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  • 1. Andrade, Pedro Amarante
    et al.
    Wistbacka, Greta
    Larsson, Hans
    Sodersten, Maria
    Hammarberg, Britta
    Simberg, Susanna
    Svec, Jan G.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The Flow and Pressure Relationships in Different Tubes Commonly Used for Semi-occluded Vocal Tract Exercises2016In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 36-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study investigated the back pressure (Pback) versus flow (U) relationship for 10 different tubes commonly used for semi-occluded vocal tract exercises, that is, eight straws of different lengths and diameters, a resonance tube, and a silicone tube similar to a Lax Vox tube. All tubes were assessed with the free end in air. The resonance tube and silicone tube were further assessed with the free end under water at the depths from 1 to 7 cm in steps of 1 cm. The results showed that relative changes in the diameter of straws affect Pback considerably more compared with the same amount of relative change in length. Additionally, once tubes are submerged into water, Pback needs to overcome the pressure generated by the water depth before flow can start. Under this condition, only a small increase in Pback was observed as the flow was increased. Therefore, the wider tubes submerged into water produced an almost constant Pback determined by the water depth, whereas the thinner straws in air produced relatively large changes to Pback as flow was changed. These differences may be taken advantage of when customizing exercises for different users and diagnoses and optimizing the therapy outcome.

  • 2. Baptista La, Filipa Martins
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Pregnancy and the Singing Voice: Reports From a Case Study2012In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 431-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Significant changes in body tissues occur during pregnancy; however, literature concerning the effects of pregnancy on the voice is sparse, especially concerning the professional classically trained voice. Hypotheses. Hormonal variations and associated bodily changes during pregnancy affect phonatory conditions, such as vocal fold motility and glottal adduction. Design. Longitudinal case study with a semiprofessional classically trained singer. Methods. Audio, electrolaryngograph, oral pressure, and air flow signals were recorded once a week during the last 12 weeks of pregnancy, 48 hours after birth and during the following consecutive 11 weeks. Vocal tasks included diminuendo sequences of the syllable /pae/sung at various pitches, and performing a Lied. Phonation threshold pressures (PTPs) and collision threshold pressures (CTPs), normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), alpha ratio, and the dominance of the voice source fundamental were determined. Concentrations of sex female steroid hormones were measured on three occasions. A listening test of timbral brightness and vocal fatigue was carried out. Results. Results demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy, which were considerably reduced after birth. During pregnancy, CTPs and PTPs were high; and NAQ, alpha ratio, and dominance of the voice source fundamental suggested elevated glottal adduction. In addition, a perceptible decrease of vocal brightness was noted. Conclusions. The elevated CTPs and PTPs during pregnancy suggest reduced vocal fold motility and increased glottal adduction. These changes are compatible with expected effects of elevated concentrations of estrogen and progesterone on tissue viscosity and water retention.

  • 3. Berninger, Erik
    et al.
    Olofsson, Åke
    Leijon, Arne
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory.
    Analysis of Click-Evoked Auditory Brainstem Responses Using Time Domain Cross-Correlations Between Interleaved Responses2014In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 318-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The rapidly evolving field of early diagnostics after the introduction of newborn hearing screening requires rapid, valid, and objective methods, which have to be thoroughly evaluated in adults before use in infants. The aim was to study cross-correlation analysis of interleaved auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) in a wide dynamic range in normal-hearing adults. Off-line analysis allowed for comparison with psychoacoustical click threshold (PCT), pure-tone threshold, and determination of ABR input/output function. Specifically, nonfiltered and band-pass filtered ABRs were studied in various time segments along with time elapsed for ensemble of sweeps reaching a specific detection criterion. Design: Fourteen healthy normal-hearing subjects (18 to 35 years of age, 50% females) without any history of noise exposure participated. They all had pure-tone thresholds better than 20 dB HL (125 to 8000 Hz). ABRs were recorded in both ears using 100 sec clicks, from 71.5 dB nHL down to -18.5 dB nHL, in 10 dB steps (repetition rate, 39 Hz; time window, 15 msec; filter, 30 to 8000 Hz). The number of sweeps increased from 2000 at 71.5 dB nHL, up to 30000 at -18.5 dB nHL. Each sweep was stored in a data base for off-line analysis. Cross-correlation analysis between two subaverages of interleaved responses was performed in the time domain for nonfiltered and digitally band-pass filtered (300 to 1500 Hz) entire and time-windowed (1 to 11 and 5 to 11 msec) responses. PCTs were measured using a Bekesy technique with the same insert phone and stimulus as used for the ABR (repetition rate, 20 Hz). Time elapsed (approximate to number of accepted sweeps/repetition rate) for the ensemble of sweeps needed to reach a cross-correlation coefficient () of 0.70 (=3.7 dB signal-to-noise ratio [SNR]) was analyzed. Results: Mean cross-correlation coefficients exceeded 0.90 in both ears at stimulus levels 11.5 dB nHL for the entire nonfiltered ABR. At 1.5 dB nHL, mean(SD) was 0.53(0.32) and 0.44(0.40) for left and right ears, respectively (n = 14) (=0 dB SNR). In comparison, mean(SD) PCT was -1.9(2.9) and -2.5(3.2) dB nHL for left and right ears, respectively (n = 14), while mean pure-tone average (500 to 2000 Hz) was 2.5 dB HL (n = 28). Almost no effect of band-pass filtering or reduced analysis time window existed. Average time elapsed needed to reach = 0.70 was approximately 20 seconds or less at stimulus levels 41.5 dB nHL, and approximate to 30 seconds at 31.5 dB nHL. The average (interpolated) stimulus level corresponding to =0.70 for the entire nonfiltered ABR was 6.5 dB nHL (n = 28), which coincided with the estimated psychoacoustical threshold for single clicks. Conclusions: ABR could be identified in a short period of time using cross-correlation analysis between interleaved responses. The average stimulus level corresponding to 0 dB SNR in the entire nonfiltered ABR occurred at 1.5 dB nHL, 4 dB above the average PCT. The mean input/output function for the ensemble of sweeps required to reach = 0.70 increased monotonically with increasing stimulus level, in parallel with the ABR based on all sweeps (1.5 dB nHL). Time domain cross-correlation analysis of ABR might form the basis for automatic response identification and future threshold-seeking procedures.

  • 4.
    Björkner, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Cleveland, T
    Stone, E
    Voice source differences between registers in female musical theater singers2006In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Musical theater singing typically requires women to use two vocal registers. Our investigation considered voice source and subglottal pressure P-s characteristics of the speech pressure signal recorded for a sequence of /pae/ syllables sung at constant pitch and decreasing vocal loudness in each register by seven female musical theater singers. Ten equally spaced P-s values were selected, and the relationships between P-s and several parameters were examined; closed-quotient (Q(closed)), peak-to-peak pulse amplitude (Up-t-p), amplitude of the negative peak of the differentiated flow glottogram. ie, the maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), and the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ) [Up-t-p/(TO*MFDR)], where TO is the fundamental period. P, was typically slightly higher in chest than in head register. As P, influences the measured glottogram parameters, these were also compared at an approximately identical P-s of 11 cm H2O. Results showed that for typical tokens, MFDR and Q(closed) were significantly greater, whereas Up-t-p and therefore NAQ were significantly lower in chest than in head.

