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  • 1.
    Abbasi Aval, Negar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Utilizing Biopolymers in 3D Tumor Modeling and Tumor Diagnosis2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer represents a significant global public health challenge and ranks as the second mostcommon cause of death in the United States. The onset of cancer entails an initial phasewhere cells lose their polarity and disconnect from the normal basement membrane, allowingthem to form distinct three-dimensional (3D) configurations that interact with adjacent cellsand the surrounding microenvironment. Cells grown in 2D monolayers demonstrate differentgene expression patterns and different activation of signaling pathways compared to cellscultivated within the natural structure of tumor tissue of the same cell type. Multicellulartumor spheroids (MCTS) are extensively investigated as a well-studied model of organotypiccancer. These spheroids are formed by tumor cells, either alone or in combination with othercell types, and they can be created with or without the application of supportive scaffolds.The MCTSs are also considered promising models for preclinical assessments of chemosensitivity.However, the creation of these tumor spheroids presents challenges, as not alltumor cell lines can consistently form regular spheroids.Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) have become essential as a sustainable and environmentallyfriendly material. For example, thin films, with inherent mechanical properties, and flexibility,offer versatility across various applications. Also known for its biocompatibility and non-toxicnature, native CNF is a natural option to use. Its fibrous structure closely mimics the collagenmatrix in human tissue, showing potential as an effective scaffold for 3D cell culture. In thisregard, an innovative Layer-by-Layer (LbL) coating technique using CNF-polyelectrolytebilayers was investigated to generate spheroids. This method constructs bilayers of CNFand polyelectrolytes and can coat various surfaces. In this thesis, the first focus was ondemonstrating the spheroid formation capability using low molecular weight polyelectrolytesin LbL assembly. Secondly, an investigation was conducted involving embedding of LbLgrownspheroids in a decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) aiming to determine howECM, possessing suitable mechanical characteristics, could influence the cancer stem celltraits in spheroids. Thirdly, the thesis demonstrated the utilization of LbL for capturing andreleasing of circulating tumor cells. Lastly, the shift from using low molecular weightpolyelectrolytes in the LbL assembly to high molecular weight counterparts and analyzingthe differences in spheroid formation abilities to assess the underlying differences inmolecular weights of the polyelectrolytes was explored. All-in-all, employing the CNF-basedLbL surface coating strategy explored in the thesis has proven to be promising for thedevelopment of spheroid models closely resembling in vivo conditions and holds significantpotential for applications in drug development.

  • 2.
    Abbasi Aval, Negar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Khati, Vamakshi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Russom, Aman
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Influence of Decellularized Extra Cellular Matrix on 3D spheroids formed on Layer-by-Layer cellulose nanofibril/Polyelectrolytes coating as an in-vitro model for Hepatocellular CarcinomaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Abbasi Aval, Negar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Lahchaichi, Ekeram
    Fayazbakhsh, Farzaneh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Tudoran, Oana
    Russom, Aman
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Evaluating the Impact of Positively Charged Polyelectrolyte Molecular Weightand Bilayer Number on Tumor Spheroid Formation in the Interaction with Negatively Charged Cellulose Nanofibrils in layer by layer assembly2023Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Abbasi Aval, Negar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Lahchaichi, Ekeram
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Tudoran, Oana
    Department of Genetics, Genomics and Experimental Pathology, The Oncology Institute “Prof. Dr. I. Chiricuta”, 400015 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    Fayazbakhsh, Farzaneh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Heuchel, Rainer
    Pancreas Cancer Research Lab, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löhr, Matthias
    Pancreas Cancer Research Lab, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Russom, Aman
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Assessing the Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Cellulose Nanofibrils and Polyelectrolytes in Pancreatic Tumor Spheroid Formation2023In: Biomedicines, E-ISSN 2227-9059, Vol. 11, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroids are regarded as promising models for utilization as preclinical assessments of chemo-sensitivity. However, the creation of these tumor spheroids presents challenges, given that not all tumor cell lines are able to form consistent and regular spheroids. In this context, we have developed a novel layer-by-layer coating of cellulose nanofibril–polyelectrolyte bilayers for the generation of spheroids. This technique builds bilayers of cellulose nanofibrils and polyelectrolytes and is used here to coat two distinct 96-well plate types: nontreated/non-sterilized and Nunclon Delta. In this work, we optimized the protocol aimed at generating and characterizing spheroids on difficult-to-grow pancreatic tumor cell lines. Here, diverse parameters were explored, encompassing the bilayer count (five and ten) and multiple cell-seeding concentrations (10, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 cells per well), using four pancreatic tumor cell lines—KPCT, PANC-1, MiaPaCa-2, and CFPAC-I. The evaluation includes the quantification (number of spheroids, size, and morphology) and proliferation of the produced spheroids, as well as an assessment of their viability. Notably, our findings reveal a significant influence from both the number of bilayers and the plate type used on the successful formation of spheroids. The novel and simple layer-by-layer-based coating method has the potential to offer the large-scale production of spheroids across a spectrum of tumor cell lines.

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  • 5.
    Abdollahi, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Department of Dentistry, Kashan University of Medical Science, Kashan, Iran.
    Saghatchi, Mahshid
    School of Metallurgy & Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Paryab, Amirhosein
    Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Malek Khachatourian, Adrine
    Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Stephens, Emma D.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada, 2500 University Drive NW.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Badv, Maryam
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada, 2500 University Drive NW; Libin Cardiovascular Institute, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada, 3330 Hospital Drive NW.
    Angiogenesis in bone tissue engineering via ceramic scaffolds: A review of concepts and recent advancements2024In: Biomaterials Advances, E-ISSN 2772-9508, Vol. 159, article id 213828Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to organ donor shortages, long transplant waitlists, and the complications/limitations associated with auto and allotransplantation, biomaterials and tissue-engineered models are gaining attention as feasible alternatives for replacing and reconstructing damaged organs and tissues. Among various tissue engineering applications, bone tissue engineering has become a promising strategy to replace or repair damaged bone. We aimed to provide an overview of bioactive ceramic scaffolds in bone tissue engineering, focusing on angiogenesis and the effect of different biofunctionalization strategies. Different routes to angiogenesis, including chemical induction through signaling molecules immobilized covalently or non-covalently, in situ secretion of angiogenic growth factors, and the degradation of inorganic scaffolds, are described. Physical induction mechanisms are also discussed, followed by a review of methods for fabricating bioactive ceramic scaffolds via microfabrication methods, such as photolithography and 3D printing. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of the commonly used methodologies and future directions are discussed.

  • 6. Akyuz, Lalehan
    et al.
    Kaya, Murat
    Mujtaba, Muhammad
    Ilk, Sedef
    Sargin, Idris
    Salaberria, Asier M.
    Labidi, Jalel
    Cakmak, Yavuz S.
    Islek, Cemil
    Supplementing capsaicin with chitosan-based films enhanced the anti-quorum sensing, antimicrobial, antioxidant, transparency, elasticity and hydrophobicity2018In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 115, p. 438-446Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Alloisio, Marta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Solid Mechanics.
    Chatziefraimidou, Marina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Solid Mechanics.
    Roy, Joy
    KI Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Solna, Sweden..
    Gasser, T. Christian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Solid Mechanics.
    Fracture of porcine aorta-Part 1: symconCT fracture testing and DIC2023In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 167, p. 147-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tissue failure and damage are inherent parts of vascular diseases and tightly linked to clinical events. Additionally, experimental set-ups designed to study classical engineering materials are suboptimal in the exploration of vessel wall fracture properties. The classical Compact Tension (CT) test was augmented to enable stable fracture propagation, resulting in the symmetry-constraint Compact Tension (symconCT) test, a suitable set-up for fracture testing of vascular tissue. The test was combined with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) to study tissue fracture in 45 porcine aorta specimens. Test specimens were loaded in axial and circumferential directions in a physiological solution at 37 & DEG;C. Loading the aortic vessel wall in the axial direction resulted in mode I tissue failure and a fracture path aligned with the circumferential vessel direction. Circumferential loading resulted in mode I-dominated failure with multiple deflections of the fracture path. The aorta ruptured at a principal Green-Lagrange strain of approximately 0.7, and strain rate peaks that develop ahead of the crack tip reached nearly 400 times the strain rate on average over the test specimen. It required approximately 70% more external work to fracture the aorta by circumferential than axial load; normalised with the fracture surface, similar energy levels are, however, observed. The symconCT test resulted in a stable fracture propagation, which, combined with DIC, provided a set-up for the in-depth analysis of vascular tissue failure. The high strain rates ahead of the crack tip indicate the significance of rate effects in the constitutive description of vascular tissue fracture.

  • 8.
    Amagat, Jordi
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Aarhus University, Denmark; Sino-Danish College (SDC), University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101400, China.
    Müller, Christoph Alexander
    Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Jensen, Bjarke Nørrehvedde
    Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Xiong, Xuya
    Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, iNANO, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Su, Yingchun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Embedded systems, Electronic and embedded systems. Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Christensen, Natasja Porskjær
    Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Le Friec, Alice
    Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Dong, Mingdong
    Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, iNANO, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Fang, Ying
    CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, People's Republic of China; CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Institute of Neuroscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, People's Republic of China.
    Chen, Menglin
    Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Aarhus University, Denmark; Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, iNANO, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Injectable 2D flexible hydrogel sheets for optoelectrical/biochemical dual stimulation of neurons2023In: Biomaterials Advances, E-ISSN 2772-9508, Vol. 146, article id 213284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major challenges in developing implanted neural stimulation devices are the invasiveness, complexity, and cost of the implantation procedure. Here, we report an injectable, nanofibrous 2D flexible hydrogel sheet-based neural stimulation device that can be non-invasively implanted via syringe injection for optoelectrical and biochemical dual stimulation of neuron. Specifically, methacrylated gelatin (GelMA)/alginate hydrogel nanofibers were mechanically reinforced with a poly(lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) core by coaxial electrospinning. The lubricant hydrogel shell enabled not only injectability, but also facile incorporation of functional nanomaterials and bioactives. The nanofibers loaded with photocatatlytic g-C3N4/GO nanoparticles were capable of stimulating neural cells via blue light, with a significant 36.3 % enhancement in neurite extension. Meanwhile, the nerve growth factor (NGF) loaded nanofibers supported a sustained release of NGF with well-maintained function to biochemically stimulate neural differentiation. We have demonstrated the capability of an injectable, hydrogel nanofibrous, neural stimulation system to support neural stimulation both optoelectrically and biochemically, which represents crucial early steps in a larger effort to create a minimally invasive system for neural stimulation.

