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  • 1.
    Amjadimanesh, Hossein
    et al.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 71345, Iran.
    Faramarzi, Mohammad
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz, 71348, Iran.
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings. Department for Sustainable Environment and Community Development, Mälardalens University, Västerås, 72123, Sweden.
    Abouali, Omid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering. School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 71345, Iran.
    Micro-particle deposition in maxillary sinus for various sizes of opening in a virtual endoscopic surgery2023In: Experimental and Computational Multiphase Flow, ISSN 2661-8869, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 262-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment of sinusitis by surgical procedures is recommended only when medication therapies fail to relieve sinusitis symptoms. In this study, a realistic 3D model of the human upper airway system was constructed based on CT images of an adult male and three different virtual functional endoscopic sinus surgeries (FESS), including only uncinectomy and uncinectomy with two different sizes of Middle Meatal Antrostomy (MMA) performed on that model. Airflow and deposition of micro-particles in the range of 1–30 µm were numerically simulated in the postoperative cases for rest and moderate activity breathing conditions. The results showed that the uncinate process alone protects the maxillary sinus well against the entry of micro-particles, and its removal by uncinectomy allows particles to deposit on the sinus wall easily. Generally, uncinectomy with a degree of MMA increases the number of deposited particles in the maxillary sinuses compared to uncinectomy surgery alone. In the studied models, the highest particle deposition in the maxillary sinuses occurred among particles with a diameter of 10–20 µm. Also, if a person inhales particles during rest breathing conditions at a low respiratory rate, the number of particles deposited in the sinuses increases. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

  • 2. Andrade, Pedro Amarante
    et al.
    Wistbacka, Greta
    Larsson, Hans
    Sodersten, Maria
    Hammarberg, Britta
    Simberg, Susanna
    Svec, Jan G.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The Flow and Pressure Relationships in Different Tubes Commonly Used for Semi-occluded Vocal Tract Exercises2016In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 36-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study investigated the back pressure (Pback) versus flow (U) relationship for 10 different tubes commonly used for semi-occluded vocal tract exercises, that is, eight straws of different lengths and diameters, a resonance tube, and a silicone tube similar to a Lax Vox tube. All tubes were assessed with the free end in air. The resonance tube and silicone tube were further assessed with the free end under water at the depths from 1 to 7 cm in steps of 1 cm. The results showed that relative changes in the diameter of straws affect Pback considerably more compared with the same amount of relative change in length. Additionally, once tubes are submerged into water, Pback needs to overcome the pressure generated by the water depth before flow can start. Under this condition, only a small increase in Pback was observed as the flow was increased. Therefore, the wider tubes submerged into water produced an almost constant Pback determined by the water depth, whereas the thinner straws in air produced relatively large changes to Pback as flow was changed. These differences may be taken advantage of when customizing exercises for different users and diagnoses and optimizing the therapy outcome.

  • 3. Baptista La, Filipa Martins
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Pregnancy and the Singing Voice: Reports From a Case Study2012In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 431-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Significant changes in body tissues occur during pregnancy; however, literature concerning the effects of pregnancy on the voice is sparse, especially concerning the professional classically trained voice. Hypotheses. Hormonal variations and associated bodily changes during pregnancy affect phonatory conditions, such as vocal fold motility and glottal adduction. Design. Longitudinal case study with a semiprofessional classically trained singer. Methods. Audio, electrolaryngograph, oral pressure, and air flow signals were recorded once a week during the last 12 weeks of pregnancy, 48 hours after birth and during the following consecutive 11 weeks. Vocal tasks included diminuendo sequences of the syllable /pae/sung at various pitches, and performing a Lied. Phonation threshold pressures (PTPs) and collision threshold pressures (CTPs), normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), alpha ratio, and the dominance of the voice source fundamental were determined. Concentrations of sex female steroid hormones were measured on three occasions. A listening test of timbral brightness and vocal fatigue was carried out. Results. Results demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy, which were considerably reduced after birth. During pregnancy, CTPs and PTPs were high; and NAQ, alpha ratio, and dominance of the voice source fundamental suggested elevated glottal adduction. In addition, a perceptible decrease of vocal brightness was noted. Conclusions. The elevated CTPs and PTPs during pregnancy suggest reduced vocal fold motility and increased glottal adduction. These changes are compatible with expected effects of elevated concentrations of estrogen and progesterone on tissue viscosity and water retention.

  • 4. Berninger, Erik
    et al.
    Olofsson, Åke
    Leijon, Arne
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory.
    Analysis of Click-Evoked Auditory Brainstem Responses Using Time Domain Cross-Correlations Between Interleaved Responses2014In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 318-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The rapidly evolving field of early diagnostics after the introduction of newborn hearing screening requires rapid, valid, and objective methods, which have to be thoroughly evaluated in adults before use in infants. The aim was to study cross-correlation analysis of interleaved auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) in a wide dynamic range in normal-hearing adults. Off-line analysis allowed for comparison with psychoacoustical click threshold (PCT), pure-tone threshold, and determination of ABR input/output function. Specifically, nonfiltered and band-pass filtered ABRs were studied in various time segments along with time elapsed for ensemble of sweeps reaching a specific detection criterion. Design: Fourteen healthy normal-hearing subjects (18 to 35 years of age, 50% females) without any history of noise exposure participated. They all had pure-tone thresholds better than 20 dB HL (125 to 8000 Hz). ABRs were recorded in both ears using 100 sec clicks, from 71.5 dB nHL down to -18.5 dB nHL, in 10 dB steps (repetition rate, 39 Hz; time window, 15 msec; filter, 30 to 8000 Hz). The number of sweeps increased from 2000 at 71.5 dB nHL, up to 30000 at -18.5 dB nHL. Each sweep was stored in a data base for off-line analysis. Cross-correlation analysis between two subaverages of interleaved responses was performed in the time domain for nonfiltered and digitally band-pass filtered (300 to 1500 Hz) entire and time-windowed (1 to 11 and 5 to 11 msec) responses. PCTs were measured using a Bekesy technique with the same insert phone and stimulus as used for the ABR (repetition rate, 20 Hz). Time elapsed (approximate to number of accepted sweeps/repetition rate) for the ensemble of sweeps needed to reach a cross-correlation coefficient () of 0.70 (=3.7 dB signal-to-noise ratio [SNR]) was analyzed. Results: Mean cross-correlation coefficients exceeded 0.90 in both ears at stimulus levels 11.5 dB nHL for the entire nonfiltered ABR. At 1.5 dB nHL, mean(SD) was 0.53(0.32) and 0.44(0.40) for left and right ears, respectively (n = 14) (=0 dB SNR). In comparison, mean(SD) PCT was -1.9(2.9) and -2.5(3.2) dB nHL for left and right ears, respectively (n = 14), while mean pure-tone average (500 to 2000 Hz) was 2.5 dB HL (n = 28). Almost no effect of band-pass filtering or reduced analysis time window existed. Average time elapsed needed to reach = 0.70 was approximately 20 seconds or less at stimulus levels 41.5 dB nHL, and approximate to 30 seconds at 31.5 dB nHL. The average (interpolated) stimulus level corresponding to =0.70 for the entire nonfiltered ABR was 6.5 dB nHL (n = 28), which coincided with the estimated psychoacoustical threshold for single clicks. Conclusions: ABR could be identified in a short period of time using cross-correlation analysis between interleaved responses. The average stimulus level corresponding to 0 dB SNR in the entire nonfiltered ABR occurred at 1.5 dB nHL, 4 dB above the average PCT. The mean input/output function for the ensemble of sweeps required to reach = 0.70 increased monotonically with increasing stimulus level, in parallel with the ABR based on all sweeps (1.5 dB nHL). Time domain cross-correlation analysis of ABR might form the basis for automatic response identification and future threshold-seeking procedures.

