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  • 1.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Environmental arsenic in a changing world2019In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 8, p. 169-171Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Bazilian, Morgan
    et al.
    Rogner, Holger
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Arent, Douglas
    Gielen, Dolf
    Steduto, Pasquale
    Mueller, Alexander
    Komor, Paul
    Tol, Richard S.J.
    Yumkella, Kandeh K.
    Considering the energy, water and food nexus: Towards an integrated modelling approach2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 12, p. 7896-7906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The areas of energy, water and food policy have numerous interwoven concerns ranging from ensuring access to services, to environmental impacts to price volatility. These issues manifest in very different ways in each of the three "spheres", but often the impacts are closely related. Identifying these interrelationships a priori is of great importance to help target synergies and avoid potential tensions. Systems thinking is required to address such a wide swath of possible topics. This paper briefly describes some of the linkages at a high-level of aggregation - primarily from a developing country perspective - and via case studies, to arrive at some promising directions for addressing the nexus. To that end, we also present the attributes of a modelling framework that specifically addresses the nexus, and can thus serve to inform more effective national policies and regulations. While environmental issues are normally the 'cohesive principle' from which the three areas are considered jointly, the enormous inequalities arising from a lack of access suggest that economic and security-related issues may be stronger motivators of change. Finally, consideration of the complex interactions will require new institutional capacity both in industrialised and developing countries.

  • 3.
    Bladby, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Wersäll, Johanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    A meat free society: The different substitutes for meat, their future and their environmental and health impact compared to meat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide consumption of meat continues to increase and in Sweden the annual consumption has gone from 24 kg/person in 1990 to about 78 kg/person in 2005. This contributes to large environmental impacts such as an increase of greenhouse gas emissions, unsustainable land and resource use and shortage of water. A solution to the problem is to change our diets to be more sustainable. The purpose with this research is therefore to study the positive environmental and health aspects of alternative protein rich products based on soya, grown meat, algae and insects in comparison with meat. The goal is then to compare the environmental impacts from these products by studying different LCA-studies. Furthermore, also to understand how the future will be developed by interviewing producers of meat substitutes in Sweden. Some difficulties of comparing different LCA-studies are the choice of system boundaries, functional units and environmental aspects in the studies. Nevertheless, after studying a large amount of reports and articles about the products conclusions could yet be drawn. The carbonfootprint from beef is up to 20 times larger than from the substitutes and the land use is up to 125 times larger for beef compared to substitutes. Pork and chicken have lower impact but the lowest impact seems to come from producing substitutes based on soya beans. Insects and algae also have a low impact, but the products are still in the stage of development in Sweden due to laws, regulations and lack of knowledge. Regarding the health aspects substitutes could possibly replace meat since both insects and soya are rich of protein. Insects are also rich oniron and other nutrition. Algae consist as well of good nutrition. The companies interviewed in this study were Kung Markatta, Ekko gourmet and Veggi. They had some different opinions on future products, but they could all agree on that we need to eat less meat and more substitutes. The conclusions of this research are that the environmental aspects considered in the analysed LCA-studies are mostly carbon footprint and land use. They show that beef have a larger environmental impact than meat substitutes. It is however recommended to do new studies on products with the same system boundaries and functional units to get a more accurate and comparable result.

  • 4.
    Cerin, Pontus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Introducing Value Chain Stewardship (VCS)2006In: International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, ISSN 1567-9764, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 39-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After a decade of international negotiations to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a sufficient number of countries have ratified the Kyoto agreement. However, even with this positive development there is a formidable challenge since, according to the World Resource Institute (WRI 2004), For the most part, developed nations have failed to attain the non-binding emission reductions they committed to in the original climate treaty in 1992, Ensuring adherence to the reductions stated in the treaty by these nations may become an immense managerial task, not to mention the enforcement of sanctions. Instead of national emission targets the approach of this paper is to focus on trade within selected industry sectors - i.e. housing and transport - responsible for most of the world's GHG emissions. This paper shows that vehicle manufacturers - the design owners - may use their information advantages to influence customers to focus on other aspects of the vehicle than costs during use. Expanding the environmental responsibility of the design owners to coincide with the area of environmental impacts will convert emissions cost into a production cost. It is indicated in this paper that when applying the estimated costs for GHG emissions to the vehicle user, strong enough incentives are not given to drive technological change, but if the responsibility is allocated to the design owner the very same additional costs will be an incentive for the designer to use its information advantage to innovate away from those emissions-rendering technologies. A value chain stewardship (VCS) is, thus, established.

  • 5.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir D.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    On the significance of hydrodynamic control for radionuclide retention in fractured porous media2004In: Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes in Geo-Systems — Fundamentals, Modelling, Experiments and Applications, Elsevier, 2004, no C, p. 507-511Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is demonstrated that the approximate means of quantifying hydrodynamic control of retention is reasonably accurate for low values of the transport resistance on the 100m and 1000m scales; for high values, the approximate expression may significantly underestimate retention. Our results emphasize the need for further development of practical methodologies for quantifying statistical distributions of transport resistance by effectively combining field measurements, numerical simulations and theoretical/analytical considerations.

  • 6. Dabrowska, B.B.
    et al.
    Vithanage, M.
    Gunaratna, Kuttuva Rajarao
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Mukherjee, A.B.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Bioremediation of arsenic in contaminated terrestrial and aquatic environments2012In: Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World, Springer Netherlands , 2012, Vol. 2, p. 475-509Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The name Arsenic is derived from the Greek word arsenikon, meaning potent. This element occurs in the ecosystem in different oxidation states of which As(III) and As(V) are most common to humans, animals, plant species. As is present in drinking water and soil from natural sources as well as a pollutant from agricultural and industrial processes. Differences in arsenic uptake by different plant species is controlled by many factors such as root surface area, root exudates, and rate of evapotranspiration. Some plant species have high affinity to accumulate arsenic in tissues above ground. Hyperaccumulator plants have a threshold arsenic content above 1,000 μg g-1 DM. We review bioremediation studies with especial emphasis on biosorption research on different arsenic species, plants and their biomass, agricultural and industry wastes, as well as the biomass of some fungi species. Bioremediation is considered as an alternative technique for the removal of As in groundwater. One of the popular methods among bioremediation techniques, phytoremediation uses living plants to remove arsenic from the environment or to render it less toxic, in bioaccumulation processes. Phytoremediation techniques often do not take into account the biosorption processes of living plants and plant litter. In biosorption techniques, contaminants can be removed by a biological substrate as a sorbent such as bacteria, fungi, algae or vascular plants. Bioremediation assures in situ treatment of polluted soils. Biosorption characteristics, equilibrium and kinetics of different biosorbents have also been addressed here. Evaluation of the current literature suggests that arsenic bioavailability and molecular level phytoremediation processes in bioremediation are crucial for designing phytoremediation technologies with improved, predictable remedial success.