  • 5.
    Bohman, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Södersten, M.
    Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge.
    The use of channel estimation techniques for investigating vocal stress in noisy environments2003In: Ultragarsas, ISSN 1392-2114, Vol. 3, no 48, p. 9-13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6. Borch, D. Zangger
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Some Phonatory and Resonatory Characteristics of the Rock, Pop, Soul, and Swedish Dance Band Styles of Singing2011In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 532-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation aims at describing voice function of four nonclassical styles of singing, Rock, Pop, Soul, and Swedish Dance Band. A male singer, professionally experienced in performing in these genres, sang representative tunes, both with their original lyrics and on the syllable /pae/. In addition, he sang tones in a triad pattern ranging from the pitch Bb2 to the pitch C4 on the syllable /pae/in pressed and neutral phonation. An expert panel was successful in classifying the samples, thus suggesting that the samples were representative of the various styles. Subglottal pressure was estimated from oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant [p]. Flow glottograms were obtained from inverse filtering. The four lowest formant frequencies differed between the styles. The mean of the subglottal pressure and the mean of the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), that is, the ratio between the flow pulse amplitude and the product of period and maximum flow declination rate, were plotted against the mean of fundamental frequency. In these graphs, Rock and Swedish Dance Band assumed opposite extreme positions with respect to subglottal pressure and mean phonation frequency, whereas the mean NAQ values differed less between the styles.

  • 7. Camargo, Zuleica
    et al.
    Salomão, Gláucia Laís
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Pinho, Sílvia
    Análise acústica e aerodinâmica da voz (Acoustic and aerodynamic assessment of voice)2011In: Tratado de Otorrinolaringologia (Treatise on Otorhinolaryngology) / [ed] Caldas, S.; Melo, J.F.; Martins, R.H.; Selaimen, S., Sao Paulo: Editora Roca , 2011, p. 794-804Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8. Dong, Li
    et al.
    Kong, Jiangping
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Long-term-average spectrum characteristics of Kunqu Opera singers' speaking, singing and stage speech2014In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 72-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) characteristics were analyzed for ten Kunqu Opera singers, two in each of five roles. Each singer performed singing, stage speech, and conversational speech. Differences between the roles and between their performances of these three conditions are examined. After compensating for Leq difference LTAS characteristics still differ between the roles but are similar for the three conditions, especially for Colorful face (CF) and Old man roles, and especially between reading and singing. The curves show no evidence of a singer's formant cluster peak, but the CF role demonstrates a speaker's formant peak near 3 kHz. The LTAS characteristics deviate markedly from non-singers' standard conversational speech as well as from those of Western opera singing.

  • 9. Dong, Li
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Kong, Jiangping
    Loudness and Pitch of Kunqu Opera2014In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 14-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equivalent sound level (Leq), sound pressure level (SPL), and fundamental frequency (F-0) are analyzed in each of five Kunqu Opera roles, Young girl and Young woman, Young man, Old man, and Colorful face. Their pitch ranges are similar to those of some western opera singers (alto, alto, tenor, baritone, and baritone, respectively). Differences among tasks, conditions (stage speech, singing, and reading lyrics), singers, and roles are examined. For all singers, Leq of stage speech and singing were considerably higher than that of conversational speech. Interrole differences of Leq among tasks and singers were larger than the intrarole differences. For most roles, time domain variation of SPL differed between roles both in singing and stage speech. In singing, as compared with stage speech, SPL distribution was more concentrated and variation of SPL with time was smaller. With regard to gender and age, male roles had higher mean Leq and lower average F-0, MF0, as compared with female roles. Female singers showed a wider F-0 distribution for singing than for stage speech, whereas the opposite was true for male singers. The Leq of stage speech was higher than in singing for young personages. Younger female personages showed higher Leq, whereas older male personages had higher Leq. The roles performed with higher Leq tended to be sung at a lower MF0.

  • 10. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Dippold, Sebastian
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Arndt, Susan
    Zander, Mark F.
    Richter, Bernhard
    High-Speed Imaging and Electroglottography Measurements of the Open Quotient in Untrained Male Voices' Register Transitions2010In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 644-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocal fold oscillation patterns in vocal register transitions are still unclarified. The vocal fold oscillations and the open quotient were analyzed with high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) and electroglottography (EGG) in 18 male untrained subjects singing a glissando from modal to the falsetto register. Results reveal that the open quotient changed with register in both HSDI. and EGG. The in-class correlations for different HSDI and EGG determinations of the open quotient were high. However, we found only weak interclass correlations between both methods. In ID subjects, irregularities of vocal fold vibration occurred during the register transition. Our results confirm previous observations that falsetto register is associated with a higher open quotient compared with modal register. These data suggest furthermore that irregularities typically observed in audio and electroglottographic signals during register transitions are caused by irregularities in vocal fold vibration.

  • 11. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Arndt, Susan
    Breyer, Tobias
    Markl, Michael
    Schumacher, Martin
    Richter, Bernhard
    Vocal tract and register changes analysed by real-time MRI in male professional singers - a pilot study2008In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes of vocal tract shape accompanying changes of vocal register and pitch in singing have remained an unclear field. Dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was applied to two professional classical singers (a tenor and a baritone) in this pilot study. The singers sang ascending scales from B3 to G#4 on the vowel /a/, keeping the modal register throughout or shifting to falsetto register for the highest pitches. The results show that these singers made few and minor modifications of vocal tract shape when they changed from modal to falsetto and some clear modifications when they kept the register. In this case the baritone increased his tongue dorsum height, widened his jaw opening, and decreased his jaw protrusion, while the tenor merely lifted his uvula. The method used seems promising and should be applied to a greater number of singer subjects in the future.

  • 12. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Arndt, Susan
    Markl, Michael
    Schumacher, Martin
    Richter, Bernhard
    Vocal Tract in Female Registers: A Dynamic Real-Time MRI Study2010In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 133-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The area of vocal registers is still unclarified. In a previous investigation, dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is able to produce up to 10 frames per second, was successfully applied for examinations of vocal tract modifications in register transitions in male singers. In the present study, the same MRI technique was used to study vocal tract shapes during four professional young sopranos' lower and upper register transitions. The subjects were asked to sing a scale on the vowel /a/ across their transitions. The transitions were acoustically identified by four raters. In neither of these transitions, clear vocal tract changes could be ascertained. However, substantial changes, that is, widening of the lips, opening of the jaw, elevation of the tongue dorsum, and continuous widening of the pharynx, were observed when the singers reached fundamental frequencies that were close to the frequency of the first formant of the vowel sung. These findings suggest that in these subjects register transition was not primarily the result of modifications of the vocal tract.