  • 5.
    Björkner, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Cleveland, T
    Stone, E
    Voice source differences between registers in female musical theater singers2006In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Musical theater singing typically requires women to use two vocal registers. Our investigation considered voice source and subglottal pressure P-s characteristics of the speech pressure signal recorded for a sequence of /pae/ syllables sung at constant pitch and decreasing vocal loudness in each register by seven female musical theater singers. Ten equally spaced P-s values were selected, and the relationships between P-s and several parameters were examined; closed-quotient (Q(closed)), peak-to-peak pulse amplitude (Up-t-p), amplitude of the negative peak of the differentiated flow glottogram. ie, the maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), and the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ) [Up-t-p/(TO*MFDR)], where TO is the fundamental period. P, was typically slightly higher in chest than in head register. As P, influences the measured glottogram parameters, these were also compared at an approximately identical P-s of 11 cm H2O. Results showed that for typical tokens, MFDR and Q(closed) were significantly greater, whereas Up-t-p and therefore NAQ were significantly lower in chest than in head.

  • 6.
    Bohman, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Södersten, M.
    Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge.
    The use of channel estimation techniques for investigating vocal stress in noisy environments2003In: Ultragarsas, ISSN 1392-2114, Vol. 3, no 48, p. 9-13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7. Borch, D. Zangger
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Some Phonatory and Resonatory Characteristics of the Rock, Pop, Soul, and Swedish Dance Band Styles of Singing2011In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 532-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation aims at describing voice function of four nonclassical styles of singing, Rock, Pop, Soul, and Swedish Dance Band. A male singer, professionally experienced in performing in these genres, sang representative tunes, both with their original lyrics and on the syllable /pae/. In addition, he sang tones in a triad pattern ranging from the pitch Bb2 to the pitch C4 on the syllable /pae/in pressed and neutral phonation. An expert panel was successful in classifying the samples, thus suggesting that the samples were representative of the various styles. Subglottal pressure was estimated from oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant [p]. Flow glottograms were obtained from inverse filtering. The four lowest formant frequencies differed between the styles. The mean of the subglottal pressure and the mean of the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), that is, the ratio between the flow pulse amplitude and the product of period and maximum flow declination rate, were plotted against the mean of fundamental frequency. In these graphs, Rock and Swedish Dance Band assumed opposite extreme positions with respect to subglottal pressure and mean phonation frequency, whereas the mean NAQ values differed less between the styles.

  • 8.
    Cai, Huanchen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Mapping Phonation Types by Clustering of Multiple Metrics2022In: Applied Sciences, ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 12, no 23, p. 12092-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For voice analysis, much work has been undertaken with a multitude of acoustic and electroglottographic metrics. However, few of these have proven to be robustly correlated with physical and physiological phenomena. In particular, all metrics are affected by the fundamental frequency and sound level, making voice assessment sensitive to the recording protocol. It was investigated whether combinations of metrics, acquired over voice maps rather than with individual sustained vowels, can offer a more functional and comprehensive interpretation. For this descriptive, retrospective study, 13 men, 13 women, and 22 children were instructed to phonate on /a/ over their full voice range. Six acoustic and EGG signal features were obtained for every phonatory cycle. An unsupervised voice classification model created feature clusters, which were then displayed on voice maps. It was found that the feature clusters may be readily interpreted in terms of phonation types. For example, the typical intense voice has a high peak EGG derivative, a relatively high contact quotient, low EGG cycle-rate entropy, and a high cepstral peak prominence in the voice signal, all represented by one cluster centroid that is mapped to a given color. In a transition region between the non-contacting and contacting of the vocal folds, the combination of metrics shows a low contact quotient and relatively high entropy, which can be mapped to a different color. Based on this data set, male phonation types could be clustered into up to six categories and female and child types into four. Combining acoustic and EGG metrics resolved more categories than either kind on their own. The inter- and intra-participant distributional features are discussed.

  • 9.
    Cai, Huanchen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Chaffanjon, Philippe
    University of Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, GIPSA-lab, Grenoble, France; Medical School, Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.
    Henrich Bernardoni, Nathalie
    University of Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, GIPSA-lab, Grenoble, France.
    Effects on Voice Quality of Thyroidectomy: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study Using Voice Maps2024In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study aims to explore the effects of thyroidectomy—a surgical intervention involving the removal of the thyroid gland—on voice quality, as represented by acoustic and electroglottographic measures. Given the thyroid gland's proximity to the inferior and superior laryngeal nerves, thyroidectomy carries a potential risk of affecting vocal function. While earlier studies have documented effects on the voice range, few studies have looked at voice quality after thyroidectomy. Since voice quality effects could manifest in many ways, that a priori are unknown, we wish to apply an exploratory approach that collects many data points from several metrics.

    Methods: A voice-mapping analysis paradigm was applied retrospectively on a corpus of spoken and sung sentences produced by patients who had thyroid surgery. Voice quality changes were assessed objectively for 57 patients prior to surgery and 2 months after surgery, by making comparative voice maps, pre- and post-intervention, of six acoustic and electroglottographic (EGG) metrics.

    Results: After thyroidectomy, statistically significant changes consistent with a worsening of voice quality were observed in most metrics. For all individual metrics, however, the effect sizes were too small to be clinically relevant. Statistical clustering of the metrics helped to clarify the nature of these changes. While partial thyroidectomy demonstrated greater uniformity than did total thyroidectomy, the type of perioperative damage had no discernible impact on voice quality.ConclusionsChanges in voice quality after thyroidectomy were related mostly to increased phonatory instability in both the acoustic and EGG metrics. Clustered voice metrics exhibited a higher correlation to voice complaints than did individual voice metrics.

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  • 10. Camargo, Zuleica
    et al.
    Salomão, Gláucia Laís
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. Institutionen för Lingvistik, Stockholm Universitet / Department of Linguistics, Stockhom University.
    Pinho, Sílvia
    Análise acústica e aerodinâmica da voz (Acoustic and aerodynamic assessment of voice)2011In: Tratado de Otorrinolaringologia (Treatise on Otorhinolaryngology) / [ed] Caldas, S.; Melo, J.F.; Martins, R.H.; Selaimen, S., Sao Paulo, Brazil: Editora Roca , 2011, p. 794-804Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11. Dong, Li
    et al.
    Kong, Jiangping
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Long-term-average spectrum characteristics of Kunqu Opera singers' speaking, singing and stage speech2014In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 72-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) characteristics were analyzed for ten Kunqu Opera singers, two in each of five roles. Each singer performed singing, stage speech, and conversational speech. Differences between the roles and between their performances of these three conditions are examined. After compensating for Leq difference LTAS characteristics still differ between the roles but are similar for the three conditions, especially for Colorful face (CF) and Old man roles, and especially between reading and singing. The curves show no evidence of a singer's formant cluster peak, but the CF role demonstrates a speaker's formant peak near 3 kHz. The LTAS characteristics deviate markedly from non-singers' standard conversational speech as well as from those of Western opera singing.