  • 7.
    Egeskog, Andrea
    et al.
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Barretto, Alberto
    Brazilian Bio-ethanol Science and Technology Laboratory(CTBE).
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Holmén, Magnus
    echnology Management and Economics and connected to Center for Business Innovation.
    Sparovek, G.
    Torén, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Actions and opinions of Brazilian farmers who shift to sugarcane: an interview-based assessment with discussion of implications for land-use change2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 57, p. 594-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sugarcane ethanol systems can deliver large greenhouse gas emissions savings if emissions associated with land-use change are kept low. This qualitative study documents and analyzes actions and opinions among Brazilian farmers who shift to sugarcane production. Semi-structured interviews were held with 28 actors associated with sugarcane production in three different regions: one traditional sugarcane region and two regions where sugarcane is currently expanding. Most farmers considered sugarcane a land diversification option with relatively low economic risk, although higher risk than their previous land use. Beef production was considered a low-risk option, but less profitable than sugarcane. In conjunction with converting part of their land to sugarcane, most farmers maintained and further intensified their previous agricultural activity, often beef production. Several farmers invested in expanded production in other regions with relatively low land prices. Very few farmers in the expansion regions shifted all their land from the former, less profitable, use to sugarcane. Very few farmers in this study had deforested any land in connection with changes made when shifting to sugarcane. The respondents understand "environmental friendliness" as compliance with the relevant legislation, especially the Brazilian Forest Act, which is also a requirement for delivering sugarcane to the mills. Indirect land-use change is not a concern for the interviewed farmers, and conversion of forests and other native vegetation into sugarcane plantations is uncontroversial if legal. We derive hypotheses regarding farmers' actions and opinions from our results. These hypotheses aim to contribute to better understanding of what takes place in conjunction with expansion of sugarcane and can, when tested further, be of use in developing, e.g., policies for iLUC-free biofuel production.

  • 8. Fiori, Aldo
    et al.
    Zarlenga, Antonio
    Gotovac, Hrvoje
    Jankovic, Igor
    Volpi, Elena
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Dagan, Gedeon
    Reply to comment by S. P. Neuman on "Advective transport in heterogeneous aquifers: Are proxy models predictive?''2016In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 5703-5704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this Reply we further comment on the main assumptions and the results of our recent manuscript "Advective transport in heterogeneous aquifers: Are proxy models predictive?''

  • 9.
    Galli, Ester
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Peipke, Erica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    When the traditional meets the modern: The sustainability of the artisanal fishing in Guanabara Bay, Brazil2007In: International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development (IJESD), ISSN 1474-6778, E-ISSN 1478-7466, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 373-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial development that has contributed to economic prosperity and advancement of standard of living has also brought new risks to people's every day lives and to the environment. This fact has been evident in the multiple uses of environmentally sensitive ecosystems, often resulting in conflicts among the users. This trend is especially apparent in countries like Brazil, where the issues of security, sustainability and equity are incipient and far from solved. This paper seeks to illustrate how the industrial development has impacted the traditional populations and created conflicts. It has been conducted in Guanabara Bay and focuses on current conflicts between industrial and artisanal fisheries. The understanding of the parties' positions in the conflicts was accomplished through frame analysis. The results of this study show that the artisanal fishermen are in a disadvantageous position in the conflicts. Possible facts influencing this position were analysed.

  • 10. Grahn Danielson, Benjamin
    et al.
    Rönn, Magnus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Swedberg, Stig
    Styrmedel och kompensationsåtgärder inom kulturmiljöområdet: Sammanfattning och slutsatser av FoU-projekt2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Styrmedel och kompensationsåtgärder inom kulturmiljöområdet har genomförts av Kulturlandskapet i Fjällbacka i samarbete med KTH/A, GU samt SLU och med bidrag från Riksantikvarieämbetets FoU-anslag. Projektet har bestått av tre delar. En första del utgjordes av en faktagenomgång som omfattade begreppsanalys och juridisk analys, vilka tillämpades i fyra fallstudier. Del två utgjordes av testbäddar/workshoppar där begrepp, analysmodellen och fallstudierna låg till grund för vidare diskussioner och analyser. Slutligen har en konferens arrangerats där resultaten från projektet presenterats och diskuterats.  På konferensen presenterades också flera exempel på kommunal planering som inbegriper kompensation av kulturmiljövärden.

     

    I föreliggande rapport sammanfattas resultaten från dessa tre delar. Projektets slutsatser baserade på erfarenheter från fallstudier, workshoppar och konferens är att:

     

    •   Det saknas professionell och rättslig praxis för arbete med kompensation vid påverkan på kulturmiljöer.

    •   I kommunal planering har former för kompensation utvecklats genom olika typer av avtalslösningar.

    •   Vissa av dessa kommunala praktiker går längre än lagstiftningen och arbetar med balansering som princip.

    •   Kompensationsåtgärder behöver ges en tydligare koppling mellan värde/betydelse och själva åtgärden.

    •   Kvalitativa värden, som kulturmiljövärden, behöver behandlas tidigt i en planprocess, så att en prissättning av hänsynskrav och eventuella kompensationskrav kan ske på ett jämställt sätt.

    •   Transparensen i planprocessen behöver förstärkas.

    •   Gällande juridiska styrmedel fungerar dåligt och behöver justeras.

    •   Landskapskonventionen behöver implementeras i svensk lagstiftning.

    •   Utifrån detta utkristalliseras ett antal kunskapsbehov och behov av lagändringar:

    -   Erfarenheter från kommunala praktiker behöver studeras och utvecklas till en gemensam grund.

    -   Råd och beskrivning av processen för kompensation i planer och projekt.

    -   Utbildning i de juridiska förutsättningarna för kompensationskrav.

    -   Utveckling av de nationella målen avseende kulturmiljö och landskap.

    -   Förändrad lagstiftning behövs avseende möjlighet till kompensation enligt plan och bygglagen.

    -   Balansering bör tillämpas som grundläggande princip för miljölagstiftningen.