  • 13. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Markl, Michael
    Richter, Bernhard
    Professional Opera Tenors' Vocal Tract Configurations in Registers2010In: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, ISSN 1021-7762, E-ISSN 1421-9972, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 278-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Tenor singers may reach their top pitch range either by shifting from modal to falsetto register or by using their so-called 'voix mixte'. Material and Methods: In this study, dynamic real-time MRI of 8 frames per second was used to analyze the vocal tract profile in 10 professional opera tenors, who sang an ascending scale from C4 (262 Hz) to A4 (440 Hz) on the vowel /a/. The scale included their register transition and the singers applied both register techniques in different takes. Results: Modal to falsetto register changes were associated with only minor vocal tract modifications, including elevation and tilting of the larynx and a lifted tongue dorsum. Transitions to voix mixte, by contrast, were associated with major vocal tract modifications. Under these conditions, the subjects widened their pharynges, their lip and jaw openings, and increased their jaw protrusion. These modifications were stronger in more 'heavy' tenors than in more 'light' tenors. The acoustic consequences of these articulatory changes are discussed.

  • 14. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Zander, Mark F.
    Richter, Bernhard
    Perturbation Measurements in Untrained Male Voices' Transitions From Modal to Falsetto Register2011In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 663-669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. Voice periodicity during transitions from modal to falsetto register still remains an unclarified question. Method. We examined the acoustic and electroglottographic signals of 20 healthy untrained male voices' transitions from modal to falsetto register on the vowels /a, e, i, o, u, and ae/. Results. In addition to discontinuities in fundamental frequency (F0), an independent increase of jitter, relative average perturbation, and shimmer was observed during and apparently caused by the register transition. In falsetto, the jitter was higher than in the modal register. The contact quotient derived from the electroglottographic signal tended to be lower for higher than for lower F0. Conclusion. Register transitions are associated with increase of perturbation.

  • 15.
    Enflo, Laura
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    McAllister, Anita
    Collision and Phonation Threshold Pressures Before and After Loud, Prolonged Vocalization in Trained and Untrained Voices2013In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 527-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phonation threshold pressure (PTP) is defined as the lowest subglottal pressure needed for obtaining and sustaining vocal fold oscillation. It has been found to increase during vocal fatigue. In the present study, PTP is measured together with the threshold pressure needed for vocal fold collision; henceforth, the collision threshold pressure (CTP). PTP and CTP are compared before and after loud, prolonged vocalization in singer and nonsinger voices. Ten subjects repeated the vowel sequence /a, e, i, o, u/ at a Sound Pressure Level of at least 80 dB at 0.3 m for 20 minutes. Audio and electroglottography signals were recorded before and after this exercise. At the same time, oral pressure was registered while the subjects produced a diminuendo repeating the syllable /pa:/, thus acquiring an approximate of the subglottal pressure. CTP and PTP increased significantly after the vocal loading in the nonsinger subjects. On the other hand, singers reported no substantial effect of the exercise, and most singers had a mean after-to-before ratio close to 1 for both CTP and PTP.

  • 16.
    Granqvist, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Basic science. Karolinska Institutet (KI), Sweden.
    Simberg, S.
    Hertegård, S.
    Holmqvist, S.
    Larsson, H.
    Lindestad, P. -Å
    Södersten, M.
    Hammarberg, B.
    Resonance tube phonation in water: High-speed imaging, electroglottographic and oral pressure observations of vocal fold vibrations - A pilot study2015In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phonation into glass tubes (resonance tubes), keeping the free end of the tube in water, has been a frequently used voice therapy method in Finland and more recently also in other countries. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate what effects tube phonation with and without water has on the larynx. Two participants were included in the study. The methods used were high-speed imaging, electroglottographic observations of vocal fold vibrations, and measurements of oral pressure during tube phonation. Results showed that the fluctuation in the back pressure during tube phonation in water altered the vocal fold vibrations. In the high-speed imaging, effects were found in the open quotient and amplitude variation of the glottal opening. The open quotient increased with increasing water depth (from 2 cm to 6 cm). A modulation effect by the water bubbles on the vocal fold vibrations was seen both in the high-speed glottal area tracings and in the electroglottography signal. A second experiment revealed that the increased average oral pressure was largely determined by the water depth. The increased open quotient can possibly be explained by an increased abduction of the vocal folds and/or a reduced transglottal pressure. The back pressure of the bubbles also modulates glottal vibrations with a possible massage effect on the vocal folds. This effect and the well-defined average pressure increase due to the known water depth are different from those of other methods using a semi-occluded vocal tract.

  • 17. Gustafsson, J.
    et al.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Södersten, M.
    Schalling, E.
    Motor-Learning-Based Adjustment of Ambulatory Feedback on Vocal Loudness for Patients With Parkinson's Disease2016In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 407-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate how the direct biofeedback on vocal loudness administered with a portable voice accumulator (VoxLog) should be configured, to facilitate an optimal learning outcome for individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), on the basis of principles of motor learning. Study Design: Methodologic development in an experimental study. Methods: The portable voice accumulator VoxLog was worn by 20 participants with PD during habitual speech during semistructured conversations. Six different biofeedback configurations were used, in random order, to study which configuration resulted in a feedback frequency closest to 20% as recommended on the basis of previous studies. Results: Activation of feedback when the wearer speaks below a threshold level of 3dB below the speaker's mean voice sound level in habitual speech combined with an activation time of 500ms resulted in a mean feedback frequency of 21.2%. Conclusions: Settings regarding threshold and activation time based on the results from this study are recommended to achieve an optimal learning outcome when administering biofeedback on vocal loudness for individuals with PD using portable voice accumulators.

  • 18. Havel, Miriam
    et al.
    Becker, Sven
    Schuster, Maria
    Johnson, Thorsten
    Maier, Andreas
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Effects of functional endoscopic sinus surgery on the acoustics of the sinonasal tract2017In: Rhinology, ISSN 0300-0729, E-ISSN 1996-8604, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 81-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nasal and paranasal cavities are supposed to contribute substantially to the vocal tract resonator properties. However, their acoustical effects as well as the effects of sinus surgery on the voice remain unclear. In this work we investigate resonance phenomena of paranasal sinuses prior to and after various rhinosurgical procedures in cadaveric human sinonasal tracts and corresponding 3D casts. Methodology: Nasal and paranasal cavities of formalin-preserved cadavers and corresponding 3D replicas were excited by sine tone sweeps from an earphone placed in the epipharynx.The response was picked up by a microphone at the nostrils. Different FESS procedures were performed and the acoustical responses following excitation were recorded.The measured acoustical changes in the obtained transfer functions were then evaluated. Results: Marked low frequency dips were detected in the transfer functions when sinus cavities were included in the nasal resonator system. These dips showed a significant correlation with sinus volumes. Following FESS procedures they moved upwards in frequency depending on the extent of the surgical intervention. Conclusions: The transfer functions obtained in cadaveric situs and 3D replicas showed dips at the resonance frequencies of the paranasal cavities. Marked acoustic effects in terms of increase in dip frequency following FESS procedures were reproducibly documented.