  • 12. Dong, Li
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Kong, Jiangping
    Loudness and Pitch of Kunqu Opera2014In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 14-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equivalent sound level (Leq), sound pressure level (SPL), and fundamental frequency (F-0) are analyzed in each of five Kunqu Opera roles, Young girl and Young woman, Young man, Old man, and Colorful face. Their pitch ranges are similar to those of some western opera singers (alto, alto, tenor, baritone, and baritone, respectively). Differences among tasks, conditions (stage speech, singing, and reading lyrics), singers, and roles are examined. For all singers, Leq of stage speech and singing were considerably higher than that of conversational speech. Interrole differences of Leq among tasks and singers were larger than the intrarole differences. For most roles, time domain variation of SPL differed between roles both in singing and stage speech. In singing, as compared with stage speech, SPL distribution was more concentrated and variation of SPL with time was smaller. With regard to gender and age, male roles had higher mean Leq and lower average F-0, MF0, as compared with female roles. Female singers showed a wider F-0 distribution for singing than for stage speech, whereas the opposite was true for male singers. The Leq of stage speech was higher than in singing for young personages. Younger female personages showed higher Leq, whereas older male personages had higher Leq. The roles performed with higher Leq tended to be sung at a lower MF0.

  • 13. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Dippold, Sebastian
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Arndt, Susan
    Zander, Mark F.
    Richter, Bernhard
    High-Speed Imaging and Electroglottography Measurements of the Open Quotient in Untrained Male Voices' Register Transitions2010In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 644-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocal fold oscillation patterns in vocal register transitions are still unclarified. The vocal fold oscillations and the open quotient were analyzed with high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) and electroglottography (EGG) in 18 male untrained subjects singing a glissando from modal to the falsetto register. Results reveal that the open quotient changed with register in both HSDI. and EGG. The in-class correlations for different HSDI and EGG determinations of the open quotient were high. However, we found only weak interclass correlations between both methods. In ID subjects, irregularities of vocal fold vibration occurred during the register transition. Our results confirm previous observations that falsetto register is associated with a higher open quotient compared with modal register. These data suggest furthermore that irregularities typically observed in audio and electroglottographic signals during register transitions are caused by irregularities in vocal fold vibration.

  • 14. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Arndt, Susan
    Breyer, Tobias
    Markl, Michael
    Schumacher, Martin
    Richter, Bernhard
    Vocal tract and register changes analysed by real-time MRI in male professional singers - a pilot study2008In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes of vocal tract shape accompanying changes of vocal register and pitch in singing have remained an unclear field. Dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was applied to two professional classical singers (a tenor and a baritone) in this pilot study. The singers sang ascending scales from B3 to G#4 on the vowel /a/, keeping the modal register throughout or shifting to falsetto register for the highest pitches. The results show that these singers made few and minor modifications of vocal tract shape when they changed from modal to falsetto and some clear modifications when they kept the register. In this case the baritone increased his tongue dorsum height, widened his jaw opening, and decreased his jaw protrusion, while the tenor merely lifted his uvula. The method used seems promising and should be applied to a greater number of singer subjects in the future.

  • 15. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Arndt, Susan
    Markl, Michael
    Schumacher, Martin
    Richter, Bernhard
    Vocal Tract in Female Registers: A Dynamic Real-Time MRI Study2010In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 133-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The area of vocal registers is still unclarified. In a previous investigation, dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is able to produce up to 10 frames per second, was successfully applied for examinations of vocal tract modifications in register transitions in male singers. In the present study, the same MRI technique was used to study vocal tract shapes during four professional young sopranos' lower and upper register transitions. The subjects were asked to sing a scale on the vowel /a/ across their transitions. The transitions were acoustically identified by four raters. In neither of these transitions, clear vocal tract changes could be ascertained. However, substantial changes, that is, widening of the lips, opening of the jaw, elevation of the tongue dorsum, and continuous widening of the pharynx, were observed when the singers reached fundamental frequencies that were close to the frequency of the first formant of the vowel sung. These findings suggest that in these subjects register transition was not primarily the result of modifications of the vocal tract.

  • 16. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Markl, Michael
    Richter, Bernhard
    Professional Opera Tenors' Vocal Tract Configurations in Registers2010In: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, ISSN 1021-7762, E-ISSN 1421-9972, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 278-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Tenor singers may reach their top pitch range either by shifting from modal to falsetto register or by using their so-called 'voix mixte'. Material and Methods: In this study, dynamic real-time MRI of 8 frames per second was used to analyze the vocal tract profile in 10 professional opera tenors, who sang an ascending scale from C4 (262 Hz) to A4 (440 Hz) on the vowel /a/. The scale included their register transition and the singers applied both register techniques in different takes. Results: Modal to falsetto register changes were associated with only minor vocal tract modifications, including elevation and tilting of the larynx and a lifted tongue dorsum. Transitions to voix mixte, by contrast, were associated with major vocal tract modifications. Under these conditions, the subjects widened their pharynges, their lip and jaw openings, and increased their jaw protrusion. These modifications were stronger in more 'heavy' tenors than in more 'light' tenors. The acoustic consequences of these articulatory changes are discussed.

  • 17. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Zander, Mark F.
    Richter, Bernhard
    Perturbation Measurements in Untrained Male Voices' Transitions From Modal to Falsetto Register2011In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 663-669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. Voice periodicity during transitions from modal to falsetto register still remains an unclarified question. Method. We examined the acoustic and electroglottographic signals of 20 healthy untrained male voices' transitions from modal to falsetto register on the vowels /a, e, i, o, u, and ae/. Results. In addition to discontinuities in fundamental frequency (F0), an independent increase of jitter, relative average perturbation, and shimmer was observed during and apparently caused by the register transition. In falsetto, the jitter was higher than in the modal register. The contact quotient derived from the electroglottographic signal tended to be lower for higher than for lower F0. Conclusion. Register transitions are associated with increase of perturbation.

  • 18.
    Enflo, Laura
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    McAllister, Anita
    Collision and Phonation Threshold Pressures Before and After Loud, Prolonged Vocalization in Trained and Untrained Voices2013In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 527-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phonation threshold pressure (PTP) is defined as the lowest subglottal pressure needed for obtaining and sustaining vocal fold oscillation. It has been found to increase during vocal fatigue. In the present study, PTP is measured together with the threshold pressure needed for vocal fold collision; henceforth, the collision threshold pressure (CTP). PTP and CTP are compared before and after loud, prolonged vocalization in singer and nonsinger voices. Ten subjects repeated the vowel sequence /a, e, i, o, u/ at a Sound Pressure Level of at least 80 dB at 0.3 m for 20 minutes. Audio and electroglottography signals were recorded before and after this exercise. At the same time, oral pressure was registered while the subjects produced a diminuendo repeating the syllable /pa:/, thus acquiring an approximate of the subglottal pressure. CTP and PTP increased significantly after the vocal loading in the nonsinger subjects. On the other hand, singers reported no substantial effect of the exercise, and most singers had a mean after-to-before ratio close to 1 for both CTP and PTP.

  • 19. Fornhammar, L.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. Universty College of Music Education, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fuchs, M.
    Pieper, L.
    Measuring Voice Effects of Vibrato-Free and Ingressive Singing: A Study of Phonation Threshold Pressures2022In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 479-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Phonation threshold pressure (PTP), showing the lowest subglottal pressure producing vocal fold vibration, has been found useful for documenting various effects of phonatory conditions. The need for such documentation is relevant also to the teaching of singing, particularly in view of vocal demands raised in some contemporary as well as early music compositions. The aim of the present study was to test the usefulness of PTP measurement for evaluating phonatory effects of vibrato-free and ingressive singing in professional singers. Methods: PTP was measured at a middle, a high and a low pitch in two female and two male singers before and after recording voice range profiles (i) in habitual technique, ie, with vibrato, (ii) in vibrato-free, and (iii) in ingressive phonation. Effects on vocal fold status were examined by videolaryngostroboscopy. Results: After careful instruction of the singers, no problems were found in applying the PTP method. In some singers videolaryngostroboscopy showed effects after the experiment, eg, in terms of increased mucus and more complete glottal closure. After ingressive phonation PTP increased substantially at high pitch in one singer but changed marginally in the other singers. Conclusion: The method seems useful for assessing and interpreting effects of singing in different styles and as a part of voice diagnostics. Therefore, it seems worthwhile to automatize PTP measurement.