  • 11.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Joelsson, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Crop Biotechnology for the Environment?2013In: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 759-770Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In public debates, agricultural biotechnology is almost invariably discussed as a potential threat to the environment and to human health. Without downplaying the risks associated with this technology we emphasize that if properly regulated, it can be a forceful tool to solve environmental problems and promote human health. Agricultural biotechnology can reduce environmental problems in at least three ways: it can diminish the need for environmentally damaging agricultural practices such as pesticides, fertilizers, tillage, and irrigation. It can reduce the land area needed for agriculture, thus reducing the CO2 effect of agriculture and improving biodiversity. It can produce energy in a CO2-neutral way (especially if new technologies involving the cultivation of microalgae become successful). Furthermore, agricultural biotechnology can have positive effects on human health by decreasing occupational and dietary exposure to pesticides, improving the nutritional value of food, and producing pharmaceuticals more efficiently. We argue that those who wish to give high priority to environmental goals cannot afford any longer to be mere onlookers while others decide the future directions of agricultural biotechnology.

  • 12.
    Hendriks, G.
    et al.
    Toxys, Leiden, Netherlands..
    McCarrick, S.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cappellini, F.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Derr, R.
    Toxys, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, H. L.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The ToxTracker assay as a tool for mechanism-based (geno) toxicity screening of nanoparticles and read across2018In: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, ISSN 0893-6692, E-ISSN 1098-2280, Vol. 59, p. 77-77Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13. Henryson, K.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Energy and Technology, Sweden.
    Kätterer, T.
    Hansson, P. -A
    Accounting for long-term soil fertility effects when assessing the climate impact of crop cultivation2018In: Agricultural Systems, ISSN 0308-521X, E-ISSN 1873-2267, Vol. 164, p. 185-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics influence the climate impact of crop cultivation, both through affecting net carbon exchange between the soil and the atmosphere and through affecting soil fertility. Higher soil fertility can enhance yield, and consequently make more plant residues available for carbon sequestration in the soil. This feedback mechanism between SOC and yield is commonly not included when assessing the environmental impact of crop production using system analysis tools like life cycle assessment (LCA). Therefore, this study developed a modelling framework where the SOC-yield feedback mechanism is included in climate impact assessment of crop cultivation, and which could be applied in LCAs. The framework was constructed by combining a model for SOC dynamics, yield response to SOC changes in a Swedish long-term field experiment and climate impact assessment. The framework employs a dynamic approach, with a time-distributed emissions inventory and a time-dependent climate impact assessment model, complemented by the most common climate metric, global warming potential (GWP). A case study applying the framework to barley cultivation was performed to explore the quantitative effect of including the feedback mechanism on the calculated climate impact. The case study involved simulating a fertiliser-induced 10% yield increase during one year and assessing the climate impact over 100 years. The effect of solely including SOC dynamics without the yield response to SOC decreased climate impact per kg barley by about three-fold more than only accounting for the 10% temporary yield increase. When the feedback mechanism was included, the estimated climate impact decreased five-fold more than when SOC changes were not included. These results show that SOC changes affect the climate impact of cultivation, not only through affecting net CO2 exchanges between soil and atmosphere, as previously acknowledged by other studies, but also through changing the system performance. The quantitative results obtained in this study show that this could be an important aspect to include in order to avoid introducing systematic error when assessing the long-term climate impact of crop management changes that affect yield or SOC dynamics.

  • 14.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Welsch, Manuel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Rogner, Hans Holger
    Steduto, Pasquale
    Gielen, Dolf
    Roehrl, Alexander
    Bazilian, Morgan
    Sustainable Energy for All - What does it mean for Water and Food Security: Seeking sustainable development CLEWS: Climate-change, Land-use, Energy and Water (CLEW) Strategies2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This background note serves to inform the “hot topic” session entitled ‘Sustainable Energy for All – What does it mean for Water and Food Security?’.Energy is vital for human development. This is why the United Nations proclaimed 2012 as the ‘International Year of Sustainable Energy for All’. The goal is to ensure universal access to modern energy services by 2030. Today’s energy production, however, is already putting prohibitive strain on the global environment. In support of worldwide efforts to render energy systems sustainable, the UN has therefore called for two additional targets: to double the rate of improvements in energy efficiency and the share of renewable energy.Besides energy, also food and water need to be universally provided to ensure human wellbeing and enable socio-economic development. Each of these targets is indispensable to improve people’s livelihoods and is a formidable challenge by itself. But taken together, they become an even more daunting task since they interfere with each other – while today human activities are already exceeding planetary limits.The simultaneous expansion of energy, food and water requires a coherent approach based on integrated planning across these sectors. The management in each resource area is often done in isolation - with unforeseen and damaging consequences manifested in related systems. As a starting point, we focus on energy and consequently discuss Energy-Water-Food nexus relations. The beginnings of a ‘framework’ are presented that is useful to conceptualize these interrelations, and then applied to a preliminary case study. In that case study, integrated measures are considered as a means to improve the energy security of a climate-change-vulnerable small island developing state (SIDS). The case study assesses CLEW (Climate, Land-use, Energy and Water) strategies in an integrated manner, and was undertaken by organizations contributing to this special session.

  • 15.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Rogner, Hans Holger
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Young, Charles
    Fischer, Guenther
    Welsch, Manuel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    In The CLEW Model – Developing an integrated tool for modelling the interrelated effects of Climate, Land use, Energy, and Water (CLEW)2011In: 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems - Proceedings, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the prototype of new tool which analyses the Climate-, Land-, Energy- and Water- (CLEW) re-sources and their interactions and implications associated with socio-economic development. The presented CLEW model focuses specifically on the analysis of different energy (technology) options and their impact on other resources – e.g. their contribution to climate change, land use change, and water consumption.The CLEW model systematically quantifies trade-offs associated with actions aimed at meeting development goals (specifically energy, food, and water supply) and their impact on the climate, water and environment. The model quantifies resource use with calculations based on collected data, assumptions and user-defined scenarios. Importantly, the model is not limited to internal or national effects but also includes external changes induced through energy imports or exports and land use change. Exemplary, a first preliminary modelling exercise for the island of Mauritius has shown very strong implications on GHG emissions when switching to locally produced biofuels (bio-ethanol) through induced land-use changes and is presented in the second part of this paper.

  • 16.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Welsch, Manuel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Segerström, Rebecka Ericsdotter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Howells, Mark I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Young, Charles
    Alfstad, Thomas
    Rogner, Hans-Holger
    Steduto, Pasquale
    Climate, land, energy and water (CLEW) interlinkages in Burkina Faso: An analysis of agricultural intensification and bioenergy production2012In: Natural resources forum (Print), ISSN 0165-0203, E-ISSN 1477-8947, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 245-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses climate, land, energy and water (CLEW) interactions in Burkina Faso. It shows that integrated assessments of resource use at the national level can provide important insights and benefits, especially for a resource constrained least developed country. Agricultural policy is shown to have strong implications for energy use, whereas energy policies are found to be strongly interrelated with water constraints. Without an integrated and coordinated approach, strategy and policy formulation efforts to increase energy, food and water security could become both incoherent and counter-productive.