  • 19. Havel, Miriam
    et al.
    Ertl, Lena
    Bauer, Daniel
    Schuster, Maria
    Stelter, Klaus
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Resonator properties of paranasal sinuses: preliminary results of an anatomical study2014In: Rhinology, ISSN 0300-0729, E-ISSN 1996-8604, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 178-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The contribution of the nasal and paranasal cavities to vocal tract resonator properties is unclear as are voice effects of sinus surgery. Here we investigate resonance phenomena of paranasal sinuses with and without selective occlusion of the middle meatus and maxillary ostium in a cadaver. Methodology: Nasal and paranasal cavities of a Thiel-embalmed cadaver were excited by sine-tone sweeps from an earphone in the epipharynx.The response was picked up by a microphone at the nostrils. Different conditions with blocked and unblocked middle meatus were tested. Additionally, infundibulotomy was performed allowing direct access to and selective occlusion of the maxillary ostium. Results: Responses showed high reproducibility. Minor effects appeared after removal of meatal occlusion. A marked low frequency dip was detected after removal of occlusion of maxillary ostium following infundibulotomy. Conclusion: Reproducible frequency responses of nasal tract can be derived from cadaver measurements. Marked acoustic effects of the maxillary sinus appeared only after direct exposure of the maxillary ostium following infundibulotomy.

  • 20. Havel, Miriam
    et al.
    Kornes, Tanja
    Weitzberg, Eddie
    Lundberg, Jon O.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. University College of Music Education, Sweden.
    Eliminating paranasal sinus resonance and its effects on acoustic properties of the nasal tract2016In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 33-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The significance of nasal resonance and anti-resonance to voice production is a classical issue in vocal pedagogy and voice research. The complex structure of the nasal tract produces a complex frequency response. This complexity must be heavily influenced by the morphology of the paranasal cavities, but their contributions are far from being entirely understood. Detailed analyses of these cavities are difficult because of their limited accessibility. Here we test different methods aiming at documenting the acoustical properties of the paranasal tract. The first set of experiments was performed under in vivo conditions, where the middle meatus was occluded by means of targeted application of a maltodextrin mass under endoscopic control. The efficiency of this occlusion method was verified by measuring the nasal nitric oxide (NO) output during humming. In another experiment the frequency responses to sine sweep excitation of an epoxy mould of a nasal cavity were measured, with and without elimination of paranasal sinuses. The third experiment was conducted in a cadaveric situs, with and without maltodextrin occlusion of the middle meatus and the sphenoidal ostia. The results show that some nasal tract resonances were unaffected by the manipulation of the paranasal cavities. Providing access to a maxillary sinus resulted in marked dips in the response curve while access to the sphenoidal ostium caused only minor effects.

  • 21. Herbst, Christian
    et al.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    A comparison of different methods to measure the EGG contact quotient2006In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 126-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from six published electroglottographic (EGG-based) methods for calculating the EGG contact quotient (CQEGG) were compared to closed quotients derived from simultaneous videokymographic imaging (CQKYM). Two trained male singers phonated in falsetto and in chest register, with two degrees of adduction in both registers. The maximum difference between methods in the CQEGG was 0.3 (out of 1.0). The CQEGG was generally lower than the CQKYM. Within subjects, the CQEGG co-varied with the CQkym, but with changing offsets depending on method. The CQEGG cannot be calculated for falsetto phonation with little adduction, since there is no complete glottal closure. Basic criterion-level methods with thresholds of 0.2 or 0.25 gave the best match to the CQKYM data. The results suggest that contacting and de-contacting in the EGG might not refer to the same physical events as do the beginning and cessation of airflow.

  • 22. Körner Gustafsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Södersten, Maria
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Schalling, Ellika
    Long-term effects of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment on daily voice use in Parkinson’s disease as measured with a portable voice accumulator2018In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, ISSN 1401-5439, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effects of an intensive voice treatment focusing on increasing voice intensity, LSVT LOUD¯ Lee Silverman Voice Treatment, on voice use in daily life in a participant with Parkinson’s disease, using a portable voice accumulator, the VoxLog. A secondary aim was to compare voice use between the participant and a matched healthy control. Participants were an individual with Parkinson’s disease and his healthy monozygotic twin. Voice use was registered with the VoxLog during 9 weeks for the individual with Parkinson’s disease and 2 weeks for the control. This included baseline registrations for both participants, 4 weeks during LSVT LOUD for the individual with Parkinson’s disease and 1 week after treatment for both participants. For the participant with Parkinson’s disease, follow-up registrations at 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment were made. The individual with Parkinson’s disease increased voice intensity during registrations in daily life with 4.1 dB post-treatment and 1.4 dB at 1-year follow-up compared to before treatment. When monitored during laboratory recordings an increase of 5.6 dB was seen post-treatment and 3.8 dB at 1-year follow-up. Changes in voice intensity were interpreted as a treatment effect as no significant correlations between changes in voice intensity and background noise were found for the individual with Parkinson’s disease. The increase in voice intensity in a laboratory setting was comparable to findings previously reported following LSVT LOUD. The increase registered using ambulatory monitoring in daily life was lower but still reflecting a clinically relevant change.

  • 23. La, Filipa M. B.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. University College of Music Education, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Contact Quotient Versus Closed Quotient: A Comparative Study on Professional Male Singers2015In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 148-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The term "closed quotient'' is frequently used for data derived both from inverse filtering and from electroglottography. In the former case, it is defined as the ratio between the closed phase and the period, as measured in flow glottograms (FLOGG), whereas in the latter case, it is defined as the time interval between the falling and rising parts of the electroglottogram (EGG), measured at some percentage of the peak-to-peak amplitude. The study aims at analyzing differences between EGG-and FLOGG-based closed quotients and their relationships with voice source parameters. Study Design. Comparative study. Methods. FLOGG- and EGG-based measures collected from five professional male singers were compared, under different pitch and loudness conditions. Results. Compared with the FLOGG-based quotient, the EGG-based quotient (i) varied more between subjects, (ii) presented greater values, (iii) varied less with subglottal pressure, (iv) varied less with the normalized amplitude quotient (ie, the ratio between the flow pulse amplitude and the product of period and maximum flow declination rate), and (v) varied less with the relative amplitude of the voice source fundamental. Conclusions. Although positively related, FLOGG- and EGG-based closed quotients differ and must not be confused.

  • 24. La, Filipa M. B.
    et al.
    Wistbacka, Greta
    Andrade, Pedro Amarante
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Basic science. Karolinska Institutet (KI), Sweden.
    Real-Time Visual Feedback of Airflow in Voice Training: Aerodynamic Properties of Two Flow Ball Devices2017In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 31, no 3, article id UNSP 390.e1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Flow ball devices have been used as teaching tools to provide visual real-time feedback of airflow during singing. This study aims at exploring static back pressure and ball height as function of flow for two devices, marketed as flow ball and floating ball game. Study Design. This is a comparative descriptive study. Methods. A flow-driven vocal tract simulator was used to investigate the aerodynamic properties of these two devices, testing them for four different ball sizes. The flow range investigated was between 0 and 0.5 L/s. Audio, flow, pressure, and ball height were recorded. Results. The flow pressure profiles for both tested devices were similar to those observed in previous studies on narrow tubes. For lifting the ball, both devices had a flow and a pressure threshold. The tested floating ball game required considerably higher back pressure for a given flow as compared with the flow ball. Conclusions. Both tested devices have similar effects on back pressure as straws of 3.7 and 3.0 mm in diameter for the flow ball and the floating ball game, respectively. One might argue that both devices could be used as tools for practicing semi-occluded vocal tract exercises, with the additional benefit of providing real-time visual feedback of airflow during phonation. The flow threshold, combined with the flow feedback, would increase awareness of flow, rather than of pressure, during exercises using a flow ball device.

