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  • 1.
    Abbott, D. Wade
    et al.
    Agr & Agri Food Canada, Lethbridge Res & Dev Ctr, 5403-1 Ave South, Lethbridge, AB T1J 4B1, Canada..
    Aasen, Inga Marie
    SINTEF Ind, Dept Biotechnol & Nanomed, N-7465 Trondheim, Norway..
    Beauchemin, Karen A.
    Agr & Agri Food Canada, Lethbridge Res & Dev Ctr, 5403-1 Ave South, Lethbridge, AB T1J 4B1, Canada..
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Gruninger, Robert
    Agr & Agri Food Canada, Lethbridge Res & Dev Ctr, 5403-1 Ave South, Lethbridge, AB T1J 4B1, Canada..
    Hayes, Maria
    Teagasc Food Res Ctr, Food BioSci Dept, Dublin D15 KN3K 15, Ireland..
    Huws, Sharon
    Queens Univ Belfast QUB, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland..
    Kenny, David A.
    Anim Biosci Res Ctr, Dunsany 5 PW93, Meath, Ireland..
    Krizsan, Sophie J.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Agr Res Northern Sweden, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden..
    Kirwan, Stuart E.
    Anim Biosci Res Ctr, Dunsany 5 PW93, Meath, Ireland..
    Lind, Vibeke
    Norwegian Inst Bioecon Res NIBIO, Post Box 115, N-1431 As, Norway..
    Meyer, Ulrich
    Fed Res Inst Anim Hlth, Friedrich Loeffler Inst FLI, Bundesforsch Inst Tiergesundheit, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Ramin, Mohammad
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Agr Res Northern Sweden, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden..
    Theodoridou, Katerina
    Queens Univ Belfast QUB, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland..
    von Soosten, Dirk
    Fed Res Inst Anim Hlth, Friedrich Loeffler Inst FLI, Bundesforsch Inst Tiergesundheit, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Walsh, Pamela J.
    Queens Univ Belfast QUB, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland..
    Waters, Sinead
    Anim Biosci Res Ctr, Dunsany 5 PW93, Meath, Ireland..
    Xing, Xiaohui
    Agr & Agri Food Canada, Lethbridge Res & Dev Ctr, 5403-1 Ave South, Lethbridge, AB T1J 4B1, Canada..
    Seaweed and Seaweed Bioactives for Mitigation of Enteric Methane: Challenges and Opportunities2020In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 2432Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simple Summary The need to become more efficient in agriculture and the food industry exists parallel to the challenge of climate change. Meat and dairy production is the target of much scrutiny due to methane (CH4) emissions and global warming. On the other hand, it should be noted that two-thirds of the world's agricultural land consists of pastures and permanent grasslands and is used for livestock grazing. This land is predominantly unsuitable for arable purposes but facilitates the production of high-quality human-edible protein in the form of ruminant animal-derived meat and milk. This makes a significant contribution to feeding the world's population. There is a need to reduce CH4 emissions, however, and several approaches are being researched currently. Seaweeds are diverse plants containing bioactives that differ from their terrestrial counterparts and they are increasingly under investigation as a feed supplement for the mitigation of enteric CH4. Seaweeds are rich in bioactives including proteins, carbohydrates and to a lesser extent lipids, saponins, alkaloids and peptides. These bioactives could also play a role as feed ingredients to reduce enteric CH4. This review collates information on seaweeds and seaweed bioactives and their potential to impact on enteric CH4 emissions. Seaweeds contain a myriad of nutrients and bioactives including proteins, carbohydrates and to a lesser extent lipids as well as small molecules including peptides, saponins, alkaloids and pigments. The bioactive bromoform found in the red seaweed Asparagopsis taxiformis has been identified as an agent that can reduce enteric CH4 production from livestock significantly. However, sustainable supply of this seaweed is a problem and there are some concerns over its sustainable production and potential negative environmental impacts on the ozone layer and the health impacts of bromoform. This review collates information on seaweeds and seaweed bioactives and the documented impact on CH4 emissions in vitro and in vivo as well as associated environmental, economic and health impacts.

  • 2.
    Adediran, Gbotemi A.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Soil & Environm, Box 7014, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Tuyishime, J. R. Marius
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Soil & Environm, Box 7014, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Vantelon, Delphine
    Synchrotron SOLEIL, St Aubin BP 48, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Klysubun, Wantana
    Synchrotron Light Res Inst, 111 Moo 6, Muang, Nakhon Ratchasi, Thailand..
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Soil & Environm, Box 7014, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Phosphorus in 2D: Spatially resolved P speciation in two Swedish forest soils as influenced by apatite weathering and podzolization2020In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 376, article id 114550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cycling and long-term supply of phosphorus (P) in soils are of global environmental and agricultural concern. To advance the knowledge, a detailed understanding of both the vertical and lateral variation of P chemical speciation and retention mechanism(s) is required, a knowledge that is limited in postglacial forest soils. We combined the use of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy with multi-elemental co-localisation analysis and P K-edge XANES spectroscopy to reveal critical chemical and structural soil properties. We established a two-dimensional (2D) imagery of P retention and speciation at a microscale spatial resolution in two forest soil profiles formed in glaciofluvial and wave-washed sand. The abundance and speciation of P in the upper 40 cm was found to be influenced by soil weathering and podzolization, leading to spatial variability in P speciation on the microscale (< 200 pm) with P existing predominantly as organic P and as PO4 adsorbed to allophane and ferrihydrite, according to XANES spectroscopy. These species were mostly retained at sharp edges and in pore spaces within Al and Si-bearing particles. Despite the relatively young age ( < 15,000 years) of the soils, our results show primary mineral apatite to have weathered from the surface horizons. In the C horizon however, a large fraction of the P was in the form of apatite, which appeared as widely dispersed ( > 600 pm) hot spots of inclusions in aluminosilicates or as discrete micro-sized apatite grains. The subsoil apatite represents a pool of P that trees can potentially acquire and thus add to the biogeochemically active P pool in temperate forest soils.

  • 3.
    Agustin, Melissa B.
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044, Espoo, Finland.
    Nematollahi, Neda
    Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bhattarai, Mamata
    Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, 00076, Aalto, Finland.
    Oliaei, Erfan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Lehtonen, Mari
    Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rojas, Orlando J.
    Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, 00076, Aalto, Finland; Bioproducts Institute, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Department of Chemistry and Department of Wood Science, University of British Columbia, 2360, East Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada.
    Mikkonen, Kirsi S.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland; Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lignin nanoparticles as co-stabilizers and modifiers of nanocellulose-based Pickering emulsions and foams2023In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 30, no 14, p. 8955-8971Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocellulose is very hydrophilic, preventing interactions with the oil phase in Pickering emulsions. This limitation is herein addressed by incorporating lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) as co-stabilizers of nanocellulose-based Pickering emulsions. LNP addition decreases the oil droplet size and slows creaming at pH 5 and 8 and with increasing LNP content. Emulsification at pH 3 and LNP cationization lead to droplet flocculation and rapid creaming. LNP application for emulsification, prior or simultaneously with nanocellulose, favors stability given the improved interactions with the oil phase. The Pickering emulsions can be freeze–dried, enabling the recovery of a solid macroporous foam that can act as adsorbent for pharmaceutical pollutants. Overall, the properties of nanocellulose-based Pickering emulsions and foams can be tailored by LNP addition. This strategy offers a unique, green approach to stabilize biphasic systems using bio-based nanomaterials without tedious and costly modification procedures.

  • 4. Ahlgren, S.
    et al.
    Röös, E.
    Di Lucia, L.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Hansson, P. -A
    EU sustainability criteria for biofuels: Uncertainties in GHG emissions from cultivation2012In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 399-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cultivation of raw material represents a large proportion of biofuelś GHG emissions. The EU renewable energy directive 2009/28/EC specifies a GHG emission default value for cultivation of biofuel raw material (23 g CO2-e/MJ ethanol for wheat). The aim of this study was to quantify the uncertainty in GHG emissions for wheat cultivation in Sweden, considering uncertainty and variability in data at farm level. Results: Two levels of data collection at farm level were analyzed; simple (only yield and amount of N) and advanced (also including amounts and types of energy). The 2.5-97.5 percentile uncertainty for Swedish winter wheat was 20-27 g CO 2-e/MJ, which can be considered large in the context of the Directives threshold of 23 g (to two significant figures). Conclusion: It is concluded that quantifying GHG emissions in order to regulate biofuels is a difficult task, especially emissions from cultivation, since these are biological systems with large variability.

  • 5.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Environmental arsenic in a changing world2019In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 8, p. 169-171Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Ahmed, Engy
    et al.
    Hugerth, Luisa W.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Logue, Jürg Brendan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bruchert, Volker
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Holmström, Sara J. M.
    Mineral Type Structures Soil Microbial Communities2017In: Geomicrobiology Journal, ISSN 0149-0451, E-ISSN 1521-0529, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 538-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil microorganisms living in close contact with minerals play key roles in the biogeochemical cycling of elements, soil formation, and plant nutrition. Yet, the composition of microbial communities inhabiting the mineralosphere (i.e., the soil surrounding minerals) is poorly understood. Here, we explored the composition of soil microbial communities associated with different types of minerals in various soil horizons. To this effect, a field experiment was set up in which mineral specimens of apatite, biotite, and oligoclase were buried in the organic, eluvial, and upper illuvial horizons of a podzol soil. After an incubation period of two years, the soil attached to the mineral surfaces was collected, and microbial communities were analyzed by means of Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S (prokaryotic) and 18S (eukaryotic) ribosomal RNA genes. We found that both composition and diversity of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities varied across the different mineral surfaces, and that mineral type had a greater influence on structuring microbial assemblages than soil horizon. Thus, our findings emphasize the importance of mineral surfaces as ecological niches in soils.