  • 20.
    Frid, Emma
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Erratum: Accessible digital musical instruments—a review of musical interfaces in inclusive music practice (Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, (2019) 3, 57, 10.3390/mti3030057)2020In: Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, ISSN 2414-4088, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 1-2, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unfortunately, some errors and imprecise descriptions were made in the final proofreading phase, and the author, therefore, wishes to make the following corrections to this paper [1]: In the Abstract, it is erroneously stated that the percentage of ADMIs that incorporated vibrotactile feedback was 15.6%. The correct percentage should be 14.5%. The same error is replicated in Section 4.4. Output Modalities, on page 11 (13 ADMIs should be 12 ADMIs), and in Section 6. Conclusions, on page 15. The author would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused by these changes. The correct percentage further supports the claim that relatively few of the ADMIs incorporated vibrotactile feedback. Based on guidelines for writing for accessibility [2], the author would like to refrain from using the term “elderly” and instead use the term “older adults” in Sections 4.5 Target User Group (page 11), 5. Discussion (page 13), and Conclusions (page 15). Minor formatting errors were identified in Figure 4, on page 9, where the terms “touchscreen” and “touchless” were mistakenly spelled “touch-screen” and “touch-less”. In Table 2, “Book Sections” should be “Book Chapters”. There were also two errors in Table 3, where “Eyes-web” should be spelled “EyesWeb” and the word “sensor” was misspelled as “senor”. The figure and table were updated to account for these mistakes.

  • 21.
    Granqvist, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Basic science. Karolinska Institutet (KI), Sweden.
    Simberg, S.
    Hertegård, S.
    Holmqvist, S.
    Larsson, H.
    Lindestad, P. -Å
    Södersten, M.
    Hammarberg, B.
    Resonance tube phonation in water: High-speed imaging, electroglottographic and oral pressure observations of vocal fold vibrations - A pilot study2015In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phonation into glass tubes (resonance tubes), keeping the free end of the tube in water, has been a frequently used voice therapy method in Finland and more recently also in other countries. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate what effects tube phonation with and without water has on the larynx. Two participants were included in the study. The methods used were high-speed imaging, electroglottographic observations of vocal fold vibrations, and measurements of oral pressure during tube phonation. Results showed that the fluctuation in the back pressure during tube phonation in water altered the vocal fold vibrations. In the high-speed imaging, effects were found in the open quotient and amplitude variation of the glottal opening. The open quotient increased with increasing water depth (from 2 cm to 6 cm). A modulation effect by the water bubbles on the vocal fold vibrations was seen both in the high-speed glottal area tracings and in the electroglottography signal. A second experiment revealed that the increased average oral pressure was largely determined by the water depth. The increased open quotient can possibly be explained by an increased abduction of the vocal folds and/or a reduced transglottal pressure. The back pressure of the bubbles also modulates glottal vibrations with a possible massage effect on the vocal folds. This effect and the well-defined average pressure increase due to the known water depth are different from those of other methods using a semi-occluded vocal tract.

  • 22. Gustafsson, J.
    et al.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Södersten, M.
    Schalling, E.
    Motor-Learning-Based Adjustment of Ambulatory Feedback on Vocal Loudness for Patients With Parkinson's Disease2016In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 407-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate how the direct biofeedback on vocal loudness administered with a portable voice accumulator (VoxLog) should be configured, to facilitate an optimal learning outcome for individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), on the basis of principles of motor learning. Study Design: Methodologic development in an experimental study. Methods: The portable voice accumulator VoxLog was worn by 20 participants with PD during habitual speech during semistructured conversations. Six different biofeedback configurations were used, in random order, to study which configuration resulted in a feedback frequency closest to 20% as recommended on the basis of previous studies. Results: Activation of feedback when the wearer speaks below a threshold level of 3dB below the speaker's mean voice sound level in habitual speech combined with an activation time of 500ms resulted in a mean feedback frequency of 21.2%. Conclusions: Settings regarding threshold and activation time based on the results from this study are recommended to achieve an optimal learning outcome when administering biofeedback on vocal loudness for individuals with PD using portable voice accumulators.

  • 23.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    The Ethics of Cranial Nerve Implants2020In: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America, ISSN 0030-6665, E-ISSN 1557-8259, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 21-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This overview of ethical and social issues pertaining to cranial nerve implants covers informed consent; risk-benefit assessments; security against unauthorized reprogramming or privacy intrusion; explantation; psychological side effects; equity and social distribution, cultural effects, for instance, on the deaf subculture; enhancement; and research ethics.

  • 24. Havel, M.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Contribution of paranasal sinuses to the acoustical properties of the nasal tract2013In: Proceedings and Report - 8th International Workshop on Models and Analysis of Vocal Emissions for Biomedical Applications, MAVEBA 2013, Firenze University Press , 2013, p. 47-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of the nasal and paranasal cavities to vocal tract resonator properties is unclear. Here we investigate resonance phenomena of paranasal sinuses with and without selective occlusion of the middle meatus, and the sphenoidal as well as the maxillary ostium in a cadaveric situs. Nasal and paranasal cavities of the thiel-embalmed cadaver were excited by sine-tone sweeps from a earphone in the epipharynx. A microphone at the nostrils picked up the response. Different conditions with blocked and unblocked middle meatus and sphenoidal ostium were tested. Additionally, infundibulotomy was performed allowing direct access to and selective occlusion of the maxillary ostium. Response curves showed high reproducibility. A marked dip was observed after removing single sided occlusion of the middle meatus and the sphenoidal ostium. A marked low frequency dip was also detected after removal of occlusion of maxillary ostium following infundibulotomy. Reproducible frequency responses of nasal tract can be derived from cadaver measurements. Marked acoustic effects of the maxillary sinus appeared only after direct exposure of the maxillary ostium following infundibulotomy.

  • 25. Havel, Miriam
    et al.
    Becker, Sven
    Schuster, Maria
    Johnson, Thorsten
    Maier, Andreas
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Effects of functional endoscopic sinus surgery on the acoustics of the sinonasal tract2017In: Rhinology, ISSN 0300-0729, E-ISSN 1996-8604, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 81-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nasal and paranasal cavities are supposed to contribute substantially to the vocal tract resonator properties. However, their acoustical effects as well as the effects of sinus surgery on the voice remain unclear. In this work we investigate resonance phenomena of paranasal sinuses prior to and after various rhinosurgical procedures in cadaveric human sinonasal tracts and corresponding 3D casts. Methodology: Nasal and paranasal cavities of formalin-preserved cadavers and corresponding 3D replicas were excited by sine tone sweeps from an earphone placed in the epipharynx.The response was picked up by a microphone at the nostrils. Different FESS procedures were performed and the acoustical responses following excitation were recorded.The measured acoustical changes in the obtained transfer functions were then evaluated. Results: Marked low frequency dips were detected in the transfer functions when sinus cavities were included in the nasal resonator system. These dips showed a significant correlation with sinus volumes. Following FESS procedures they moved upwards in frequency depending on the extent of the surgical intervention. Conclusions: The transfer functions obtained in cadaveric situs and 3D replicas showed dips at the resonance frequencies of the paranasal cavities. Marked acoustic effects in terms of increase in dip frequency following FESS procedures were reproducibly documented.

