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  • 1.
    Abhishek, Sarabjot
    et al.
    Dr BR Ambedkar Natl Inst Technol, Dept Phys, GT Rd Bye Pass, Jalandhar 144027, Punjab, India..
    Kaur, Sarabjot
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Physics.
    Mehra, Rohit
    Dr BR Ambedkar Natl Inst Technol, Dept Phys, GT Rd Bye Pass, Jalandhar 144027, Punjab, India..
    Estimation of Uranium and Related Health Risks Due to Consumption of Groundwater in Lower Himalayas2023In: Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics, ISSN 0019-5596, E-ISSN 0975-1041, Vol. 61, no 6, p. 478-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to uranium via ingestion of edible products may lead to serious health hazards when taken in quantities more than recommended limit. Hence, to assess the uranium content in groundwater and concerned health hazards 64 groundwater samples were collected from Hamirpur and Mandi districts of Himachal Pradesh. The samples were collected in pre monsoon season from the handpumps and bowries. The region lies in Lower Himalayan range which is storehouse of various granatic rocks. Presence of uranium deposits in Tileli (Mandi), Rajpura (Una), Lambehra (Hamirpur) makes the area more vulnerable for the study. The groundwater samples were analysed to measure concentration of uranium using LED Fluorimeter developed by Quantalase Private. Limited. The uranium concentration in groundwater samples varied from 0.25 to 17.29 & mu;g L-1, with an average value of 1.97. Uranium concentration in none of the samples surpassed the limit of 30 & mu;g L-1 recommended by WHO(2011), 60 & mu;g L-1 set by AERB(2004). Health risks were estimated in terms radiological and chemical toxicity for different isotopes of uranium. The calculated average mortality and morbidity risks were lower than the actual prescribed limit. The average Lifetime Average Daily Dose (LADD) was calculated as 0.04 and Hazard Quotient (HQ) below unity. Annual ingestion doses for different age groups were also measured which lies under safe limit. Thus, it is recommended that the groundwater is safe for consumption by public. Using Hair Compartment Model for uranium and mean daily uranium intake of 2.71 & mu;g for 60-year exposure period, organ specific doses due to uranium radioisotopes in prime organs/tissues and excretion rates via urine, faeces and hair pathway are estimated.

  • 2. Ahlstrom, L.
    et al.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Hagberg, M.
    Ahlberg, K.
    Women with Neck Pain on Long-Term Sick Leave — Approaches Used in the Return to Work Process: A Qualitative Study2016In: Journal of occupational rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, E-ISSN 1573-3688, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose There are difficulties in the process of return to work (RTW) from long-term sick leave, both in general and regarding sick leave because of neck pain in particular. Neck pain is difficult to assess, problematic to rehabilitate, and hard to cure; and it is not always easy to decide whether the pain is work-related. The outcome of RTW could be dependent upon individuals’ approaches, defensive or offensive behaviors, and choices related to their self-efficacy. The aim of this study was to identify approaches used in the RTW process among women with neck pain on long-term sick leave from human service organizations. Methods This is a qualitative descriptive study based on grounded theory. A Swedish cohort of 207 women with a history of long-term sick leave with neck pain from human service organizations answered open-ended written questions at 0, 6, and 12 months, and 6 years; and 16 women were interviewed. Results Individuals expressed their coping approaches in terms of fluctuating in work status over time: either as a strategy or as a consequence. Periods of sick leave were interwoven with periods of work. The women were either controlling the interaction or struggling in the interaction with stakeholders. Conclusions Return to work outcomes may be improved if the fluctuating work status over time is taken into account in the design of rehabilitation efforts for women with a history of long-term sick leave and with chronical musculoskeletal conditions.

  • 3.
    Akay, Altug
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Dragomir, Andrei
    University of Houston, Biomedical Engineering.
    Erlandsson, Björn-Erik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Mining Social Media Big Data for Health2015In: IEEE PulseArticle, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in information technology (IT) and big data are affecting nearly every facet of the public and private sectors. Social media platforms are one example of such advances: its nature allows users to connect, collaborate, and debate on any topic with comparative ease. The result is a hefty volume of user-generated content that, if properly mined and analyzed, could help the public and private health care sectors improve the quality of their products and services while reducing costs. The users of these platforms are the key to these improvements, as their valuable feedback will help improve health solutions.

  • 4. Ali, S.
    et al.
    Shekhar, S.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Verma, G.
    Chandrasekhar, T.
    Chandrashekhar, A. K.
    Elevated fluoride in groundwater of Siwani Block, Western Haryana, India: A potential concern for sustainable water supplies for drinking and irrigation2018In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 7, p. 410-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater pollution is a serious health concern in north-western India. In this study, we have reported very high concentration of fluoride i.e. 18.5 and 16.6 mg/l from Sainiwas locality in Siwani block of Bhiwani district, Haryana, India. The values are much higher than the permissible limit set by WHO and BIS. The evapotranspiration in the area leads to Ca2+ precipitation, which allows an increase in F- content in the groundwater. In addition, the replacement of hydroxyl of secondary clay mineral under alkaline condition is responsible for release of F-. In absence of alternative source, the fluoride polluted groundwater in some of these localities is also used for drinking. Further, the suitability of groundwater for irrigation is also evaluated by various parameters such as Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Sodium Percentage (Na%), Kelly's Ratio (KR), Magnesium Hazard (MH) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC). It emerges out that in a few localities, groundwater is not suitable for irrigation and with respect to Magnesium Hazard (MH) almost all samples are unsuitable for irrigation. This article highlights groundwater quality of Siwani block in Haryana and proposes for immediate remedial measures. 

  • 5.
    Almlöf, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Rubensson, Isak
    Reg Stockholm, Traf Forvaltningen Publ Transport Adm, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Who continued travelling by public transport during COVID-19?: Socioeconomic factors explaining travel behaviour in Stockholm 2020 based on smart card data2021In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 31Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic has changed travel behaviour and reduced the use of public transport throughout the world, but the reduction has not been uniform. In this study we analyse the propensity to stop travelling by public transport during COVID-19 for the holders of 1.8 million smart cards in Stockholm, Sweden, for the spring and autumn of 2020. We suggest two binomial logit models for explaining the change in travel pattern, linking socioeconomic data per area and travel data with the probability to stop travelling. Modelled variables The first model investigates the impact of the socioeconomic factors: age; income; education level; gender; housing type; population density; country of origin; and employment level. The results show that decreases in public transport use are linked to all these factors. The second model groups the investigated areas into five distinct clusters based on the socioeconomic data, showing the impacts for different socioeconomic groups. During the autumn the differences between the groups diminished, and especially Cluster 1 (with the lowest education levels, lowest income and highest share of immigrants) reduced their public transport use to a similar level as the more affluent clusters. Results The results show that socioeconomic status affect the change in behaviour during the pandemic and that exposure to the virus is determined by citizens' socioeconomic class. Furthermore, the results can guide policy into tailoring public transport supply to where the need is, instead of assuming that e.g. crowding is equally distributed within the public transport system in the event of a pandemic.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Axelsson, Runo
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Bihari Axelsson, Susanna
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Åhgren, Bengt
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Samverkan inom arbetslivsinriktad rehabilitering: En sammanställning av kunskaper och erfarenheter inom området2010Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Åhgren, Bengt
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Bihari Axelsson, Susanna
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Axelsson, Runo
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Organizational approaches to collaboration in vocational rehabilitation: An international literature review2011In: International Journal of Integrated Care, ISSN 1568-4156, E-ISSN 1568-4156, Vol. 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Collaboration between welfare organizations is an important strategy for integrating different health and welfare services. This article reports a review of the international literature on vocational rehabilitation, focusing on different organizational models of collaboration as well as different barriers and facilitating factors.