  • 9.
    Aminlashgari, Nina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Höglund, Odd V
    Borg, Niklas
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Degradation profile and preliminary clinical testing of a resorbable device for ligation of blood vessels2013In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 6898-904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A resorbable device for ligation of blood vessels was developed and tested in vitro to reveal the degradation profile of the device and to predict the clinical performance in terms of adequate mechanical support during a healing period of I week. In addition, preliminary clinical testing was performed that showed complete hemostasis and good tissue grip of renal arteries in five pigs. The device was made by injection molding of poly(glycolide-co-trimethylene carbonate) triblock copolymer, and it consisted of a case with a locking mechanism connected to a partly perforated flexible band. A hydrolytic degradation study was carried out for 7, 30 and 60 days in water and buffer medium, following the changes in mass, water absorption, pH and mechanical properties. A new rapid matrix-free laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) method was developed for direct screening of degradation products released into the degradation medium. The combination of LDI-MS and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analyses enabled the comparison of the degradation product patterns in water and buffer medium. The identified degradation products were rich in trimethylene carbonate units, indicating preferential hydrolysis of amorphous regions where trimethylene units are located. The crystallinity of the material was doubled after 60 days of hydrolysis, additionally confirming the preferential hydrolysis of trimethylene carbonate units and the enrichment of glycolide units in the remaining solid matrix. The mechanical performance of the perforated band was followed for the first week of hydrolysis and the results suggest that sufficient strength is retained during the healing time of the blood vessels.

  • 10.
    Arza, Carlos R.
    et al.
    Lund University;Centre for Analysis and Synthesis;SE-22100 Lund;Sweden.
    İlk, Sedef
    Ömer Halisdemir University;Central Research Laboratory;Niğde;Turkey.
    Demircan, Deniz
    Lund University;Centre for Analysis and Synthesis;SE-22100 Lund;Sweden.
    Zhang, Baozhong
    Lund University;Centre for Analysis and Synthesis;SE-22100 Lund;Sweden.
    New biobased non-ionic hyperbranched polymers as environmentally friendly antibacterial additives for biopolymers2018In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 1238-1249Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Beaussant Törne, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Khan, Fareed Ashraf
    Örnberg, A.
    Weissenrieder, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Zn-Mg and Zn-Ag degradation mechanism under biologically relevant conditionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc alloys form a promising new class of biodegradable metals that combine suitable mechanical properties with the favorable degradation properties of pure zinc. However, the current understanding of the influence of alloying elements on the corrosion of zinc alloys, in biologically relevant media, is limited. We studied the degradation of three alloys, Zn 4 wt% Ag, Zn 0.5 wt% Mg and Zn 3 wt% Mg by in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). After exposure for 1h or 30 days the samples were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of secondary phases in the alloy microstructure induced selective corrosion and increased degradation rate. An increase in surface inhomogeneity was evident by EIS analysis both at short (hours) as well as long immersion times (days). The microgalvanic corrosion of the Zn-Ag alloy resulted in enrichment of the AgZn3 phase at the sample surface. The enrichment of Ag and potential release of AgZn3 particles may result in complications during the tissue regeneration. The Zn-Mg alloy surface was depleted of the Mg-rich phase after 8-12 days. The selective dissolution caused local precipitation of2corrosion products and a thicker corrosion layer with larger pore size consistent with increased corrosion rate.

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  • 12.
    Beaussant Törne, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Örnberg, A.
    Weissenrieder, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Characterization of the Protective Layer Formed on Zinc in Whole BloodManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The advantageous degradation properties of zinc in a biological environment are related to the presence of a protective corrosion layer composed of both organic and inorganic components. However, the mechanisms governing its formation and how the organic species influence its properties have not been established. Here we study the protective layer formation during anodic polarization in whole blood by in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as well as infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Simulated body fluid (m-SBF) was used as a reference media to discern the influence of the organic species present in whole blood. Protective zinc phosphate layers form on the Zn surface in both solutions, but of different nature and through diverse mechanisms. In m-SBF the passivating thin film formation occur already at open circuit potential, reducing the corrosion current compared to exposure in whole blood by a factor of 103. The high corrosion current in whole blood can be explained by a process including rapid protein adsorption preventing the initial formation of a protective phosphate layer. EIS analysis detected an inductive arc in whole blood at low overpotentials, before the onset of protective film formation, indicating the presence of adsorbed Zn2ions. The coverage of Zn ions approach 100% of the active surface at 110 mV. At this critical surface coverage a reaction between the adsorbed Zn ions and PO42- takes place which results in formation of a protective, porous, film of ~1 μm thickness. The inorganic component of the protective film formed in whole blood was characterized as Zn(PO4)2(OH)2·3H2O.

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  • 13.
    Biscari, Giuseppina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Fan, Yanmiao
    Univ Palermo, Via Archirafi 32, I-90123 Palermo, Italy..
    Namata, Faridah
    Univ Palermo, Via Archirafi 32, I-90123 Palermo, Italy..
    Fiorica, Calogero
    University of Palermo, Via Archirafi 32, Palermo, 90123, Italy.
    Malkoch, Michael
    Univ Palermo, Via Archirafi 32, I-90123 Palermo, Italy..
    Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore
    Univ Palermo, Via Archirafi 32, I-90123 Palermo, Italy..
    Pitarresi, Giovanna
    Univ Palermo, Via Archirafi 32, I-90123 Palermo, Italy..
    Antibacterial Broad-Spectrum Dendritic/Gellan Gum Hybrid Hydrogels with Rapid Shape-Forming and Self-Healing for Wound Healing Application2023In: Macromolecular Bioscience, ISSN 1616-5187, E-ISSN 1616-5195, article id 202300224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treating wound infections is a difficult task ever since pathogenic bacteria started to develop resistance to common antibiotics. The present study develops hybrid hydrogels based on the formation of a polyelectrolyte complex between the anionic charges of dopamine-functionalized Gellan Gum (GG-DA) and the cationic moieties of the TMP-G2-alanine dendrimer. The hydrogels thus obtained can be doubly crosslinked with CaCl2, obtaining solid hydrogels. Or, by oxidizing dopamine to GG-DA, possibly causing further interactions such as Schiff Base and Michael addition to take place, hydrogels called injectables can be obtained. The latter have shear-thinning and self-healing properties (efficiency up to 100%). Human dermal fibroblasts (HDF), human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT), and mouse monocyte cells (RAW 264.7), after incubation with hydrogels, in most cases show cell viability up to 100%. Hydrogels exhibit adhesive behavior on various substrates, including porcine skin. At the same time, the dendrimer serves to crosslink the hydrogels and endows them with excellent broad-spectrum microbial eradication activity within four hours, evaluated using Staphylococcus aureus 2569 and Escherichia coli 178. Using the same GG-DA/TMP-G2-alanine ratios hybrid hydrogels with tunable properties and potential for wound dressing applications can be produced.

  • 14.
    Bjurhager, Ingela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    Keunecke, Daniel
    Niemz, Peter
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Mechanical performance of yew (Taxus baccata L.) from a longbow perspective2013In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 67, no 7, p. 763-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yew (Taxus baccata L.) longbow was the preferred weapon in the Middle Ages until the emergence of guns. In this study, the tensile, compression, and bending properties of yew were investigated. The advantage of yew over the other species in the study was also confirmed by a simple beam model. The superior toughness of yew has the effect that a yew longbow has a higher range compared with bows made from other species. Unexpectedly, the mechanical performance of a bow made from yew is influenced by the juvenile-to-mature wood ratio rather than by the heartwood-to-sapwood ratio. A yew bow is predicted to have maximized performance at a juvenile wood content of 30-50%, and located at the concave side (the compressive side facing the bowyer). Here, the stiffness and yield stress in compression should be as high as possible.