  • 26. Havel, Miriam
    et al.
    Ertl, Lena
    Bauer, Daniel
    Schuster, Maria
    Stelter, Klaus
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Resonator properties of paranasal sinuses: preliminary results of an anatomical study2014In: Rhinology, ISSN 0300-0729, E-ISSN 1996-8604, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 178-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The contribution of the nasal and paranasal cavities to vocal tract resonator properties is unclear as are voice effects of sinus surgery. Here we investigate resonance phenomena of paranasal sinuses with and without selective occlusion of the middle meatus and maxillary ostium in a cadaver. Methodology: Nasal and paranasal cavities of a Thiel-embalmed cadaver were excited by sine-tone sweeps from an earphone in the epipharynx.The response was picked up by a microphone at the nostrils. Different conditions with blocked and unblocked middle meatus were tested. Additionally, infundibulotomy was performed allowing direct access to and selective occlusion of the maxillary ostium. Results: Responses showed high reproducibility. Minor effects appeared after removal of meatal occlusion. A marked low frequency dip was detected after removal of occlusion of maxillary ostium following infundibulotomy. Conclusion: Reproducible frequency responses of nasal tract can be derived from cadaver measurements. Marked acoustic effects of the maxillary sinus appeared only after direct exposure of the maxillary ostium following infundibulotomy.

  • 27. Havel, Miriam
    et al.
    Kornes, Tanja
    Weitzberg, Eddie
    Lundberg, Jon O.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. University College of Music Education, Sweden.
    Eliminating paranasal sinus resonance and its effects on acoustic properties of the nasal tract2016In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 33-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The significance of nasal resonance and anti-resonance to voice production is a classical issue in vocal pedagogy and voice research. The complex structure of the nasal tract produces a complex frequency response. This complexity must be heavily influenced by the morphology of the paranasal cavities, but their contributions are far from being entirely understood. Detailed analyses of these cavities are difficult because of their limited accessibility. Here we test different methods aiming at documenting the acoustical properties of the paranasal tract. The first set of experiments was performed under in vivo conditions, where the middle meatus was occluded by means of targeted application of a maltodextrin mass under endoscopic control. The efficiency of this occlusion method was verified by measuring the nasal nitric oxide (NO) output during humming. In another experiment the frequency responses to sine sweep excitation of an epoxy mould of a nasal cavity were measured, with and without elimination of paranasal sinuses. The third experiment was conducted in a cadaveric situs, with and without maltodextrin occlusion of the middle meatus and the sphenoidal ostia. The results show that some nasal tract resonances were unaffected by the manipulation of the paranasal cavities. Providing access to a maxillary sinus resulted in marked dips in the response curve while access to the sphenoidal ostium caused only minor effects.

  • 28. Herbst, Christian
    et al.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    A comparison of different methods to measure the EGG contact quotient2006In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 126-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from six published electroglottographic (EGG-based) methods for calculating the EGG contact quotient (CQEGG) were compared to closed quotients derived from simultaneous videokymographic imaging (CQKYM). Two trained male singers phonated in falsetto and in chest register, with two degrees of adduction in both registers. The maximum difference between methods in the CQEGG was 0.3 (out of 1.0). The CQEGG was generally lower than the CQKYM. Within subjects, the CQEGG co-varied with the CQkym, but with changing offsets depending on method. The CQEGG cannot be calculated for falsetto phonation with little adduction, since there is no complete glottal closure. Basic criterion-level methods with thresholds of 0.2 or 0.25 gave the best match to the CQKYM data. The results suggest that contacting and de-contacting in the EGG might not refer to the same physical events as do the beginning and cessation of airflow.

  • 29.
    Iob, Naomi Anna
    et al.
    University Hospital Zurich.
    He, Lei
    University Hospital Zurich.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Cai, Huanchen
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Brockmann-Bauser, Meike
    University Hospital Zurich.
    Effects of Speech Characteristics on Electroglottographic and Instrumental Acoustic Voice Analysis Metrics in Women With Structural Dysphonia Before and After Treatment2024In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Literature suggests a dependency of the acoustic metrics, smoothed cepstral peak prominence (CPPS) and harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR), on human voice loudness and fundamental frequency (fo). Even though this has been explained with different oscillatory patterns of the vocal folds, so far, it has not been specifically investigated. In the present work, the influence of three elicitation levels, calibrated sound pressure level (SPL), fo and vowel on the electroglottographic (EGG) and time-differentiated EGG (dEGG) metrics hybrid open quotient (OQ), dEGG OQ and peak dEGG, as well as on the acous-tic metrics CPPS and HNR, was examined, and their suitability for voice assess-ment was evaluated. Method: In a retrospective study, 29 women with a mean age of 25 years (± 8.9, range: 18–53) diagnosed with structural vocal fold pathologies were examined before and after voice therapy or phonosurgery. Both acoustic and EGG signals were recorded simultaneously during the phonation of the sustained vowels /ɑ/, /i/, and /u/ at three elicited levels of loudness (soft/comfortable/loud) and unconstrained fo conditions. Results: A linear mixed-model analysis showed a significant effect of elicitation effort levels on peak dEGG, HNR, and CPPS (all p < .01). Calibrated SPL significantly influenced HNR and CPPS (both p < .01). Furthermore, F0had asignificant effect on peak dEGG and CPPS (p < .0001). All metrics showed significant changes with regard to vowel (all p < .05). However, the treatment had no effect on the examined metrics, regardless of the treatment type (surgery vs. voice therapy). Conclusions: The value of the investigated metrics for voice assessment purposes when sampled without sufficient control of SPL and fo is limited, in that they are significantly influenced by the phonatory context, be it speech or elicited sustained vowels. Future studies should explore the diagnostic value of new data collation approaches such as voice mapping, which take SPL and fo effects into account.

  • 30.
    Josefsson, Jonathan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    An Application To Improve Music For People With Hearing Loss When Doing Sports2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-known that many people like to listen to music when they are running,something that is not always available for people with hearing aids [1].The experience of music is not often taken into account when people have lostparts of their hearing, but music is in many ways important for the well-being[2]. In this project has an application been developed, to make certain audioparameters accessible for adjustments according to the users individual hearing.The parameters chosen were latency, compression, balance and loudness. Theseparameters have been chosen with the argument that they have big impact onthe experience of the music. As an example there might be latency betweenthe hearing aids between the left and the right hearing. Very often people withhearing aids have different hearing at the left and the right ear, therefore thebalance was chosen as a parameter. Compression were chosen with respect tothe fact that hearing loss often leads to less capability to hear frequencies indifferent frequencies areas. Loudness was chosen due to that it is a subjectiveparameter, that will have different impact on different individuals. The parametershave been chosen with a hypothesis that they may affect the hearingexperience for different individuals.

    The result show that the participants changed audio settings, each of theaudio parameters to different values and appreciated the function to changethese parameters. The participants said that the application developed in thisproject, improved their music experience and they said that they would appreciateto use an application like this, to get more value of listening to music. Theapplication was well designed and easy to use during a sport session.