  • 25.
    Leijon, Arne
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Comment on Ohlenforst et al. (2016) Exploring the Relationship Between Working Memory, Compressor Speed, and Background Noise Characteristics, Ear Hear 37, 137-1432017In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 643-644Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Mainka, Alexander
    et al.
    Poznyakovskiy, Anton
    Platzek, Ivan
    Fleischer, Mario
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Muerbe, Dirk
    Lower Vocal Tract Morphologic Adjustments Are Relevant for Voice Timbre in Singing2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, article id e0132241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vocal tract shape is crucial to voice production. Its lower part seems particularly relevant for voice timbre. This study analyzes the detailed morphology of parts of the epilaryngeal tube and the hypopharynx for the sustained German vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ by thirteen male singer subjects who were at the beginning of their academic singing studies. Analysis was based on two different phonatory conditions: a natural, speech-like phonation and a singing phonation, like in classical singing. 3D models of the vocal tract were derived from magnetic resonance imaging and compared with long-term average spectrum analysis of audio recordings from the same subjects. Comparison of singing to the speech-like phonation, which served as reference, showed significant adjustments of the lower vocal tract: an average lowering of the larynx by 8 mm and an increase of the hypopharyngeal cross-sectional area (+21:9%) and volume (+16:8%). Changes in the analyzed epilaryngeal portion of the vocal tract were not significant. Consequently, lower larynx-to-hypopharynx area and volume ratios were found in singing compared to the speech-like phonation. All evaluated measures of the lower vocal tract varied significantly with vowel quality. Acoustically, an increase of high frequency energy in singing correlated with a wider hypopharyngeal area. The findings offer an explanation how classical male singers might succeed in producing a voice timbre with increased high frequency energy, creating a singer's formant cluster.

  • 27.
    McAllister, Anita M.
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Sjölander, Peta
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Child Voice and Noise: A Pilot Study of Noise in Day Cares and the Effects on 10 Children's Voice Quality According to Perceptual Evaluation2009In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 587-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to study children's exposure to background noise at the ears during a normal day at the day care center and also to relate this to a perceptual evaluation of voice quality. Ten children, from three day care centers, with no history of hearing and speech problems or frequent infections were selected as subjects. A binaural recording technique was used with two microphones placed on both sides of the subject's head, at equal distance from the mouth. A portable digital audio tape (DAT) recorder (Sony TCD-D 100, Stockholm, Sweden) was attached to the subject's waist. Three recordings were made for each child during the day. Each recording was calibrated and started with three repetitions of three sentences containing only sonorants. The recording technique allowed separate analyses of the background noise level and of the sound pressure level (SPL) of each subjects' own voice. Results showed a mean background noise level for the three day care centers at 82.6 dBA Leq, ranging from 81.5 to 83.6 dBA Leq. Day care center no. 2 had the highest mean value and also the highest value at any separate recording session with a mean background noise level of 85.4 dBA Leq during the noontime recordings. Perceptual evaluation showed that the children attending this day care center also received higher values on the following voice characteristics: hoarseness, breathiness, and hyperfunction. Girls increased their loudness level during the day, whereas for boys no such change could be observed.

  • 28. McDonnell, Maria
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Lindestad, Per-Ake
    Larsson, Hans
    Vocal Fold Vibration and Phonation Start in Aspirated, Unaspirated, and Staccato Onset2011In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 526-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives/Hypotheses. Singers learn to produce well-controlled tone onsets by accurate synchronization of glottal adduction and buildup of subglottal pressure. Spectrographic analyses have shown that the higher spectrum partials are present also at the vowel onset in classically trained singers' performances. Such partials are produced by a sharp discontinuity in the waveform of the transglottal airflow, presumably produced by vocal fold collision. Study Design. After hearing a prompt series of a triad pattern, six singer subjects sang the same triad pattern on the vowel /i/ (1) preceded by an aspirated /p/, (2) preceded by an unaspirated /p/, and (3) without any preceding consonant in staccato. Methods. Using high-speed imaging we examined the initiation of vocal fold vibration in aspirated and unaspirated productions of the consonant /p/ as well as in the staccato tones. Results. The number vibrations failing to produce vocal fold collision were significantly higher in the aspirated /p/ than in the unaspirated /p/ and in the staccato tones. High frequency ripple in the audio waveform was significantly delayed in the aspirated /p/. Conclusions. Initiation of vocal fold collision and the appearance of high-frequency ripple in the vowel /i/ are slightly delayed in aspirated productions of a preceding consonant /p/.

  • 29.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    et al.
    Aerospace Systems, University of Cincinnati.
    Gutmark, Ephraim
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Khosla, Sid
    Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Scherer, Ronald
    Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Fuchs, Laszlo
    Energy Sciences, Lund University.
    Flow and Acoustics Simulations Based on LES and an Acoustic Analogy: an Application to Laryngeal Airflow2007In: 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting 2007, 2007, p. 11141-11153Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an efficient method for computational aeroacoustics applied to simulate the flow and the acoustics for a static laryngeal model considering the vocal folds widely open. The work analyses the whisper-like process defined as the sound generated by the turbulent glottal airflow in the absence of vocal fold vibration. A decomposition of the flow variables is used that allows separation of flow and acoustic computations. The approach consists in solving the low Mach number flow field by incompressible Large Eddy Simulation. This provides the possibility to compute the acoustic sources. The inhomogeneous wave equation derived from the fundamental equations of motion for a compressible fluid is employed to compute the acoustic field. The purpose of the study is to provide realistic numerical predictions of the flow patterns and the generated acoustic field in the glottis and the vocal tract regions.

  • 30.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Khosla, Sid
    Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Gutmark, Ephraim
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Quantification of the false vocal-folds effects on the intra-glottal pressures using large eddy simulation2013In: Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics: Volume 19, 2013, Acoustical Society of America (ASA), 2013, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the closing phase of the phonation cycle the true vocal-folds (TVF) have a convergent-divergent shape. The negative pressures generated by the flow through the glottal passage are producing closing forces acting on the TVFs. They can affect both vocal-fold vibration and voice production, since they can accelerate the closing phase. Large Eddy Simulation approach is used to investigate the intra-glottal forces generated solely by the flow during the closing phase. The influence of the gap between the false vocal-folds (FVFs) and the location of FVFs with respect to the TVFs are analyzed. Based on anatomical measurements, four different widths between the FVFs and two different distances between the true and false vocal-folds are investigated for the same trans-laryngeal pressure. The TVFs gap is kept constant. All cases exhibit a non-symmetric flow behavior in the mid-frontal plane. As the distance between the FVFs is decrease beyond a threshold value (still greater than glottal width), there is an increase in the magnitude of the closing forces acting on the TVFs. On the divergent slope of the glottis, these forces were found for some of the cases to be up to four times greater in magnitude as compared with the Baseline case.