  • 17. Jaime Gomez-Hernandez, J.
    et al.
    Butler, James. J.
    Fiori, Aldo
    Bolster, Diogo
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Dagan, Gedeon
    Hyndman, David
    Introduction to special section on Modeling highly heterogeneous aquifers: Lessons learned in the last 30 years from the MADE experiments and others INTRODUCTION2017In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 2581-2584Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Joffre, Thomas
    et al.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Bardage, Stig L.
    Hendriks, Cris L. Luengo
    Isaksson, Per
    Characterization of interfacial stress transfer ability in acetylation-treated wood fibre composites using, X-ray microtomography2017In: INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS, ISSN 0926-6690, Vol. 95, p. 43-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of the fibre/matrix interface contribute to stiffness, strength and fracture behaviour of fibre-reinforced composites. In cellulosic composites, the limited affinity between the hydrophilic fibres and the hydrophobic thermoplastic matrix remains a challenge, and the reinforcing capability of the fibres is hence not fully utilized. A direct characterisation of the stress transfer ability through pull-out tests on single fibres is extremely cumbersome due to the small dimension of the wood fibres. Here a novel approach is proposed: the length distribution of the fibres sticking out of the matrix at the fracture surface is approximated using X-ray microtomography and is used as an estimate of the adhesion between the fibres and the matrix. When a crack grows in the material, the fibres will either break or be pulled-out of the matrix depending on their adhesion to the matrix: good adhesion between the fibres and the matrix should result in more fibre breakage and less pull-out of the fibres than poor adhesion. The effect of acetylation on the adhesion between the wood fibres and the PLA matrix was evaluated at different moisture contents using the proposed method. By using an acetylation treatment of the fibres it was possible to improve the strength of the composite samples soaked in the water by more than 30%.

  • 19. Lauberts, Maris
    et al.
    Sevastyanova, Olena
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Ponomarenko, Jevgenija
    Dizhbite, Tatjana
    Dobele, Galina
    Volperts, Alexandr
    Lauberte, Liga
    Telysheva, Galina
    Fractionation of technical lignin with ionic liquids as a method for improving purity and antioxidant activity2017In: INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS, ISSN 0926-6690, Vol. 95, p. 512-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alder soda lignin, a by-product of the chemical processing of black alder wood, was fractionated using ionic liquids (ILs) based on the 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium [Bmim] cation and the following anions: chloride ([Bmim]Cl), dimethylphosphate ([Bmim]Me2PO4), acetate ([Brhim]OAc) and tosylate ([Bmim]OTs). The aim was to obtain lignin fractions of improved purity for further application as antioxidants. The purity and properties of the IL lignin fractions were compared with those of other lignin fractions obtained using sequential extraction with organic solvents. The original lignin and the lignin fractions were characterized by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS/FID), size-permeation chromatography (GPC), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and wet chemistry methods. The lignin treatment with [Bmim]DMP, [Bmim]OAc and [Bmim]OTs produced fractions with a lignin content of 98-99%. These fractions along with the n-propanol and methanol fractions obtained using sequential organic solvent extraction were enriched with certain structural features that had a positive impact on lignin antioxidant activity, according to the results from DPPH center dot and ORAC assays.

  • 20.
    Lukasiewicz, Anna
    et al.
    Australian Natl Univ, Fenner Sch Environm & Soc, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Dovers, Stephen
    Australian Natl Univ, Fenner Sch Environm & Soc, Canberra, ACT, Australia.;Australian Natl Univ, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Robin, Libby
    KTH. Australian Natl Univ, Fenner Sch Environm & Soc, Canberra, ACT, Australia.;KTH Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.;Natl Museum Australia, Acton, Australia..
    Mckay, Jennifer
    Univ South Australia, Business Law, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Univ Lincoln, Environm & Water Resources Law, Lincoln, England..
    Schilizzi, Steven G. M.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Agr & Resource Econ, Nedlands, WA, Australia..
    Graham, Sonia
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Social Sci, Social Res & Policy, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Current status and future prospects for justice research in environmental management2017In: NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE: AUSTRALIAN PERSPECTIVES / [ed] Lukasiewicz, A Dovers, S Robin, L McKay, J Schilizzi, S Graham, S, CSIRO PUBLISHING , 2017, p. 263-266Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21. Ostberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Hasselström, Linus
    Bostedt, Göran
    Benefit Transfer for Environmental Improvements in Coastal Areas: General versus Best-Fitting Models2013In: Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics-Revue Canadienne D'Agroeconomie, ISSN 0008-3976, E-ISSN 1744-7976, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 239-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recognizing the important policy task of securing the benefits from marine coastal waters subject to time and funding constraints has increased interest in benefit transfer (BT). However, many of the advances in BT recommended by researchers would be too costly to implement. This paper presents two choice experiment (CE) studies on marine areas in Sweden where respondents from local and distant populations were surveyed. BT for attributes relevant to the European Union's Water Framework Directive and the implementation of special consideration zones in marine areas were evaluated by equivalence tests. A comparison of the performance between a general BT model including only easily available socio-economic information and a statistically best-fitting model that requires the collection of more detailed information shows very similar results. Using a general model saves money and time since the information needed can be easily obtained from public databases and it does not lead to any significant reductions in accuracy or reliability. The issue of including socio-economic information in CE modeling for BT is important, since the model specification will determine the type of information that must be collected at the policy site; however, the results are inconclusive as to whether it improves BT or not. La reconnaissance de l'importante tache politique visant a proteger les avantages tires des eaux marines cotieres, exposee a des contraintes de temps et de financement, suscite un interet accru pour le transfert d'avantages (TA). Toutefois, la mise en OEuvre d'un bon nombre des percees en matiere de TA recommandees par les chercheurs serait trop couteuse. Dans le present article, nous presentons deux etudes sur des zones marines de la Suede realisees selon la methode des choix multi-attributs et auxquelles ont participe des repondants provenant de populations locales et eloignees. Le TA dans le cas d'attributs figurant dans la Directive-cadre sur l'eau de l'Union europeenne et la determination de zones necessitant une prise en compte particuliere au sein des zones marines ont ete evalues a l'aide de tests d'equivalence. Une comparaison de la performance du modele de TA << general >>, qui comprend uniquement des donnees socio-economiques facilement obtenables, et de celle du modele de TA << optimal >>, qui comprend une collecte de donnees detaillees, montre des resultats tres similaires. L'utilisation du modele general permet d'economiser du temps et de l'argent puisque l'information requise est facilement accessible dans les bases de donnees publiques, sans diminution significative de la precision ou de la fiabilite. La question d'inclure des donnees socio-economiques dans le modele de choix multi-attributs pour le TA est importante puisque que la specification du modele determinera le type de donnees qu'il faut collecter sur l'endroit vise par la politique. Toutefois, les resultats ne permettent pas d'indiquer si le TA est ameliore ou non.