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  • 31.
    Körner Gustafsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Södersten, Maria
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Schalling, Ellika
    Long-term effects of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment on daily voice use in Parkinson’s disease as measured with a portable voice accumulator2019In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, ISSN 1401-5439, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 124-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effects of an intensive voice treatment focusing on increasing voice intensity, LSVT LOUD¯ Lee Silverman Voice Treatment, on voice use in daily life in a participant with Parkinson’s disease, using a portable voice accumulator, the VoxLog. A secondary aim was to compare voice use between the participant and a matched healthy control. Participants were an individual with Parkinson’s disease and his healthy monozygotic twin. Voice use was registered with the VoxLog during 9 weeks for the individual with Parkinson’s disease and 2 weeks for the control. This included baseline registrations for both participants, 4 weeks during LSVT LOUD for the individual with Parkinson’s disease and 1 week after treatment for both participants. For the participant with Parkinson’s disease, follow-up registrations at 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment were made. The individual with Parkinson’s disease increased voice intensity during registrations in daily life with 4.1 dB post-treatment and 1.4 dB at 1-year follow-up compared to before treatment. When monitored during laboratory recordings an increase of 5.6 dB was seen post-treatment and 3.8 dB at 1-year follow-up. Changes in voice intensity were interpreted as a treatment effect as no significant correlations between changes in voice intensity and background noise were found for the individual with Parkinson’s disease. The increase in voice intensity in a laboratory setting was comparable to findings previously reported following LSVT LOUD. The increase registered using ambulatory monitoring in daily life was lower but still reflecting a clinically relevant change.

  • 32. La, Filipa M. B.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. University College of Music Education, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Contact Quotient Versus Closed Quotient: A Comparative Study on Professional Male Singers2015In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 148-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The term "closed quotient'' is frequently used for data derived both from inverse filtering and from electroglottography. In the former case, it is defined as the ratio between the closed phase and the period, as measured in flow glottograms (FLOGG), whereas in the latter case, it is defined as the time interval between the falling and rising parts of the electroglottogram (EGG), measured at some percentage of the peak-to-peak amplitude. The study aims at analyzing differences between EGG-and FLOGG-based closed quotients and their relationships with voice source parameters. Study Design. Comparative study. Methods. FLOGG- and EGG-based measures collected from five professional male singers were compared, under different pitch and loudness conditions. Results. Compared with the FLOGG-based quotient, the EGG-based quotient (i) varied more between subjects, (ii) presented greater values, (iii) varied less with subglottal pressure, (iv) varied less with the normalized amplitude quotient (ie, the ratio between the flow pulse amplitude and the product of period and maximum flow declination rate), and (v) varied less with the relative amplitude of the voice source fundamental. Conclusions. Although positively related, FLOGG- and EGG-based closed quotients differ and must not be confused.

  • 33. La, Filipa M. B.
    et al.
    Wistbacka, Greta
    Andrade, Pedro Amarante
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Basic science. Karolinska Institutet (KI), Sweden.
    Real-Time Visual Feedback of Airflow in Voice Training: Aerodynamic Properties of Two Flow Ball Devices2017In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 31, no 3, article id UNSP 390.e1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Flow ball devices have been used as teaching tools to provide visual real-time feedback of airflow during singing. This study aims at exploring static back pressure and ball height as function of flow for two devices, marketed as flow ball and floating ball game. Study Design. This is a comparative descriptive study. Methods. A flow-driven vocal tract simulator was used to investigate the aerodynamic properties of these two devices, testing them for four different ball sizes. The flow range investigated was between 0 and 0.5 L/s. Audio, flow, pressure, and ball height were recorded. Results. The flow pressure profiles for both tested devices were similar to those observed in previous studies on narrow tubes. For lifting the ball, both devices had a flow and a pressure threshold. The tested floating ball game required considerably higher back pressure for a given flow as compared with the flow ball. Conclusions. Both tested devices have similar effects on back pressure as straws of 3.7 and 3.0 mm in diameter for the flow ball and the floating ball game, respectively. One might argue that both devices could be used as tools for practicing semi-occluded vocal tract exercises, with the additional benefit of providing real-time visual feedback of airflow during phonation. The flow threshold, combined with the flow feedback, would increase awareness of flow, rather than of pressure, during exercises using a flow ball device.

  • 34.
    Leijon, Arne
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Comment on Ohlenforst et al. (2016) Exploring the Relationship Between Working Memory, Compressor Speed, and Background Noise Characteristics, Ear Hear 37, 137-1432017In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 643-644Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Leijon, Arne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Dillon, H.
    Hickson, L.
    Kinkel, M.
    Kramer, S. E.
    Nordqvist, Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Analysis of data from the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) using Bayesian Item Response Theory2020In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: IOI-HA response data are conventionally analysed assuming that the ordinal responses have interval-scale properties. This study critically considers this assumption and compares the conventional approach with a method using Item Response Theory (IRT). Design: A Bayesian IRT analysis model was implemented and applied to several IOI-HA data sets. Study sample: Anonymised IOI-HA responses from 13273 adult users of one or two hearing aids in 11 data sets using the Australian English, Dutch, German and Swedish versions of the IOI-HA. Results: The raw ordinal responses to IOI-HA items do not represent values on interval scales. Using the conventional rating sum as an overall score introduces a scale error corresponding to about 10 − 15% of the true standard deviation in the population. Some interesting and statistically credible differences were demonstrated among the included data sets. Conclusions: It is questionable to apply conventional statistical measures like mean, variance, t-tests, etc., on the raw IOI-HA ratings. It is recommended to apply only nonparametric statistical test methods for comparisons of IOI-HA results between groups. The scale error can sometimes cause incorrect conclusions when individual results are compared. The IRT approach is recommended for analysis of individual results.

  • 36. Lã, F.M.B.
    et al.
    Silva, L. S.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    Long-Term Average Spectrum Characteristics of Portuguese Fado-Canção from Coimbra2023In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 631.e7-631.e15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Descriptions of acoustical characteristics of Fado, a Portuguese urban style sung in Lisbon and Oporto, are scarce, particularly concerning Fado-Canção, a related style sung in Coimbra. The present study aims at describing long-term average spectrum (LTAS) parameters of 16 professional singers while singing and reading the lyrics of a typical Fado-Canção. LTAS parameters were investigated in terms of: (1) equivalent sound level (Leq); (2) spectral differences between 3 frequency bands 0–2, 2–5, and 5–8 kHz; and (3) quantification of spectral prominence between 2 and 4 kHz, calculated as the level difference between the peak in this frequency region and a reference trendline between 1 and 5 kHz, henceforth Formant Cluster Prominence (FCP). Given that Fado-Canção, besides Fado and traditional styles, originated also from classical singing, and that previous studies on Fado suggest the absence of a singer's formant cluster, the averaged LTAS for all Fado-Canção singers was further compared to the LTAS of two world-touring opera baritones singing an operatic aria and a lied. Results show that Fado-Canção is commonly sung with a Leq of 86.4 dB and a FCP of about 10 dB, values significantly higher when compared to reading. The FCP in Fado-Canção, although smaller than for the two classical opera singers’ examples (14.8 and 20 dB, respectively), suggests that the style preserved some of its original lyrical influence. However, because younger singers present higher energy in the 5–8 kHz region relative to the remaining frequency bands as compared to older singers, it seems that Fado-Canção may be drifting towards non-classical vocal practices. FCP seems to be a promising straightforward method to quantify the degree of formant clustering around the region of the singer's formant in LTAS, allowing comparisons between different singers and singing styles. 

  • 37. Lã, F.M.B.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; University College of Music Education Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granqvist, S.
    Augmented visual-feedback of airflow: Immediate effects on voice-source characteristics of students of singing2021In: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glottal adduction is a crucial aspect in voice education and vocal performance: it has major effects on phonatory airflow and, consequently, on voice timbre. As the voice is a non-visible musical instrument, controlling it could be facilitated by providing real-time visual feedback of phonatory airflow. Here, we test the usefulness of a flow ball (FB) training device, visualizing, in terms of the height of a polystyrene ball placed in a plastic basket, phonatory airflow during phonation. Audio and electroglottographic recordings of five postgraduate, classically trained singer students were made under three subsequent conditions: before, during, and after phonating into the FB. The calibrated audio signal was inverse-filtered, using an electroglottograph signal to guide the manual tuning of the inverse filters. Mean phonatory airflow, peak-to-peak pulse amplitude, and normalized amplitude quotient were extracted from the resulting flow glottograms. After the FB condition, increases of mean flow and peak-to-peak pulse amplitude were observed in four singers. In addition, the singers’ mean normalized amplitude quotient increased significantly. The findings, although exploratory, suggest that reduction of glottal adduction can be observed immediately after FB phonation. 