    Methods: The review was based on an extensive search in scientific journals from 1995 to 2010, which generated more than 13,000 articles. The number of articles was reduced in different steps through a group procedure based on the abstracts. Finally, 205 articles were read in full text and 62 were included for content analysis.

    Results: Seven basic models of collaboration were identified in the literature. They had different degrees of complexity, intensity and formalization. They could also be combined in different ways. Several barriers and facilitators of collaboration were also identified. Most of these were related to factors as communication, trust and commitment.

    Conclusion: There is no optimal model of collaboration to be applied everywhere, but one model could be more appropriate than others in a certain context. More research is needed to compare different models and to see whether they are applicable also in other fields of collaboration inside or outside the welfare system.

  • 8.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Nyman, Teresia
    KI, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Education for Occupational health service professionals in different countries2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Aransiola, Temidayo James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Ceccato, Vania
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Justus, Marcelo
    University of Campinas, Institute of Economics, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.
    The Effect of Absolute and Relative Deprivation on Homicides in Brazil2021In: Homicide Studies, ISSN 1088-7679, E-ISSN 1552-6720, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 361-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the effect of absolute deprivation (proxy unemployment)and relative deprivation (proxy income inequality) on homicide levels in Brazil. Adatabase from the Brazilian Information System about Mortality and Census of theyear 2000 and 2010 was used to estimate negative binomial models of homicidelevels controlling for socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic factors. Findingsshow that unemployment and income inequality affect homicides levels and that theeffect of the former is more pronounced compared to the latter. Moreover, thecombination of income inequality and unemployment exacerbates the overall effectof deprivation on homicide levels.

  • 10.
    Arzyutov, Dmitry V.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    (Re-)Making the Homo Polaris: Human Acclimatization to Arctic Environments and Soviet Ideologies in Northern Medical LaboratoriesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Arzyutov, Dmitry V.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    (Re-)Making the Homo Polaris: Human Acclimatization to Arctic Environments and Soviet Ideologies in Northern Medical LaboratoriesIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Asplund, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Nilsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Jacobsson, Anders
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Incidence of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries and amputations in Sweden between 1998 and 20062008In: Neuroepidemiology, ISSN 0251-5350, E-ISSN 1423-0208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To define the epidemiological pattern of nerve injuries and traumatic amputations in Sweden, 1998-2006, and investigate possible targets for emerging neural engineering and neuroprosthetic technologies.

    Methods: The Swedish Hospital Discharge Register was used as basis of information, including data from all public in-patient care, excluding out-patient data. ICD-10 codes were screened for nerve injuries and traumatic amputations of high incidence or in-patient care time. Selected codes, causing factors, age and gender distribution were discussed in detail, and potential targets for tailored solutions were identified.

    Results: Incidence rate was determined to 13.9 for nerve injuries and 5.21 for amputations per 100 000 person-yrs. The majority of injuries occurred at wrist and hand level although it could be concluded that these are often minor injuries requiring less than a week of hospitalization. The single most care consuming nerve injury was brachial plexus injury constituting, in average, 68 injuries and 960 hospital days annually. When minor amputations of fingers and toes were disregarded, most frequent site of amputation was between knee and ankle (24 patients / year).

    Conclusions: Based on analysis of incidence and care time, we find that brachial plexus injuries and lower leg amputations should be primary targets of these new technologies.

  • 13.
    Bamzar, Roya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Ceccato, Vania
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The nature and the geography of elderly injuries in Sweden2015In: GeoJournal, ISSN 0343-2521, E-ISSN 1572-9893, Vol. 80, no 2, p. 279-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the nature and the geography of elderly injuries in Sweden. The most dominant types of accidents affecting the elderly in their homes and near environments are identified by using county-specific data from 2001 to 2010 followed by a correlation analysis of possible environmental factors underlying patterns of falls among the elderly. Geographical information systems are used to map rates by type. Slipping, tripping and stumbling are the causes of more than half of cases of elderly falls in Sweden, and is more typical in the Northern counties. Findings also show there has been a rise in rates of elderly falls since 2001 in most of the Southern counties, especially in Östergötland and Skåne Counties. Population age and gender affect the ecology of geography of fall rates and counties experiencing long cold winters tend to show higher rates of indoor falls than those with warmer temperature across the year. The article finalizes with a discussion of the results and implication for future research.

  • 14.
    Bauer, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Dept Emergency Med, Freie Univ Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12203 Berlin, Germany..
    Weber, Marcus
    Zuse Inst Berlin ZIB, Takustr 7, D-14195 Berlin, Germany..
    Diehl-Wiesenecker, Eva
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Dept Emergency Med, Freie Univ Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12203 Berlin, Germany..
    Galtung, Noa
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Dept Emergency Med, Freie Univ Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12203 Berlin, Germany..
    Prpic, Monika
    Free Univ Berlin, Charite Univ Med Berlin, Inst Lab Med Clin Chem & Pathobiochem, Augustenburger Pl 1, D-13353 Berlin, Germany..
    Somasundaram, Rajan
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Dept Emergency Med, Freie Univ Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12203 Berlin, Germany..
    Tauber, Rudolf
    Free Univ Berlin, Charite Univ Med Berlin, Inst Lab Med Clin Chem & Pathobiochem, Augustenburger Pl 1, D-13353 Berlin, Germany.;Labor Berlin Charite Vivantes GmbH, D-13353 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwenk, Jochen M.
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Micke, Patrick
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Immunol Genet & Pathol, Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 20, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Kappert, Kai
    Free Univ Berlin, Charite Univ Med Berlin, Inst Lab Med Clin Chem & Pathobiochem, Augustenburger Pl 1, D-13353 Berlin, Germany.;Labor Berlin Charite Vivantes GmbH, D-13353 Berlin, Germany..
    Plasma Proteome Fingerprints Reveal Distinctiveness and Clinical Outcome of SARS-CoV-2 Infection2021In: Viruses, E-ISSN 1999-4915, Vol. 13, no 12, p. 2456-, article id 2456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: We evaluated how plasma proteomic signatures in patients with suspected COVID-19 can unravel the pathophysiology, and determine kinetics and clinical outcome of the infection. Methods: Plasma samples from patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with symptoms of COVID-19 were stratified into: (1) patients with suspected COVID-19 that was not confirmed (n = 44); (2) non-hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 (n = 44); (3) hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 (n = 53) with variable outcome; and (4) patients presenting to the ED with minor diseases unrelated to SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 20). Besides standard of care diagnostics, 177 circulating proteins related to inflammation and cardiovascular disease were analyzed using proximity extension assay (PEA, Olink) technology. Results: Comparative proteome analysis revealed 14 distinct proteins as highly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 12 proteins with subsequent hospitalization (p < 0.001). ADM, IL-6, MCP-3, TRAIL-R2, and PD-L1 were each predictive for death (AUROC curve 0.80-0.87). The consistent increase of these markers, from hospital admission to intensive care and fatality, supported the concept that these proteins are of major clinical relevance. Conclusions: We identified distinct plasma proteins linked to the presence and course of COVID-19. These plasma proteomic findings may translate to a protein fingerprint, helping to assist clinical management decisions.