  • 7.
    Akin, Danny E.
    et al.
    Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Athens.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Evans, J. D.
    South Central Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, USA.
    Adamsen, A. S. P.
    Agro Business Par, Denmark.
    Foulk, J. A.
    Cotton Quality Research Station, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, USA.
    Dodd, R. B.
    Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Clemson University.
    Progress in enzyme-retting of flax2004In: Journal of Natural Fibers, ISSN 1544-0478, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 21-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New methods for retting flax are sought to overcome problems in the current method of dew-retting of flax. Published data are reviewed and new data presented on the development and testing of a method to ret flax using pectinase-rich enzyme mixtures plus chelators based on cost and fiber yield and properties. In spray enzyme retting (SER), flax stems are crimped to physically disrupt the plant's protective barrier and then sprayed until soaked with, or briefly immersed in, an enzyme/ chelator formulation. Flax is then incubated at temperatures optimal for enzyme activity, washed, and dried. Pilot scale tests, conducted with 10 kg samples of flax retted with a series of formulations, showed that this method effectively retted flax stems from a variety of sources, including fiber flax, mature fiber flax, and linseed straw. Fiber yield, strength, and fineness were significantly influenced by variations in enzyme-chelator amounts. Cellulases in pectinase mixtures appeared to preferentially attack dislocations in fibers and fiber bundles resulting in loss of fiber strength. Polygalacturonases alone effectively separated fiber from non-fiber components. The SER method proved to be an effective framework for further tests on enzyme-chelator formulations that now must be integrated with physical processing to optimize the extraction of flax fibers based on cost and fiber yield and properties.

  • 8.
    Aliabad, Fahime Arabi
    et al.
    Yazd Univ, Fac Nat Resources & Desert Studies, Dept Arid Lands Management, Yazd 8915818411, Iran..
    Shojaei, Saeed
    Univ Tehran, Fac Nat Resources, Dept Arid & Mountainous Reg Reclamat, Tehran 1417935840, Iran..
    Mortaz, Morad
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Plant Sci, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Ferreira, Carla Sofia Santos
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Polytech Inst Coimbra, Res Ctr Nat Resources Environm & Soc CERNAS, Agr Sch Coimbra, P-3045601 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Kalantari, Zahra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Use of Landsat 8 and UAV Images to Assess Changes in Temperature and Evapotranspiration by Economic Trees following Foliar Spraying with Light-Reflecting Compounds2022In: Remote Sensing, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 14, no 23, p. 6153-, article id 6153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pistachio is an important economic crop in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. A major problem leading to a reduction in crop quality and reduced marketability is extreme air temperature in summer, which causes sunburn of pistachio leaves and fruit. A solution proposed to deal with the negative effects of high temperatures and increase water consumption efficiency in pistachio orchards is use of light-reflecting compounds. This study investigated the effect of foliar application of gypsum, sulfur, and NAX-95 (calcium-based suspension coating) to trees in a pistachio orchard (150 ha) in central Iran. The effect of these foliar products is assessed at plot scale, using control plots sprayed with calcium sulfate, based on temperature and evapotranspiration changes analyzed through remote sensing. Landsat 8 sensor images and RGB images collected by UAVs (spatial resolution of 30 m and 20 cm, respectively), on the same dates, before and after foliar spray application, were merged using the PCA method and bilinear interpolation re-sampling. Land surface temperature (LST) was then estimated using the split-window algorithm, and daily evapotranspiration using the surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL) algorithm. A land use map was prepared and used to isolate pistachio trees in the field and assess weed cover, whose effect was not accounted. The results showed that temperature remained constant in the control plot between the spraying dates, indicating no environmental changes. In the main plots, gypsum had the greatest effect in reducing the temperature of pistachio trees. The plots with foliar spraying with gypsum displayed a mean tree temperature (47-48 degrees C) decrease of 3.3 degrees C in comparison with the control plots (>49 degrees C), leading to an average decline in evapotranspiration of 0.18 mm/day. NAX-95 and sulfur reduced tree temperature by on average 1.3 degrees C and 0.6 degrees C, respectively. Thus, gypsum is the most suitable foliar-spraying compound to lower the temperature of pistachio trees, reduce the water requirement, and increase crop productivity.

  • 9. Almström, Peter
    et al.
    Mårtensson, Pär
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Production Engineering.
    Functional coupling in manufacturing systems and its implications2002In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part B, journal of engineering manufacture, ISSN 0954-4054, E-ISSN 2041-2975, Vol. 216, no 4, p. 623-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The axiomatic design theory as stated by Suh has proven useful when designing products, and this success has led to an increasing interest in applying the theory to manufacturing systems development. The theory states that functional couplings should be avoided in general. However, manufacturing systems are potentially coupled in many ways, the most obvious being that manufacturing operations usually are performed in a sequence. Functional coupling is defined as a dependence between functional requirements. The subject of couplings in manufacturing systems is not extensively explored or described in the literature, and specifically not in relation to the axiomatic design theory. Five different categories of couplings in manufacturing systems are described and exemplified in this paper. Couplings can be designed into the manufacturing system for a diverse range of reasons, e.g. selection of manufacturing processes or materials, but they may also be irrational, e.g. decisions based on political opinions.

  • 10. Alsanius, B. W.
    et al.
    Löfkvist, K.
    Kritz, G.
    Ratkic, Adrian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Skills and Technology.
    Reflection on reflection in action: A case study of growers conception of irrigation strategies in pot plant production2009In: AI & Society: The Journal of Human-Centred Systems and Machine Intelligence, ISSN 0951-5666, E-ISSN 1435-5655, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 545-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study of growers conception of irrigation strategies indicates that pot plant growers in Scandinavia base their management approaches on experientially based art. The study also indicates that there is a gap between experientially based art and available greenhouse technology. In order to standardize production and produce quality, both the grower's experience and available technology should be taken into account. In order to achieve this, the present study proposes to arrange reflection on reflection in action with a group of growers by means of the dialogue seminar method. The concept of reflection on reflection in action is novel to horticultural practice. Therefore, we suggest future inter- and multidisciplinary research within this domain.

  • 11. Alsanius, B. W.
    et al.
    Ratkic, Adrian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Skills and Technology.
    Persson, E.
    Löfkvist, K.
    Prospects of dialogue-inspired methods as tools for knowledge transfer: Technology for sustainable horticulture meets experiential knowledge communities2009In: Acta Horticulturae, International Society for Horticultural Science , 2009, p. 27-32Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Horticultural production systems have a large environmental impact. Legislation, ordinances and quality assurance systems provide guidelines for implementing sustainable production technologies in horticulture at a higher level. Horticultural research has compiled solutions to improve sustainable production. Despite of regulations, hands-on information, solid scientific data on sustainable strategies for horticulture and a general environmental awareness, there is reluctance in considering sustainable technology and reorganizing horticultural production lines. Knowledge within commercial horticulture is situated knowledge; this means experience consolidated within the branch is a precondition for application. However, knowledge on sustainable technology follows the tradition of natural sciences and technology. Another crucial aspect concerns the path from understanding sustainable technology to putting it into action. Reflection on reflection in action as an activity aims at producing a good verbal description of reflection in action, which can be shared with other people. While reflection in or on action is primarily private the notion of reflection on reflection in action is tied to the fact that learning and experience exchange are social activities that proceed in different communities of practice. Dialogue-inspired methods may act as a tool. In the present paper we discuss the dialogue seminar and Socratic dialog methods to bridge the gap between scientific and technological progress in horticulture and horticultural practice to be employed in horticultural extension.

  • 12.
    Amith, Abraham
    et al.
    Rubber Research Institute of India, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
    Philip, Shaji
    Rubber Research Institute of India, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
    Joby, Joseph
    Rubber Research Institute of India, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
    Sivan, Pramod
    Rubber Research Institute of India, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
    Kuruvila, Jacob
    Rubber Research Institute of India, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
    Raveendran, Sindhu
    Microbial Processes and Technology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Thiruvananthapuram-695 019, Kerala, India.
    Pandey, Ashok
    Centre for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (IITR), Lucknow-226 001, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Byoung, Sang
    Kochupurackal, Jayachandran
    School of Biosciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
    Growth promoting activities of antagonistic bacterial endophytes from Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A.Juss.) Müll.Arg.2021In: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0019-5189, Vol. 59, no 12, p. 827-833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rubber plantations are known to udergo various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the symbiotic bacterial endophytes that inhabit them provide protection. Here, we isolated bacterial endophytes from the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A.Juss.) Müll.Arg. and studied their antagonistic activity against major pathogens such as Phytophthora meadii, Corynespora cassiicola and Corticium salmonicolar. The antifungal metabolites such as HCN, siderophores and salicylic acid were produced by the antagonistic endophytes under in vitro conditions. Bioassay showed the growth promotion by a consortium of selected antagonistic endophytes in H. brasiliensis seedlings. The photosynthetic efficiency of seedlings increased after endophyte inoculation. Endophyte-treated plants showed accumulation of starch granules in root tissues. The selected antagonistic isolates belong to Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. The study revealed the biocontrol and growth promoting potential of bacterial endophytes from H. brasiliensis.