  • 22.
    Pelet, Jean-Eric
    et al.
    ESCE Int Business Sch, Dept Mkt, Paris, France..
    Lecat, Benoit
    Calif Polytech State Univ San Luis Obispo, Dept Wine & Viticulture, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 USA..
    Khan, Jashim
    Univ Surrey, Dept Mkt & Retail Management, Guildford, Surrey, England..
    Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn
    Griffith Univ, Dept Mkt, Nathan, Qld, Australia..
    Lee, Linda W.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Marketing and Entrepreneurship.
    Vigar-Ellis, Debbie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Marketing and Entrepreneurship. Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Management IT & Governance, Scottsville, South Africa..
    Wolf, Marianne McGarry
    Calif Polytech State Univ San Luis Obispo, Dept Wine & Viticulture, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 USA..
    Kavoura, Androniki
    Technol Educ Inst Athens, Dept Mkt, Athens, Greece..
    Katsoni, Vicky
    Technol Educ Inst Athens, Dept Mkt, Athens, Greece..
    Wegmann, Anne Lena
    Weincampus Neustadt, Dept Mkt, Neustadt, Germany.;Ludwigshafen Univ Appl Sci, Ludwigshafen, Germany..
    Winery website loyalty: the role of sales promotion and service attributes2018In: International Journal of Wine Business Research, ISSN 1751-1062, E-ISSN 1751-1070, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 138-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This paper aims to examine the relationship between feelings toward buying wine on mobile phones and m-commerce website loyalty by examining the mediating role of sales promotion and the moderating role of service attributes of the m-commerce websites in influencing the mediation. Design/methodology/approach A total of 3,318 completed surveys were collected. Drawing on a large non-probability criterion-based purposive sample across six countries (France, Germany, Greece, South Africa, USA and Canada), mediation analysis was performed to examine the hypothesized relationships. Findings Results show that sales promotion mediates the relationship between feelings toward buying wine on mobile phones and m-commerce website loyalty. Moderated mediation reveals that the indirect pathways (sales promotion) through which feelings toward buying wine over mobile exert its effect on m-commerce website loyalty are dependent on the value of service (wine delivery) attributes of the website. The results demonstrate that sales promotion and service are of paramount importance to wineries and wine marketers. Research limitations/implications Wine producers and retailers should consider the use of sales promotion to enhance sales and loyalty to m-commerce websites. Practical implications Wine producers and retailers should consider use sales promotion (such as SMS or push notifications) to enhance sales and influence consumer feelings and hence their loyalty. Originality/value Wine m-commerce studies are limited, especially with an international perspective comparing six different countries: three from the old world (France, Germany and Greece) and three from the new world (North America with USA and Canada; and South Africa). Altogether, these six countries represent around 40 per cent of the world's wine consumption.

  • 23.
    Robin, Libby
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Seeds of Empire: The Environmental Transformation of New Zealand2013In: Agricultural History, ISSN 0002-1482, E-ISSN 1533-8290, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 249-250Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Roos, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Mie, Axel
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci & Educ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wivstad, Maria
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, EPOK Ctr Organ Food & Farming, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Salomon, Eva
    Swedish Inst Agr & Environm Engn, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Birgitta
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, Skara, Sweden..
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, Skara, Sweden..
    Wallenbeck, Anna
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, Skara, Sweden.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hoffmann, Ruben
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Econ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Ulf
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Watson, Christine A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Crop Prod Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden.;Scotlands Rural Coll, SLU & Crop & Soil Syst Res Grp, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Risks and opportunities of increasing yields in organic farming. A review2018In: Agronomy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 1774-0746, E-ISSN 1773-0155, Vol. 38, no 2, article id 14Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current organic agriculture performs well in several sustainability domains, like animal welfare, farm profitability and low pesticide use, but yields are commonly lower than in conventional farming. There is now a re-vitalized interest in increasing yields in organic agriculture to provide more organic food for a growing, more affluent population and reduce negative impacts per unit produced. However, past yield increases have been accompanied by several negative side-effects. Here, we review risks and opportunities related to a broad range of sustainability domains associated with increasing yields in organic agriculture in the Northern European context. We identify increased N input, weed, disease and pest control, improved livestock feeding, breeding for higher yields and reduced losses as the main measures for yield increases. We review the implications of their implementation for biodiversity, greenhouse gas emissions, nutrient losses, soil fertility, animal health and welfare, human nutrition and health and farm profitability. Our findings from this first-of-its-kind integrated analysis reveal which strategies for increasing yields are unlikely to produce negative side-effects and therefore should be a high priority, and which strategies need to be implemented with great attention to trade-offs. For example, increased N inputs in cropping carry many risks and few opportunities, whereas there are many risk-free opportunities for improved pest control through the management of ecosystem services. For most yield increasing strategies, both risks and opportunities arise, and the actual effect depends on management including active mitigation of side-effects. Our review shows that, to be a driving force for increased food system sustainability, organic agriculture may need to reconsider certain fundamental principles. Novel plant nutrient sources, including increased nutrient recycling in society, and in some cases mineral nitrogen fertilisers from renewable sources, and truly alternative animal production systems may need to be developed and accepted.

  • 25.
    Röös, E.
    et al.
    SLU.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    SLU.
    Tidåker, P.
    SLU.
    Strid, I.
    SLU.
    Hansson, P. -A
    SLU.
    Can carbon footprint serve as an indicator of the environmental impact of meat production?2013In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 24, p. 573-581Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Department of Ecology, Environment & Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Greger, Maria
    Department of Ecology, Environment & Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Phytofiltration of arsenic by aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans)2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates whether aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans) originating from an arsenic (As)-contaminated wetland close to a mine tailings impoundment may be used for phytofiltration of As. The aim was to elucidate the capacity of W. fluitans to remove As from arsenite and arsenate contaminated water, how nutrients affect the As uptake and the proportion of As adsorption and absorption by the moss plant, which consists of dead and living parts.

    Arsenic removal from 0, 1, or 10% Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0–100 μM arsenate was followed over 192 h, and the total As in aquatic moss after treatment was analysed. The uptake and speciation of As in moss cultivated in water containing 10 μM arsenate or arsenite were examined as As uptake in living (absorption + adsorption) and dead (adsorption) plant parts.