  • 15.
    Belin, Matts-Åke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History. matts-ake.belin@trafikverket.se.
    The Swedish Vision Zero: A Policy Innovation2021In: International Encyclopedia of Transportation / [ed] Roger Vickerman, Elsevier, 2021Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Road traffic injuries are a global public health problem, which is recognized as one of the many important sustainable challenges in the United Nation's 2030 agenda. Sweden has one of the safest road transport systems in the world and this is a result of an ongoing development of the Swedish society and its safety culture. In October 1997, Sweden reached an important milestone when the Swedish Parliament adopted Vision Zero as their new long-term goal and strategy for road safety. It is now more than 20 years since the Swedish national adoption of the Vision Zero and this approach to safety has since spread around the world and to other sectors of the society. In this paper, the Swedish Vision Zero and its basic characteristics, implementation, and results are described and discussed.

  • 16.
    Belin, Matts-Åke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History. matts-ake.belin@trafikverket.se.
    The Swedish Vision Zero—An Advanced Safety Culture Phenomenon2021In: Transport and Safety: Systems, Approaches, and Implementation / [ed] Geetam Tiwari, Dinesh Mohan, Springer Nature , 2021, p. XIV, 318-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Belin, Matts-Åke
    et al.
    matts-ake.belin@trafikverket.se.
    Tillgren, P.
    Vedung, E.
    Vision Zero: a road safety policy innovation2012In: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, ISSN 17457319, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 171-179Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Berglund, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    Carlucci, Claudia
    University of Milano-Bicocca.
    Westerlind, Helga
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Koski, Timo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    On the Existence of Suitable Models for Additive Interaction with Continuous ExposuresManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive interaction can be of importance for public health interventions and it is commonly defined using binary exposures. There has been expansions of the models to also include continuous exposures, which could lead to better and more precise estimations of the effect of interventions. In this paper we define the intervention for a continuous exposure as a monotonic function. Based on this function for the interventions we prove that there is no model for estimating additive interactions with continuous exposures for which it holds that; (i) both exposures have marginal effects and no additive interaction on the exposure level for both exposures, (ii) neither exposure has marginal effect and there is additive interaction between the exposures. We also show that a logistic regression model for continuous exposures will always produce additive interaction if both exposures have marginal effects.

    Download full text (pdf)
    AdditiveInteractionContinuous
  • 19.
    Berglund, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    Koski, Timo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    On Probabilistic Multifactor Potential Outcome ModelsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The sufficient cause framework describes how sets of sufficient causes are responsible for causing some event or outcome. It is known that it is closely connected with Boolean functions. In this paper we define this relation formally, and show how it can be used together with Fourier expansion of the Boolean functions to lead to new insights. The main result is a probibalistic version of the multifactor potential outcome model based on independence of causal influence models and Bayesian networks.

    Download full text (pdf)
    ProbabilisticMultifactorPO
  • 20.
    Berglund, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    Westerlind, Helga
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Koski, Timo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    Measures of Additive Interactionand Effect DirectionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures for additive interaction are defined using risk ratios. These ratios need to be modeled so that all combinations of the exposures are harmful, as the scale between protective and harmful factors differs. This remodeling is referred to as recoding. Previously, recoding has been thought of as random. In this paper, we will examine and discuss the impact of recoding in studies with small effect sizes, such as genome wide association studies, and the impact recoding has on significance testing.

    Download full text (pdf)
    AdditiveInteractionEffectDirection
  • 21. Bhowmick, S.
    et al.
    Halder, D.
    Chatterjee, D.
    Nriagu, J.
    Guha Mazumder, D. N.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Iglesias, M.
    Saliva as a biomarker of arsenic exposure2014In: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, CRC Press, 2014, p. 540-542Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Saliva is a biofluid that has not been used extensively as a biomonitoring tool in epidemiological studies. This study presents the arsenic (As) concentrations in saliva samples collected from populations of West Bengal, India. We found a significant (p &lt; 0.05) association between the Log transformed Daily Ingestion of As (μg day-1) and the As concentration in saliva (r = 0.68). Additionally, As concentration of saliva and urine also had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.60, p &lt; 0.05). Male participants, smokers and cases of skin lesion were independently and significantly associated with increase in salivary As. Thus our findings show that saliva is a useful biomarker of As exposure in the study population.

  • 22.
    Bin, Elisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Andruetto, Claudia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Susilo, Yusak
    Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci BOKU, Vienna, Austria..
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    The trade-off behaviours between virtual and physical activities during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic period2021In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionThe first wave of COVID-19 pandemic period has drastically changed people's lives all over the world. To cope with the disruption, digital solutions have become more popular. However, the ability to adopt digitalised alternatives is different across socio-economic and socio-demographic groups.ObjectiveThis study investigates how individuals have changed their activity-travel patterns and internet usage during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemicperiod, and which of these changes may be kept.MethodsAn empirical data collection was deployed through online forms. 781 responses from different countries (Italy, Sweden, India and others) have beencollected, and a series of multivariate analyses was carried out. Two linear regression models are presented, related to the change of travel activities andinternet usage, before and during the pandemic period. Furthermore, a binary regression model is used to examine the likelihood of the respondents to adoptand keep their behaviours beyond the pandemic period.ResultsThe results show that the possibility to change the behaviour matter. External restrictions and personal characteristics are the driving factors of the reductionin ones' daily trips. However, the estimation results do not show a strong correlation between the countries' restriction policy and the respondents' likelihoodto adopt the new and online-based behaviours for any of the activities after the restriction period.ConclusionThe acceptance and long-term adoption of the online alternatives for activities are correlated with the respondents' personality and socio-demographicgroup, highlighting the importance of promoting alternatives as a part of longer-term behavioural and lifestyle changes.

  • 23.
    Birkie, Seyoum Eshetu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Sustainable production development, Processledning och hållbar produktion.
    Digitalization for Resilience and Sustainability During the Covid-19 Pandemic: An Explorative Event Study2021In: Advances In Production Management Systems: Artificial Intelligence For Sustainable And Resilient Production Systems, Apms 2021, Pt Iv / [ed] Dolgui, A Bernard, A Lemoine, D VonCieminski, G Romero, D, Springer Nature , 2021, p. 591-600Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on an initial explorative investigation on the relationship among resilience, digitalization, sustainability practices, and operations performance following the outbreak of Covid-19. It builds on literature survey and event study based on news items from international outlets. The findings indicate the need for holistic perspectives to leverage from different efforts in manufacturing firms to drive competitiveness with as little impact on other measures especially considering manufacturing companies.