  • 38. Mainka, Alexander
    et al.
    Poznyakovskiy, Anton
    Platzek, Ivan
    Fleischer, Mario
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Muerbe, Dirk
    Lower Vocal Tract Morphologic Adjustments Are Relevant for Voice Timbre in Singing2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, article id e0132241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vocal tract shape is crucial to voice production. Its lower part seems particularly relevant for voice timbre. This study analyzes the detailed morphology of parts of the epilaryngeal tube and the hypopharynx for the sustained German vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ by thirteen male singer subjects who were at the beginning of their academic singing studies. Analysis was based on two different phonatory conditions: a natural, speech-like phonation and a singing phonation, like in classical singing. 3D models of the vocal tract were derived from magnetic resonance imaging and compared with long-term average spectrum analysis of audio recordings from the same subjects. Comparison of singing to the speech-like phonation, which served as reference, showed significant adjustments of the lower vocal tract: an average lowering of the larynx by 8 mm and an increase of the hypopharyngeal cross-sectional area (+21:9%) and volume (+16:8%). Changes in the analyzed epilaryngeal portion of the vocal tract were not significant. Consequently, lower larynx-to-hypopharynx area and volume ratios were found in singing compared to the speech-like phonation. All evaluated measures of the lower vocal tract varied significantly with vowel quality. Acoustically, an increase of high frequency energy in singing correlated with a wider hypopharyngeal area. The findings offer an explanation how classical male singers might succeed in producing a voice timbre with increased high frequency energy, creating a singer's formant cluster.

  • 39.
    McAllister, Anita M.
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Sjölander, Peta
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Child Voice and Noise: A Pilot Study of Noise in Day Cares and the Effects on 10 Children's Voice Quality According to Perceptual Evaluation2009In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 587-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to study children's exposure to background noise at the ears during a normal day at the day care center and also to relate this to a perceptual evaluation of voice quality. Ten children, from three day care centers, with no history of hearing and speech problems or frequent infections were selected as subjects. A binaural recording technique was used with two microphones placed on both sides of the subject's head, at equal distance from the mouth. A portable digital audio tape (DAT) recorder (Sony TCD-D 100, Stockholm, Sweden) was attached to the subject's waist. Three recordings were made for each child during the day. Each recording was calibrated and started with three repetitions of three sentences containing only sonorants. The recording technique allowed separate analyses of the background noise level and of the sound pressure level (SPL) of each subjects' own voice. Results showed a mean background noise level for the three day care centers at 82.6 dBA Leq, ranging from 81.5 to 83.6 dBA Leq. Day care center no. 2 had the highest mean value and also the highest value at any separate recording session with a mean background noise level of 85.4 dBA Leq during the noontime recordings. Perceptual evaluation showed that the children attending this day care center also received higher values on the following voice characteristics: hoarseness, breathiness, and hyperfunction. Girls increased their loudness level during the day, whereas for boys no such change could be observed.

  • 40. McAlpine, K. B.
    et al.
    Cook, J.
    Selfridge, Rod
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Hearing history: A virtual perspective on music performance2021In: 3D Audio, Taylor and Francis Inc. , 2021, p. 207-227Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41. McDonnell, Maria
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Lindestad, Per-Ake
    Larsson, Hans
    Vocal Fold Vibration and Phonation Start in Aspirated, Unaspirated, and Staccato Onset2011In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 526-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives/Hypotheses. Singers learn to produce well-controlled tone onsets by accurate synchronization of glottal adduction and buildup of subglottal pressure. Spectrographic analyses have shown that the higher spectrum partials are present also at the vowel onset in classically trained singers' performances. Such partials are produced by a sharp discontinuity in the waveform of the transglottal airflow, presumably produced by vocal fold collision. Study Design. After hearing a prompt series of a triad pattern, six singer subjects sang the same triad pattern on the vowel /i/ (1) preceded by an aspirated /p/, (2) preceded by an unaspirated /p/, and (3) without any preceding consonant in staccato. Methods. Using high-speed imaging we examined the initiation of vocal fold vibration in aspirated and unaspirated productions of the consonant /p/ as well as in the staccato tones. Results. The number vibrations failing to produce vocal fold collision were significantly higher in the aspirated /p/ than in the unaspirated /p/ and in the staccato tones. High frequency ripple in the audio waveform was significantly delayed in the aspirated /p/. Conclusions. Initiation of vocal fold collision and the appearance of high-frequency ripple in the vowel /i/ are slightly delayed in aspirated productions of a preceding consonant /p/.

  • 42.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    et al.
    Aerospace Systems, University of Cincinnati.
    Gutmark, Ephraim
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Khosla, Sid
    Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Scherer, Ronald
    Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Fuchs, Laszlo
    Energy Sciences, Lund University.
    Flow and Acoustics Simulations Based on LES and an Acoustic Analogy: an Application to Laryngeal Airflow2007In: 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting 2007, 2007, p. 11141-11153Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an efficient method for computational aeroacoustics applied to simulate the flow and the acoustics for a static laryngeal model considering the vocal folds widely open. The work analyses the whisper-like process defined as the sound generated by the turbulent glottal airflow in the absence of vocal fold vibration. A decomposition of the flow variables is used that allows separation of flow and acoustic computations. The approach consists in solving the low Mach number flow field by incompressible Large Eddy Simulation. This provides the possibility to compute the acoustic sources. The inhomogeneous wave equation derived from the fundamental equations of motion for a compressible fluid is employed to compute the acoustic field. The purpose of the study is to provide realistic numerical predictions of the flow patterns and the generated acoustic field in the glottis and the vocal tract regions.

  • 43.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Khosla, Sid
    Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Gutmark, Ephraim
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Quantification of the false vocal-folds effects on the intra-glottal pressures using large eddy simulation2013In: Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics: Volume 19, 2013, Acoustical Society of America (ASA), 2013, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the closing phase of the phonation cycle the true vocal-folds (TVF) have a convergent-divergent shape. The negative pressures generated by the flow through the glottal passage are producing closing forces acting on the TVFs. They can affect both vocal-fold vibration and voice production, since they can accelerate the closing phase. Large Eddy Simulation approach is used to investigate the intra-glottal forces generated solely by the flow during the closing phase. The influence of the gap between the false vocal-folds (FVFs) and the location of FVFs with respect to the TVFs are analyzed. Based on anatomical measurements, four different widths between the FVFs and two different distances between the true and false vocal-folds are investigated for the same trans-laryngeal pressure. The TVFs gap is kept constant. All cases exhibit a non-symmetric flow behavior in the mid-frontal plane. As the distance between the FVFs is decrease beyond a threshold value (still greater than glottal width), there is an increase in the magnitude of the closing forces acting on the TVFs. On the divergent slope of the glottis, these forces were found for some of the cases to be up to four times greater in magnitude as compared with the Baseline case.