  • 13.
    Andersen, Pia Haubro
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Broomé, Sofia
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL.
    Rashid, Maheen
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Comp Sci, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Lundblad, Johan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ask, Katrina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Li, Zhenghong
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL. SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Comp Sci, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Hernlund, Elin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Rhodin, Marie
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Kjellström, Hedvig
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL.
    Towards Machine Recognition of Facial Expressions of Pain in Horses2021In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1643Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simple Summary Facial activity can convey valid information about the experience of pain in a horse. However, scoring of pain in horses based on facial activity is still in its infancy and accurate scoring can only be performed by trained assessors. Pain in humans can now be recognized reliably from video footage of faces, using computer vision and machine learning. We examine the hurdles in applying these technologies to horses and suggest two general approaches to automatic horse pain recognition. The first approach involves automatically detecting objectively defined facial expression aspects that do not involve any human judgment of what the expression "means". Automated classification of pain expressions can then be done according to a rule-based system since the facial expression aspects are defined with this information in mind. The other involves training very flexible machine learning methods with raw videos of horses with known true pain status. The upside of this approach is that the system has access to all the information in the video without engineered intermediate methods that have filtered out most of the variation. However, a large challenge is that large datasets with reliable pain annotation are required. We have obtained promising results from both approaches. Automated recognition of human facial expressions of pain and emotions is to a certain degree a solved problem, using approaches based on computer vision and machine learning. However, the application of such methods to horses has proven difficult. Major barriers are the lack of sufficiently large, annotated databases for horses and difficulties in obtaining correct classifications of pain because horses are non-verbal. This review describes our work to overcome these barriers, using two different approaches. One involves the use of a manual, but relatively objective, classification system for facial activity (Facial Action Coding System), where data are analyzed for pain expressions after coding using machine learning principles. We have devised tools that can aid manual labeling by identifying the faces and facial keypoints of horses. This approach provides promising results in the automated recognition of facial action units from images. The second approach, recurrent neural network end-to-end learning, requires less extraction of features and representations from the video but instead depends on large volumes of video data with ground truth. Our preliminary results suggest clearly that dynamics are important for pain recognition and show that combinations of recurrent neural networks can classify experimental pain in a small number of horses better than human raters.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Division of Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food, Box 7033, SE-750 50 Uppsala, Sweden; HELIX - Competence Centre, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden .
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. HELIX - Competence Centre, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden .
    Rydberg, A.
    Lean-inspired development work in agriculture: Implications for the work environment2020In: Agronomy Research, ISSN 1406-894X, E-ISSN 2228-4907, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 324-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmers operate in a turbulent environment that includes international competition, weather conditions and animal behaviour, for example, and is difficult for them to control. However, economy and productivity always have a high priority. As a consequence, farms have started to implement lean-inspired work systems. At the same time, health and safety are of urgent concern in the sector. This article explores how famers apply lean-inspired work processes. It identifies work environment changes during and after a lean implementation, as well as possible developments in the work environment following implementation of the lean philosophy. Data were collected from three groups: lean, lean-light and development-inclined reference farms (in total 54 farms), using a questionnaire and interviews. The results indicate that a majority of the lean farms were applying several lean principles and tools, and the lean philosophy. The lean-light farms applied parts of the lean concept, while the reference farms applied some of the more general tools, used in lean and elsewhere, such as visualisation in various forms and to various extents. The results showed positive effects of lean on the psychosocial work environment, better work structure and improved information, communication and co-operation. The physical work environment was improved to some extent by lean, where advantages such as a more structured and practical work environment with less physical movements and locomotion could be noticed. The lean concept provided a more structured and systematic approach to dealing with work and production environmental issues, for managers as well as for employees.

  • 15.
    Aravind, P. V.
    et al.
    Delft Univ Technol, Climate Inst, Delft, Netherlands.;Delft Univ Technol, Dept Water Management, Delft, Netherlands.;Univ Groningen, Energy & Sustainabil Res Inst Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Champatan, Vipin
    APJ Abdul Kalam Technol Univ, Ctr Excellence Syst Energy & Environm, Kannur, Kerala, India..
    Gopi, Girigan
    MS Swaminathan Res Fdn, Chennai, India..
    Vijay, Vandit
    Delft Univ Technol, Climate Inst, Delft, Netherlands.;Sardar Swaran Singh Natl Inst Bioenergy SSS NIBE, Kapurthala, India..
    Smit, C.
    Univ Groningen, Groningen Inst Evolutionary Life Sci, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Pande, S.
    Delft Univ Technol, Dept Water Management, Delft, Netherlands..
    van den Broeke, L. J. P.
    Delft Univ Technol, Climate Inst, Delft, Netherlands..
    John, T. D.
    APJ Abdul Kalam Technol Univ, Ctr Excellence Syst Energy & Environm, Kannur, Kerala, India..
    Illathukandy, Biju
    APJ Abdul Kalam Technol Univ, Ctr Excellence Syst Energy & Environm, Kannur, Kerala, India..
    Sukesh, A.
    APJ Abdul Kalam Technol Univ, Ctr Excellence Syst Energy & Environm, Kannur, Kerala, India..
    Shreedhar, Sowmya
    Delft Univ Technol, Climate Inst, Delft, Netherlands..
    Nandakishor, T. M.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Univ Bundeswehr Munchen, Inst Mat Sci, Neubiberg, Germany..
    Purushothaman, Sachin J.
    APJ Abdul Kalam Technol Univ, Ctr Excellence Syst Energy & Environm, Kannur, Kerala, India..
    Posada, John
    Delft Univ Technol, Dept Biotechnol, Delft, Netherlands..
    Lindeboom, R. E. F.
    Delft Univ Technol, Climate Inst, Delft, Netherlands..
    Nampoothiri, K. U. K.
    Cent Plantat Crops Res Inst, Kasaragod, Kerala, India..
    Negative emissions at negative cost-an opportunity for a scalable niche2022In: Frontiers in Energy Research, E-ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 10, article id 806435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the face of the rapidly dwindling carbon budgets, negative emission technologies are widely suggested as required to stabilize the Earth's climate. However, finding cost-effective, socially acceptable, and politically achievable means to enable such technologies remains a challenge. We propose solutions based on negative emission technologies to facilitate wealth creation for the stakeholders while helping to mitigate climate change. This paper comes up with suggestions and guidelines on significantly increasing carbon sequestration in coffee farms. A coffee and jackfruit agroforestry-based case study is presented along with an array of technical interventions, having a special focus on bioenergy and biochar, potentially leading to "negative emissions at negative cost. " The strategies for integrating food production with soil and water management, fuel production, adoption of renewable energy systems and timber management are outlined. The emphasis is on combining biological and engineering sciences to devise a practically viable niche that is easy to adopt, adapt and scale up for the communities and regions to achieve net negative emissions. The concerns expressed in the recent literature on the implementation of emission reduction and negative emission technologies are briefly presented. The novel opportunities to alleviate these concerns arising from our proposed interventions are then pointed out. Our analysis indicates that 1 ha coffee jackfruit-based agroforestry can additionally sequester around 10 tonnes of CO2-eq and lead to an income enhancement of up to 3,000-4,000 Euros in comparison to unshaded coffee. Finally, the global outlook for an easily adoptable nature-based approach is presented, suggesting an opportunity to implement revenue-generating negative emission technologies on a gigatonne scale. We anticipate that our approach presented in the paper results in increased attention to the development of practically viable science and technology-based interventions in order to support the speeding up of climate change mitigation efforts.

  • 16.
    Arend, Giordana Demaman
    et al.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Dept Chem & Food Engn, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Soares, Lenilton Santos
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Dept Chem & Food Engn, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Camelo-Silva, Callebe
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Dept Chem & Food Engn, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Ribeiro Sanches, Marcio Augusto
    State Univ Sao Paulo, Food Engn & Technol Dept, Sao Jose Do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil..
    Penha, Frederico M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Diaz-De-Cerio, Elixabet
    Univ Granada, Dept Nutr & Food Sci, Campus Cartuja, E-18071 Granada, Spain..
    Verardo, Vito
    Univ Granada, Dept Nutr & Food Sci, Campus Cartuja, E-18071 Granada, Spain..
    Prudencio, Elane Schwinden
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Dept Food Sci & Technol, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Segura-Carretero, Antonio
    Univ Granada, Dept Analyt Chem, Granada, Spain.;Univ Granada, Funct Food Res & Dev Ctr CIDAF, Granada, Spain..
    Tischer, Bruna
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Inst Food Sci & Technol, Dept Food Technol, Porto Alegre, Brazil..
    Cunha Petrus, Jose Carlos
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Dept Chem & Food Engn, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Verruck, Silvani
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Dept Food Sci & Technol, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Rezzadori, Katia
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Dept Food Sci & Technol, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Is nanofiltration an efficient technology to recover and stabilize phenolic compounds from guava (Psidium guajava) leaves extract?2022In: Food Bioscience, ISSN 2212-4292, E-ISSN 2212-4306, Vol. 50, article id 101997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guava leaves (Psidium guajava) are popularly known due to their effects antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, and functional properties. Processes for the concentration of these extracts are necessary since their pharmacological effects are dose-dependent. In this work, guava leaves aqueous extract (GE) concentration was carried out in nanofiltration (NF) equipment. Process performance was evaluated in terms of permeate flux, flux decline modeling, and extract quality (compounds characterization, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity). NF allowed an increase in phenolic compounds next to 20-times, retention coefficients of total phenolic compounds (99%) and enhanced antioxidant capacity (an increase of 4 and 9-fold for ABTS and DPPH, respectively) compared to the initial GE. Forty-two phenolic compounds were identified, being catechin (594.56 mg mL-1) and vescalagin (295.39 mg mL-1) the main compounds. All phenolics pre-sented a significant increase (p < 0.05) after the concentration suggesting that NF is efficient for the recovery and concentration of bioactive compounds and poses as an alternative to obtain functional products and improve added value in agro-industrial residues.

  • 17.
    Arnling Bååth, Jenny
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Giummarella, Nicola
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Klaubauf, Sylvia
    Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Olsson, Lisbeth
    Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A glucuronoyl esterase from Acremonium alcalophilum cleaves native lignin-carbohydrate ester bonds2016In: FEBS Letters, ISSN 0014-5793, E-ISSN 1873-3468, Vol. 590, no 16, p. 2611-2618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Glucuronoyl esterases (GE) have been proposed to target lignin-carbohydrate (LC) ester bonds between lignin moieties and glucuronic acid side groups of xylan, but to date, no direct observations of enzymatic cleavage on native LC ester bonds have been demonstrated. In the present investigation, LCC fractions from spruce and birch were treated with a recombinantly produced GE originating from Acremonium alcalophilum (AaGE1). A combination of size exclusion chromatography and 31P NMR analyses of phosphitylated LCC samples, before and after AaGE1 treatment provided the first evidence for cleavage of the LC ester linkages existing in wood.

  • 18.
    Aspeborg, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Bhalerao, Rishikeshi
    Hertzberg, Magnus
    Johansson, Karin
    Johnsson, P.
    Karlsson, Ann
    Sandberg, Göran
    Schrader, Jarmo
    Sundberg, Björn
    Teeri, Tuula
    Trygg, Johan
    Wallbäcks, Lars
    Vegetabile material, plants and a method of producing a plant having altered lignin properties2008Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The present invention is related to a set of genes, which when modified in plants gives altered lignin properties. The invention provides DNA construct such as a vector useful in the method of the invention. Further, the invention relates to a plant cell or plant progeny of the plants and wood produced by the plants according to the invention Lower lignin levels will result in improved saccharification for bio-refining and ethanol production and improved pulp and paper. Increased lignin levels will utilise lignin properties for energy production. The genes and DNA constructs may be used for the identification of plants having altered lignin characteristics as compared to the wild-type. According to the invention genes and DNA constructs may also be used as candidate genes in marker assisted breeding.