  • 24.
    Blanco, N.
    et al.
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Inst Human Virol, Ctr Int Hlth Educ & Biosecur, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Stafford, K. A.
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Inst Human Virol, Ctr Int Hlth Educ & Biosecur, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA.;Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Lavoie, M. C.
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Inst Human Virol, Ctr Int Hlth Educ & Biosecur, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Brandenburg, Axel
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Gorna, M. W.
    Univ Warsaw, Biol & Chem Res Ctr, Dept Chem, Struct Biol Grp, Warsaw, Poland..
    Merski, M.
    Univ Warsaw, Biol & Chem Res Ctr, Dept Chem, Struct Biol Grp, Warsaw, Poland..
    A simple model for the total number of SARS-CoV-2 infections on a national level2021In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 149, article id e80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to identify an appropriate simple mathematical model to fit the number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases at the national level for the early portion of the pandemic, before significant public health interventions could be enacted. The total number of cases for the COVID-19 epidemic over time in 28 countries was analysed and fit to several simple rate models. The resulting model parameters were used to extrapolate projections for more recent data. While the Gompertz growth model (mean R-2 = 0.998) best fit the current data, uncertainties in the eventual case limit introduced significant model errors. However, the quadratic rate model (mean R-2 = 0.992) fit the current data best for 25 (89%) countries as determined by R-2 values of the remaining models. Projection to the future using the simple quadratic model accurately forecast the number of future total number of cases 50% of the time up to 10 days in advance. Extrapolation to the future with the simple exponential model significantly overpredicted the total number of future cases. These results demonstrate that accurate future predictions of the case load in a given country can be made using this very simple model.

  • 25.
    Blomberg, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Kuttuva Rajarao, G
    Mehtiö, T
    Uusinoka, M
    Ahonen, M
    Mäkinen, R
    Mäkitalo, T
    Odnevall, Inger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. AIMES—Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Weathering and Antimicrobial Properties of Laminate and Powder Coatings Containing Silver Phosphate Glass Used as High-Touch Surfaces2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 7102-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the use of hygienic high-touch surfaces with antimicrobial properties in health care and public spaces is one way to hinder the spread of bacteria and infections. This study investigates the antimicrobial efficacy and surface reactivity of commercial laminate and powder coated surfaces treated with silver-doped phosphate glass as antimicrobial additive towards two model bacterial strains, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, in relation to surface weathering and repeated cleaning. High-touch conditions in indoor environments were simulated by different extents of pre-weathering (repeated daily cycles in relative humidity at constant temperature) and simplified fingerprint contact by depositing small droplets of artificial sweat. The results elucidate that the antimicrobial efficacy was highly bacteria dependent (Gram-positive or Gram-negative), not hampered by differences in surface weathering but influenced by the amount of silver-doped additive. No detectable amounts of silver were observed at the top surfaces, though silver was released into artificial sweat in concentrations a thousand times lower than regulatory threshold values stipulated for materials and polymers in food contact. Surface cleaning with an oxidizing chemical agent was more efficient in killing bacteria compared with an agent composed of biologically degradable constituents. Cleaning with the oxidizing agent resulted further in increased wettability and presence of residues on the surfaces, effects that were beneficial from an antimicrobial efficacy perspective.

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  • 26.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Office-type in Relation to Health, Well-being and Job Satisfaction Among Employees2008In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 40, p. 636-668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the hypothesis that office type has an influence on workers’ health status and job satisfaction and 469 employees in seven different types, defined by their unique setup of architectural and functional features, have rated their health status and job satisfaction. Multivariate regression models were used for analysis of these outcomes, with adjustment for age, gender, job rank, and line of business. Both health status and job satisfaction differed between the seven office types. Lowest health status was found in medium-sized and small open plan offices. Best health was among employees in cell offices and flex offices. Workers in these types of offices and in shared room offices also rated the highest job satisfaction. Lowest job satisfaction was in combi offices, followed by medium-sized open plan offices. The differences between employees could possibly be ascribed to variations in architectural and functional features of the office types.

  • 27.
    Boman, Magnus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Who Were Where When?: On the Use of Social Collective Intelligence in Computational Epidemiology2014In: Social Collective Intelligence / [ed] Daniele Miorandi, Vincenzo Maltese, Michael Rovatsos, Anton Nijholt and James Stewart, Switzerland: Springer , 2014, p. 203-225Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A triangular (case, theoretical, and literature) study approach is used to investigate if and how social collective intelligence is useful to computational epidemiology. The hypothesis is that the former can be employed for assisting in converting data into useful information through intelligent analyses by deploying new methods from data analytics that render previously unintelligible data intelligible. A conceptual bridge is built between the two concepts of crowd signals and syndromic surveillance. A concise list of empirical observations supporting the hypothesis is presented. The key observation is that new social collective intelligence methods and algorithms allow for massive data analytics to stay with the individual, in micro. It is thus possible to provide the analyst with advice tailored to the individual and with relevant policies, without resorting to macro (statistical) analyses of homogeneous populations.

  • 28. Brink, Eva
    et al.
    Dellve, Lotta
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Klingberg, Gunilla
    Hallberg, Ulrika
    Henning-Abrahamsson, Kajsa
    Wentz, Kerstin
    Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis2006In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 188-192Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Software and Computer Systems, SCS.
    Boman, Magnus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Software and Computer Systems, SCS.
    Camitz, M.
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Department of Epidemiology.
    Mäkilä, K.
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Department of Epidemiology.
    Tegnell, A.
    National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Micro-simulation of a smallpox outbreak using official register data2010In: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 15, no 35, p. 17-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore the efficacy of four vaccine-based policy strategies (ring vaccination, targeted vaccination, mass vaccination, and pre-vaccination of healthcare personnel combined with ring vaccination) for controlling smallpox outbreaks in Sweden, disease transmission on a spatially explicit social network was simulated. The mixing network was formed from high-coverage official register data of the entire Swedish population, building on the Swedish Total Population Register, the Swedish Employment Register, and the Geographic Database of Sweden. The largest reduction measured in the number of infections was achieved when combining ring vaccination with a pre-vaccination of healthcare personnel. In terms of per dose effectiveness, ring vaccination was by far the most effective strategy. The results can to some extent be adapted to other diseases and environments, including other countries, and the methods used can be analysed in their own right.

