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  • 1.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Gonzalez, A. D.
    Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change2009In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 89, no 5, p. S1704-S1709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic warming is caused mainly by emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, with agriculture as a main contributor for the latter 2 gases. Other parts of the food system contribute carbon dioxide emissions that emanate from the use of fossil fuels in transportation, processing, retailing, storage, and preparation. Food items differ substantially when GHG emissions are calculated from farm to table. A recent study of approximate to 20 items sold in Sweden showed a span of 0.4 to 30 kg CO2 equivalents/kg edible product. For protein-rich food, such as legumes, meat, fish, cheese, and eggs, the difference is a factor of 30 with the lowest emissions per kilogram for legumes, poultry, and eggs and the highest for beef, cheese, and pork. Large emissions for ruminants are explained mainly by methane emissions from enteric fermentation. For vegetables and fruits, emissions usually are <= 2.5 kg CO2 equivalents/kg product, even if there is a high degree of processing and substantial transportation. Products transported by plane are an exception because emissions may be as large as for certain meats. Emissions from foods rich in carbohydrates, such as potatoes, pasta, and wheat, are <1.1 kg/kg edible food. We suggest that changes in the diet toward more plant-based foods, toward meat from animals with little enteric fermentation, and toward foods processed in an energy-efficient manner offer an interesting and little explored area for mitigating climate change.

  • 2. Debevec, Tadej
    et al.
    McDonnell, Adam C.
    Macdonald, Ian A.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Whole body and regional body composition changes following 10-day hypoxic confinement and unloading-inactivity2014In: Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 1715-5312, E-ISSN 1715-5320, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 386-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future planetary habitats will expose inhabitants to both reduced gravity and hypoxia. This study investigated the effects of short-term unloading and normobaric hypoxia on whole body and regional body composition (BC). Eleven healthy, recreationally active, male participants with a mean (SD) age of 24 (2) years and body mass index of 22.4 (3.2) kg.m(-2) completed the following 3 10-day campaigns in a randomised, cross-over designed protocol: (i) hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAMB; FIO2 = 0.147 (0.008); PIO2 = 93.8 (0.9) mm Hg), (ii) hypoxic bed rest (HBR; FIO2 = 0.147 (0.008); PIO2 = 93.8 (0.9) mm Hg), and (iii) normoxic bed rest (NBR; FIO2 = 0.209; PIO2 = 133.5 (0.7) mmHg). Nutritional requirements were individually precalculated and the actual intake was monitored throughout the study protocol. Body mass, whole body, and regional BC were assessed before and after the campaigns using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The calculated daily targeted energy intake values were 2071 (170) kcal for HBR and NBR and 2417 (200) kcal for HAMB. In both HBR and NBR campaigns the actual energy intake was within the targeted level, whereas in the HAMB the intake was lower than targeted (-8%, p < 0.05). Body mass significantly decreased in all 3 campaigns (-2.1%, -2.8%, and -2.0% for HAMB, HBR, and NBR, respectively; p < 0.05), secondary to a significant decrease in lean mass (-3.8%, -3.8%, -4.3% for HAMB, HBR, and NBR, respectively; p < 0.05) along with a slight, albeit not significant, increase in fat mass. The same trend was observed in the regional BC regardless of the region and the campaign. These results demonstrate that, hypoxia per se, does not seem to alter whole body and regional BC during short-term bed rest.

  • 3.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sleep, physical activity and BMI in six to ten-year-old children measured by accelerometry: a cross-sectional study2013In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 10, no 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study is to describe the relationship between objective measures of sleep, physical activity and BMI in Swedish pre-adolescents. The day-to-day association between physical activity and sleep quality as well as week-day and weekend pattern of sleep is also described. Method: We conducted a cross sectional study consisted of a cohort of 1.231 children aged six to ten years within the Stockholm county area. Sleep and physical activity were measured by accelerometry during seven consecutive days. Outcome measures are total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep start and sleep end; physical activity intensity divided into: sedentary (<1.5 METS), light (1.5 to 3 METS) and moderate-to-vigorous (> 3 METS); and Body Mass Index standard deviations score, BMIsds. Results: Total sleep time decreased with increasing age, and was shorter in boys than girls on both weekdays and weekends. Late bedtime but consistent wake-up time during weekends made total sleep time shorter on weekends than on weekdays. Day-to-day within-subject analysis revealed that moderate-to-vigorous intense physical activity promoted an increased sleep efficiency the following night (CI < 0.001 to 0.047), while total sleep time was not affected (CI -0.003 to 0.043). Neither sleep duration (CI -0.024 to 0.022) nor sleep efficiency (CI -0.019 to 0.028) affected mean physical activity level the subsequent day. The between-subject analysis indicates that the sleep of children characterized by high moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the day was frequently interrupted (SE = -. 23, P < .01). A negative association between BMIsds and sleep duration was found (-. 10, p < .01). Conclusions: Short sleep duration was associated with high BMI in six to ten year old children. This study underscores the importance of consistent bedtimes throughout the week for promoting sleep duration in preadolescents. Furthermore, this study suggests that a large proportion of intensive physical activity during the day might promote good sleep quality.