  • 31.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    et al.
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Khosla, Sid
    Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Murugappan, Shanmugam
    Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Gutmark, Ephraim
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Unsteady laryngeal airflow simulations of the intra-glottal vortical structures2010In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 127, no 1, p. 435-444Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Millgård, M.
    et al.
    Fors, T.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. University College of Music Education, Sweden.
    Flow Glottogram Characteristics and Perceived Degree of Phonatory Pressedness2015In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 287-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Phonatory pressedness is a clinically relevant aspect of voice, which generally is analyzed by auditory perception. The present investigation aimed at identifying voice source and formant characteristics related to experts' ratings of phonatory pressedness. Study Design: Experimental study of the relations between visual analog scale ratings of phonatory pressedness and voice source parameters in healthy voices. Methods: Audio, electroglottogram, and subglottal pressure, estimated from oral pressure during /p/ occlusion, were recorded from five female and six male subjects, each of whom deliberately varied phonation type between neutral, flow, and pressed in the syllable /pae/, produced at three loudness levels and three pitches. Speech-language pathologists rated, along a visual analog scale, the degree of perceived phonatory pressedness in these samples. Results: The samples were analyzed by means of inverse filtering with regard to closed quotient, dominance of the voice source fundamental, normalized amplitude quotient, peak-to-peak flow amplitude, as well as formant frequencies and the alpha ratio of spectrum energy above and below 1000Hz. The results were compared with the rating data, which showed that the ratings were closely related to voice source parameters. Conclusions: Approximately, 70% of the variance of the ratings could be explained by the voice source parameters. A multiple linear regression analysis suggested that perceived phonatory pressedness is related most closely to subglottal pressure, closed quotient, and the two lowest formants.

  • 33.
    Mylavarapu, Goutham
    et al.
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Gutmark, Ephraim
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Murugappan, Shanmugam
    Otolargyngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa
    Dept. Energy Sciences, Division of Fluid Mechanics, Lund University.
    Fuchs, Laszlo
    Dept. Energy Sciences, Division of Fluid Mechanics, Lund University.
    Papatziamos, Georgios
    Karolinska Hospital Solna.
    Importance of paranasal sinuses in computational modeling of nasal airflow2009In: 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, AIAA , 2009, p. 2009-0772-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the importance of including paranasal sinuses in the computational modeling of the nasal airflow. Three dimensional models of human nasal airway with and without including paranasal sinuses were reconstructed from Computed Tomography (CT) axial images of a subject with healthy nasal airway. The reconstruction process was performed using MIMICS® software program. The airway volume was discretized using TGRID® mesh generator. Steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations were carried in both inspiratory and expiratory phases of respiratory cycle at a peak flow rate of 15 L/min in FLUENT®. The results show that the left and right nasal resistances change with less than 11% when paranasal sinuses are included in the computational model of the nasal airway. The flow into the sinuses is characterized by very low velocities during both inspiration and expiration conditions. The velocity distributions in the main nasal passage show small change predominantly in regions closer to the paranasal sinuses when compared to the model where sinuses were not included.

  • 34.
    Mylavarapu, Goutham
    et al.
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Gutmark, Ephraim
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Murugappan, Shanmugam
    Otolargyngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Zimmer, Lee
    University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Seiden, Allen
    University of Cincinnati-Medical Center.
    Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling of nasal airflow to understand drug delivery process2010In: 40th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, AIAA , 2010, p. 2010-4735-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is often used in multidisciplinary studies like respiratory flows in understanding the flow mechanisms and in optimizing therapeutic and surgical treatments in patients with respiratory disorders. This study is one such attempt to understand nasal drug delivery processes. Three dimensional anatomically accurate nasal airway model is reconstructed from axial Computed Tomography (CT) scans of a patient using MIMICS®. Computational volume for the nasal airway model is discretized using TGRID® and Gambit®. Flow and Particle tracking simulations are carried for a range of peak inspiratory flow rates 7.5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 lpm and particle diameters in range of 0.5 -30 μm using commercial CFD package FLUENT®. Flow field is solved using a steady RANS k-ω SST turbulence closure model. For discrete phase modeling (DPM), a stochastic random walk model with a random eddy life time is used for turbulent dissipation. Effect of particle deposition efficiencies in nasal airway with several factors like particle diameter, particle density, turbulence intensity, injection types, flow rate, spray half-cone angles were studied. Increase in particle diameter, particle diameter or flow rate or all increases impaction factor and also chances of total particle deposition. Increase in turbulence intensities shows only small improvement in particle deposition and that too for smaller particle diameters only (<10 μm). Modes of particle injection studied in this report have not so significant improvement in terms of total deposition; however local deposition varies with modes of injections. In spray injection, half cone-angles appear to have little influence on total particle depositions.

  • 35. Mürbe, D.
    et al.
    Roers, F.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Stimmgattung professioneller Sänger: Einfluss von Stimmlippenlänge, Vokaltraktdimensionen und Körpermaßen2011In: HNO (Berlin. Print), ISSN 0017-6192, E-ISSN 1433-0458, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 556-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional voice performance is strongly affected by the functional adjustments of the structures involved in voice production. Generally, these functional skills are required by means of intensive training. On the other hand, the individual morphology of the larynx and vocal tract limits this functional variability. Thus, to neglect morphological conditions might result in voice problems. The present paper summarizes investigations on the influence of morphological measurements on the voice classification of professional singers. Vocal fold length, vocal tract length and body height have been found to differ systematically between sopranos, mezzosopranos, altos, tenors, baritones and basses. Although the knowledge of morphological measures does not permit a definite assignment or prediction of the individual voice classification, the data are valuable for counseling by voice teachers and phoniatricians. This might contribute to the prevention of voice disorders.

  • 36. Nienkerke-Springer, A
    et al.
    McAllister, T
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Effects of family therapy on children's voices2005In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 103-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The families of nine children with deviant voice qualities were selected for family treatment according to the SYGESTI model. Recordings of the children's speech were made before and after therapy. Perceptual evaluation of their voice quality showed significant improvement in various perceptual parameters after the therapy. Acoustical analysis confirmed changes of voice quality and mean fundamental frequency in speech. The therapy also was found to improve relations between family members, conflict management and other aspects of communication. The results suggest that these children's deviant voices were related to family conditions.

  • 37. Nilsson, Mats E.
    et al.
    Schenkman, Bo N.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium.
    Blind people are more sensitive than sighted people to binaural sound-location cues, particularly inter-aural level differences2016In: Hearing Research, ISSN 0378-5955, E-ISSN 1878-5891, Vol. 332, p. 223-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blind people use auditory information to locate sound sources and sound-reflecting objects (echolocation). Sound source localization benefits from the hearing system's ability to suppress distracting sound reflections, whereas echolocation would benefit from "unsuppressing" these reflections. To clarify how these potentially conflicting aspects of spatial hearing interact in blind versus sighted listeners, we measured discrimination thresholds for two binaural location cues: inter-aural level differences (ILDs) and inter-aural time differences (ITDs). The ILDs or ITDs were present in single clicks, in the leading component of click pairs, or in the lagging component of click pairs, exploiting processes related to both sound source localization and echolocation. We tested 23 blind (mean age = 54 y), 23 sighted-age matched (mean age = 54 y), and 42 sighted-young (mean age = 26 y) listeners. The results suggested greater ILD sensitivity for blind than for sighted listeners. The blind group's superiority was particularly evident for ILD-lag-click discrimination, suggesting not only enhanced ILD sensitivity in general but also increased ability to unsuppress lagging clicks. This may be related to the blind person's experience of localizing reflected sounds, for which ILDs may be more efficient than ITDs. On the ITD-discrimination tasks, the blind listeners performed better than the sighted age-matched listeners, but not better than the sighted young listeners. ITD sensitivity declines with age, and the equal performance of the blind listeners compared to a group of substantially younger listeners is consistent with the notion that blind people's experience may offset age-related decline in ITD sensitivity.