  • 30.
    Brown, Nick
    et al.
    Univ Edinburgh, EPCC, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Nash, Rupert
    Univ Edinburgh, EPCC, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Poletti, Piero
    Bruno Kessler Fdn, Trento, Italy..
    Guzzetta, Giorgio
    Bruno Kessler Fdn, Trento, Italy..
    Manica, Mattia
    Bruno Kessler Fdn, Trento, Italy..
    Zardini, Agnese
    Bruno Kessler Fdn, Trento, Italy..
    Flatken, Markus
    German Aerosp Ctr DLR, Braunschweig, Germany..
    Vidal, Jules
    Sorbonne Univ, Paris, France..
    Gueunet, Charles
    Kitware, Lyon, France..
    Belikov, Evgenij
    Univ Edinburgh, EPCC, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Tierny, Julien
    Sorbonne Univ, Paris, France..
    Podobas, Artur
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Chien, Wei Der
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Markidis, Stefano
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Gerndt, Andreas
    German Aerosp Ctr DLR, Braunschweig, Germany..
    Utilising urgent computing to tackle the spread of mosquito-borne diseases2021In: Proceedings of Urgenthpc 2021: The Third International Workshop On Hpc For Urgent Decision Making, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2021, p. 36-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is estimated that around 80% of the world's population live in areas susceptible to at-least one major vector borne disease, and approximately 20% of global communicable diseases are spread by mosquitoes. Furthermore, the outbreaks of such diseases are becoming more common and widespread, with much of this driven in recent years by socio-demographic and climatic factors. These trends are causing significant worry to global health organisations, including the CDC and WHO, and-so an important question is the role that technology can play in addressing them. In this work we describe the integration of an epidemiology model, which simulates the spread of mosquito-borne diseases, with the VESTEC urgent computing ecosystem. The intention of this work is to empower human health professionals to exploit this model and more easily explore the progression of mosquito-borne diseases. Traditionally in the domain of the few research scientists, by leveraging state of the art visualisation and analytics techniques, all supported by running the computational workloads on HPC machines in a seamless fashion, we demonstrate the significant advantages that such an integration can provide. Furthermore we demonstrate the benefits of using an ecosystem such as VESTEC, which provides a framework for urgent computing, in supporting the easy adoption of these technologies by the epidemiologists and disaster response professionals more widely.

  • 31.
    Budreviciute, Aida
    et al.
    Kaunas Technol Univ KTU, Panevezys Fac Technol & Business, Panevezys, Lithuania..
    Damiati, Samar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science. King Abdulaziz Univ KAU, Fac Sci, Dept Biochem, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia..
    Sabir, Dana Khdr
    Charmo Univ, Dept Med Lab Sci, Chamchamal, Iraq..
    Onder, Kamil
    Procomcure Biotech GmbH, Thalgau, Austria..
    Schuller-Goetzburg, Peter
    Paracelsus Med Univ Salzburg, Prosthet Biomech & Biomat Res, Salzburg, Austria..
    Plakys, Gediminas
    Kaunas Technol Univ KTU, Panevezys Fac Technol & Business, Panevezys, Lithuania..
    Katileviciute, Agne
    Kaunas Technol Univ KTU, Panevezys Fac Technol & Business, Panevezys, Lithuania..
    Khoja, Samir
    King Abdulaziz Univ KAU, Fac Sci, Dept Biochem, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia..
    Kodzius, Rimantas
    Kaunas Technol Univ KTU, Panevezys Fac Technol & Business, Panevezys, Lithuania.;Baltic Inst Adv Technol, Bioprospecting Dept, Vilnius, Lithuania.;Ludwig Maximilian Univ Munich LMU, Fac Med, Munich, Germany..
    Management and Prevention Strategies for Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) and Their Risk Factors2020In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 8, article id 574111Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are of increasing concern for society and national governments, as well as globally due to their high mortality rate. The main risk factors of NCDs can be classified into the categories of self-management, genetic factors, environmental factors, factors of medical conditions, and socio-demographic factors. The main focus is on the elements of self-management and to reach a consensus about the influence of food on risk management and actions toward the prevention of NCDs at all stages of life. Nutrition interventions are essential in managing the risk of NCDs. As they are of the utmost importance, this review highlights NCDs and their risk factors and outlines several common prevention strategies. We foresee that the best prevention management strategy will include individual (lifestyle management), societal (awareness management), national (health policy decisions), and global (health strategy) elements, with target actions, such as multi-sectoral partnership, knowledge and information management, and innovations. The most effective preventative strategy is the one that leads to changes in lifestyle with respect to diet, physical activities, cessation of smoking, and the control of metabolic disorders.

  • 32.
    Cai, Zhichang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. Nanjing Tech Univ, Sch Architecture, Nanjing 211899, Peoples R China..
    Guan, Chenghe
    NYU Shanghai, Shanghai Key Lab Urban Design & Urban Sci, Shanghai 200122, Peoples R China.;NYU Shanghai, Div Arts & Sci, Shanghai 200122, Peoples R China..
    Trinh, An
    Univ Chicago, Environm & Urban Studies, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Zhang, Bo
    Xiamen Univ, Sch Management, Xiamen 361005, Fujian, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Zhibin
    NYU Shanghai, Shanghai Key Lab Urban Design & Urban Sci, Shanghai 200122, Peoples R China..
    Srinivasan, Sumeeta
    Tufts Univ, Dept Urban & Environm Policy & Planning, Medford, MA 02155 USA..
    Nielsen, Chris
    Harvard Univ, Sch Engn & Appl Sci, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Satisfactions on Self-Perceived Health of Urban Residents in Chengdu, China: Gender, Age and the Built Environment2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 20, article id 13389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-perceived health is an important factor for assessing urban residents' satisfaction and quality of life. However, few have comprehensively investigated the impact of demographics, lifestyle and health awareness, indoor environment characteristics, and neighborhood features on self-perceived health. To fill this gap, we designed a framework using multivariable regressions to derive odd rations and to analyze the determinants of self-rated health, stratified into different sub-groups divided by gender, age, and neighborhood types. The study area is Chengdu, one of the most populous cities in western China. The results show that: (1) female respondents reported worse health, with household income level and marital status significantly affecting self-rated health; (2) elderly people reported the worst health, while unique factors affected only younger people (18-29 years old), such as gender, smoking, and indoor environment characteristics; and (3) different types of neighborhoods influence their residents' perception of health differently due to historical establishment, current population composition, and housing conditions. Our study provides new observations on neighborhood types, while agreeing with previous studies on the influences of gender and age. We contribute to the field by providing a more complex understanding of the mechanism by which people rate their own health, which is important for understanding the satisfaction of urban residents and the built environment in which they live.

  • 33.
    Cakici, Baki
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Software and Computer Systems, SCS.
    Disease surveillance systems2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in information and communication technologies have made the development and operation of complex disease surveillance systems technically feasible, and many systems have been proposed to interpret diverse data sources for health-related signals. Implementing these systems for daily use and efficiently interpreting their output, however, remains a technical challenge.

    This thesis presents a method for understanding disease surveillance systems structurally, examines four existing systems, and discusses the implications of developing such systems. The discussion is followed by two papers. The first paper describes the design of a national outbreak detection system for daily disease surveillance. It is currently in use at the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control. The source code has been licenced under GNU v3 and is freely available. The second paper discusses methodological issues in computational epidemiology, and presents the lessons learned from a software development project in which a spatially explicit micro-meso-macro model for the entire Swedish population was built based on registry data.