    Results indicated that W. fluitans removed up to 82% of As from the water within one hour when 1 μM arsenate was added in the absence of nutrients. The removal time increased with greater nutrient and As concentrations. Up to 100 μM As had no toxic effect on the plant biomass. Both arsenite and arsenate were removed from the solution to similar extents and, independent of the As species added, more arsenate than arsenite was found in the plant. Of the As taken up, over 90% was firmly bound to the tissue, a possible mechanism for resisting high As concentrations. Arsenic was both absorbed and adsorbed by the moss, and twice as much As was found in living parts as in dead moss tissue. This study revealed that W. fluitans has potential to serve as a phytofilter for removing As from As-contaminated water without displaying any toxic effects of the metalloid.

  • 27.
    Sinkala, Thomson
    et al.
    University of Zambia.
    Johnson, Francis X
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Small-Scale Production of Jatropha in Zambia and its Implications for Rural Development and National Biofuel Policies2012In: Bioenergy for Sustainable Development in Africa / [ed] Rainer Janssen and Dominic Rutz, Netherlands: Springer Netherlands, 2012, p. 41-51Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns about energy security and the need to promote rural development have been key factors in the promotion of biofuels in many developing countries in Africa. At the same time, the low cost of labour and plentiful land in some regions of Africa has motivated many foreign investors to set up biofuels schemes that are aimed at export markets. Small-scale production of biofuels in a Least Developed Country (LDC) such as Zambia offers a potentially more viable alternative, or in some cases a complement, to large-scale schemes. The lower capital investment required and the fact that households and communities can use by-products allows for value-added at the local level. The case of jatropha exhibits a number of benefits if there is a willingness to experiment with various production schemes and develop different products. In this chapter small-scale jatropha production in Zambia is assessed using a case study at Thomro farms. The relation of small-scale schemes to national priorities and policies is reviewed and the future role of jatropha at local and national levels is discussed.

  • 28. Sjöåsen, T.
    et al.
    Bisther, M.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Evaluation of an Otter (Lutra lutra)2009Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    et al.
    Univ Sao Paulo, GeoLab, Esalq, Ave Padua Dias 11, BR-13418900 Piracicaba, SP, Brazil..
    Reydon, Bastiaan Philip
    Univ Estadual Campinas, IE, NEA, Rua Pitagoras 353, BR-13083857 Campinas, SP, Brazil..
    Guedes Pinto, Luis Fernando
    Imaflora Inst Manejo & Certificacao Florestal & A, Estr Chico Mendes 185, BR-13426420 Piracicaba, SP, Brazil..
    Faria, Vinicius
    Imaflora Inst Manejo & Certificacao Florestal & A, Estr Chico Mendes 185, BR-13426420 Piracicaba, SP, Brazil..
    Mazzaro de Freitas, Flavio Luiz
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Azevedo-Ramos, Claudia
    UFPA, NAEA, BR-66075110 Belem, Para, Brazil..
    Gardner, Toby
    SEI, Box 24218, S-10451 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hamamura, Caio
    IFSP Inst Fed Educ Ciencia & Tecnol Sao Paulo, Rua Tenente Miguel Delia 105, BR-08021090 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Rajao, Raoni
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, LAGESA, Antonio Carlos 6627, BR-31270901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Cerignoni, Felipe
    Imaflora Inst Manejo & Certificacao Florestal & A, Estr Chico Mendes 185, BR-13426420 Piracicaba, SP, Brazil..
    Siqueira, Gabriel Pansani
    Univ Estadual Campinas, IE, NEA, Rua Pitagoras 353, BR-13083857 Campinas, SP, Brazil..
    Carvalho, Tomas
    Imaflora Inst Manejo & Certificacao Florestal & A, Estr Chico Mendes 185, BR-13426420 Piracicaba, SP, Brazil..
    Alencar, Ane
    Inst Pesquisa Ambiental Amazonia, IPAM, SHIN CA5,Bloco J2,Sala 309, BR-70863520 Brasilia, DF, Brazil..
    Ribeiro, Vivian
    Inst Pesquisa Ambiental Amazonia, IPAM, SHIN CA5,Bloco J2,Sala 309, BR-70863520 Brasilia, DF, Brazil..
    Who owns Brazilian lands?2019In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 87, article id UNSP 104062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land tenure in many parts of Brazil remains uncertain and controversial. These problems have recently been exacerbated by changes in the legal framework regulating protected areas and the land market. A particular challenge facing attempts to improve land tenure security and governance in Brazil is the lack of a single, integrated assessment of all types of lands. Here we address this problem and present a first, integrated map of Brazilian land tenure encompassing all official data sources pertaining to both public and private lands. Of the total (8.5 million km(2)) 36.1% of all lands are public (with 6.4% officially undesignated), 44.2% are private, and 16.6% are unregistered or with unknown tenure. Strikingly, overlaps among land tenure categories sum to 50% of the registered territory of Brazil. A clearer understanding of uncertainties in land tenure, and the spatial distribution of those uncertainties can help guide research and public policies focused on minimizing land conflicts and strengthening governance and territorial planning to improve economic, environmental and social outcomes from land use in Brazil.

  • 30.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Planeten Vatten2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Van Quang, Pham
    et al.
    An Giang University.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Development and description of soil compaction on orchard soils in the Mekong Delta (Vietnam)2008In: Scientific Research and Essays, ISSN 1992-2248, E-ISSN 1992-2248, Vol. 3, no 10, p. 500-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study conducted in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) was to examine soil degradation and soil compaction in fruit tree plantations due to the impact of agricultural activities. The specific objective was to elucidate the impact of soil compaction on current and future production. Fruit trees are one of the most important components for the development of the delta. The plantation areas have increased rapidly over the recent years (from 117,000 ha in 1996 to 300,000 ha by the year 2006). Fruit trees in this region are usually grown on raised beds to avoid submergence due to annual flood. Most of the soils of raised beds are alluvial and perturbed from the natural soils. Studies on the raised beds have recognized trends of soil compaction during ageing of the raised beds. However, there are many uncertainties and consequently a need for further investigations exists, to improve the knowledge and understanding of soil processes in the region.