  • 38.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Articulatory Configuration and Pitch in a Classically Trained Soprano Singer2009In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 546-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies suggest that singers modify articulation to avoid that the pitch frequency F0 exceeds the normal value of the first formant F1(Normal). Using magnetic resonance imaging at a rate of 5 frames/s, articulation was analyzed in a professional soprano singing an ascending triad pattern from C4 to G5 (262-784 Hz) on the vowels /i, e, u, o, a/. Lip and jaw opening and tongue dorsum height were measured and analyzed as function of pitch. Four or five semitones below the pitch where F0 = F1(Normal) the tongue dorsum height was reduced in /i, e, u, a/, whereas in /o/ the lip opening was widened and in /a/ also the jaw opening was widened. At higher pitches, the jaw opening was widened in all vowels. These articulatory maneuvers are likely to raise F1 in these vowels.

  • 39.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. Stockholm University College of Music Education, Sweden.
    Bitelli, Maddalena
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. Studio Logopedico Voce e Linguaggio, Italy.
    Holmberg, Annika
    Laaksonen, Ville
    The "Overdrive" Mode in the "Complete Vocal Technique": A Preliminary Study2017In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 528-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "Complete Vocal Technique," or CVT, is an internationally widespread method for teaching voice. It classifies voicing into four types, referred to as " vocal modes," one of which is called "Overdrive." The physiological correlates of these types are unclear. This study presents an attempt to analyze its voice source and formant frequency characteristics. A male and a female expert of CVT sang a set of "Overdrive" and falsetto tones on the syllable /p ae/. The voice source could be analyzed by inverse filtering in the case of the male subject. Results showed that subglottal pressure, measured as the oral pressure during /p/ occlusion, was low in falsetto and high in "Overdrive", and it was strongly correlated with each of the voice source parameters. These correlations could be described in terms of equations. The deviations from these equations of the different voice source parameters for the various voice samples suggested that "Overdrive" phonation was produced with stronger vocal fold adduction than the falsetto tones. Further, the subject was also found to tune the first formant to the second partial in "Overdrive" tones. The results support the conclusion that the method used, to compensate for the influence of subglottal pressure on the voice source, seems promising to use for analyses of other CVT vocal modes and also for other types of phonation.

  • 40.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Scherer, Ronald
    Department of Communication Disorders, Bowling Green State University.
    Hess, Markus
    Department of Phoniatrics and Paedaudiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, University of Hamburg.
    Müller, Frank
    Department of Phoniatrics and Paedaudiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, University of Hamburg.
    Whispering: A Single-Subject Study of Glottal Configuration and Aerodynamics2010In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 574-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whisper productions were produced by a single adult male subject over a wide range of subglottal pressures, glottal areas, and glottal flows. Dimensional measurements were made of these three variables, including glottal perimeter. Subglottal pressure was directly obtained by a pressure transducer in a tracheal catheter, and wide-band flow with a pneumotach mask. Four types of whispers were used-hyperfunctional, hypofunctional, neutral, and postphonation-in addition to three levels of loudness (soft, medium, loud). Sequences of the /pae/ syllable were used. Video recordings of the larynx were made. The glottis was outlined by hand with extrapolation for unseen parts, and area and perimeter were obtained through image analysis software. The whisper tokens resulted in the following wide ranges: subglottal pressure: 1.3-17 cm H2O; glottal flow: 0.9-1.71 L/s; glottal area: 0.065-1.76 cm(2); and glottal perimeter: 1.09-6.55 cm. Hyperfunctional whisper tended to have higher subglottal pressures and lower areas and flows than hypofunctional whisper, with neutral and postphonation whisper values in between. An important finding is that glottal flow changed more for small changes of area when the area was already small, and did not create much flow change when area was changed for already larger areas; that is, whisper is "more sensitive" to airflow changes for smaller glottal areas. A general equation for whisper aerodynamics was obtained, namely, P (subglottal pressure [cm H2O]) = C x F (glottal flow [cm(3)/s]), where C = 0.052 x A(4) - 0.1913 x A(3) + 0.2577 x A(2) - 0.1523 x A + 0.0388, where A is the glottal area (cm(2)). Another general equation for nondimensional terms (pressure coefficient vs Reynolds number) also is offered. Implications for whisper flow resistance and aerodynamic power are given. These results give insight into whisper aerodynamics and offer equations relevant to speech synthesis.

  • 41.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Scherer, Ronald
    Hess, Markus
    Müller, Frank
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Subglottal Pressure Oscillations Accompanying Phonation2013In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 411-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acoustic and aerodynamic properties of the voice source and vocal tract have been extensively analyzed during the last half century. Corresponding investigations of the subglottal system are rare but can be assumed to be relevant to voice production. In the present exploratory study, subglottal pressure was recorded in a male adult subject by means of tracheal puncture. Also recorded were the oral airflow and audio signals. Effects of vowel, phonation type, and vocal register shifts on the subglottal pressure waveform were examined. The moment of maximum flow declination rate was synchronous with the main positive peak of the subglottal pressure waveform. The three lowest subglottal resonance frequencies, determined by inverse filtering and long-term average spectra of the subglottal pressure during speech, were found to be about 500, 1220, and 2000 Hz, irrespective of supraglottal variations and phonation type. However, the subglottal pressure waveform was affected by the supraglottal formants, whereas the radiated vowel spectra did not show clear influence by the subglottal resonances. The fundamental frequency immediately preceding and immediately following a register break in pitch glides did not show systematic relationships with formants or with the lowest subglottal resonance.

  • 42.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Perkins, William H
    University of Southern California.
    Gramming, Patricia
    Malmö General Hospital.
    Long-time average spectrum analysis of phonatory effects of noise and filtered auditory feedback1988In: Journal of Phonetics, ISSN 0095-4470, E-ISSN 1095-8576, Vol. 16, p. 203-219Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Thalén, Margareta
    Popeil, Lisa
    Substyles of Belting: Phonatory and Resonatory Characteristics2012In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 44-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Belting has been described as speechlike, yell-like, or shouting voice production commonly used in contemporary commercial music genres and substantially differing from the esthetic of the Western classical voice tradition. This investigation attempts to describe phonation and resonance characteristics of different substyles of belting (heavy, brassy, ringy, nasal, and speechlike) and the classical style. A professional singer and voice teacher, skilled in these genres, served as the single subject. The recorded material was found representative according to a classification test performed by an expert panel. Subglottal pressure was measured as the oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant vertical bar p vertical bar. The voice source and formant frequencies were analyzed by inverse filtering the audio signal. The subglottal pressure and measured flow glottogram parameters differed clearly between the styles heavy and classical assuming opposite extremes in most parameters. The formant frequencies, by contrast, showed fewer less systematic differences between the substyles but were clearly separated from the classical style with regard to the first formant. Thus, the differences between the belting substyles mainly concerned the voice source.