  • 19.
    Aspeborg, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Schrader, J.
    Coutinho, P. M.
    Stam, M.
    Kallas, A.
    Djerbi, S.
    Nilsson, Peter
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Denman, S.
    Amini, B.
    Sterky, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Master, E.
    Sandberg, G.
    Mellerowicz, E.
    Sundberg, B.
    Henrissat, B.
    Teeri, Tuula T.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in the secondary cell wall biogenesis in hybrid aspen2005In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 137, no 3, p. 983-997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood formation is a fundamental biological process with significant economic interest. While lignin biosynthesis is currently relatively well understood, the pathways leading to the synthesis of the key structural carbohydrates in wood fibers remain obscure. We have used a functional genomics approach to identify enzymes involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and remodeling during xylem development in the hybrid aspen Populus tremula x tremuloides. Microarrays containing cDNA clones from different tissue-specific libraries were hybridized with probes obtained from narrow tissue sections prepared by cryosectioning of the developing xylem. Bioinformatic analyses using the sensitive tools developed for carbohydrate-active enzymes allowed the identification of 25 xylem-specific glycosyltransferases belonging to the Carbohydrate-Active EnZYme families GT2, GT8, GT14, GT31, GT43, GT47, and GT61 and nine glycosidases (or transglycosidases) belonging to the Carbohydrate-Active EnZYme families GH9, GH10, GH16, GH17, GH19, GH28, GH35, and GH51. While no genes encoding either polysaccharide lyases or carbohydrate esterases were found among the secondary wall-specific genes, one putative O-acetyltransferase was identified. These wood-specific enzyme genes constitute a valuable resource for future development of engineered fibers with improved performance in different applications.

  • 20.
    Asperö Lind, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Biologisk behandling av matavfall med avfallskvarn: En systemanalys2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The municipal sewage treatment plant Käppalaverket and municipally owned waste handling company SÖRAB, both located in the northern part of Stockholm Sweden, have together started the BOA project. BOA means “Biologisk behandling av Organiskt matavfall medhjälp av Avfallskvarnar” which is translated to biological treatment of organic food waste using food waste macerators. The initiative stems from one of Sweden’s national environmental goals: Saying that at least 35 percent of all the organic waste produced byhouseholds and companies shall be treated biologically by the year 2010 and that the nutrients from this waste should be used as fertilizer.

    In the first phase of the project, seven different scenarios on how to transport the food waste from the households to the digestion chamber were described. To be able to evaluate these scenarios from a societal and sustainability perspective, seven criteria were chosen:technology, environment, work environment, economy, quality, law, and acceptance. The first part of the thesis consisted of formulating indicators from these criteria, through meetings and discussions with different working groups, all consisting of people in the waste and wastewater field. After that, a review of available tools was done to find the ones that were best suited for each chosen indicator.

    For the indicators that required calculations, Substance Flow Analysis, Life Cycle Analysis, Energy Analysis and Life Cycle Costing were chosen. After the tools had been used the results were given grades depending on how big impact they would have on society. For some of the indicators calculations were not possible and instead a qualitative grading system was used, in which the different working groups graded each scenario depending on the indicator and the grades were weighted and summed together.

    Finally, a multi criteria analysis was made together with the project managers from Käppalaverket and SÖRAB, in which the different indicators were discussed and weighted depending on how important they were considered to be. The final result of the multi criteria analysis was that one scenario could be chosen as the most suited for transport of food waste, from the perspective of the chosen indicators and their given weight.

    The scenario in which food waste is collected in bins and then transported by car to a centralprocessing plant, and finally transported by car to Käppalaverkets digestion chambers, got the highest score in the multi criteria analysis and is therefore the best scenario from the perspective of the chosen indicators and given weight. But from the multi criteria analysis onecould also see that none of the scenarios were given a particularly low score. This opens upfor the possibility of combined scenarios were all the residents of the SÖRAB region are given the possibility to recycle their food waste with a bin collecting system, but were there isa will to use systems with a kitchen food waste disposer instead it can be accepted as long as they do not become too popular.

    During the work of this thesis several questions have been raised that needs further investigation. One is what happens with the food waste when it is transported in the sewagesystem and another is how it will change during storage longer than four days. Also, the final results have shown that the impact on climate change from the scenarios could besignificantly decreased if a leakage free methane production could be assured and the possibility to use renewable fuels for the collecting cars was investigated.

  • 21. Attias, N.
    et al.
    Reid, Michael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Mijowska, S. C.
    Dobryden, Illia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Isaksson, M.
    Pokroy, B.
    Grobman, Y. J.
    Abitbol, T.
    Biofabrication of Nanocellulose–Mycelium Hybrid Materials2021In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 5, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthy material alternatives based on renewable resources and sustainable technologies have the potential to disrupt the environmentally damaging production and consumption practices established throughout the modern industrial era. In this study, a mycelium–nanocellulose biocomposite with hybrid properties is produced by the agitated liquid culture of a white-rot fungus (Trametes ochracea) with nanocellulose (NC) comprised as part of the culture media. Mycelial development proceeds via the formation of pellets, where NC is enriched in the pellets and depleted from the surrounding liquid media. Micrometer-scale NC elements become engulfed in mycelium, whereas it is hypothesized that the nanometer-scale fraction becomes integrated within the hyphal cell wall, such that all NC in the system is essentially surface-modified by mycelium. The NC confers mechanical strength to films processed from the biocomposite, whereas the mycelium screens typical cellulose–water interactions, giving fibrous slurries that dewater faster and films that exhibit significantly improved wet resistance in comparison to pure NC films. The mycelium–nanocellulose biocomposites are processable in the ways familiar to papermaking and are suggested for diverse applications, including packaging, filtration, and hygiene products.

  • 22.
    Axelsson, Karolin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry.
    Zendegi-Shiraz, Amene
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH). Ferdowsi Univ Mashhad, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan, Iran..
    Swedjemark, Gunilla
    Skogforsk, Ekebo, Svalov, Sweden..
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry. Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Chem Engn, Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Zhao, Tao
    Örebro Univ, Sch Sci & Technol, SE-70182 Örebro, Sweden..
    Chemical defence responses of Norway spruce to two fungal pathogens2020In: Forest Pathology, ISSN 1437-4781, E-ISSN 1439-0329, Vol. 50, no 6, article id e12640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constitutive and inducible terpene production is involved in conifer resistance against insects and fungal infestations. To gain knowledge about local defence responses of Norway spruce bark against pathogens and to find potential chemical markers for resistance breeding, we inoculated the stem of 8-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies) clonal trees with bothEndoconidiophora polonica(Ep, a common fungal pathogen associated with the spruce bark beetleIps typographus) andHeterobasidion parviporum(Hp, a severe pathogen causing root and stem rot disease). Three weeks after inoculation, the fungal-inoculated and intact bark from each tree was sampled. The terpenes in tree bark were extracted with hexane and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The two fungi induced varied terpene responses in the four spruce clones used. Three of the clones showed a 2.3-fold to 5.7-fold stronger terpene response to Hp relative to Ep inoculation, while one clone responded similarly to inoculation with the two fungal pathogens. The amount of the diterpenes thunbergol and geranyllinalool varied between the clones. The level of thunbergol was higher in both intact and fungal-inoculated bark from the less susceptible clones compared with the more susceptible clones. Geranyllinalool was present in higher amounts in the susceptible clones and is thus a possible marker for susceptibility. Our observations show that Norway spruce employs a similar chemical mechanism against the two fungal pathogens. Based on the present and earlier published data, we suggest that certain Norway spruce genotypes have a strong defence reaction against these two pathogens. The diterpenes thunbergol and geranyllinalool might be useful markers of susceptibility in tree-breeding programmes and should be the focus of further detailed investigations.

  • 23.
    Azeem, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    Iqbal, Z.
    Emami, S. N.
    Nordlander, G.
    Nordenhem, H.
    Mozūratis, R.
    El-Seedi, Hesham
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry.
    Chemical composition and antifeedant activity of some aromatic plants against pine weevil (Hylobius abietis)2020In: Annals of Applied Biology, ISSN 0003-4746, E-ISSN 1744-7348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis is an important pest causing severe damage to conifer seedlings in reforestation areas in Europe and Asia. Plants that have no evolutionary history with the pine weevil are of special interest in the search for compounds with a strong antifeedant activity. Thus, the essential oils of nine aromatic plants, viz Amomum subulatum, Cinnamomum tamala, Curcuma longa, Laurus nobilis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, Origanum vulgare, Syzygium aromaticum and Trachyspermum ammi were extracted by hydrodistillation. The essential oil constituents were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and antifeedant properties towards the pine weevil were assessed using choice feeding bioassay. The essential oils of C. longa, O. majorana, S. aromaticum and T. ammi showed an excellent antifeedant activity towards the pine weevil for 24 hr, whereas the essential oil of other plants showed the activity for 6 hr. There was a positive correlation between the amount of benzenoid compounds and the antifeedant activity of the essential oils. This study suggests that pine weevil non-host plant compounds have potential to be used for the protection of seedlings against pine weevil feeding. However, further study will be needed to explore the antifeedant activity of individual components and oils in the laboratory as well as in the field. 