  • 15.
    Brusentsev, Yury
    et al.
    Laboratory of Natural Materials Technology, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Henrikinkatu 2, 20500 Turku, Finland.
    Yang, Peiru
    Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Tykistökatu 6, 20520 Turku, Finland; Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, Tykistökatu 6, 20520 Turku, Finland.
    King, Alistair W.T.
    Chemistry Department, University of Helsinki, Yliopistonkatu 3, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Cheng, Fang
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Shenzhen), Shenzhen Campus of Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen 518107, China.
    Cortes Ruiz, Maria F.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Eriksson, John E.
    Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Tykistökatu 6, 20520 Turku, Finland; Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, Tykistökatu 6, 20520 Turku, Finland.
    Kilpeläinen, Ilkka
    Chemistry Department, University of Helsinki, Yliopistonkatu 3, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Willför, Stefan
    Laboratory of Natural Materials Technology, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Henrikinkatu 2, 20500 Turku, Finland.
    Xu, Chunlin
    Laboratory of Natural Materials Technology, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Henrikinkatu 2, 20500 Turku, Finland.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wang, Xiaoju
    Laboratory of Natural Materials Technology, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Henrikinkatu 2, 20500 Turku, Finland.
    Photocross-Linkable and Shape-Memory Biomaterial Hydrogel Based on Methacrylated Cellulose Nanofibres2023In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 3835-3845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture and tissue engineering, 3D printing is a powerful tool for customizing in vitro 3D cell culture models that are critical for understanding the cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions. Cellulose nanofibril (CNF) hydrogels are emerging in constructing scaffolds able to imitate tissue in a microenvironment. A direct modification of the methacryloyl (MA) group onto CNF is an appealing approach to synthesize photocross-linkable building blocks in formulating CNF-based bioinks for light-assisted 3D printing; however, it faces the challenge of the low efficiency of heterogenous surface modification. Here, a multistep approach yields CNF methacrylate (CNF-MA) with a decent degree of substitution while maintaining a highly dispersible CNF hydrogel, and CNF-MA is further formulated and copolymerized with monomeric acrylamide (AA) to form a super transparent hydrogel with tuneable mechanical strength (compression modulus, approximately 5-15 kPa). The resulting photocurable hydrogel shows good printability in direct ink writing and good cytocompatibility with HeLa and human dermal fibroblast cell lines. Moreover, the hydrogel reswells in water and expands to all directions to restore its original dimension after being air-dried, with further enhanced mechanical properties, for example, Young’s modulus of a 1.1% CNF-MA/1% PAA hydrogel after reswelling in water increases to 10.3 kPa from 5.5 kPa.

  • 16.
    Chen, Song
    et al.
    Orthopedic Institute, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Biology & Basic Medical Sciences, Suzhou Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215006, P. R. China, Jiangsu.
    Liu, Dachuan
    Orthopedic Institute, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Biology & Basic Medical Sciences, Suzhou Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215006, P. R. China, Jiangsu.
    Fu, Le
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410017, P. R. China.
    Ni, Bing
    Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstraße 10, 78457, Konstanz, Germany, Universitätsstraße 10.
    Chen, Zongkun
    Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstraße 10, 78457, Konstanz, Germany, Universitätsstraße 10.
    Knaus, Jennifer
    Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstraße 10, 78457, Konstanz, Germany, Universitätsstraße 10.
    Sturm, Elena V.
    Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstraße 10, 78457, Konstanz, Germany, Universitätsstraße 10; Section Crystallography, Department of Geo- and Environmental Sciences, Ludwigs-Maximilians-University Munich, Theresienstr. 41, 80333, Munich, Germany, Theresienstr. 41.
    Wang, Bohan
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410017, P. R. China.
    Haugen, Håvard Jostein
    Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, PO Box 1109 Blindern, Oslo, 0376, Norway, PO Box 1109 Blindern.
    Yan, Hongji
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience. KTH, Centres, Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences, AIMES. Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, 752 36, Sweden.
    Cölfen, Helmut
    Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstraße 10, 78457, Konstanz, Germany, Universitätsstraße 10.
    Li, Bin
    Orthopedic Institute, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Biology & Basic Medical Sciences, Suzhou Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215006, P. R. China, Jiangsu; Collaborative Innovation Center of Hematology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215006, P.R.China, Jiangsu; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Affiliated Haian Hospital of Nantong University, Haian,Nantong, Jiangsu, 226600, P.R.China, Jiangsu.
    Formation of Amorphous Iron-Calcium Phosphate with High Stability2023In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 35, no 33, article id 2301422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous iron-calcium phosphate (Fe-ACP) plays a vital role in the mechanical properties of teeth of some rodents, which are very hard, but its formation process and synthetic route remain unknown. Here, the synthesis and characterization of an iron-bearing amorphous calcium phosphate in the presence of ammonium iron citrate (AIC) are reported. The iron is distributed homogeneously on the nanometer scale in the resulting particles. The prepared Fe-ACP particles can be highly stable in aqueous media, including water, simulated body fluid, and acetate buffer solution (pH 4). In vitro study demonstrates that these particles have good biocompatibility and osteogenic properties. Subsequently, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is utilized to consolidate the initial Fe-ACP powders. The results show that the hardness of the ceramics increases with the increase of iron content, but an excess of iron leads to a rapid decline in hardness. Calcium iron phosphate ceramics with a hardness of 4 GPa can be achieved, which is higher than that of human enamel. Furthermore, the ceramics composed of iron-calcium phosphates show enhanced acid resistance. This study provides a novel route to prepare Fe-ACP, and presents the potential role of Fe-ACP in biomineralization and as starting material to fabricate acid-resistant high-performance bioceramics.

  • 17.
    Chen, Song
    et al.
    Soochow Univ, Affiliated Hosp 1, Suzhou Med Coll, Orthoped Inst,Dept Orthoped Surg, Suzhou, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Huan
    Soochow Univ, Affiliated Hosp 1, Suzhou Med Coll, Orthoped Inst,Dept Orthoped Surg, Suzhou, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Dachuan
    Soochow Univ, Affiliated Hosp 1, Suzhou Med Coll, Orthoped Inst,Dept Orthoped Surg, Suzhou, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Bai, Jianzhong
    Soochow Univ, Affiliated Hosp 1, Suzhou Med Coll, Orthoped Inst,Dept Orthoped Surg, Suzhou, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Haugen, Havard Jostein
    Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Dent, Dept Biomat, POB 1109 Blindern, N-0376 Oslo, Norway..
    Li, Bin
    Soochow Univ, Affiliated Hosp 1, Suzhou Med Coll, Orthoped Inst,Dept Orthoped Surg, Suzhou, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Hongji
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova. KTH, Centres, Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences, AIMES. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Early osteoimmunomodulation by mucin hydrogels augments the healing and revascularization of rat critical-size calvarial bone defects2023In: BIOACTIVE MATERIALS, ISSN 2452-199X, Vol. 25, p. 176-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design principle of osteogenic bone grafts has shifted from immunological inertness to limiting foreign body response to combined osteoimmunomodulatory activity to promote high-quality endogenous bone regeneration. Recently developed immunomodulatory mucin hydrogels have been shown to elicit very low complement activation and suppress macrophage release and activation after implantation in vivo. However, their immunoregulatory activity has not yet been studied in the context of tissue repair. Herein, we synthesized mucinmonetite composite materials and investigated their early osteoimmunomodulation using a critical-size rat bone defect model. We demonstrated that the composites can polarize macrophages towards the M2 phenotype at weeks 1 and 2. The early osteoimmunomodulation enhanced early osteogenesis and angiogenesis and ultimately promoted fracture healing and engraftment (revascularization of the host vasculature) at weeks 6 and 12. Overall, we demonstrated the applicability of mucin-based immunomodulatory biomaterials to enhance tissue repair in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  • 18.
    Chen, Yan-Ting
    et al.
    Graduate Institute of Nanomedicine and Medical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan.
    Liu, Chia-Hung
    Department of Urology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, No.250, Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 11031, Taiwan;TMU Research Center of Urology and Kidney, Taipei Medical University, No. 250, Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 11031, Taiwan;Department of Urology, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, No. 291, Zhongzheng Road, Zhonghe District, New Taipei City 23559, Taiwan.
    Pan, Wen-Yu
    School of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan;Ph.D. Program in Medical Biotechnology, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan.
    Jheng, Pei-Ru
    Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan.
    Hsieh, Yves S. Y.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience. School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan;Division of Glycoscience, Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm SE106 91, Sweden.
    Burnouf, Thierry
    Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan.
    Fan, Yu-Jui
    School of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan.
    Chiang, Chia-Che
    Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan.
    Chen, Tzu-Yin
    School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan.
    Chuang, Er-Yuan
    Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan;Cell Physiology and Molecular Image Research Center, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei 11696, Taiwan.
    Biomimetic Platelet Nanomotors for Site-Specific Thrombolysis and Ischemic Injury Alleviation2023In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 15, no 27, p. 32967-32983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Due to the mortality associated with thrombosis and its highrecurrence rate, there is a need to investigate antithrombotic approaches.Noninvasive site-specific thrombolysis is a current approach being used; however,its usage is characterized by the following limitations: low targeting efficiency, poorability to penetrate clots, rapid half-life, lack of vascular restoration mechanisms,and risk of thrombus recurrence that is comparable to that of traditionalpharmacological thrombolysis agents. Therefore, it is vital to develop an alternativetechnique that can overcome the aforementioned limitations. To this end, a cottonball-shaped platelet (PLT)-mimetic self-assembly framework engineered with aphototherapeutic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) platform has beendeveloped. This platform is capable of delivering a synthetic peptide derived fromhirudin P6 (P6) to thrombus lesions, forming P6@PEDOT@PLT nanomotors fornoninvasive site-specific thrombolysis, effective anticoagulation, and vascularrestoration. Regulated by P-selectin mediation, the P6@PEDOT@PLT nanomotors target the thrombus site and subsequentlyrupture under near-infrared (NIR) irradiation, achieving desirable sequential drug delivery. Furthermore, the movement ability ofthe P6@PEDOT@PLT nanomotors under NIR irradiation enables effective penetration deep into thrombus lesions, enhancingbioavailability. Biodistribution analyses have shown that the administered P6@PEDOT@PLT nanomotors exhibit extendedcirculation time and metabolic capabilities. In addition, the photothermal therapy/photoelectric therapy combination cansignificantly augment the effectiveness (ca. 72%) of thrombolysis. Consequently, the precisely delivered drug and the resultantphototherapeutic-driven heat-shock protein, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and inhibitory plasminogen activator inhibitor1 (PAI-1) activities can restore vessels and effectively prevent rethrombosis. The described biomimetic P6@PEDOT@PLTnanomotors represent a promising option for improving the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy in thrombus-related illnesses.