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  • 34.
    Campisi, Tiziana
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, University of Enna Korre, Cittadella Universitaria, 94100 Enna, Italy.
    Basbas, Socrates
    School of Rural & Surveying Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Skoufas, Anastasios
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kaltsidis, Alexandros
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Tesoriere, Giovanni
    Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, University of Enna Korre, Cittadella Universitaria, 94100 Enna, Italy.
    The impact of COVID-19 is not gender neutral: regional scale changes in modal choices in Sicily2023In: AIIT 3rd International Conference on Transport Infrastructure and Systems,TIS ROMA 2022: Conference Proceedings, Elsevier BV , 2023, p. 584-591Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender equality is a fundamental human right and is part of one of the goals of the 2030 Agenda (Goal 5), which promotes a more equitable and sustainable way of life. A gender imbalance still exists in the transport sector. Over the years, the reasons why women travel have changed, as have their modal preferences, thanks to the introduction of concessions (pink parking, pregnant seats) but also thanks to the introduction of new forms of mobility and multimodality. However, several works in the literature point out that women's journeys are in many cases more difficult than those of men because there are several factors that influence this imbalance. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to a widening this gap. Through the administration of an online questionnaire, it was possible to find data regarding socio-demographic characteristics, travel habits and finally to analyze the main problems and feelings (feeling of safety on board, perception of a possible contagion and overall evaluation of gender equity both as passengers and as drivers of vehicles) related to the different modes of transport present in the Sicilian context. A statistical comparison of the results was defined considering the different pandemic phases from January 2020 to December 2021. The results show the basis for a better mobility planning starting from the resolution of the COVID-19 crisis that represents an opportunity to change the status quo.

  • 35.
    Ceccato, Vania
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Expressive crimes in post-socialist states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania2008In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, ISSN 1404-3858, E-ISSN 1651-2340, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 2-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents trends inexpressive crimes in Estonia,Latvia, and Lithuania from1993 to 2000 and examines howdemographic, socio-economic,land use, and institutional factorsrelate to their geography in2000. Geographical InformationSystem (GIS) and spatial regressionmodels are employed in thestudy, which make use of countryregions as the unit of analysis.Issues concerning crime dataavailability and quality are discussed.While police official statisticsshow a significant rise inrates of expressive crime in theBaltic countries during the 1990s(with the exception of homicide),victimization crime surveys indicatethat there have been nosignificant changes in crimelevels and composition. Resultsalso show that indicators ofregions’ social structure, suchas divorce rate, more stronglypredict the variation of 2000’sexpressive crime ratios thanother indicators, such as landuse and economic covariates.Most of these covariates functionin ways which are predicted byWestern literature on crime geography.

  • 36.
    Ceccato, Vania
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Loukaitou-Sideris, A.
    Sexual Harassment in Transit Environments among College Students in the #MeToo Era: Reporting Evidence from Six Continents2020In: American Journal of Criminal Justice, ISSN 1066-2316, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 107-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating patterns of sexual violence against young people across the world in the era of the #MeToo movement presents great opportunities for research and practice but also challenges. The aim of this article is to critically assess an internet-based methodology employed in a comparative study conducted with university students in 18 different cities, in six continents. While our main purpose is to examine the methodological aspects of this study, the article also presents briefly its major findings and discusses compiled recommendations to curb sexual violence in some of the most important transit systems in the world. Findings show that sexual violence in transit environments is a common occurrence globally, is highly underreported, and ranges considerably from one city to the other, and between gender groups. Lessons from this study suggest that it is crucial to use identical research tools and choose partners who can ensure that research tasks are undertaken on time, ethically, and with good care for the quality of data and the research process. To curb sexual violence on transit, actions tailored to local contexts are necessary, but as underreporting of harassment is prevalent in all contexts, one global need is initiatives that facilitate incident reporting.

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  • 37.
    Ceccato, Vania
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Melo, Silas N.
    Department of Geography, University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil .
    Kahn, Tullio
    Fundação Espaço Democrático, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Trends and patterns of police-related deaths in Brazil2018In: The Palgrave Handbook of Criminology and the Global South, Springer Nature , 2018, p. 521-550Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter characterizes state-level trends and patterns of police-related deaths in Brazil—civilian deaths at the hands of, and in confrontation with, the police. The chapter builds on the most recent literature of police-related deaths and relies on new data to characterize trends and the geography of police-related deaths in Brazil from two complementary sources. Although some states have seen an overall decrease in homicides, the number of recorded police killings is on the rise. The geography of police killings at the state level reflects a culture of violence in the country fed by a number of multiple factors, among them, impunity.

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  • 38.
    Ceccato, Vania
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Solymosi, Reka
    Univ Manchester, Sch Social Sci, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Müller, Oskar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    The Use of Twitter by Police Officers in Urban and Rural Contexts in Sweden2021In: International Criminal Justice Review, ISSN 1057-5677, E-ISSN 1556-3855, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 456-476, article id 10575677211041926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to investigate the nature of information sharing via Twitter by police officers. We examine the content of Tweets in urban and rural contexts using a sample of 20 police-related Twitter accounts, comparing official and personal accounts active in Southern Sweden. Exploratory data analysis and in-depth content analysis of a sample of Tweets compose the underlying methodology. We find a distinct pattern of consistency in the content of the information shared via the official police accounts compared to the personal accounts, regardless of if they are from urban or rural areas. However, some urban-rural differences were observed between official and personal accounts regarding public engagement, operationalized as likes and Retweets. The study calls for a discussion of new models of police engagement using social media by a society that is increasingly shaped by the internet.

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  • 39.
    Ceccato, Vania
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Wikström, Per Olof H.
    Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Tracking social life and crime2012In: The urban fabric of crime and fear / [ed] Vania Ceccato, Springer Netherlands, 2012, p. 165-190Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An individual’s decision to commit a crime is influenced, among other things, by his/her whereabouts over time and space. In this article, we suggest the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), combined with space-time budget techniques, to visualise and track individuals’ daily activities patterns. We first test several GIS-based visualisation techniques for handling spatial and temporal dimensions of activity patterns using a dataset of adolescents in Peterborough, UK. Later, we show how these spatial methods can support the creation of measures of environmental exposure that may help predict group level offending. Findings indicate that visualisation techniques are effective tools for exploratory analysis of how individuals differ in their patterns of activity across the city. Results also show that tracking groups of individuals by using measures of environmental exposure, in combination with individual characteristics and settings, can help explain differences in their levels of offending.

  • 40.
    Chakraborty, Chiranjib
    et al.
    Adamas Univ, Sch Life Sci & Biotechnol, Dept Biotechnol, Kolkata, W Bengal, India.;Adamas Univ, Sch Life Sci & Biotechnol, Dept Biotechnol, Kolkata 700126, W Bengal, India..
    Bhattacharya, Manojit
    Fakir Mohan Univ, Dept Zool, Balasore, Odisha, India..
    Chopra, Hitesh
    Chitkara Univ, Chitkara Coll Pharm, Rajpura, Punjab, India..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Islam, Md. Aminul
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Microbiol, COVID 19 Diagnost Lab, Noakhali, Bangladesh.;President Abdul Hamid Med Coll, Dept Microbiol, Adv Mol Lab, Karimganj, Kishoreganj, Bangladesh.;Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Microbiol, COVID 19 Diagnost Lab, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Dhama, Kuldeep
    Indian Vet Res Inst, ICAR, Div Pathol, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Recently emerged omicron subvariant BF.7 and its R346T mutation in the RBD region reveal increased transmissibility and higher resistance to neutralization antibodies need to understand more under the current scenario of rising cases in China and fears of driving a new wave of the COVID-19 pandemic2023In: International Journal of Surgery, ISSN 1743-9191, E-ISSN 1743-9159, Vol. 109, no 4, p. 1037-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Chekkala Vivekanand, Aashlesha
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Statistical Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater streams in Stockholm2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater Based Epidemiology (WBE) is an emerging area to assess the presence of viral loads in wastewater streams and thereby provide trends about the emerging viruses. In this study, Wastewater Based Epidemiology is used to assess the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the wastewater streams, possibly providing for early detection. It is known that wastewater parameters effect the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the wastewater samples collected from different regions of Stockholm. In our study, flowrate (m3/day) and Critical Threshold (Ct) value of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)  are the independent variables selected when the gene copy number of SARS-CoV-2 /m3 of raw wastewater is the dependent variable. The aim of the study is to perform a series of statistical tests to understand the distribution of the variables using gaussian studies, the relationship between the independent and the dependent variables is noted by non-parametric tests and correlation studies. The data is modeled using regression analysis and forecasting model is created using an ARIMA model.