  • 24.
    Bacete, Laura
    et al.
    Univ Politecn Madrid UPM, Ctr Biotecnol & Genom Plantas, Inst Nacl Invest & Tecnol Agr & Alimentaria INIA, Campus Montegancedo UPM, Pozuelo De Alarcon 28223, Madrid, Spain.;Univ Politecn Madrid, Dept Biotecnol Biol Vegetal, Escuela Tecn Super Ingn Agron Alimentaria & Biosi, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Melida, Hugo
    Univ Politecn Madrid UPM, Ctr Biotecnol & Genom Plantas, Inst Nacl Invest & Tecnol Agr & Alimentaria INIA, Campus Montegancedo UPM, Pozuelo De Alarcon 28223, Madrid, Spain..
    Lopez, Gemma
    Univ Politecn Madrid UPM, Ctr Biotecnol & Genom Plantas, Inst Nacl Invest & Tecnol Agr & Alimentaria INIA, Campus Montegancedo UPM, Pozuelo De Alarcon 28223, Madrid, Spain..
    Dabos, Patrick
    Univ Toulouse, INRA, UPS, CNRS,LIPM, Castanet Tolosan, France..
    Tremousaygue, Dominique
    Univ Toulouse, INRA, UPS, CNRS,LIPM, Castanet Tolosan, France..
    Denance, Nicolas
    Univ Toulouse, INRA, UPS, CNRS,LIPM, Castanet Tolosan, France.;Univ Paul Sabatier, Lab Rech Sci Vegetales, CNRS, UMR 5546, Chemin Borde Rouge, F-31326 Castanet Tolosan, France..
    Miedes, Eva
    Univ Politecn Madrid UPM, Ctr Biotecnol & Genom Plantas, Inst Nacl Invest & Tecnol Agr & Alimentaria INIA, Campus Montegancedo UPM, Pozuelo De Alarcon 28223, Madrid, Spain.;Univ Politecn Madrid, Dept Biotecnol Biol Vegetal, Escuela Tecn Super Ingn Agron Alimentaria & Biosi, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Bulone, Vincent
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience. AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Royal IUniv Adelaide, RC Ctr Excellence Plant Cell Walls, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, SA 5064, Australia.;Univ Adelaide, Sch Agr Food & Wine, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, SA 5064, Australia..
    Goffner, Deborah
    Univ Paul Sabatier, Lab Rech Sci Vegetales, CNRS, UMR 5546, Chemin Borde Rouge, F-31326 Castanet Tolosan, France..
    Molina, Antonio
    Univ Politecn Madrid UPM, Ctr Biotecnol & Genom Plantas, Inst Nacl Invest & Tecnol Agr & Alimentaria INIA, Campus Montegancedo UPM, Pozuelo De Alarcon 28223, Madrid, Spain.;Univ Politecn Madrid, Dept Biotecnol Biol Vegetal, Escuela Tecn Super Ingn Agron Alimentaria & Biosi, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Arabidopsis Response Regulator 6 (ARR6) Modulates Plant Cell-Wall Composition and Disease Resistance2020In: Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, ISSN 0894-0282, E-ISSN 1943-7706, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 767-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cytokinin signaling pathway, which is mediated by Arabidopsis response regulator (ARR) proteins, has been involved in the modulation of some disease-resistance responses. Here, we describe novel functions of ARR6 in the control of plant disease-resistance and cell-wall composition. Plants impaired in ARR6 function (arr6) were more resistant and susceptible, respectively, to the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina and to the vascular bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum, whereas Arabidopsis plants that overexpress ARR6 showed the opposite phenotypes, which further support a role of ARR6 in the modulation of disease-resistance responses against these pathogens. Transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses revealed that, in arr6 plants, canonical disease-resistance pathways, like those activated by defensive phytohormones, were not altered, whereas immune responses triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns were slightly enhanced. Cell-wall composition of arr6 plants was found to be severely altered compared with that of wild-type plants. Remarkably, pectin-enriched cell-wall fractions extracted from arr6 walls triggered more intense immune responses than those activated by similar wall fractions from wild-type plants, suggesting that an-6 pectin fraction is enriched in wall-related damage-associated molecular patterns, which trigger immune responses. This work supports a novel function of ARR6 in the control of cell-wall composition and disease resistance and reinforces the role of the plant cell wall in the modulation of specific immune responses.

  • 25. Baken, S.
    et al.
    Larsson, M. A.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Cubadda, F.
    Smolders, E.
    Ageing of vanadium in soils and consequences for bioavailability2012In: European Journal of Soil Science, ISSN 1351-0754, E-ISSN 1365-2389, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 839-847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Total vanadium (V) concentrations in soils commonly range from 20 to 120 mg kg-1. Vanadium added directly to soils is more soluble than geogenic V and can be phytotoxic at doses within this range of background concentrations. However, it is unknown how slow sorption reactions change the fate and effect of added V in soils. This study addresses the changes in V solubility, toxicity and bioavailability in soils over time. Four soils were amended with pentavalent V in the form of a soluble vanadate salt, and extractable V concentrations were monitored over 100 days. The toxicity to barley and tomato plants was evaluated in freshly spiked soils and in the corresponding aged soils that were equilibrated for up to 330 days after spiking. The V concentrations in 0.01 m CaCl2 soil extracts decreased approximately two-fold between 14 and 100 days after soil spiking, and the reaction kinetics were similar for all soils. The phytotoxicity of added V decreased on average two-fold between freshly spiked and aged soils. The reduced toxicity was associated with a corresponding decrease in V concentrations in the isolated soil solutions and in the shoots. The V speciation in the soil solution of the aged soils was dominated by V(V); less than 8% was present as V(IV). Oxalate extractions suggest that the V(V) added to soils is predominantly sorbed onto poorly crystalline oxyhydroxides. It is concluded that the toxicity of V measured in freshly spiked soils may not be representative of soils subject to a long-term V contamination in the field.

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  • 26.
    Bautista, Rocí­o
    et al.
    University of Malaga.
    Villalobos, David, P.
    University of Malaga.
    Diaz-Moreno, Sara M
    University of Malaga.
    Cantón, Francisco, R.
    University of Malaga.
    Cánovas, Francisco, M.
    University of Malaga.
    Gonzalo Claros, M.
    University of Malaga.
    Toward a Pinus pinaster bacterial artificial chromosome library2007In: Annals of Forest Science, ISSN 1286-4560, E-ISSN 1297-966X, Vol. 64, no 8, p. 855-864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conifers are of great economic and ecological importance, but little is known concerning their genomic organization. This study is an attempt to obtain high-quality high-molecular-weight DNA from Pinus pinaster cotyledons and the construction of a pine BAC library. The preparation incorporates modifications like low centrifugation speeds, increase of EDTA concentration for plug maintenance, use of DNase inhibitors to reduce DNA degradation, use of polyvinylpyrrolidone and ascorbate to avoid secondary metabolites, and a brief electrophoresis of the plugs prior to their use. A total of 72 192 clones with an average insert size of 107 kb, which represents an equivalent of 11X pine haploid genomes, were obtained. The proportions of clones lacking inserts or containing chloroplast DNA are both approximately 1.6%. The library was screened with cDNA probes for seven genes, and two clones containing Fd-GOGAT sequences were found, one of them seemingly functional. Ongoing projects aimed at constructing a pinebacterial artificial chromosome library may benefit from the methods described here.

  • 27. Bazilian, Morgan
    et al.
    Rogner, Holger
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Arent, Douglas
    Gielen, Dolf
    Steduto, Pasquale
    Mueller, Alexander
    Komor, Paul
    Tol, Richard S.J.
    Yumkella, Kandeh K.
    Considering the energy, water and food nexus: Towards an integrated modelling approach2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 12, p. 7896-7906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The areas of energy, water and food policy have numerous interwoven concerns ranging from ensuring access to services, to environmental impacts to price volatility. These issues manifest in very different ways in each of the three "spheres", but often the impacts are closely related. Identifying these interrelationships a priori is of great importance to help target synergies and avoid potential tensions. Systems thinking is required to address such a wide swath of possible topics. This paper briefly describes some of the linkages at a high-level of aggregation - primarily from a developing country perspective - and via case studies, to arrive at some promising directions for addressing the nexus. To that end, we also present the attributes of a modelling framework that specifically addresses the nexus, and can thus serve to inform more effective national policies and regulations. While environmental issues are normally the 'cohesive principle' from which the three areas are considered jointly, the enormous inequalities arising from a lack of access suggest that economic and security-related issues may be stronger motivators of change. Finally, consideration of the complex interactions will require new institutional capacity both in industrialised and developing countries.

  • 28.
    Benitez, Jose J.
    et al.
    Univ Seville, Ctr Mixto Consejo Super Invest Cient, Inst Ciencia Mat Sevilla, Seville, Spain..
    Guzman-Puyol, Susana
    Univ Malaga, Consejo Super Invest Cient Estac Expt La mayora, Inst Hortofruticultura Subtrop & Mediterranea La, Dept Mejora Genet & Biotecnol, Malaga, Spain..
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience.
    Heredia-Guerrero, Jose A.
    Univ Malaga, Consejo Super Invest Cient Estac Expt La mayora, Inst Hortofruticultura Subtrop & Mediterranea La, Dept Mejora Genet & Biotecnol, Malaga, Spain..
    Dominguez, Eva
    Univ Malaga, Consejo Super Invest Cient Estac Expt La mayora, Inst Hortofruticultura Subtrop & Mediterranea La, Dept Mejora Genet & Biotecnol, Malaga, Spain..
    Heredia, Antonio
    Univ Malaga, Univ Malaga Consejo Super Invest Cient, Inst Hortofruticultura Subtrop & Mediterranea La, Dept Biol Mol & Bioquim, Malaga, Spain..
    Mechanical Performances of Isolated Cuticles Along Tomato Fruit Growth and Ripening2021In: Frontiers in Plant Science, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 12, article id 787839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cuticle is the most external layer that protects fruits from the environment and constitutes the first shield against physical impacts. The preservation of its mechanical integrity is essential to avoid the access to epidermal cell walls and to prevent mass loss and damage that affect the commercial quality of fruits. The rheology of the cuticle is also very important to respond to the size modification along fruit growth and to regulate the diffusion of molecules from and toward the atmosphere. The mechanical performance of cuticles is regulated by the amount and assembly of its components (mainly cutin, polysaccharides, and waxes). In tomato fruit cuticles, phenolics, a minor cuticle component, have been found to have a strong influence on their mechanical behavior. To fully characterize the biomechanics of tomato fruit cuticle, transient creep, uniaxial tests, and multi strain dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) measurements have been carried out. Two well-differentiated stages have been identified. At early stages of growth, characterized by a low phenolic content, the cuticle displays a soft elastic behavior. Upon increased phenolic accumulation during ripening, a progressive stiffening is observed. The increment of viscoelasticity in ripe fruit cuticles has also been associated with the presence of these compounds. The transition from the soft elastic to the more rigid viscoelastic regime can be explained by the cooperative association of phenolics with both the cutin and the polysaccharide fractions.