  • 19.
    Chouhan, Dimple
    et al.
    Indian Inst Technol Guwahati, Dept Biosci & Bioengn, Biomat & Tissue Engn Lab, Gauhati 781039, Assam, India..
    Das, Piyali
    West Bengal Univ Anim & Fishery Sci, Dept Vet Surg & Radiol, Kolkata 700037, W Bengal, India..
    Thatikonda, Naresh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science.
    Nandi, Samit K.
    West Bengal Univ Anim & Fishery Sci, Dept Vet Surg & Radiol, Kolkata 700037, W Bengal, India..
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science.
    Mandal, Biman B.
    Indian Inst Technol Guwahati, Dept Biosci & Bioengn, Biomat & Tissue Engn Lab, Gauhati 781039, Assam, India..
    Silkworm Silk Matrices Coated with Functionalized Spider Silk Accelerate Healing of Diabetic Wounds2019In: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, E-ISSN 2373-9878, Vol. 5, no 7, p. 3537-3548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex cutaneous wounds like diabetic foot ulcers represent a critical clinical challenge and demand a large-scale and low-cost strategy for effective treatment. Herein, we use a rabbit animal model to investigate efficacy of bioactive wound dressings made up of silk biomaterials. Nanofibrous mats of Antheraea assama silkworm silk fibroin (AaSF) are coated with various recombinant spider silk fusion proteins through silk-silk interactions to fabricate multifunctional wound dressings. Two different types of spider silk coatings are used to compare their healing efficiency: FN-4RepCT (contains a cell binding motif derived from fibronectin) and Lac-4RepCT (contains a cationic antimicrobial peptide from lactoferricin). AaSF mats coated with spider silk show accelerated wound healing properties in comparison to the uncoated mats. Among the spider silk coated variants, dual coating of FN-4RepCT and Lac-4RepCT on top of AaSF mat demonstrated better wound healing efficiency, followed by FN-4RepCT and Lac-4RepCT single coated counterparts. The in vivo study also reveals excellent skin regeneration by the functionalized silk dressings in comparison to commercially used Duoderm dressing and untreated wounds. The spider silk coatings demonstrate early granulation tissue development, re-epithelialization, and efficient matrix remodelling of wounds. The results thus validate potential of bioactive silk matrices in faster repair of diabetic wounds.

  • 20.
    Chouhan, Dimple
    et al.
    Indian Inst Technol Guwahati, Dept Biosci & Bioengn, Biomat & Tissue Engn Lab, Gauhati 781039, Assam, India..
    Lohe, Tshewuzo-u
    Natl Inst Pharmaceut Educ & Res, Dept Pharmacol & Toxicol, Gauhati 781032, Assam, India..
    Thatikonda, Naresh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science.
    Naidu, V. G. M.
    Natl Inst Pharmaceut Educ & Res, Dept Pharmacol & Toxicol, Gauhati 781032, Assam, India..
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Technology.
    Mandal, Biman B.
    Indian Inst Technol Guwahati, Dept Biosci & Bioengn, Biomat & Tissue Engn Lab, Gauhati 781039, Assam, India.;Indian Inst Technol Guwahati, Ctr Nanotechnol, Gauhati 781039, Assam, India..
    Silkworm Silk Scaffolds Functionalized with Recombinant Spider Silk Containing a Fibronectin Motif Promotes Healing of Full-Thickness Burn Wounds2019In: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, E-ISSN 2373-9878, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 4634-4645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full-thickness cutaneous wounds, such as deep burns, are complex wounds that often require surgical interventions. Herein, we show the efficacy of acellular grafts that can be made available off-the-shelf at an affordable cost using silk biomaterials. Silkworm silk fibroin (SF), being a cost-effective and natural biopolymer, provides essential features required for the fabrication of three-dimensional constructs for wound-healing applications. We report the treatment of third-degree burn wounds using a freeze-dried microporous scaffold of Antheraea assama SF (AaSF) functionalized with a recombinant spider silk fusion protein FN-4RepCT (FN-4RC) that holds the fibronectin cell binding motif. In order to examine the healing efficiency of functionalized silk scaffolds, an in vivo burn rat model was used, and the scaffolds were implanted by a one-step grafting procedure. The aim of our work is to investigate the efficacy of the developed acellular silk grafts for treating full-thickness wounds as well as to examine the effect of recombinant spider silk coatings on the healing outcomes. Following 14-day treatment, AaSF scaffolds coated with FN-4RC demonstrated accelerated wound healing when compared to the uncoated counterpart, commercially used DuoDERM dressing patch, and untreated wounds. Histological assessments of wounds over time further confirmed that functionalized silk scaffolds promoted wound healing, showing vascularization and re-epithelialization in the initial phase. In addition, higher extent of tissue remodeling was affirmed by the gene expression study of collagen type I and type III, indicating advanced stage of healing by the silk treatments. Thus, the present study validates the potential of scaffolds of combined silkworm silk and FN-4RC for skin regeneration.

  • 21.
    De Mori, Arianna
    et al.
    School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DT, UK..
    Peña Fernández, Marta
    Zeiss Global Centre, School of Mechanical and Design Engineering, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3DJ, UK.
    Blunn, Gordon
    School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DT, UK..
    Tozzi, Gianluca
    Zeiss Global Centre, School of Engineering, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3DJ, UK..
    Roldo, Marta
    School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DT, UK..
    3D Printing and Electrospinning of Composite Hydrogels for Cartilage and Bone Tissue Engineering.2018In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 10, no 3, article id E285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Injuries of bone and cartilage constitute important health issues costing the National Health Service billions of pounds annually, in the UK only. Moreover, these damages can become cause of disability and loss of function for the patients with associated social costs and diminished quality of life. The biomechanical properties of these two tissues are massively different from each other and they are not uniform within the same tissue due to the specific anatomic location and function. In this perspective, tissue engineering (TE) has emerged as a promising approach to address the complexities associated with bone and cartilage regeneration. Tissue engineering aims at developing temporary three-dimensional multicomponent constructs to promote the natural healing process. Biomaterials, such as hydrogels, are currently extensively studied for their ability to reproduce both the ideal 3D extracellular environment for tissue growth and to have adequate mechanical properties for load bearing. This review will focus on the use of two manufacturing techniques, namely electrospinning and 3D printing, that present promise in the fabrication of complex composite gels for cartilage and bone tissue engineering applications.

  • 22.
    Demircan, Deniz
    et al.
    Lund University, Centre for Analysisand Synthesis, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden;Hacettepe University, Faculty of Science, Departmentof Chemistry, Beytepe, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey.
    Ilk, Sedef
    Ömer Halisdemir University, Central ResearchLaboratory, TR-51240 Niğde, Turkey.
    Zhang, Baozhong
    Lund University, Centre for Analysisand Synthesis, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Cellulose-Organic Montmorillonite Nanocomposites as Biomacromolecular Quorum-Sensing Inhibitor2017In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 18, no 10, p. 3439-3446Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Donius, Amalie E.
    et al.
    Liu, Andong
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wegst, Ulrike G. K.
    Superior mechanical performance of highly porous, anisotropic nanocellulose-montmorillonite aerogels prepared by freeze casting2014In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 37, p. 88-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Directionally solidified nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC)-sodium-montmorillonite (MMT) composite aerogels with a honeycomb-like pore structure were compared with non-directionally frozen aerogels with equiaxed pore structure and identical composition and found to have superior functionalities. To explore structure-property correlations, three different aerogel compositions of 3 wt% MMT, and 0.4 wt%, 0.8 wt%, and 1.2 wt% NFC, respectively, were tested. Young's modulus, compressive strength and toughness were found to increase with increasing NFC content for both architectures. The modulus increased from 25.8 kPa to 386 kPa for the isotropic and from 2,13 MPa to 3.86 MPa for the anisotropic aerogels, the compressive yield strength increased from 3.3 kPa to 18.0 kPa for the isotropic and from 32.3 kPa to 52.5 kPa for the anisotropic aerogels, and the toughness increased from 6.3 kJ/m(3) to 24.1 kJ/m(3) for the isotropic and from 22.9 kJ/m(3) to 46.2 kJ/m(3) for the anisotropic aerogels. The great range of properties, which can be achieved through compositional as well as architectural variations, makes these aerogels highly attractive for a large range of applications, for which either a specific composition, or a particular pore morphology, or both are required. Finally, because NFC is flammable, gasification experiments were performed, which revealed that the inclusion of MMT increased the heat endurance and shape retention functions of the aerogels dramatically up to 800 degrees C while the mechanical properties were retained up to 300 degrees C.

  • 24.
    Dånmark, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Finne-Wistrand, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Albertsson, Ann-Christine
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Patarroyo, Manuel
    Institutionen for Odontologi, Karolinska Institute.
    Mustafa, Kamal
    Insititutt for klinisk Odontologi, Medicinska och Odontologiska Fakulteten, Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Integrin-mediated adhesion of human mesenchymal stem cells to extracellular matrix proteins adsorbed to polymer surfaces2012In: Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1748-6041, E-ISSN 1748-605X, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 035011-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In vitro, degradable aliphatic polyesters are widely used as cell carriers for bone tissue engineering, despite their lack of biological cues. Their biological active surface is rather determined by an adsorbed layer of proteins from the surrounding media. Initial cell fate, including adhesion and proliferation, which are key properties for efficient cell carriers, is determined by the adsorbed layer of proteins. Herein we have investigated the ability of human bone marrow derived stem cells (hBMSC) to adhere to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including fibronectin and vitronectin which are present in plasma and serum. hBMSC expressed integrins for collagens, laminins, fibronectin and vitronectin. Accordingly, hBMSC strongly adhered to these purified ECM proteins by using the corresponding integrins. Although purified fibronectin and vitronectin adsorbed to aliphatic polyesters to a lower extent than to cell culture polystyrene, these low levels were sufficient to mediate adhesion of hBMSC. It was found that plasma- and serum-coated polystyrene adsorbed significant levels of both fibronectin and vitronectin, and fibronectin was identified as the major adhesive component of plasma for hBMSC; however, aliphatic polyesters adsorbed minimal levels of fibronectin under similar conditions resulting in impaired cell adhesion. Altogether, the results suggest that the efficiency of aliphatic polyesters cell carriers could be improved by increasing their ability to adsorb fibronectin.

