing BSFL on waste through their lifecycle). The study yielded waste reduction up to 83% and fat and protein contents up to 42% and 41% respectively, depending on the waste stream. The residence time depended on the age at which the larvae started feeding, but ranged between 8-11 days. If applied in organic waste management chain, the process could contribute to greener energy provision (biodiesel) as well as sustainable protein provision to the animal, fish and pet industries. It could further reduce waste amounts significantly and generate income while contributing to the saving of Earth’s limited resources. 

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