  • 32.
    Van Quang, Pham
    et al.
    An Giang University.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    thi Guong, Vo
    Can Tho University.
    Soil physical properties during different development stage of fruit orchards2012In: Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management, ISSN 2141-2391, Vol. 3, no 12, p. 308-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Mekong Delta (MD), fruit trees are usually grown on raised-beds to avoid submergence due to annual flooding. The soils are mostly alluvial and disarranged from the natural soils. The soil may beadversely impacted temporally, particularly with its physical properties. The study was conducted on 10 citrus plantations in Hau Giang province, MD, to illustrate if the covariance between clay content andage can be separated from the impact of soil ageing on compaction; we further discuss the design of how to make an investigation where only age is the analyzed event that age has a covariance with the spatial scale. Soil sampling was done in the dry season 2010 at two soil depths for each raised-bed toanalyze soil physical properties. Soil texture can be classified as silty-clay soil. The bulk density of topsoils ranged from 0.76 to 1.18 g cm-3 and slightly lower than subsoils; 0.85 to 1.24 g cm-3. Saturated hydraulic conductivity spanned the range from 2.04 to 5.43 m day-1 for topsoils and significantly higher than in subsoils; 1.4 to 5.5 m day-1. Organic matter was in the range of 4.4 to 12.2% for topsoils and significantly higher than in subsoils; 3.0 to 9.6%. A significant tendency of soil degradation with aging was found. Clay content showed a covariance with age of raised-beds counteracting the compaction processes. The high clay content for the aged raised-bed may have been hiding some of the compaction process. The relation between age and soil degradation was seen for the larger pore sizes within the water retention curve.

  • 33.
    Van Quang, Pham
    et al.
    An Giang University.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    van Khoa, Le
    Can Tho University.
    Soil Penetration Resistance and Its Dependence on Soil Moisture and Age of the Raised-Beds in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam2012In: International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, ISSN 2278-067X, Vol. 4, no 8, p. 87-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research was conducted on 10 citrus plantations at Hau Giang province in the Mekong delta, Vietnam during one year with a portable electronic penetrometerto understand the impact of moisture on the soil compaction. Soil penetration resistance (PR) was measured in the depth of 0-80 cm depth and soil samples also taken at each 10 cm depth from the soil surface to the water level for soil moisture measurement. The results showed that PR increased as a function ofraised-bed’s age and it could be reached to a high degree by soil moisture variability during the season. The sensitivity of PR to soil moisture decreases with the age of raised-beds while the soil moisture represented an increasing tendency with the age of raised-beds. Relationship between PR and soil moisture are explained betterby the volumetric water content than the corresponding soil water potential expressed as pF values. The measurements of soil PR determined by the previous results, which are obtained from soil, core samples with the dry bulk density and water retention curves were calculated and analyzed. Using the PR data will be very useful; it is a complementary and important information for identification the soil structure and soil moisture content. Without such processing of PR measurements, the values of the PR measurements will be limited and not indicated for soil compaction. To minify soil compaction on the raised-beds, all the pressure and mechanical activities should not be done in the soil surface, specially in the wet condition. Organic fertilizers and Biocharcan be considered as soil conditioners and recommended to applied in orchard for improving soil properties.

  • 34.
    van Quang, Pham
    et al.
    An Giang University.
    thi Guong, Vo
    Can Tho University.
    Chemical properties during different development stages of fruit orchards in the mekong delta (Vietnam)2011In: Agricultural Sciences, ISSN 2156-8553, E-ISSN 2156-8561, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 375-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study to examine soil fertility status was conducted on 10 citrus plantations in Hau Giang province within the Vietnamese Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Fruit trees are mostly grown on the raised beds to avoid annual flood with alluvial soil type. Soil sampling was done in the dry season of 2010 at two soil depths, for each raised bed. Development ages of raised beds were represented by two groups, young age group (≤ 30 years) and old age group (> 30 years). For chemical analysis, pH, organic matter, CEC, total nitrogen, NH4+, NO3– and exchangeable Ca, Mg and K were determined. The results showed that the pH (water) was strongly acid. The CEC was in average 19.2 cmol+.kg–1 in topsoil (0 - 20 cm depth) and 18.7 cmol+.kg–1 in subsoil (20 - 50 cm depth) for young age group. Similarly, the CEC was 16.7 cmol+.kg–1 in topsoil and 15.8 cmol+.kg–1 in subsoil for old age group. Organic matter on young age group (7.38 and 5.47% on average for topsoil and subsoil respectively) was significantly higher than that of old age group (5.20 and 3.81% on average for topsoil and subsoil respectively). Total nitrogen was not significantly different between the sites for the age groups of raised as well as the soil layers. Ammonium-N levels were excessive, and NO3--N levels were high. Potassium and Mg2+ were significantly different between age groups of raised beds and the same pattern between soil layers, while Ca2+ did not vary significantly. Potassium and Ca2+ levels were moderate, Mg2+ was high and P levels were very high. Soil fertility in the raised beds subjected to an adverse on plant growth and an imbalance in soil nutrients under low pH conditions. Loss of soil quality was exhibited in reduced organic matter with the aging of raised beds.

  • 35. Waldenström, C.
    et al.
    Ferguson, R.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tidåker, P.
    Westholm, E.
    Åkerskog, A.
    Bioenergy From Agriculture: Challenges for the Rural Development Program in Sweden2016In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the challenges for the EU Rural Development Program (RDP) to promote sustainable bioenergy production from agriculture. Drawing on the Swedish example, we identify opportunities for farmers and discuss agricultural-based bioenergy production in relation to the program objectives for agricultural competitiveness, sustainability and climate effects, and rural development. The sustainability and climate effects of agricultural-based bioenergy can be ascertained only through contextual analysis, and research indicates that rural development may be best promoted through local collaborative energy systems. Contrasting two ideal-type roles farmers may assume in bioenergy production, we discuss Swedish institutional contexts of energy production. In Sweden, the national energy policy tends to favor large-scale energy solutions and farmers taking on the roles as suppliers of primary products in large-scale energy systems. For RDP objectives to be realized, this tendency needs to be countered, local solutions need to be supported, and a national three-tiered energy policy integration needs to be furthered.

  • 36. Weitz, N.
    et al.
    Strambo, C.
    Kemp-Benedict, E.
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Closing the governance gaps in the water-energy-food nexus: Insights from integrative governance2017In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 45, p. 165-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The water-energy-food nexus has become a popular concept in environmental change research and policy debates. Proponents suggest that a nexus approach promotes policy coherence through identifying optimal policy mixes and governance arrangements across the water, energy and food sectors. Although the nexus literature identifies some barriers to achieving coherence it does not clearly explain why the barriers are present, what influences them, and how they can be acted upon. These gaps disconnect the nexus literature from the governance processes it ultimately seeks to influence. This paper examines how the integrative environmental governance literature can help to close these gaps. It extracts insights from seven streams of research literature and discusses their relevance for the nexus literature. We argue that connecting the nexus to decision-making processes requires: i) rethinking the boundaries of nexus analysis vis-à-vis other sectors and levels; ii) elaboration of shared principles that can guide decision-making towards policy coherence − or an appropriate form of fragmentation − in different contexts; iii) viewing policy coherence as a continuous process of changing values and perception rather than as an outcome.