  • 25.
    Dånmark, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Finne-Wistrand, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Albertsson, Ann-Christine
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Mustafa, Kamal
    Insititutt for klinisk Odontologi, Medicinska och Odontologiska Fakulteten, Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Enhanced Osteoconductivity of Degradable co-Polyester Scaffolds through Covalent Immobilization of BMP-2Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Dånmark, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Gladnikoff, Micha
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Frisk, Thomas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Zelenina, Marina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Mustafa, Kamal
    Insititutt for klinisk Odontologi, Medicinska och Odontologiska Fakulteten, Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Russom, Aman
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Finne-Wistrand, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Development of Novel Microfluidic Device for Long-Term in situ Monitoring of Live Cells in 3-dimensional MatricesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 27. Fadeel, B.
    et al.
    Fornara, A.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Bhattacharya, K.
    Keeping it real: The importance of material characterization in nanotoxicology2015In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 468, no 3, p. 498-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanomaterials are small and the small size and corresponding large surface area of nanomaterials confers specific properties, making these materials desirable for various applications, not least in medicine. However, it is pertinent to ask whether size is the only property that matters for the desirable or detrimental effects of nanomaterials? Indeed, it is important to know not only what the material looks like, but also what it is made of, as well as how the material interacts with its biological surroundings. It has been suggested that guidelines should be implemented on the types of information required in terms of physicochemical characterization of nanomaterials for toxicological studies in order to improve the quality and relevance of the published results. This is certainly a key issue, but it is important to keep in mind that material characterization should be fit-for-purpose, that is, the information gathered should be relevant for the end-points being studied.

  • 28. Ferraris, S.
    et al.
    Vitale, A.
    Bertone, E.
    Guastella, S.
    Cassinelli, C
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Spriano, S.
    Multifunctional commercially pure titanium for the improvement of bone integration: Multiscale topography, wettability, corrosion resistance and biological functionalization2016In: Materials science & engineering. C, biomimetic materials, sensors and systems, ISSN 0928-4931, E-ISSN 1873-0191, Vol. 60, p. 384-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objects of this research are commercially pure titanium surfaces, with multifunctional behavior, obtained through a chemical treatment and biological functionalization. The explored surfaces are of interest for dental implants, in contact with bone, where several simultaneous and synergistic actions are needed, in order to get a fast and effective osseointegration. The here described modified surfaces present a layer of titanium oxide, thicker than the native one, with a multi-scale surface topography (a surface roughness on the nano scale, which can be overlapped to a micro or macro roughness of the substrate) and a high density of OH groups, that increase surface wettability, induce a bioactive behavior (hydroxyapatite precipitation in simulated body fluid) and make possible the grafting of biomolecules (alkaline phosphatase, ALP, in the present research). The surface oxide is an efficient barrier against corrosion, with passive behavior both with and without application of an external voltage.

  • 29.
    Ferraris, Sara
    et al.
    Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Department of Chemistry, Surface Science Western, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
    Noël, James J.
    Department of Chemistry, Surface Science Western, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
    Spriano, Silvia
    Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy.
    Interactions Between the Physiological Environment and Titanium-Based Implant Materials: From Understanding to Control2022In: Nanoscale Engineering of Biomaterials: Properties and Applications, Springer Nature , 2022, p. 3-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in different biomedical applications owing to their high biocompatibility, high corrosion resistance, good mechanical properties, and good osseointegration ability. Titanium and its alloys rapidly form a surface oxide layer in air and aqueous environments. This passive and thin (a few nanometers) surface oxide hinders active corrosion and ensures a low metal ion release, enhancing biocompatibility. Compared to that of other biomedical alloys, this surface oxide is exceptionally resistant to chemical attack by halides, primarily chlorides; the presence of fluorides can, in some cases, result in localized corrosion of titanium and its alloys. However, the combination of proteins, inflammatory conditions and bacteria, which for instance generate hydrogen peroxide, can result in a reduction of the corrosion resistance of titanium-based materials. Titanium and its alloying elements, such as aluminum and vanadium, can then be released as ions, which might trigger an immune system response and reduce biocompatibility. Several surface modifications have been proposed in order to improve the bone-bonding ability of titanium and its alloys, facilitate the healing process, and enhance the success of the implant with a decreased risk of micromotions. Moreover, antimicrobial ions/nanoparticles can be added to the surface to reduce the infection risk. Surface modification of titanium (e.g., with artificially grown, micrometer-thick, titanium oxide layers) can significantly increase the corrosion resistance under critical conditions (e.g., inflammatory response and infection); however, the surfaces are not completely inert and the effect of metal ion/nanoparticle release should be carefully taken into account. This chapter reviews and discusses the current strategies for modifying and controlling the surface of titanium-based implant materials, with particular focus on corrosion resistance, bone integration, inflammatory and infection control, and interactions with the physiological environment.

  • 30.
    Ghorbani, Morteza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging.
    Svagan, Anna Justina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Grishenkov, Dmitry
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging. Karolinska Institutet (KI), CLINTEC – Division of Medical Imaging and Technology.
    Acoustic Response of a Novel Class of Pickering Stabilized Perfluorodroplets2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Acoustic Droplet Vaporization (ADV) is a phase change phenomenon in which the liquid state, in the form of droplets, is converted to gas as a result of bursts in the excited ultrasound field. Having a wide range of medical applications, ADV has drawn considerable attention in imaging [1], diagnosis and critical medical treatment [2]. Therefore, benefitting from its broad potentials, with the consideration of its capability in localized noninvasive energy exposure, it is possible to utilize its effect in different medical applications from targeted drug delivery [3] to embolotherapy [4].

    Apart from the droplet characterization and ADV effectiveness on the applied region, the physics of ADV and particularly the ultrasound analysis is an essential parameter in the initiation of the vaporization. This part, which is related to acoustic wave physics, implies that ADV is mostly dependent on ultrasound pressure, frequency and temperature. In this sense, Miles et al. [5] tried to find incident negative pressure - called as ADV threshold- which is necessary for the induction of nucleation. It was successfully shown that the negative pressure required for the nucleation prior to collapse can be determined via perturbation analysis of a compressible inviscid flow around a droplet for various frequencies and diameters. In addition, the fluid medium which constitutes the droplet emulsion and the surrounding fluid constructs a significant field within ADV. In this regard, there are many studies which illustrated that the diameter of the droplets subjected to the acoustic waves undergoes a significant expansion of 5 to 6 times of their regular sizes [6-8].

    In this study, a new type of pickering stabilized perfluorodroplets (PFC) was examined under the effect of the different acoustic parameters to evaluate its potential in the acoustic droplet vaporization process. To assess the pressure effects on the stabilized droplets, the acoustic power within the ultrasound tests was varied and the phase trasnition was characterized according to the experimental conditions. Opticell® was utilized as the transparent device to visualize the droplets, which were exposed to the acoustic waves with the aid of the microscope and multi-well microplate.

    Methods

    Materials and emulsion preparation

    Perfluoropentane (PFC5) was purchased from Apollo Scientific (City, U.K.). Bleached sulfite pulp (from Nordic Paper Seffle AB, Sweden) was used in the production of the cationic cellulose nanofibers (CNFs). The CNF suspension (1.32 wt%) were prepared as described previously [9]. The CNFs had a dimension of 3.9 ± 0.8 nm in width and a length in the micrometer range. The amount of cationic groups was 0.13 mmol per g fiber, obtained from conductometric titration [9]. A suspension of CNF (0.28 wt%) was prepared by diluting the stock CNF with MilliQ-water (pH of diluted CNF suspension was 9.5). The suspension was treated with ultra-sonication at amplitude of 90% for 180 s (Sonics, Vibracell W750). The suspension was brought to room temperature. An amount of 36 g of the 0.28 wt% CNF suspension was mixed with 1 g of PFC5. The mixture was sonicated for 60s at an amplitude of 80% (under ice-cooling) to obtain the CNF-stabilized PFC5 droplets.

    The protocol for the acoustic tests

    100 μL of CNF-stabilized PFC5 droplets were added to 1900 μL of deionized water in order to prepare the solution which were exposed to the ultrasound waves. The droplet sample, diluted 1:19 in distilled water was introduced to the Opticell® and the acoustic waves at a fixed frequency and different powers were applied to the trageted area inside the Opticell® which is located inside a water bath. The ultrasound triggered sample then was placed under a 20X magnification objective of upright transmitted light microscope (ECLIPSE Ci-S, Nikon, Tokyo, Japan). 

    The acoustic tests were performed using high-power tone burst pulser-receiver (SNAP Mark IV,  Ritec, Inc., Warwick, RI, USA) equipped with a transducer (V382-SU Olympus NDT, Waltham, MA ) operating at the frequency of 3.5 MHz. The emulsion of CNF-stabilized PFC5 droplets were exposed to the power range which has the acsending trend from -30 to 0 dB at the given frequency. To investigate the droplet size variations at each power between, the droplets were collected inside the Opticell® and the droplet diameter was measured with the aid of the ImageJ software (version 1.50b, National institutes of health, USA) to determine the concentration and size distribution. The Gaussian distribution is ploted with mean value and standad deviation recover from the experimental data. An in-house image edge detection MATLAB™ script (MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA) were applied to analyze the images obtained from the microscope and provides the size and volume distributions.