  • 29. Berggren Kleja, Dan
    et al.
    Svensson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Majdi, Hooshang
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Langvall, Ola
    Bergkvist, Bo
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    Weslien, Per
    Lindroth, Anders
    Pools and fluxes of carbon in three Norway spruce ecosystems along a climatic gradient in Sweden.2008In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 7-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an integrated analysis of organic carbon (C) pools in soils and vegetation, within-ecosystem fluxes and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in three 40-year old Norway spruce stands along a north-south climatic gradient in Sweden, measured 2001-2004. A process-orientated ecosystem model (CoupModel), previously parameterised on a regional dataset, was used for the analysis. Pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) and tree growth rates were highest at the southernmost site (1.6 and 2.0-fold, respectively). Tree litter production (litterfall and root litter) was also highest in the south, with about half coming from fine roots (< 1 mm) at all sites. However, when the litter input from the forest floor vegetation was included, the difference in total litter input rate between the sites almost disappeared (190-233 g C m(-2) year(-1)). We propose that a higher N deposition and N availability in the south result in a slower turnover of soil organic matter than in the north. This effect seems to overshadow the effect of temperature. At the southern site, 19% of the total litter input to the O horizon was leached to the mineral soil as dissolved organic carbon, while at the two northern sites the corresponding figure was approx. 9%. The CoupModel accurately described general C cycling behaviour in these ecosystems, reproducing the differences between north and south. The simulated changes in SOC pools during the measurement period were small, ranging from -8 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the north to +9 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the south. In contrast, NEE and tree growth measurements at the northernmost site suggest that the soil lost about 90 g C m(-2) year(-1).

  • 30.
    Berglund, Jennie
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology. Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wood Hemicelluloses - Fundamental Insights on Biological and Technical Properties2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemicelluloses are a group of heterogeneous polysaccharides representing around 30 % of wood where the dominating types are xylans, glucomannans and xyloglucans. Hemicelluloses complex molecular structure makes it difficult to understand the relationship between structure and properties entirely, and their biological role is not yet fully verified. Additionally, hemicelluloses are sensitive to chemical processing and are not utilized to their full potentials for production of value-added products such as materials, additives to food and pharmaceutical products, etc. Increased knowledge regarding their functions is important for the development of both processes and products. The aim with this work has therefore been to increase the fundamental understanding about how the structure and properties of wood hemicelluloses are correlated, and properties such as flexibility, interaction with cellulose, solubility, resistance to chemical-, thermal-, and enzymatic degradation have been explored.

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to, in detail, study the structures found in wood hemicelluloses. The flexibility was evaluated by comparing the impact of backbone sugars on the conformational space and also the impact of side groups was considered. Based on the conformational space of backbone glycosidic linkages the flexibility order of hemicelluloses in an aqueous environment was determined to be: xylan > glucomannan > xyloglucan. Additionally, the impact of xylan structure on cellulose interaction was evaluated by MD methods.

    Hemicelluloses were extracted from birch and spruce, and were used to fabricate different composite hydrogels with bacterial cellulose. These materials were studied with regards to mechanical properties, and it was shown that galactoglucomannans mainly contributed to an increased modulus in compression, whereas the most significant effect from xylan was increased strain under uniaxial tensile testing. Besides, other polysaccharides of similar structure as galactoglucomannans were modified and used as pure, well defined, models. Acetyl groups are naturally occurring decorations of wood hemicelluloses and can also be chemically introduced. Here, mannans with different degrees of acetylation were prepared and the influence of structure on solubility in water and the organic solvent DMSO were evaluated. Furthermore, the structure and water solubility influenced the interaction with cellulose. Acetylation also showed to increase the thermal and biological stability of mannans.

    With chemical pulping processes in mind, the degradability of spruce galactoglucomannans in alkaline solution were studied with regards to the structure, and the content of more or less stable structural regions were proposed.

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  • 31.
    Berglund, Jennie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Angles d’Ortoli, Thibault
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Bergenstråhle-Wohlert, Malin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lindström, Mikael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wohlert, Jakob
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    A molecular dynamics study of the effect of glycosidic linkage type in the hemicellulose backbone on the molecular chain flexibility2016In: The Plant Journal, ISSN 0960-7412, E-ISSN 1365-313XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The macromolecular conformation of the constituent polysaccharides in lignocellulosic biomass influences their supramolecular interactions, and therefore their function in plants and their performance in technical products. The flexibility of glycosidic linkages from the backbone of hemicelluloses was studied by evaluating the conformational freedom of the φ and ψ dihedral angles using molecular dynamic simulations, additionally selected molecules were correlated with experimental data by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Three types of β-(1→4) glycosidic linkages involving the monosaccharides (Glcp, Xylp and Manp) present in the backbone of hemicelluloses were defined. Different di- and tetrasaccharides with combinations of such sugar monomers from hemicelluloses were simulated, and free energy maps of the φ – ψ space and hydrogen-bonding patterns were obtained. The glycosidic linkage between Glc-Glc or Glc-Man (C-type) was the stiffest with mainly one probable conformation; the linkage from Man-Man or Man-Glc (M-type) was similar but with an increased probability for an alternative conformation making it more flexible, and the linkage between two Xyl-units (X-type) was the most flexible with two almost equally populated conformations. Glycosidic linkages of the same type showed essentially the same conformational space in both disaccharides and in the central region of tetrasaccharides. Different probabilities of glycosidic linkage conformations in the backbone of hemicelluloses can be directly estimated from the free energy maps, which to a large degree affect the overall macromolecular conformations of these polymers. The information gained contributes to an increased understanding of the function of hemicelluloses both in the cell wall and in technical products.

  • 32.
    Berglund, Jennie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Azhar, Shoaib
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lindström, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Wohlert, Jakob
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    The structure of galactoglucomannan impacts the degradation under alkaline conditions2018In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Galactoglucomannan (GGM) from sprucewas studied with respect to the degradation behavior inalkaline solution. Three reference systems includinggalactomannan from locust bean gum, glucomannanfrom konjac and the linear water-soluble carboxymethylcellulose were studied with focus onmolecular weight, sugar composition, degradationproducts, as well as formed oligomers, to identifyrelative structural changes in GGM. Initially allmannan polysaccharides showed a fast decrease inthe molecular weight, which became stable in the laterstage. The degradation of the mannan polysaccharidescould be described by a function corresponding to thesum of two first order reactions; one slow that wasascribed to peeling, and one fast that was connectedwith hydrolysis. The galactose side group wasstable under conditions used in this study (150 min,90 C, 0.5 M NaOH). This could suggest that, apartfrom the covalent connection to C6 in mannose, thegalactose substitutions also interact non-covalentlywith the backbone to stabilize the structure againstdegradation. Additionally, the combination of differentbackbone sugars seems to affect the stability of thepolysaccharides. For carboxymethyl cellulose thedegradation was linear over time which furthersuggests that the structure and sugar composition playan important role for the alkaline degradation. Moleculardynamics simulations gave details about theconformational behavior of GGM oligomers in watersolution, as well as interaction between the oligomersand hydroxide ions.

  • 33.
    Berglund, Torkel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Aghelpasand, Hooman
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Ohlsson, Anna B.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Protection of spruce seedlings against pine weevil attacks by treatment of seeds or seedlings with nicotinamide, nicotinic acid and jasmonic acid2016In: Forestry (London), ISSN 0015-752X, E-ISSN 1464-3626, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 127-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable methods are required to protect newly planted tree seedlings from insect herbivore attack. To this end, here Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seeds were treated with 2.5 mM nicotinamide (NIC), 2.5 mM nicotinic acid (NIA), 3 mM jasmonic acid (JA) or 0.2 mM 5-azacytidine (5-Aza), and 6-month-old seedlings grown from these seeds were planted at a reforestation area in central Sweden. Attack by pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) was reduced by 50 per cent by NIC treatment, 62.5 per cent by JA treatment and 25 per cent by 5-Aza treatment, when compared with seedlings grown from untreated seeds. Watering 18-month-old spruce seedlings with 2 mM NIC or 2 mM NIA did reduce attack during the first season in the field by 40 and 53 per cent, respectively, compared with untreated plants. Girdling was also reduced by the different treatments. Analysis of conifer seedlings treated with 5-Aza points at a possible involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in this defensive capacity. This is supported by a reduced level of DNA methylation in the needles of young spruce seedlings grown in a greenhouse from NIC-treated seeds. Seed treatment for seedling defense potentiation is simple, inexpensive and also a new approach for forestry with many potential applications.

  • 34.
    Berríos-Negrón, Luis
    KTH / Konstfack.
    Earthscore Specularium2018In: On Curating, ISSN 2673-2904, no 36, p. 94-105Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through an artistic contribution, Luis Berríos-Negrón introduces his project “Earthscore Specularium,” developed at Färg fabriken in Stockholm in 2015. The work of Berríos-Negrón departs from a practice that deals with complexity to reflect upon notions that bring together ecology, art, architecture, science, and social practice. In recent years, he has been developing a set of conceptual devices he ultimately refers to as “social pedestals.” The latter consist of a series of architectonical installations that facilitate social encounters by resolving spatial practicalities, and at the same time reflect conceptually upon the dematerialization of sculpture. The “social pedestal” is conceived as a site for networked agency for social transformation, where the roles of the agents involved can permute, and different configurations can be organized depending of the needs of every specific situation. The “greenhouse”—which Luis treats as a social pedestal itself as well—is a long-term research site of the artist on the possibility of emancipating this type of technology in order to obtain anticipatory spatial, artistic, and social media.