  • 44.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    et al.
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Khosla, Sid
    Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Murugappan, Shanmugam
    Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Gutmark, Ephraim
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Unsteady laryngeal airflow simulations of the intra-glottal vortical structures2010In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 127, no 1, p. 435-444Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45. Millgård, M.
    et al.
    Fors, T.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. University College of Music Education, Sweden.
    Flow Glottogram Characteristics and Perceived Degree of Phonatory Pressedness2015In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 287-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Phonatory pressedness is a clinically relevant aspect of voice, which generally is analyzed by auditory perception. The present investigation aimed at identifying voice source and formant characteristics related to experts' ratings of phonatory pressedness. Study Design: Experimental study of the relations between visual analog scale ratings of phonatory pressedness and voice source parameters in healthy voices. Methods: Audio, electroglottogram, and subglottal pressure, estimated from oral pressure during /p/ occlusion, were recorded from five female and six male subjects, each of whom deliberately varied phonation type between neutral, flow, and pressed in the syllable /pae/, produced at three loudness levels and three pitches. Speech-language pathologists rated, along a visual analog scale, the degree of perceived phonatory pressedness in these samples. Results: The samples were analyzed by means of inverse filtering with regard to closed quotient, dominance of the voice source fundamental, normalized amplitude quotient, peak-to-peak flow amplitude, as well as formant frequencies and the alpha ratio of spectrum energy above and below 1000Hz. The results were compared with the rating data, which showed that the ratings were closely related to voice source parameters. Conclusions: Approximately, 70% of the variance of the ratings could be explained by the voice source parameters. A multiple linear regression analysis suggested that perceived phonatory pressedness is related most closely to subglottal pressure, closed quotient, and the two lowest formants.

  • 46.
    Mylavarapu, Goutham
    et al.
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Gutmark, Ephraim
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Murugappan, Shanmugam
    Otolargyngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa
    Dept. Energy Sciences, Division of Fluid Mechanics, Lund University.
    Fuchs, Laszlo
    Dept. Energy Sciences, Division of Fluid Mechanics, Lund University.
    Papatziamos, Georgios
    Karolinska Hospital Solna.
    Importance of paranasal sinuses in computational modeling of nasal airflow2009In: 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, AIAA , 2009, p. 2009-0772-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the importance of including paranasal sinuses in the computational modeling of the nasal airflow. Three dimensional models of human nasal airway with and without including paranasal sinuses were reconstructed from Computed Tomography (CT) axial images of a subject with healthy nasal airway. The reconstruction process was performed using MIMICS® software program. The airway volume was discretized using TGRID® mesh generator. Steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations were carried in both inspiratory and expiratory phases of respiratory cycle at a peak flow rate of 15 L/min in FLUENT®. The results show that the left and right nasal resistances change with less than 11% when paranasal sinuses are included in the computational model of the nasal airway. The flow into the sinuses is characterized by very low velocities during both inspiration and expiration conditions. The velocity distributions in the main nasal passage show small change predominantly in regions closer to the paranasal sinuses when compared to the model where sinuses were not included.

  • 47.
    Mylavarapu, Goutham
    et al.
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Gutmark, Ephraim
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Murugappan, Shanmugam
    Otolargyngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Zimmer, Lee
    University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Seiden, Allen
    University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling of nasal airflow to understand drug delivery process2010In: 40th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, AIAA , 2010, p. 2010-4735-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is often used in multidisciplinary studies like respiratory flows in understanding the flow mechanisms and in optimizing therapeutic and surgical treatments in patients with respiratory disorders. This study is one such attempt to understand nasal drug delivery processes. Three dimensional anatomically accurate nasal airway model is reconstructed from axial Computed Tomography (CT) scans of a patient using MIMICS®. Computational volume for the nasal airway model is discretized using TGRID® and Gambit®. Flow and Particle tracking simulations are carried for a range of peak inspiratory flow rates 7.5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 lpm and particle diameters in range of 0.5 -30 μm using commercial CFD package FLUENT®. Flow field is solved using a steady RANS k-ω SST turbulence closure model. For discrete phase modeling (DPM), a stochastic random walk model with a random eddy life time is used for turbulent dissipation. Effect of particle deposition efficiencies in nasal airway with several factors like particle diameter, particle density, turbulence intensity, injection types, flow rate, spray half-cone angles were studied. Increase in particle diameter, particle diameter or flow rate or all increases impaction factor and also chances of total particle deposition. Increase in turbulence intensities shows only small improvement in particle deposition and that too for smaller particle diameters only (<10 μm). Modes of particle injection studied in this report have not so significant improvement in terms of total deposition; however local deposition varies with modes of injections. In spray injection, half cone-angles appear to have little influence on total particle depositions.

  • 48. Mürbe, D.
    et al.
    Roers, F.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Stimmgattung professioneller Sänger: Einfluss von Stimmlippenlänge, Vokaltraktdimensionen und Körpermaßen2011In: HNO (Berlin. Print), ISSN 0017-6192, E-ISSN 1433-0458, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 556-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional voice performance is strongly affected by the functional adjustments of the structures involved in voice production. Generally, these functional skills are required by means of intensive training. On the other hand, the individual morphology of the larynx and vocal tract limits this functional variability. Thus, to neglect morphological conditions might result in voice problems. The present paper summarizes investigations on the influence of morphological measurements on the voice classification of professional singers. Vocal fold length, vocal tract length and body height have been found to differ systematically between sopranos, mezzosopranos, altos, tenors, baritones and basses. Although the knowledge of morphological measures does not permit a definite assignment or prediction of the individual voice classification, the data are valuable for counseling by voice teachers and phoniatricians. This might contribute to the prevention of voice disorders.

  • 49. Nienkerke-Springer, A
    et al.
    McAllister, T
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Effects of family therapy on children's voices2005In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 103-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The families of nine children with deviant voice qualities were selected for family treatment according to the SYGESTI model. Recordings of the children's speech were made before and after therapy. Perceptual evaluation of their voice quality showed significant improvement in various perceptual parameters after the therapy. Acoustical analysis confirmed changes of voice quality and mean fundamental frequency in speech. The therapy also was found to improve relations between family members, conflict management and other aspects of communication. The results suggest that these children's deviant voices were related to family conditions.

  • 50. Nilsson, Mats E.
    et al.
    Schenkman, Bo N.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium.
    Blind people are more sensitive than sighted people to binaural sound-location cues, particularly inter-aural level differences2016In: Hearing Research, ISSN 0378-5955, E-ISSN 1878-5891, Vol. 332, p. 223-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blind people use auditory information to locate sound sources and sound-reflecting objects (echolocation). Sound source localization benefits from the hearing system's ability to suppress distracting sound reflections, whereas echolocation would benefit from "unsuppressing" these reflections. To clarify how these potentially conflicting aspects of spatial hearing interact in blind versus sighted listeners, we measured discrimination thresholds for two binaural location cues: inter-aural level differences (ILDs) and inter-aural time differences (ITDs). The ILDs or ITDs were present in single clicks, in the leading component of click pairs, or in the lagging component of click pairs, exploiting processes related to both sound source localization and echolocation. We tested 23 blind (mean age = 54 y), 23 sighted-age matched (mean age = 54 y), and 42 sighted-young (mean age = 26 y) listeners. The results suggested greater ILD sensitivity for blind than for sighted listeners. The blind group's superiority was particularly evident for ILD-lag-click discrimination, suggesting not only enhanced ILD sensitivity in general but also increased ability to unsuppress lagging clicks. This may be related to the blind person's experience of localizing reflected sounds, for which ILDs may be more efficient than ITDs. On the ITD-discrimination tasks, the blind listeners performed better than the sighted age-matched listeners, but not better than the sighted young listeners. ITD sensitivity declines with age, and the equal performance of the blind listeners compared to a group of substantially younger listeners is consistent with the notion that blind people's experience may offset age-related decline in ITD sensitivity.

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