    Results

    The size of PFP droplets is an important parameter to controll in the therapeutic applications. Here, a new type of Pickering stabilized perfluorodroplets were prepared where the PFP/water interface was stabilized with cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and the size of the droplets could easily be controlled by varying the amount of CNF added.  The resulting droplets were investigated using a single crystal transducer. Apart from the medical applications, controlling the droplet size is important from droplet dynamics point of view, becausethe interfacial energy is crucial in the assumption of the critical nucleus radius. Therefore, it is possible to estimate the negative peak pressure required for the phase transition once the droplet is controlled and interfacial energy deposited inside and on the surface of the droplet are balanced.

    According to the results in Figure 1, there is an appreciable rise of the size of the droplets after ultrasound waves exposure, particularly at -8 dB power. The experiments were performed for 30 seconds at different powers ranging from -30 to 0 dB, while the frequency was kept constant at 3.5 MHz, burst width in cycles was selected as 12 and repetition rate was set to 100. Images included in Figure 1 demonstrate major transitions in the intervals at -16, -8 and 0 dB. As shown in this figure, the droplet size increased with the power rise and more bubbles with bigger sizes appears at higher powers. This outcome implies the significant role of the applied frequency and power on the phase shift and subsequent mechanisms as a result of the acoustic wave exposure on the new nontoxic and incompatible droplet type.

    Figure 2 shows the average number of droplets and volume distribution at the corresponding powers to the Figure 1. It is shown that while the average diameter of the droplets is around 3.5 µm, the generated bubbles, as a result of the ADV, reaches up to 15 µm at the highest possible power. For each set of experiment (corresponding to a given power) 32 images were taken, thus, to reduce the errors and obtain the standard deviation (approximately 0.8 for all the cases), the presented diagrams for the droplet distributions exhibits the mean value for all of the acquired images. Therefore, it is shown that the droplet emulsion exhibited in NO US in Figure 2, which shows the regular view and distribution range of the CNF-stabilized PFC5 droplets at the room temperature, experiences ADV process with the diameter rise of about 5 times at the highest power when the frequency is fixed at 3.5 MHz.

    Conclusions

    The results show that there is appreciable rise on the size of the droplets after ultrasound waves exposure at a fixed frequency. Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) was illustrated at different powers for CNF-stabilized PFC5 droplets as a new class of pickering stabilized perfluorodroplets with the increase in the size of the droplets and following phase trasition to bubbles. Diameter increase of 5 times were obtained after the ultrasound exposure indicating the efficiency of the suggested droplets for the ADV process and therapeutic applications.   

    References

    [1] Arena CB, Novell A, Sheeran PS, Puett C, Moyer LC, Dayton PA, Dual-Frequency Acoustic Droplet Vaporization Detection for Medical Imaging 2015, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, 62: 9.

    [2] Kripfgans OD, Fowlkes JB, Miller DL, Eldevik OP, Carson PL, Acoustic droplet vaporization for therapeutic and diagnostic applications 2000, Ultrasound Med. Biol, 26:1177–1189.

    [3] Kang ST, Yeh CK, Intracellular Acoustic Droplet Vaporization in a Single Peritoneal Macrophage for Drug Delivery Applications 2011, Langmuir, 27:13183–13188.

    [4] Zhu M, Jiang L, Fabiilli ML, Zhang A, Fowlkes JB, Xu LX, Treatment of murine tumors using acoustic droplet vaporization-enhanced high intensity focused 2013, Ultrasound Phys. Med. Biol, 58:6179–6191.

    [5] Miles CJ, Doering CR, Kripfgans OD, Nucleation pressure threshold in acoustic droplet vaporization 2016, Journal of Applied Physics, 120:034903.

    [6] Sheeran PS, Wong VP, Luois S, McFarland RJ, Ross WD, Feingold S, Matsunaga TO, Dayton PA, Decafluorobutane as a phase-change contrast agent for low-energy extravascular ultrasonic imaging 2011, Ultrasound Med. Biol, 37:1518–1530.

    [7] Kripfgans OD, Fowlkes JB, Miller DL, Eldevik OP, Carson PL, Acoustic droplet vaporization for therapeutic and diagnostic applications 2000, Ultrasound Med. Biol, 26:1177–1189.

    [8] Kang S, Huang Y, Yeh C, Characterization of acoustic droplet vaporization for control of bubble generation under flow conditions 2014, Ultrasound Med. Biol, 40:551–561.

    [9] Svagan AJ, Benjamins JW, Al-Ansari Z, Shalom DB, Müllertz A, Wågberg L, Löbmann K, Solid cellulose nanofiber based foams–towards facile design of sustained drug delivery systems 2016, J. Control Release, 244:74–82 (Part A).

     

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  • 31.
    Gordobil, Oihana
    et al.
    Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department;University of the Basque Country;Donostia-San Sebastián;Spain.
    Herrera, René
    Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department;University of the Basque Country;Donostia-San Sebastián;Spain.
    Yahyaoui, Marwa
    Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department;University of the Basque Country;Donostia-San Sebastián;Spain;Laboratory of Materials and Molecules Application.
    İlk, Sedef
    Ömer Halisdemir University;Central Research Laboratory;Turkey.
    Kaya, Murat
    Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology;Faculty of Science and Letters;Aksaray University;Aksaray;Turkey.
    Labidi, Jalel
    Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department;University of the Basque Country;Donostia-San Sebastián;Spain.
    Potential use of kraft and organosolv lignins as a natural additive for healthcare products2018In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 8, no 43, p. 24525-24533Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Granskog, Viktor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    García-Gallego, Sandra
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    von Kieseritzky, Johanna
    Department of Clinical Science and Education and the Department of Hand Surgery, Karolinska Institutet.
    Rosendahl, Jennifer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials–Medical Device Technology.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials–Medical Device Technology.
    Zhang, Yuning
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials–Medical Device Technology.
    Lyvén, Benny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials–Medical Device Technology.
    Arner, Marianne
    Department of Clinical Science and Education and the Department of Hand Surgery, Karolinska Institutet.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials–Medical Device Technology.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    High-Performance Thiol–Ene Composites Unveil a New Era of Adhesives Suited for Bone Repair2018In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 28, no 26, article id 1800372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of adhesives for fracture fixation can revolutionize the surgical procedures toward more personalized bone repairs. However, there are still no commercially available adhesive solutions mainly due to the lack of biocompatibility, poor adhesive strength, or inadequate fixation protocols. Here, a surgically realizable adhesive system capitalizing on visible light thiol–ene coupling chemistry is presented. The adhesives are carefully designed and formulated from a novel class of chemical constituents influenced by dental resin composites and self-etch primers. Validation of the adhesive strengthis conducted on wet bone substrates and accomplished via fiber-reinforced adhesive patch (FRAP) methodology. The results unravel, for the first time, on the promise of a thiol–ene adhesive with an unprecedented shear bondstrength of 9.0 MPa and that surpasses, by 55%, the commercially available acrylate dental adhesive system Clearfil SE Bond of 5.8 MPa. Preclinical validation of FRAPs on rat femur fracture models details good adhesion to the bone throughout the healing process, and are found biocompatible not giving rise to any inflammatory response. Remarkably, the FRAPs are found to withstand loads up to 70 N for 1000 cycles on porcine metacarpal fractures outperforming clinically used K-wires and match metal plates and screw implants.

  • 33.
    Grytsan, Andrii
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Biomechanics.
    Abdominal aortic aneurysm inception and evolution - A computational model2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by a bulge in the abdominal aorta. AAA development is mostly asymptomatic, but such a bulge may suddenly rupture, which is associated with a high mortality rate. Unfortunately, there is no medication that can prevent AAA from expanding or rupturing. Therefore, patients with detected AAA are monitored until treatment indication, such as maximum AAA diameter of 55 mm or expansion rate of 1 cm/year. Models of AAA development may help to understand the disease progression and to inform decision-making on a patient-specific basis. AAA growth and remodeling (G&R) models are rather complex, and before the challenge is undertaken, sound clinical validation is required.

    In Paper A, an existing thick-walled model of growth and remodeling of one layer of an AAA slice has been extended to a two-layered model, which better reflects the layered structure of the vessel wall. A parameter study was performed to investigate the influence of mechanical properties and G&R parameters of such a model on the aneurysm growth.

    In Paper B, the model from Paper A was extended to an organ level model of AAA growth. Furthermore, the model was incorporated into a Fluid-Solid-Growth (FSG) framework. A patient-specific geometry of the abdominal aorta is used to illustrate the model capabilities.

    In Paper C, the evolution of the patient-specific biomechanical characteristics of the AAA was investigated. Four patients with five to eight Computed Tomography-Angiography (CT-A) scans at different time points were analyzed. Several non-trivial statistical correlations were found between the analyzed parameters.

    In Paper D, the effect of different growth kinematics on AAA growth was investigated. The transverse isotropic in-thickness growth was the most suitable AAA growth assumption, while fully isotropic growth and transverse isotropic in-plane growth produced unrealistic results. In addition, modeling of the tissue volume change improved the wall thickness prediction, but still overestimated thinning of the wall during aneurysm expansion.

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    fulltext
  • 34.
    Grytsan, Andrii
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Biomechanics.
    Eriksson, Thomas S.E.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Watton, Paul N.
    Department of Computer Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Gasser, T. Christian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Biomechanics.
    Growth description for vessel wall adaptation: a thick-walled mixture model of abdominal aortic aneurysm evolution2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling the soft tissue volumetric growth has received considerable attention in the literature.However, due to the lack of experimental observations, the growth kinematics, that are reported in the literature, are based on a number of assumptions.The present study tested the plausibility of different growth descriptions when applied to the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) evolution.

    A structurally motivated material model and the multi-constituent tissue growth descriptions were utilized. The mass increment of the individual constituents preserved either the density or the volume.Four different growth descriptions were tested, namely isotropic (IVG), in-plane (PVG), in-thickness (TVG) growth and no volume growth (NVG) models.