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  • 42.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Christensen, C.
    The mediation of migration and states of exception2019In: The Handbook of Diasporas, Media, and Culture, Wiley , 2019, p. 373-384Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This decade has been marked by a series of shifts in the representation of migrants and refugees in the European media. These shifts, however, must be seen in relation to a number of fundamental, underlying components of media coverage of refugees, migrants, and what has been termed the “refugee crisis.” In this chapter, we take the recent events in the United States as a point of departure for discussing the media coverage of migrants, refugees, and diasporic communities in Europe, as well as a more specific look at Sweden, in order to consider the nature of the migrant/refugee discussion (from economics to culture to terrorism) in relation to the fluidity of the lines between migrant and refugee and the placement of these groups into “states of exception.” To conclude, we present an argument as to how critical geopolitics in conjunction with media and communication studies offers a meaningful framework to make sense of these shifting lines.

  • 43.
    Cocciolo, Serena
    et al.
    Young Professional at the World Bank, Washington, DC, USA.
    Ghisolfi, Selene
    Laboratory for Effective Anti-poverty Policies, Bocconi University, Italy.
    Habib, Md. Ahasan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. NGO Forum for Public Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rashid, S M A
    NGO Forum for Public Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Tompsett, Anna
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Do Community Water Sources Provide Safe Drinking Water? Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Rural Bangladesh2021In: The World Bank Economic Review, ISSN 0258-6770, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 969-998Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 44. Costa, A. L.
    et al.
    Blosi, M.
    Brigliadori, A.
    Zanoni, I.
    Ortelli, S.
    Simeone, F. C.
    Delbue, S.
    D'Alessandro, S.
    Parapini, S.
    Vineis, C.
    Varesano, A.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Hamawandi, Bejan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Gardini, D.
    Eco design for Ag-based solutions against SARS-CoV-2 and E. coli2022In: Environmental Science: Nano, ISSN 2051-8153, Vol. 9, no 11, p. 4295-4304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time, we exploited the antiviral and antibacterial properties of Ag NPs stabilised by quaternized hydroxyethyl cellulose (Ag-HEC) against SARS-CoV-2 and Escherichia coli through an eco-friendly process at room temperature in three different environments: 1) water, where Ag was dispersed as a nanosol, 2) textiles, where Ag was applied as a coating, and 3) hydrogel where Ag is embedded. The antiviral performance of Ag-HEC nanosols was quantified through the selectivity index (SI), defined as the ratio between 50% cytotoxic and inhibitory concentration, in order to evaluate the ability to be active in a concentration range below the cytotoxicity value. The collected results pointed out an actual enhanced risk/benefit profile of Ag-HEC NPs with respect to chloroquine, with an SI of 22.2 and 8.4, respectively. Antibacterial and antiviral activities of Ag-HEC NPs immobilized on textiles or mucosa-like hydrogels were also assessed and their efficacy in potential application as protective clothing or nasal molecular masks was verified. This work demonstrated that a modern, safe and sustainable design allows traditional colloidal silver-based technologies to be efficiently exploited for a broad spectrum of antimicrobial solutions against bacterial and viral infections.

  • 45.
    Crockett, Katie
    et al.
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Lovo, Stacey
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Irvine, Alison
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Trask, Catherine M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Canadian Centre for Rural and Agricultural Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Oosman, Sarah
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    McKinney, Veronica
    College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    McDonald, Terrence
    Departments of Family Medicine and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Sari, Nazmi
    Department of Economics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Carnegie, Bertha
    University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Custer, Marie
    University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    McIntosh, Stacey
    University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Bath, Brenna
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; Canadian Centre for Rural and Agricultural Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Healthcare Access Challenges and Facilitators for Back Pain Across the Rural-Urban Continuum in Saskatchewan, Canada: Cross-Sectional Results From a Provincial-Wide Telephone Survey2023In: Health Services Insights, E-ISSN 1178-6329, Vol. 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder, disproportionately affecting rural and Indigenous people. Saskatchewan has a relatively high proportion of rural and Indigenous residents; therefore, understanding barriers and facilitators to accessing healthcare are needed to improve healthcare service delivery. Methods: A provincial-wide telephone survey explored experiences and perceived healthcare access barriers and facilitators among 384 Saskatchewan residents who experienced chronic low back pain. Chi-squared tests were performed to determine if people who lived in urban versus rural areas differed in the proportion who had accessed services from various healthcare practitioners. T-test and Mann-Whitney U analyses were conducted to determine differences between urban and rural, and Indigenous and non-Indigenous respondents. Results: Of 384 residents surveyed, 234 (60.9%) reported living in a rural location; 21 (5.5%) identified as Indigenous. Wait times (47%), cost (40%), travel (39%), and not knowing how to seek help (37%) were the most common barriers for Saskatchewan residents seeking care, with travel being the only barrier that was significantly different between rural and urban respondents (P ⩽.001). Not knowing where to go to access care or what would help their low back pain (P =.03), lack of cultural sensitivity (P =.007), and comfort discussing problems with health care professionals (P =.26) were greater barriers for Indigenous than non-Indigenous participants. Top facilitators (>50% of respondents) included publicly funded healthcare, locally accessible healthcare services, and having supportive healthcare providers who facilitate referral to appropriate care, with urban respondents considering the latter 2 as greater facilitators than rural respondents. Telehealth or virtual care (P =.013) and having healthcare options nearby in their community (P =.045) were greater facilitators among Indigenous participants compared to non-Indigenous respondents. Conclusions: Rural, urban, Indigenous, and non-Indigenous people report overlapping and unique barriers and facilitators to accessing care for chronic low back pain. Understanding perceived access experiences will assist in developing more effective care models for specific communities or regions.