  • 4. Fondell, Elinor
    et al.
    Christensen, Sara E.
    Bälter, Olle
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Bälter, Katarina
    Adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations as a measure of a healthy diet and upper respiratory tract infection2011In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 860-869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The Nordic countries have published joint dietary recommendations, the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), since 1980. We evaluated adherence to the NNR as a measure of a healthy diet and its potential association with self-reported upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). Design: A prospective, population-based study with a follow-up period of 4 months. Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative FFQ with ninety-six items, along with other lifestyle factors, at baseline. URTI was assessed every three weeks. A Poisson regression model was used to control for age, sex and other confounding factors. Setting: A middle-sized county in northern Sweden. Subjects: Swedish men and women (n 1509) aged 20-60 years. Results: The NNR include recommendations on macronutrient proportions, physical activity and intake of micronutrients, sodium, fibre and alcohol. We found that overall adherence to the NNR was moderately good. In addition, we found that high adherence to the NNR (>5.5 adherence points) was not associated with a lower risk of URTI (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.89, 95% CI 0.73, 1.08) compared with low adherence (<4.5 adherence points). When investigating individual components of the NNR, only high physical activity was associated with lower URTI risk (IRR=0.82, 95% CI 0.69, 0.97) whereas none of the dietary components were associated with risk of URTI. Conclusions: Overall adherence to the NNR was moderately good. Overall adherence to the NNR was not associated with URTI risk in our study. However, when investigating individual components of the NNR, we found that high physical activity was associated with lower URTI risk.

  • 5. Simpson, Elizabeth J.
    et al.
    Debevec, Tadej
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, Igor
    Macdonald, Ian A.
    PlanHab: the combined and separate effects of 16 days of bed rest and normobaric hypoxic confinement on circulating lipids and indices of insulin sensitivity in healthy men2016In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 120, no 8, p. 947-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PlanHab is a planetary habitat simulation study. The atmosphere within future space habitats is anticipated to have reduced PO2, but information is scarce as to how physiological systems may respond to combined exposure to moderate hypoxia and reduced gravity. This study investigated, using a randomized-crossover design, how insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and circulating lipids were affected by 16 days of horizontal bed rest in normobaric normoxia [NBR: FIO2 = 0.209; PIO2 = 133.1 (0.3) mmHg], horizontal bed rest in normobaric hypoxia [HBR: FIO2 = 0.141 (0.004); PIO2 = 90.0 (0.4) mmHg], and confinement in normobaric hypoxia combined with daily moderate intensity exercise (HAMB). A mixed-meal tolerance test, with arterialized-venous blood sampling, was performed in 11 healthy, nonobese men (25-45 yr) before (V1) and on the morning of day 17 of each intervention (V2). Postprandial glucose and c-peptide response were increased at V2 of both bed rest interventions (P < 0.05 in each case), with c-peptide: insulin ratio higher at V2 in HAMB and HBR, both in the fed and fasted state (P < 0.005 in each case). Fasting total cholesterol was reduced at V2 in HAMB [-0.47 (0.36) mmol/l; P < 0.005] and HBR [-0.55 (0.41) mmol/l; P < 0.005]. Fasting HDL was lower at V2 in all interventions, with the reduction observed in HBR [-0.30 (0.21) mmol/l] greater than that measured in HAMB [-0.13 (0.14) mmol/l; P < 0.005] and NBR [-0.17 (0.15) mmol/l; P < 0.05]. Hypoxia did not alter the adverse effects of bed rest on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance but appeared to increase insulin clearance. The negative effect of bed rest on HDL was compounded in hypoxia, which may have implications for long-term health of those living in future space habitats.

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