    Based on the model sensitivity to the increased collagen deposition, TVG and NVG models were found to be plausible scenarios, while IVG and PVG were found to be implausible. In addition, TVG and NVG models were less sensitive to the initial constituent volume fractions, than IVG and PVG models.In conclusion, the choice of the growth kinematics is of crucial importance when modeling the AAA growth and remodeling, and,probably, also for other soft biological tissues.

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  • 35.
    Gullfot, Fredrika
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Synthesis of xyloglucan oligo- and polysaccharides with glycosynthase technology2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Xyloglucans are polysaccharides found as storage polymers in seeds and tubers, and as cross-linking glycans in the cell wall of plants. Their structure is complex with intricate branching patterns, which contribute to the physical properties of the polysaccharide including its binding to and interaction with other glycans such as cellulose.

    Xyloglucan is widely used in bulk quantities in the food, textile and paper making industries. With an increasing interest in technically more advanced applications of xyloglucan, such as novel biocomposites, there is a need to understand and control the properties and interactions of xyloglucan with other compounds, to decipher the relationship between xyloglucan structure and function, and in particular the effect of different branching patterns. However, due to the structural heterogeneity of the polysaccharide as obtained from natural sources, relevant studies have not been possible to perform in practise. This fact has stimulated an interest in synthetic methods to obtain xyloglucan mimics and analogs with well-defined structure and decoration patterns.

    Glycosynthases are hydrolytically inactive mutant glycosidases that catalyse the formation of glycosidic linkages between glycosyl fluoride donors and glycoside acceptors. Since its first conception in 1998, the technology is emerging as a useful tool in the synthesis of large, complex polysaccharides. This thesis presents the generation and characterisation of glycosynthases based on xyloglucanase scaffolds for the synthesis of well-defined homogenous xyloglucan oligo- and polysaccharides with regular substitution patterns.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 36.
    Gustafsson, Linnea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Dorka, Wilhelm Nicolai
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Technology.
    Åstrand, Carolina
    KTH.
    Ponsteen, Nienke
    KTH.
    Svanberg, Sara
    Hegrova, Veronica
    Jansson, Ronnie
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Engineering.
    Kvick, Mathias
    KTH.
    Horak, Josef
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Engineering.
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Technology.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Scalable Synthesis of Monodisperse Bioactive Spider Silk NanostrucutresManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Gustafsson, Linnea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Panagiotis Tasiopoulos, Christos
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science.
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Modelling the Blood Vessel Wall with Spider Silk Nanomembranes2021In: MicroTAS 2021: 25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, Chemical and Biological Microsystems Society , 2021, p. 311-312Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show for the first time that 470 nm thick spider silk membranes support co-culturing of endothelial (HDMEC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC). These cell-silk-cell constructs mimic the wall of small blood vessels. The silk membranes are formed through self-assembly at the liquid:air interface of a standing solution of spider silk protein. We show that the silk membranes enable communication between the cells better than commercial tissue culture inserts (TC-inserts).

  • 38.
    Gustafsson, Linnea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Panagiotis Tasiopoulos, Christos
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Technology. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova.
    Jansson, Ronnie
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Engineering. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova.
    Kvick, Mathias
    Spiber technologies AB.
    Duursma, Thijs
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gasser, T. Christian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Solid Mechanics.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Technology. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova.
    Recombinant Spider Silk Forms Tough and Elastic Nanomembranes that are Protein‐Permeable and Support Cell Attachment and Growth2020In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 30, no 40, p. 2002982-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biologically compatible membranes are of high interest for several biological and medical applications. Tissue engineering, for example, would greatly benefit from ultrathin, yet easy‐to‐handle, biodegradable membranes that are permeable to proteins and support cell growth. In this work, nanomembranes are formed by self‐assembly of a recombinant spider silk protein into a nanofibrillar network at the interface of a standing aqueous solution. The membranes are cm‐sized, free‐standing, bioactive and as thin as 250 nm. Despite their nanoscale thickness, the membranes feature an ultimate engineering strain of over 220% and a toughness of 5.2 MPa. Moreover, they are permeable to human blood plasma proteins and promote cell adherence and proliferation. Human keratinocytes seeded on either side of the membrane form a confluent monolayer within three days. The significance of these results lays in the unique combination of nanoscale thickness, elasticity, toughness, biodegradability, protein permeability and support for cell growth, as this may enable new applications in tissue engineering including bi‐layered in vitro tissue models and support for clinical transplantation of coherent cell layers.

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  • 39.
    Hansson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Yasuga, Hiroki
    Basak, Sarthak
    Mercene Labs, Stockholm, SWEDEN.
    Carlborg, C. Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Direct Lithography of Rubbery OSTE+ Polymer2014In: Proceedings 18th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS2014), 14CBMS , 2014, p. 123-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a Rubbery, Off-Stoichiometric Thiol-Ene-epoxy (OSTE+) polymer for direct lithography manufacturing, demonstrate its use in pneumatic pinch microvalves for lab-on-chip applications, test the lithography process achieving pillars of aspect-ratios (a.r.) 1:8, and characterize it’s surface as hydrophilic.

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    Hansson_2014_Direct Lithography of Rubbery OSTE+ Polymer.PDF
  • 40.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Metal release and speciation of released chromium from a biomedical CoCrMo alloy into simulated physiologically relevant solutions2014In: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B - Applied biomaterials, ISSN 1552-4973, E-ISSN 1552-4981, Vol. 102, no 4, p. 693-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of released Co, Cr(III), Cr(VI), and Mo from a biomedical high-carbon CoCrMo alloy exposed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), without and with the addition of 10 mu M H2O2 (PBS + H2O2), and 10 g L-1 bovine serum albumin (PBS + BSA) for time periods up to 28 days. Comparative studies were made on AISI 316L for the longest time period. No Cr(VI) release was observed for any of the alloys in either PBS or PBS + H2O2 at open-circuit potential (no applied potential). However, at applied potentials (0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl), Cr was primarily released as Cr(VI). Co was preferentially released from the CoCrMo alloy at no applied potential. As a consequence, Cr was enriched in the utmost surface oxide reducing the extent of metal release over time. This passivation effect was accelerated in PBS + H2O2. As previously reported for 316L, BSA may also enhance metal release from CoCrMo. However, this was not possible to verify due to the precipitation of metal-protein complexes with reduced metal concentrations in solution as a consequence. This was particularly important for Co-BSA complexes after sufficient time and resulted in an underestimation of metals in solution.

  • 41.
    Hedberg, Yolanda S.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Qian, Bin
    Shen, Zhijian
    Virtanen, Sannakaisa
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    In vitro biocompatibility of CoCrMo dental alloys fabricated by selective laser melting2014In: Dental Materials, ISSN 0109-5641, E-ISSN 1879-0097, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 525-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Selective laser melting (SLM) is increasingly used for the fabrication of customized dental components made of metal alloys such as CoCrMo. The main aim of the present study is to elucidate the influence of the non-equilibrium microstructure obtained by SLM on corrosion susceptibility and extent of metal release (measure of biocompatibility). Methods. A multi-analytical approach has been employed by combining microscopic and bulk compositional tools with electrochemical techniques and chemical analyses of metals in biologically relevant fluids for three differently SLM fabricated CoCrMo alloys and one cast CoCrMo alloy used for comparison. Results. Rapid cooling and strong temperature gradients during laser melting resulted in the formation of a fine cellular structure with cell boundaries enriched in Mo (Co depleted), and suppression of carbide precipitation and formation of a martensitic epsilon (hcp) phase at the surface. These features were shown to decrease the corrosion and metal release susceptibility of the SLM alloys compared with the cast alloy. Unique textures formed in the pattern of the melting pools of the three different laser melted CoCrMo alloys predominantly explain observed small, though significant, differences. The susceptibility for corrosion and metal release increased with an increased number (area) of laser melt pool boundaries. Significance. This study shows that integrative and interdisciplinary studies of microstructural characteristics, corrosion, and metal release are essential to assess and consider during the design and fabrication of CoCrMo dental components of optimal biocompatibility. The reason is that the extent of metal release from CoCrMo is dependent on fabrication procedures.

  • 42.
    Hedhammar, My
    et al.
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rising, Anna
    Widhe, Mona
    Jansson, Ronnie
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordling, Kerstin
    Askarieh, Glareh
    Knight, Stefan
    Johansson, Jan
    Spider silk proteins: Recombinant production, structure-function relationships and biomedical applications2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Hedhammar, My
    et al.
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Widhe, Mona
    Jansson, Ronnie
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ulrika
    Nordling, Kerstin
    Rising, Anna
    Johansson, Jan
    Spider Silk Proteins: Recombinant Production, Structure-Function Relationships and Biomedical Applications2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Herrera Vargas, Natalia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Olsen, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Strongly Improved Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Biocomposites by PCL Grafting inside Holocellulose Wood Fibers2020In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 8, no 32, p. 11977-11985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical wood cellulose fiber modification is performed with the purpose to improve compatibility and induce nanofibrillation of fibers during melt compounding of thermoplastic biocomposites. Compounding of well-dispersed cellulose nanocomposites based on biodegradable polymers is challenging and commonly requires separate processes for wood fiber fibrillation into cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), followed by compounding. Here, nanostructured biocomposites based on poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and holocellulose wood fibers (HC) were melt compounded in a single step. Prior to compounding, PCL was grafted from the HC fibers by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of epsilon CL with three different polymer graft lengths. The grafting was performed by two different methods: the commonly used bulk method and a new approach using acetic acid (AcOH) as the reaction solvent to swell the fiber structure during grafting. Remarkably, AcOH as a swelling solvent resulted in high density of grafts inside the nanostructure and throughout the volume of the HC wood cellulose fibers. As a consequence, more pronounced defibrillation of fibers into CNF during compounding as well as more uniform CNF dispersion in the thermoplastic PCL matrix was observed. In contrast, fibers grafted under bulk conditions showed little grafting and weak reinforcement effects. The Young's modulus and strength of the PCL were improved by almost 60% with the addition of only S wt % fibers, and the toughness was improved by 67%. The results show a close connection between the graft structure and final material properties.