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  • 35.
    Berríos-Negrón, Luis
    KTH / Konstfack.
    Greenhouse Doppelgänger Deposed: An Indexical Prototype about Parastructures, Anarchives, and the Social (Hyperobjective) Pedestal2018In: Architecture in Effect: Volume 1: Rethinking the Social in Architecture / [ed] Gromark, et al, Barcelona: ACTAR, 2018, , p. 480Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Greenhouse is an opaque manifold of meanings. The opacity is not just the result of a layering that occurs when considering its many definitions. It is more so the result of the suppressed colonial violence that is implicit in its technological instrumentalization. This mythical violence, of willfully transplanting the exotic, is at the heart of allother compound terms and subsets of ‘greenhouse’. I have been working on how this opacity obscures a range of forces that shape the environment. More specifically, I amexploring how these opaque forces affect, and may be perceived through, the forms and languages of sculptural and spatial production beyond prescribed visual or imagined outcomes. The work you will encounter here is then a probe to test how the violent opacity of greenhouse may be demystified by shaping an index as potential format for dematerialized display.

  • 36.
    Berríos-Negrón, Luis
    KTH / Konstfack.
    Greenhouse Superstructures as Social Pedestals: displaying site-specific non-locality as a possible form of resilience2015In: Architecture and Resilience on the Human Scale: Cross-Disciplinary Conference, 10-12 September 2015 / [ed] University of Sheffield, UK, Sheffield, UK: University of Sheffield , 2015, p. 70-71Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I will propose that greenhouse superstructures are not just the surface envelop of an industrial typology: they are more so a spatial archetype. As such, they are historiographical boundary objects that at times display the spatiotemporal dimensions and geopolitical flows of environmental form in accelerated climate change. This abovementioned hypothesis is reflected through the manifold of “resilience” as defined by Prof. Lawrence Vale - of resilience being “a window into conflicting human values”. The aim of this effort is to ultimately centre the manifold notion of “greenhouse” as an index that points away from itself towards the impact of anthropological and technocratic ideologies on agricultural and spatial production. It is these binary ideologies that arguably create what we sense to be a crisis of scale, now further articulated as the hyperobject of climate change as a disjuncture that we nostalgically entertain as a chasm between the human condition and the living environment. Parsed by augmenting the notion of 'greenhouse superstructure' – as technology, gas, and effect – the hypothesis looks to articulate the greenhouse as a 'site-specific non-local' sensation on the expanding sculptural field. What this expanding sculptural netherworld implies needs to be rigorously addressed for it may very well become what tautologically heightens the greenhouse to the providence of becoming our future atmosphere and landscape. To elaborate this potentiality, I will first present the schematics and precedents of the dissertation, including four installations of my authorship in Germany, Brazil, and Sweden. These sections then lead to an argument instantiated by thinking of the greenhouse as 'social pedestal'. The objective is therefore to embody the notion of non-local site-specific resilience as modes of pedagogy and production that aspire to destabilise the anthropological machine, as resilient modes not limited to historic, scientific, artistic, correlational, nor speculative conventions.

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  • 37.
    Bhale, Vilas
    et al.
    Department of Agronomy, Dr. PDKV, Akola-444 101 (MS), India.
    Tupe, Arvind
    Department of Agronomy, Dr. PDKV, Akola-444 101 (MS), India.
    Karmore, Jayashri
    Department of Agronomy, Dr. PDKV, Akola-444 101 (MS), India.
    Kale, Manoj
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Crop planning in relation to climate change in rain fed regions2012In: Journal of Agricultural Technology, ISSN 1686-9141, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 443-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty and variability of rains both space and time is the major constraints affecting agricultural production in rain fed farming. Scientific study on the quantum and distribution of rainfall would enable to farming community and researcher to adjust or modify the cropping pattern as well as the cultural operation to utilize the actual moisture available in the field for profitable crop production. The daily rainfall data for last 39 year were analyzed to study its variability and probability. In rain fed farming rainfall is the primary and most important factor affecting productivity and it is mostly uncertain and erratic. Thus, the change in the rainfall pattern and amount suggests adjusting or modifying the cropping pattern and cultural practices of agricultural crops in the region for achieving the sustainable productivity. Under short break of monsoon, repeated hoeing to prevent soil moisture loss and under long dry spell, agronomic management like mulching, relay cropping or re-sowing are advocated.

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    Bhale and Manoj Kale
  • 38.
    Bhattacharya, Abhishek
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Chem, Biochem & Struct Biol, POB 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Ruthes, Andrea C.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience.
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience.
    Karlsson, Eva Nordberg
    Lund Univ, Dept Chem, Biotechnol, POB 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Adlecreutz, Patrick
    Lund Univ, Dept Chem, Biotechnol, POB 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Stalbrand, Henrik
    Lund Univ, Dept Chem, Biochem & Struct Biol, POB 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Enzyme synergy for the production of arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides from highly substituted arabinoxylan and evaluation of their prebiotic potential2020In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 131, article id 109762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheat bran arabinoxylan can be converted by enzymatic hydrolysis into short arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) with prebiotic potential. Alkali extraction of arabinoxylan from wheat-bran offers advantages in terms of yield and results in arabinoxylan with highly-substituted regions which has been a challenge to hydrolyse using endoxylanases. We show that this hurdle can be overcome by selecting an arabinoxylanase that attacks these regions. The yield of AXOS can be increased by enzyme synergy, involving the hydrolysis of some arabinoxylan side groups. Thus, arabinoxylanase (CtXyl5At) from Clostridium thermocellum, belonging to subfamily 34 of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 was investigated pertaining to its specificity for highly-substituted regions in the arabinoxylan-backbone. CtXyl5At preferentially hydrolysed the water-soluble fraction of alkali-extracted arabinoxylan. AXOS with DP 2-4 were determined as major products from CtXyl5At catalyzed hydrolysis. Increase in AXOS yield was observed with enzyme synergy, involving an initial treatment of soluble arabinoxylan with a GH43 alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis termed BaAXHd3 (30 degrees C, 6h), followed by hydrolysis with CtXyl5At (50 degrees C, 24h). The prebiotic potential of AXOS was shown by growth analysis using the human gut bacteria Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15703 and Roseburia hominis DSM 6839. Importantly, AXOS were utilized by the bacteria and short-chain fatty acids were produced.

  • 39.
    Bi, Ran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Jennie
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    McKee, Lauren S.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    The degree of acetylation affects the microbial degradability of mannans2016In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 133, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemicelluloses as major components of plant cell walls are acetylated to different extents. The biologicalfunctions of acetylation are not completely understood but suggested that one reason is to decrease themicrobial degradability of cell walls. Model seed galactomannan and glucomannan, which are structurallysimilar to an abundant class of wood hemicelluloses, were acetylated to various degrees and usedas sole carbon source on agar plates for microbial growth. When soil samples were inoculated on theplates, significantly fewer strains grew on the agar plates with highly acetylated mannans than withslightly acetylated or non-acetylated mannans. One filamentous fungus isolated and identified as aPenicillium species was shown to grow faster and stronger on non-acetylated than on highly acetylatedmannan. The data therefore support the hypothesis that a high degree of acetylation (DSac) can decreasethe microbial degradability of hemicelluloses. Possible mechanisms and the technological significance ofthis are discussed.

  • 40. Biermann, F.
    et al.
    Stevens, C.
    Bernstein, S.
    Gupta, A.
    Kanie, N.
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Scobie, M.
    Global goal setting for improving national governance and policy2017In: Governing Through Goals: Sustainable Development Goals as Governance Innovation, The MIT Press , 2017, p. 75-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Bjurhager, Ingela
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Mechanical behaviour of hardwoods: effects from cellular and cell wall structures2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanical properties of different hardwood species and relate the properties to the structure at the cellular and cell wall level. The species examined were European aspen (Populus tremula), hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides) and European oak (Quercus robur). The Populus species, including the fast-growing hybrid aspen, are used in a large number of projects using transgene technology, which also has raised the demand for a more extensive determination of mechanical properties of the species. Oak have been a popular construction material for thousands of years, esulting in a vast number of archaeological findings. Preservation of these often includes dimensional stabilization by polyethylene glycol (PEG), an impregnation agent which affects the mechanical properties. To which extent is not properly investigated, however. The study on European and hybrid aspen included development of a method for tensile testing of small, juvenile specimens in the green condition, where strain was measured using the digital speckle photography (DSP) technique. Mechanical performance of the species in terms of longitudinal tensile stiffness and strength were of special interest. Inferior mechanical properties of hybrid aspen corresponded well to mean values of density, which were lower for the hybrid aspen compared to European aspen.

    Oak was examined in the swollen state, where swelling was induced by PEG with molecular weight 600. Longitudinal tensile stiffness and strength as well as radial stiffness and yield strength in compression were compared. Longitudinal and radial strain was measured using video extensiometry and DSP, respectively. Additional characterization of the material included imaging from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microtomography and determination of microfibril angle using wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). Tensile stiffness and strength in the axial direction were only slightly affected by PEG-impregnation. WAXS measurements showed that microfibril angles were close to zero which implicates that cell wall properties are strongly dependent on the microfibrils, and only marginally influenced by the plasticization effects from PEG on the lignin/hemicellulose matrix. In the radial direction, on the other hand, mechanical performance was strongly decreased by PEG-impregnation. This was believed to originate from softening of rays.

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  • 42.
    Bjurhager, Ingela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Bardage, Stig
    Sundberg, Björn
    Mechanical characterization of juvenile European aspen (Populus tremula) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) using full-field strain measurements2008In: Journal of Wood Science, ISSN 1435-0211, E-ISSN 1611-4663, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 349-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional analysis of genes and proteins involved in wood formation and fiber properties often involves phenotyping saplings of transgenic trees. The objective of the present study was to develop a tensile test method for small green samples from saplings, and to compare mechanical properties of juvenile European aspen (Populus tremula) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides). Small microtomed sections were manufactured and successfully tested in tension parallel to fiber orientation. Strain was determined by digital speckle photography. Results showed significantly lower values for juvenile hybrid aspen in both Young's modulus and tensile strength parallel to the grain. Average Young's moduli spanned the ranges of 5.9-6.6 and 4.8-6.0 GPa for European aspen and hybrid aspen, respectively. Tensile strength was in the range of 45-49 MPa for European aspen and 32-45 MPa for hybrid aspen. The average density (oven-dry) was 284 kg/m3 for European aspen and 221 kg/m3 for hybrid aspen. Differences in mechanical properties correlated with differences in density.