  • 37. Woldegebriel, Daniel
    et al.
    Udo, Henk
    Viets, Theo
    van der Harst, Eugenie
    Potting, Jose
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Wageningen university, The Netherlands.
    Environmental impact of milk production across an intensification gradient in Ethiopia2017In: Livestock Science, ISSN 1871-1413, E-ISSN 1878-0490, Vol. 206, p. 28-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper quantifies environmental performances of milk production systems differing in degree of intensification in the Mekelle milkshed area, Ethiopia. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to estimate Land,Use (LU), Fossil Energy Use (FEU) and Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the cattle sub-system in 8 large-scale, 8 (peri-)urban and 8 rural farms. The large-scale farms owned considerably more and other types of cattle (35.0 cattle units (cu); mainly Friesians) than the (peri-)urban (6.3 cu; mainly crossbreds) and rural farms (4.1 cu; mainly local breeds). The milk production per average cow per year was much lower in rural farms (730 kg) than in large-scale (2377 kg) and (peri-)urban farms (1829 kg). Milk was the main contributor to the economic benefits of the large-scale (90%) and (peri-)urban (80%) farms, whereas milk (sold and consumed at home) contributed only about 40% to the economic benefits in the multifunctional rural farms. The environmental impacts per cu, reflecting the absolute impacts of cattle keeping, were considerably higher in the large-scale and (peri-)urban farms than in the rural farms. LU and FEU were for the great majority caused by the land use for hay, straws and grasses, and harvesting, transport and processing of feeds, in particular wheat bran. On farm emissions from enteric fermentation and manure storage were the main contributors to GWP. The impacts per kg milk did not differ significantly between the three systems. The LU per kg milk estimates (9.4, 11.2 and 8.8 m(2) in the large-scale, (peri-)urban and rural farms, respectively) were relatively high compared to LCA studies of milk production in developed countries due to large amounts of low-quality forages and wheat bran fed, whereas the FEU values per kg milk (7.5, 11.1 and 6.6 MJ in the large-scale, (peri-)urban and rural farms, respectively) were relatively low compared to studies of milk production systems in developed countries. The GWP estimates per kg milk (1.75, 2.25 and 2.22 kg CO2-equivalents per kg milk in the large-scale, (peri-)urban and rural farms, respectively) were slightly higher than GWP values for the same types of farms in other developing countries, due to the relatively large amounts of low quality feeds fed. The quality of cattle management practices seems more important than the choice for a specific cattle keeping system in reducing environmental impacts of milk production.

  • 38.
    Wu, Mousong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Coupled processes in seasonally frozen soils: Merging experiments and simulations2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil freezing/thawing is of importance in the transport of water, heat and solute, with coupled effects. Due to complexity in soil freezing/thawing, uncertainty could be influential in both experimentation and simulation work in frozen soils. Solute and water in frozen soil could reduce the freezing point, resulting in uncertainty in simulation water, heat and solute processes as well as in estimation of frozen soil evaporation. High salinity and groundwater level could result in high soil evaporation during wintertime. Seasonal courses in energy and water balance on surface have shown to be influential to soil water and heat dynamics, as well as in salt accumulation during wintertime. Water and solute accumulated during freezing period resulted in high evaporation during thawing period and enhanced surface salinization. Diurnal changes in surface energy partitioning resulted in significant cycle of freezing/thawing as well as in evaporation/condensation in surface layer, which could in turn affect atmosphere. Uncertainties in experiments and simulations were detectable in investigation of seasonally frozen soils with limited methods and simplified representations of reality in two agricultural fields in northern China. Soil water and solute contents have shown to be more uncertain than soil temperatures in both measurements and simulations. The combination of experiments with process-based model (CoupModel) has proven to be useful in understanding freezing/thawing processes and in identification of uncertainty, when Monte-Carlo based methods were used for evaluation of simulations. Correlations between parameters and model performance indices needed to be taken into account carefully in calibration of the process-based model. Parameters related to soil hydraulic processes and surface energy processes were more sensitive when using different datasets for calibration. In using multiple model performance indicators for multi-objective evaluation, the trade-offs between them have shown to be a source of uncertainty in calibration. More proper representations of the reality in model (e.g., soil hydraulic and thermal properties) and more detailed measurements (e.g., soil liquid water content and solute concentration) as input would be efficient in reducing uncertainty. Relationships between groundwater, soil and climate change would be of high interest for better understanding of cold regions water and energy balance.

  • 39.
    Wu, Mousong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Modeling seasonally frozen soils with two different datasets to identify the ability to reduce parameter uncertaintyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Calibration and uncertainty analysis with selected parameters were conducted for two seasonally frozen soils in north China. A trade-off existed in good model performance indicators on water, heat or energy balance. Correlations between parameter values and model performances also showed a trade-off. Uncertainties in obtained parameter distributions were detected due to differences in calibration datasets, as well as complexity in frozen soils. Results showed that even with different datasets in calibration, most of the parameters calibrated showed common ranges. This indicated the availability in using common reasonable parameter sets for simulations in different frozen soils. Except for common ranges for most calibrated parameters, site-specified characteristics were also detected for each site, with totally different parameter ranges given two different datasets for calibration. Parameters related to soil hydraulic conductivity ( ) and surface aerodynamics ( ) were detected to be two site specific parameters in two sites, given datasets and calibration methods in this study. The uncertainty and sensitivity for site specific parameters should also be taken into consideration in choice of reasonable ranges for calibration. More detailed studies on site specific parameters would be of importance for better representations of water and energy balance in different seasonally frozen soils in cold regions.

  • 40.
    Wu, Mousong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Simulations of water, heat, and solute transport in partially frozen soilsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments for soil freezing/thawing were conducted in two seasonally frozen agricultural fields in northern China during 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 wintertime, respectively. Mass balance was checked based on measured data at various depths. Simulation work was conducted by combining CoupModel with Monte-Carlo sampling method to achieve parameter sets with equally good performance. Uncertainties existed in both measurements and model due to complexity in freezing/thawing processes as well as in surface energy partitioning. Parameters related to surface radiation and soil frost were strongly constrained with datasets available in two sites combining multi-criterion on outputs. Simulated soil heat process were better described than soil water processes given the data obtained for calibration. Model performance was improved with consideration of solute effects on freezing point depression. More detailed solute transport processes in CoupModel needed to be improved by taking more processes such as diffusion and expulsion into consideration based on more precise experimental results, to reduce uncertainty in model. Generally, combination of measurement with process-based model and Monte-Carlo sampling method provided an approach for understanding of solute transport as well as its influences on soil freezing/thawing in cold arid agricultural regions. Incorporating more detailed descriptions of processes for frozen soil in the model can be justified if uncertainties in measurements can be reduced by introducing of high-precision novel technologies.

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