  • 45.
    Hutchinson, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Granskog, Viktor
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    von Kieseritzky, Johanna
    Alfort, Henrik
    Stenlund, Patrik
    Zhang, Yuning
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Arner, Marianne
    Håkansson, Joakim
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Highly Customizable Bone Fracture Fixation through the Marriage of Composites and Screws2021In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, article id 2105187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) metal plates provide exceptional support for unstable bone fractures; however, they often result in debilitating soft-tissue adhesions and their rigid shape cannot be easily customized by surgeons. In this work, a surgically feasible ORIF methodology, called AdhFix, is developed by combining screws with polymer/hydroxyapatite composites, which are applied and shaped in situ before being rapidly cured on demand via high-energy visible-light-induced thiol–ene coupling chemistry. The method is developed on porcine metacarpals with transverse and multifragmented fractures, resulting in strong and stable fixations with a bending rigidity of 0.28 (0.03) N m2 and a maximum load before break of 220 (15) N. Evaluations on human cadaver hands with proximal phalanx fractures show that AdhFix withstands the forces from finger flexing exercises, while short- and long-term in vivo rat femur fracture models show that AdhFix successfully supports bone healing without degradation, adverse effects, or soft-tissue adhesions. This procedure represents a radical new approach to fracture fixation, which grants surgeons unparalleled customizability and does not result in soft-tissue adhesions.

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  • 46.
    Hyun, Gyu Hwan
    et al.
    College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.
    Jeong, Da-Hye
    Department of Biochemistry, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 16499, Republic of Korea;Department of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Ajou University, Suwon 16499, Republic of Korea.
    Yang, Yoon Young
    College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.
    Cho, In Ho
    College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.
    Ha, Yu-Jin
    Department of Biochemistry, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 16499, Republic of Korea;Department of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Ajou University, Suwon 16499, Republic of Korea.
    Xing, Xiaohui
    Lethbridge Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, Alberta T1J 4B1, Canada.
    Abbott, D. Wade
    Lethbridge Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, Alberta T1J 4B1, Canada.
    Hsieh, Yves S. Y.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience. School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan.
    Kang, Yun Pyo
    College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.
    Cha, Jong-Ho
    Department of Biomedical Science, College of Medicine, and Program in Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 22332, Republic of Korea.
    Hong, Soon-Sun
    Department of Biomedical Science, College of Medicine, and Program in Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 22332, Republic of Korea.
    Lee, Seul Ji
    College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea;College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea.
    Kim, You-Sun
    Department of Biochemistry, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 16499, Republic of Korea;Department of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Ajou University, Suwon 16499, Republic of Korea.
    Kwon, Sung Won
    College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.
    Multivalent Carbohydrate Nanocomposites for Tumor Microenvironment Remodeling to Enhance Antitumor Immunity2023In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 17, no 12, p. 11567-11582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current cancer immunotherapeutic strategies mainly focus on remodeling the tumor microenvironment (TME) to make it favorable for antitumor immunity. Increasing attention has been paid to developing innovative immunomodulatory adjuvants that can restore weakened antitumor immunity by conferring immunogenicity to inflamed tumor tissues. Here, a galactan-enriched nanocomposite (Gal-NC) is developed from native carbohydrate structures through an optimized enzymatic transformation for effective, stable, and biosafe innate immunomodulation. Gal-NC is characterized as a carbohydrate nanoadjuvant with a macrophage-targeting feature. It is composed of repeating galactan glycopatterns derived from heteropolysaccharide structures of plant origin. The galactan repeats of Gal-NC function as multivalent pattern-recognition sites for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Functionally, Gal-NC-mediated TLR activation induces the repolarization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) toward immunostimulatory/tumoricidal M1-like phenotypes. Gal-NC increases the intratumoral population of cytotoxic T cells, the main effector cells of antitumor immunity, via re-educated TAMs. These TME alterations synergistically enhance the T-cell-mediated antitumor response induced by αPD-1 administration, suggesting that Gal-NC has potential value as an adjuvant for immune checkpoint blockade combination therapies. Thus, the Gal-NC model established herein suggests a glycoengineering strategy to design a carbohydrate-based nanocomposite for advanced cancer immunotherapies.

  • 47.
    Iseri, Emre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Microfluidic Compartmentalization for Smart Materials, Medical Diagnostics and Cell Therapy2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The organisation of fluids in small compartments is ubiquitous in nature, such as in the cellular composition of all life. This work explores several engineering avenues where microscale fluid compartmentalization can bring novel material properties or novel functionality in life sciences or medicine. 

    Here, we introduce four unique compartmentalization methods: 1) 3D fluid self-organisation in microscaffolds (FLUID3EAMS), 2) 2D microcapillary arrays on a dipstick (Digital Dipstick), 3) a sliding microfluidic platform with cross-flow (Slip-X-Chip), and 4) compartmentalization by cutting of soft solid matter (Solidify & Cut). These methods were used in a wide range of applications. 

    Within the area of smart materials, we applied FLUID3EAMS to synthesize materials with temperature-tuneable permeability and surface energy and to establish, in a well-controlled fashion, tissue-like materials in the form of 3D droplet interface bilayer networks. Solidify & Cut was used to form soft composites with a new type of magnetic behaviour, rotation-induced ferromagnetism, that allows easy reprogramming of the magnetization of magnetopolymers. 

    Within the area of medical diagnostics, we applied Digital Dipstick to perform rapid digital bacterial culture in a dipstick format and obtained clinically relevant diagnostic results on samples from patients with a urinary tract infection. Furthermore, Slip-X-Chip enables particle concentration and washing as new functions in sliding microfluidic platforms, which significantly expands their potential application area. 

    Finally, within the area of cell therapy, we explored the microencapsulation of high concentrations of therapeutic cells and presented a novel technique to fabricate core-shell microcapsules by exploiting the superior material properties of spider silk membranes. 

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  • 48.
    Iseri, Emre
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gustafsson, Linnea
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Centre for Bioprocess Technology, CBioPT. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Herland, Anna
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Heuchel, Rainer
    Karolinska Institute.
    Löhr, Matthias
    Karolinska Institute.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Wei, Xi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems.
    Cell encapsulation in alginate filaments with spider silk coating for targeted drug deliveryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 49. Issa, F.
    et al.
    Vervisch, V.
    Ottaviani, L.
    Szalkai, D.
    Vermeeren, L.
    Lyoussi, A.
    Kuznetsov, A.
    Lazar, M.
    Klix, A.
    Palais, O.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Improvements in Realizing 4H-SiC Thermal Neutron Detectors2016In: ISRD 15 - INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON REACTOR DOSIMETRY, 2016, article id 05004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we presented two types of 4H-SiC semiconductor detectors (D1 and D2) both based on ion implantation of B-10 inside the aluminum metallic contact. The first detector shows a high leakage current after the implantation and low signal to noise ratio. However, improvements concerning the implantation parameters and the distance between the implanted B-10 thermal neutron converter layer and the active pn-junction have led to low leakage current and thus to higher signal to noise ratio. This proves the strength of this new method of realizing sensitive SiC-based thermal neutron detectors.

  • 50.
    Jain, Shubham
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Engineering 3D degradable pliable scaffolds for adipose tissue regeneration: Advancing cell-material interactions by understanding the influence from thermal, chemical, mechanical properties and scaffold design2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In soft tissue defects that arise due to trauma, tumor resections and complex burns, a significant loss in adipose tissue remains a considerable challenge due to the insufficient regenerative capacity of the tissue. This thesis focuses on assessing cell-material interactions between degradable 3D polymer scaffolds with different designs and adipose tissue-derived stem cells. This knowledge can be used to engineer 3D scaffolds with adequate physio-chemical and mechanical properties along with an appropriate design that augments adipose tissue regeneration.

    Salt-leaching 3D scaffolds were fabricated from various medical-grade polyesters, and cellular behavior was evaluated by correlating the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of the scaffolds. The results showed that the glass transition temperature modulated the mechanical properties of the scaffolds, affecting stem cell proliferation and adipogenic differentiation. The same sets of polymers were further used in melt extrusion-based 3D printer and printability was established for the fabrication of customized 3D scaffolds. Based on printability and cell-scaffolds interaction results, poly (L-lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate) was used to print 3D scaffolds in different soft and pliable designs that promoted adipogenic differentiation. To fabricate even softer, and more hydrophilic 3D scaffolds, poly (ɛ-caprolactone-co-p-dioxanone) and a unique scaffold design were utilized within the research group. The copolymer 3D scaffolds were further combined with knitted mesh and electrospun nanofibers to develop scaffolds with multilayer architecture, modular scaffolds. The in vitro results asserted that the modular scaffold enhanced cell-material interactions by almost five times of those observed for the scaffold alone. Therefore, it can be concluded that softness and pliability are crucial and an appropriate scaffold design with adequate mechanical support is required for enhancing cell-material interaction. The in vitro results asserted that the modular scaffold enhanced cell-material interactions by almost five times of those observed for the scaffold alone. Therefore, it can be concluded that softness and pliability are crucial and an appropriate scaffold design with adequate mechanical support is required for enhancing cell-material interaction. The in vitro results asserted that the modular scaffold enhanced cell-material interactions by almost five times of those observed for the scaffold alone. Therefore, it can be concluded that softness and pliability are crucial and an appropriate scaffold design with adequate mechanical support is required for enhancing cell-material interaction.

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