  • 43.
    Bjurhager, Ingela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Halonen, Helena
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lindfors, E. -L
    Iversen, Tommy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Almkvist, G.
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    State of degradation in archeological oak from the 17th century vasa ship: Substantial strength loss correlates with reduction in (holo)cellulose molecular weight2012In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 2521-2527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1628, the Swedish warship Vasa capsized on her maiden voyage and sank in the Stockholm harbor. The ship was recovered in 1961 and, after polyethylene glycol (PEG) impregnation, it was displayed in the Vasa museum. Chemical investigations of the Vasa were undertaken in 2000, and extensive holocellulose degradation was reported at numerous locations in the hull. We have now studied the longitudinal tensile strength of Vasa oak as a function of distance from the surface. The PEG-content, wood density, and cellulose microfibril angle were determined. The molar mass distribution of holocellulose was determined as well as the acid and iron content. A good correlation was found between the tensile strength of the Vasa oak and the average molecular weight of the holocellulose, where the load-bearing cellulose microfibril is the critical constituent. The mean tensile strength is reduced by approximately 40%, and the most affected areas show a reduction of up to 80%. A methodology is developed where variations in density, cellulose microfibril angle, and PEG content are taken into account, so that cell wall effects can be evaluated in wood samples with different rate of impregnation and morphologies.

  • 44.
    Bjurhager, Ingela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Ljungdahl, Jonas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Wallstrom, Lennart
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Towards improved understanding of PEG-impregnated waterlogged archaeological wood: A model study on recent oak2010In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 243-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To prevent deformation and cracking of waterlogged archaeological wood, polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a bulk impregnation agent is commonly applied. PEG maintains the wood in a swollen state during drying. However, swelling of wood can reduce its mechanical properties. In this study, the cellular structure of oak and cell wall swelling was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of transverse cross-sections, and the microfibril angle of oak fibers was determined by wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). Samples of recent European oak (Quercus robur L) impregnated with PEG (molecular weight of 600) were tested in axial tension and radial compression. Mechanical tests showed that axial tensile modulus and strength were only slightly affected by PEG, whereas radial compressive modulus and yield strength were reduced by up to 50%. This behavior can be explained by the microstructure and deformation mechanisms of the material. Microfibril angles in tensile test samples were close to zero. This implies tensile loading of cellulose microfibrils within the fiber cell walls without almost any shear in the adjacent amorphous matrix. These results are important because they can help separate the impact of PEG on mechanical properties from that of chemical degradation in archaeological artifacts, which display only small to moderate biological degradation.

  • 45.
    Bjurhager, Ingela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Ljungdahl, Jonas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Wallström, Lennart
    Division of Polymer Engineering, Luleå University of Technology (LTU).
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Effects of polyethylene glycol treatment on the mechanical properties of oakManuscript (Other academic)
  • 46. Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Westberg, Lotten
    Geber, Ulrika
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Ahnström, Johan
    Local selling as a driving force for increased on-farm biodiversity2009In: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, ISSN 1044-0046, E-ISSN 1540-7578, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 885-902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the question of whether local selling of farm products improves on-farm biodiversity in rural areas. In contrast to the main agricultural trend of farms specializing and increasing in size in response to national and global markets, increasing numbers of Swedish farmers are diverting their efforts towards selling at local markets. Based on case studies of six farms selling their products locally, this paper explores the nature of the diversity on these farms and identifies qualities in the interaction between the farmers and their consumers that are supporting this diversity. The study showed that farmers who interacted with consumers were encouraged to diversify their production. Marketing a large diversity of products at a local market led to better income for participating farmers. Animal farms maintained important biodiversity associated with their extensive way of rearing animals on semi-natural pastures. Access to local markets promoted this.

  • 47.
    Bladby, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Wersäll, Johanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    A meat free society: The different substitutes for meat, their future and their environmental and health impact compared to meat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide consumption of meat continues to increase and in Sweden the annual consumption has gone from 24 kg/person in 1990 to about 78 kg/person in 2005. This contributes to large environmental impacts such as an increase of greenhouse gas emissions, unsustainable land and resource use and shortage of water. A solution to the problem is to change our diets to be more sustainable. The purpose with this research is therefore to study the positive environmental and health aspects of alternative protein rich products based on soya, grown meat, algae and insects in comparison with meat. The goal is then to compare the environmental impacts from these products by studying different LCA-studies. Furthermore, also to understand how the future will be developed by interviewing producers of meat substitutes in Sweden. Some difficulties of comparing different LCA-studies are the choice of system boundaries, functional units and environmental aspects in the studies. Nevertheless, after studying a large amount of reports and articles about the products conclusions could yet be drawn. The carbonfootprint from beef is up to 20 times larger than from the substitutes and the land use is up to 125 times larger for beef compared to substitutes. Pork and chicken have lower impact but the lowest impact seems to come from producing substitutes based on soya beans. Insects and algae also have a low impact, but the products are still in the stage of development in Sweden due to laws, regulations and lack of knowledge. Regarding the health aspects substitutes could possibly replace meat since both insects and soya are rich of protein. Insects are also rich oniron and other nutrition. Algae consist as well of good nutrition. The companies interviewed in this study were Kung Markatta, Ekko gourmet and Veggi. They had some different opinions on future products, but they could all agree on that we need to eat less meat and more substitutes. The conclusions of this research are that the environmental aspects considered in the analysed LCA-studies are mostly carbon footprint and land use. They show that beef have a larger environmental impact than meat substitutes. It is however recommended to do new studies on products with the same system boundaries and functional units to get a more accurate and comparable result.

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  • 48.
    Bojler Görling, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Moghaddam, Elham Ahmadi
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Hansson, Per-Anders
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences .
    Larsson, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Nordberg, Åke
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences .
    Pre-study of biogas production from low-temperature production of biogas: Report from an f3 R&D project2013Report (Other academic)
  • 49. Bollhoner, Benjamin
    et al.
    Jokipii-Lukkari, Soile
    Bygdell, Joakim
    Stael, Simon
    Adriasola, Mathilda
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Muniz, Luis
    Van Breusegem, Frank
    Ezcurra, Ines
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Wingsle, Gunnar
    Tuominen, Hannele
    The function of two type II metacaspases in woody tissues of Populus trees2018In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 217, no 4, p. 1551-1565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metacaspases (MCs) are cysteine proteases that are implicated in programmed cell death of plants. AtMC9 (Arabidopsis thaliana Metacaspase9) is a member of the Arabidopsis MC family that controls the rapid autolysis of the xylem vessel elements, but its downstream targets in xylem remain uncharacterized. PttMC13 and PttMC14 were identified as AtMC9 homologs in hybrid aspen (Populustremulaxtremuloides). A proteomic analysis was conducted in xylem tissues of transgenic hybrid aspen trees which carried either an overexpression or an RNA interference construct for PttMC13 and PttMC14. The proteomic analysis revealed modulation of levels of both previously known targets of metacaspases, such as Tudor staphylococcal nuclease, heat shock proteins and 14-3-3 proteins, as well as novel proteins, such as homologs of the PUTATIVE ASPARTIC PROTEASE3 (PASPA3) and the cysteine protease RD21 by PttMC13 and PttMC14. We identified here the pathways and processes that are modulated by PttMC13 and PttMC14 in xylem tissues. In particular, the results indicate involvement of PttMC13 and/or PttMC14 in downstream proteolytic processes and cell death of xylem elements. This work provides a valuable reference dataset on xylem-specific metacaspase functions for future functional and biochemical analyses.

  • 50.
    Boulet, Anne Karine
    et al.
    Polytech Inst Coimbra, Coimbra Agr Sch, CERNAS, P-3045601 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Alarcao, Carlos
    Reg Directorate Agr & Fisheries Cent Reg DRAPC, Baixo Mondego Expt Ctr, P-3020201 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Ferreira, Carla
    Polytech Inst Coimbra, Coimbra Agr Sch, CERNAS, P-3045601 Coimbra, Portugal.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Navarino Environm Observ, Messinia 24001, Greece..
    Kalantari, Zahra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Navarino Environm Observ, Messinia 24001, Greece..
    Veiga, Adelcia
    Polytech Inst Coimbra, Coimbra Agr Sch, CERNAS, P-3045601 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Campos, Lara
    Polytech Inst Coimbra, Coimbra Agr Sch, CERNAS, P-3045601 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Ferreira, Antonio
    Polytech Inst Coimbra, Coimbra Agr Sch, CERNAS, P-3045601 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Hessel, Rudi
    Wageningen Environm Res, Subdiv Soil Water & Land Use, POB 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Agro-ecological services delivered by legume cover crops grown in succession with grain corn crops in the Mediterranean region2021In: OPEN AGRICULTURE, ISSN 2391-9531, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 609-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grain corn is the main cereal produced in Portugal. It is grown in intensive monoculture cropping systems that may have negative effects on soil quality, affecting long-term fertility and productivity, and, therefore, the sustainability of the production. A promising management practice to mitigate soil degradation is to grow winter cover crops used as green manure. This study examined the effectiveness of six legume cover crops (LCCs) species in providing agro-ecological services for grain corn systems in the Mediterranean region, specifically in terms of nutrient leaching, nutrient recycling, weed control, and soil fertility. The study was performed in Central Portugal during 2 years, and it assessed legumes/weeds dry biomass yield, their nutrients content, and soil organic matter evolution. Results show that, in general, LCC are well adapted to Mediterranean conditions, yielding large amounts of biomass (up to 8 ton/ha for some clover species). In terms of nutrient leaching mitigation, the overall N-P-K nutrient uptake was 176-20-172 kg/ha. Green manure services enabled a reduction of 35% of N, 50% of P, and 100% of mineral fertilizers for a grain corn production of 12 ton/ha. Weed control by LCC was effective only in the second year of the study and for three clover species (crimson, balansa, and arrowleaf) due to their early establishment and/or high biomass production competing with weeds. Soil fertility was not improved in the short term, LCC incorporation into the soil to a slight depletion of the soil organic matter content.

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