  • 44.
    Szabo Portela, Annika
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering. KI CLINTEC.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Södersten, M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Vocal Behavior in Environmental Noise: Comparisons Between Work and Leisure Conditions in Women With Work-related Voice Disorders and Matched Controls2018In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 126.e23-126.e38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess vocal behavior in women with voice-intensive occupations to investigate differences between patients and controls and between work and leisure conditions with environmental noise level as an experimental factor. Methods: Patients with work-related voice disorders, 10 with phonasthenia and 10 with vocal nodules, were matched regarding age, profession, and workplace with 20 vocally healthy colleagues. The sound pressure level of environmental noise and the speakers’ voice, fundamental frequency, and phonation ratio were registered from morning to night during 1 week with a voice accumulator. Voice data were assessed in low (≀55 dBA), moderate, and high (\textgreater70 dBA) environmental noise levels. Results: The average environmental noise level was significantly higher during the work condition for patients with vocal nodules (73.9 dBA) and their controls (73.0 dBA) compared with patients with phonasthenia (68.3 dBA) and their controls (67.1 dBA). The average voice level and the fundamental frequency were also significantly higher during work for the patients with vocal nodules and their controls. During the leisure condition, there were no significant differences in average noise and voice level nor fundamental frequency between the groups. The patients with vocal nodules and their controls spent significantly more time and used their voices significantly more in high–environmental noise levels. Conclusions: High noise levels during work and demands from the occupation impact vocal behavior. Thus, assessment of voice ergonomics should be part of the work environmental management. To reduce environmental noise levels is important to improve voice ergonomic conditions in communication-intensive and vocally demanding workplaces.

  • 45. Södersten, M.
    et al.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Hammarberg, B.
    Szabo, Annika
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Vocal behavior and vocal loading factors for preschool teachers at work studied with binaural DAT recordings2002In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 356-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preschool teachers are at risk for developing voice problems such as vocal fatigue and vocal nodules. The purpose of this report was to study preschool teachers' voice use during work. Ten healthy female preschool teachers working at daycare centers (DCC) served as subjects. A binaural recording technique was used. Two microphones were placed on both sides of the subject's head, at equal distance from the mouth, and a portable DAT recorder was attached to the subject's waist. Recordings were made of a standard reading passage before work (baseline) and of spontaneous speech during work. The recording technique allowed separate analyses of the level of the background noise, and of the subjects' voice sound pressure level, mean fundamental frequency, and total phonation time. Among the results, mean background noise level for the ten DCCs was 76.1 dBA (range 73.0-78.2), which is more than 20 dB higher than what is recommended where speech communication is important (50-55 dBA). The subjects spoke on an average of 9.1 dB louder (p < 0.0001), and with higher mean fundamental frequency (247 Hz) during work as compared to the baseline (202 Hz) (p < 0.0001). Mean phonation time for the group was 17%, which was considered high. It was concluded that preschool teachers do have a highly vocally demanding profession. Important steps to reduce the vocal loading for this occupation would be to decrease the background noise levels and include pauses so that preschool teachers can rest their voices.

  • 46. Södersten, Maria
    et al.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bohman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Loud speech in realistic environmental noise: Phonetogram data, perceptual voice quality, subjective ratings, and gender differences in healthy speakers2005In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 29-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method for cancelling background noise from running speech was used to study voice production during realistic environmental noise exposure. Normal subjects, 12 women and 11 men, read a text in five conditions: quiet, soft continuous noise (75 dBA to 70 dBA), day-care babble (74 dBA), disco (87 dBA), and loud continuous noise (78 dBA to 85 dBA). The noise was presented over loudspeakers and then removed from the recordings in an off-line processing operation. The voice signals were analyzed acoustically with an automatic phonetograph and perceptually by four expert listeners. Subjective data were collected after each vocal loading task. The perceptual parameters press, instability, and roughness increased significantly as an effect of speaking loudly over noise, whereas vocal fry decreased. Having to make oneself heard over noise resulted in higher SPL and F0, as expected, and in higher phonation time. The total reading time was slightly longer in continuous noise than in intermittent noise. The women had 4 dB lower voice SPL overall and increased their phonation time more in noise than did the men. Subjectively, women reported less success making themselves heard and higher effort. The results support the contention that female voices are more vulnerable to vocal loading in background noise.

  • 47.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bohman, M.
    Södersten, M.
    Loud speech over noise: Some spectral attributes, with gender differences2006In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 1648-1665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In seeking an acoustic description of overloaded voice, simulated environmental noise was used to elicit loud speech. A total of 23 adults, 12 females and 11 males, read six passages of 90 s duration, over realistic noise presented over loudspeakers. The noise was canceled out, exposing the speech signal to analysis. Spectrum balance (SB) was defined as the level of the 2-6 kHz band relative to the 0.1-1 kHz band. SB averaged across many similar vowel segments became less negative with increasing sound pressure level (SPL), as described in the literature, but only at moderate SPL. At high SPL, SB exhibited a personal saturation point, above which the high-band level no longer increased faster than the overall SPL, or even stopped increasing altogether, on average at 90.3 dB WO cm) for females and 95.5 dB for males. Saturation occurred 6-8 dB; below the personal maximum SPL, regardless of gender. The loudest productions were often characterized by a relative increase in low-frequency energy, apparently in a sharpened first formant. This suggests a change of vocal strategy when the high spectrum can rise no further. The progression of SB with SPL was characteristically different for individual subjects.

  • 48.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Colldén, A
    Articulatory Fo perturbations and auditory feedback1988In: Journal of speech and hearing research, ISSN 0022-4685, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 187-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Singers are required to sing with a high degree of precision of fundamental frequency (Fo). Does this mean that they have learned to compensate for the change of pitch that has been described in speech during production of different vowels? Experienced choir singers sang sustained tones with a change of vowel in mid-tone. The fundamental frequency was measured, and the resulting Fo contours were evaluated with respect to Fo effects coincident with the vowel changes. The tasks were performed both with normal auditory feedback and with the auditory feedback masked by noise in headphones. The vowels (i) and (y) were found to be associated with higher Fo than other vowels. The irregularities in the Fo curves were somewhat larger in the absence of auditory feedback. This is consistent with findings during speech production. The instability in Fo, measured as the standard deviation over each tone, was also larger in the absence of feedback.

  • 49. Welch, GF
    et al.
    White Sjölander, Peta
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    The developing voice: Education and vocal efficiency – a physical perspective1993In: Bulletin of The Council For Research in Music Education, ISSN 0010-9894, E-ISSN 2162-7223, Vol. 119, p. 146-156Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. White, Peta
    Acoustic and Aerodynamic Measurements of Children’s Voices1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
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