  • 46.
    Crockett, Katie
    et al.
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Lovo, Stacey
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Irvine, Alison
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Trask, Catherine M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Canadian Centre for Rural and Agricultural Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Oosman, Sarah
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    McKinney, Veronica
    College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    McDonald, Terrence
    Department of Family Medicine and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
    Sari, Nazmi
    Department of Economics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Martinez-Rueda, Rosmary
    Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Aiyer, Harini
    Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Carnegie, Bertha
    Patient Partner, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Custer, Marie
    Patient Partner, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    McIntosh, Stacey
    Patient Partner, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Bath, Brenna
    School of Rehabilitation Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; Canadian Centre for Rural and Agricultural Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    “Navigating chaos”: Urban, Rural, and Remote Patient Experiences in Accessing Healthcare with Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Perspectives of Living with Chronic Low Back Pain2024In: Canadian Journal of Pain, E-ISSN 2474-0527, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 2318706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Healthcare access for chronic low back pain is complex and should consider not only the health system, but patient care seeking experiences as well. People who live in rural and remote communities and/or identify as being Indigenous may often encounter additional barriers to accessing care for chronic low back pain; thus, these contexts must be considered to fully understand barriers and facilitators. Aims: The aim of this study was to understand care-seeking experiences of people living with chronic back pain in Saskatchewan and determine unique experiences facing urban, rural, remote, and/or Indigenous peoples. Methods: Thirty-three participants with chronic low back pain completed a preliminary survey followed by individual semistructured interviews. Participants were categorized as urban, rural, or remote including Indigenous status. A qualitative interpretive research approach with inductive thematic analysis was employed. Results: Three overarching themes were identified with the following subthemes: (1) healthcare access challenges: challenges to accessing care, challenges within the health system, and challenges leading to self-directed management/coping strategies; (2) healthcare access facilitators: funded care, participant education and knowledge, patient–provider communication, and care closer to home; and (3) participant recommendations for improved care provision: coordination of care, integrative and holistic care, and patient-centered care and support. Rural and remote participants highlighted travel as a main barrier. Indigenous participant experiences emphasized communication with healthcare providers and past experiences influencing desire to access care. Conclusion: Participants identified a range of challenges and facilitators as well as recommendations for improving access to care for chronic low back pain, with unique barriers for rural, remote, and Indigenous participants.

  • 47.
    Dahn, Marcus Anthony
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    Investigation of Procurement Practices for Welfare Technologies in Municipalities in Sweden2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Major demographical changes, such as aging population, constantly increases the demand for healthand social care services and technologies. The concept of welfare technologies is a response to meet this demand, since it increases independency, activity, participation and safety for people that has or is at risk of developing a disability. The procurement process of welfare technology is described as ineffective and problematic and is one of the major bottlenecks in implementing this type of technology. The aim of this study was to explore how the practical procurement process of welfare technology is performed in Swedish municipalities, an area which is currently under-researched. Moreover, the main problematic areas in the procurement, and their causes were investigated, which was carried out through qualitative semi-structured interviews with municipal actors. Data was collected from 3 municipalities, with 8 interview participants in total. The collected data from these interviews was transcribed, using intelligent verbatim, and analyzed inductively in the framework of qualitative content analysis. The data analysis yielded 7 main categories of problematic areas in the procurement process, along with 47 sub-categories. The main issues discussed were related to insufficient resources, such as competence, time and money, too little focus on the userneed, and difficulties with integrating welfare technology with other technical systems. A set of concrete advices for how to target some of the identified problems was generated, along with a couple guidelines for how to streamline the procurement process of welfare technology. It is argued in this report that the municipal organization of this process needs to be looked over, which cannot solely occur within municipalities, but must also be decided from a higher political level.

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  • 48.
    Dall'Acqua, Nicolo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Analysis and reconstruction of head kinematics during accidents in fast alpine skiing disciplines: Experimental research about the accuracy and drawbacks associated with a video analysis tool2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Head injuries caused by impacts are among the most critical and dangerous types of accidents that can occur while practising sports. Alpine skiing is one of the activities with the highest incidence of head injuries. Over the years, specific regulations have been introduced to protect athletes where possible, but the perception is that the level of protection needed to manage the forces to which they are exposed has yet to be achieved. This thesis project aims to examine video sequences of accidents in alpine ski competitions (Giant Slalom, Super-G, Downhill, Ski Cross) to better understand the translational violence exerted on the head during impacts. After an in-depth analysis, it was shown that, in at least 41% of the videos investigated, the translational impact speeds exceeded the standards adopted in helmet certifications by 44.3% and 52.2%, respectively. Besides, in 60% of these accidents, the blow was located on the upper semicircle of the helmet, which is believed to be due to the ever-increasing use of airbags for the torso.

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  • 49.
    Dashti, David
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Improving Quality Assurance of Radiology Equipment Using Process Modelling and Multi-actor System Analysis2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the introduction of RIS and PACS technologies in clinical radiology, the field has become increasingly technology dependent. The quality assurance in radiology have however yet to catch on. With many quality assurance programs mainly focusing on the clinical side of radiology whilst little attention is paid to the technical aspects. This thesis serves to change that, by investigating quality assurance of radiology equipment in the workflow of hospital physicists and biomedical engineers at Södersjukhuset emergency hospital.

    To improve said workflows, process modelling and multi-actor system analysis was utilized in combination with the on-site inventory system Medusa. In order to model the workflows, the process modelling technique flowchart was used. To add additional information into the flowcharts, multi-actor system analysis was employed. This was done for the workflow of both scheduled and unscheduled maintenance of radiology equipment. Initially resulting in a pair of pre-study models which modelled the after the existing workflows.

    From said pair of pre-study models, both redundancies and main objectives for improvement were deduced. This in combination with an extensive semistructured literature review, led to a list of requirements. Two pairs of improved models were then created with the list of requirements in mind.

    All the models were then evaluated, including the pair of pre-study models, in workshops held with hospital physicists, biomedical engineers and respective leadership staff. These workshops contained both an open discussion and a questionnaire, asking the participants to rate the alignment of the models with the different requirements in the list. Based on the results from the workshops, one of the proposed pairs of improved models were then chosen as the final solution of an improved workflow.

    A workflow in which redundancies were reduced, traceability capabilities added in form of digital storage, and alignment with legislative demands from SSM assured. A step in the digitalization of Södersjukhuset. Utilizing digital technology to improve quality assurance in the workflow of radiology equipment.

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  • 50.
    Dellve, Lotta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Health-Promoting Managerial Work: A Theoretical Framework for a Leadership Program that Supports Knowledge and Capability to Craft Sustainable Work Practices in Daily Practice and During Organizational Change2017In: Societies, E-ISSN 2075-4698, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to describe a theoretical framework, i.e., theoretical underpinnings and pedagogical principles, for leadership programs that support managers' evidence-based knowledge of health-promoting psychosocial work conditions, as well as their capability to apply, adapt, and craft sustainable managerial work practices. First, the theoretical framing is introduced, i.e., a system theory that integrates key work conditions with a practical perspective on managerial work and organization. Second, pedagogical principles and measures for leaders' training in integrated handling across system levels are described. Last, we present summarized results from an intervention study applying the theoretical framework and pedagogical principles. The complexity of interactions among different factors in a work system, and the variety in possible implementation approaches, presents challenges for the capability of managers to craft sustainable and health-promoting conditions, as well as the evaluation of the program components. Nevertheless, the evaluation reveals the strength of the program, in providing holistic and context-sensitive approaches for how to train and apply an integrative approach for improving the work environment.

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