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  • 1.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Anund, A.
    Fors, C.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Association of drivers’ sleepiness with heart rate variability: A pilot study with drivers on real roads2017In: EMBEC & NBC 2017, Springer, 2017, Vol. 65, p. 149-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle crashes lead to huge economic and social consequences, and one non-negligible cause of accident is driver sleepiness. Driver sleepiness analysis based on the monitoring of vehicle acceleration, steering and deviation from the road or physiological and behavioral monitoring of the driver, e.g., monitoring of yawning, head pose, eye blinks and eye closures, electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram and electrocardiogram (ECG), have been used as a part of sleepiness alert systems. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a potential method for monitoring of driver sleepiness. Despite previous positive reports from the use of HRV for sleepiness detection, results are often inconsistent between studies. In this work, we have re-evaluated the feasibility of using HRV for detecting drivers’ sleepiness during real road driving. A database consists of ECG measurements from 10 drivers, driving during morning, afternoon and night sessions on real road were used. Drivers have reported their average sleepiness level by using the Karolinska sleepiness scale once every five minutes. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of HRV indexes to distinguish between alert, first signs of sleepiness and severe sleepiness states. The results suggest that individual subjects show different reactions to sleepiness, which produces an individual change in HRV indicators. The results motivate future work for more personalized approaches in sleepiness detection.

  • 2. Addessi, A. R.
    et al.
    Anelli, F.
    Benghi, D.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Corrigendum: Child-computer interaction at the beginner stage of music learning: Effects of reflexive interaction on children's musical improvisation [Front. Psychol.8 (2017)(65)]. Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.000652017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, no MAR, article id 399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A corrigendum on Corrigendum: Child-Computer Interaction at the Beginner Stage of Music Learning: Effects of Reflexive Interaction on Children's Musical Improvisation by Addessi, A. R., Anelli, F., Benghi, D., and Friberg, A. (2017). Front. Psychol. 8:65. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00065 In the original article, there was an error. "she plays C3" was used instead of "it plays C3." A correction has been made to Observation and Theoretical Framework of Reflexive Interaction, paragraph 3: The little girl plays two consecutive notes, C2 and A2, and then stops to wait for the response of the system. The system responds by repeating the same notes. The child then play a single note, G2, and the system responds with a single note but this time introduces a variation: it plays C3, thus introducing a higher register. The girl, following the change introduced by the system, moves toward the higher register and plays a variant of the initial pattern, namely: D2-A2-E2-C3, and introduces a particular rhythm pattern. This "reflexive" event marks the beginning of a dialogue based on repetition and variation: the rhythmic-melodic pattern will be repeated and varied by both the system and the child in consecutive exchanges, until acquiring the form of a complete musical phrase. At some point in the dialogue, the child begins to accompany the system's response with arm movements synchronized with the rhythmic-melodic patterns, creating a kind of music-motor composition. In addition, EG1 and EG2 are incorrectly referred to within the text. A correction has been made to Duet Task, sub-section Results for Each Evaluative Criterion of the Duet Task, paragraph Reflexive Interaction: The data of Reflexive Interaction show that the EG2 obtained the highest score (4.17), followed by the CG (3.33) and the EG1 (2.61); see Table 6 and Figure 7. The difference between EG2, which only use the system with reflexive interaction, and EG1, which did not use the system with reflexive interaction, is significant (p = 0.043). Therefore, it could be said that the use of MIROR-Impro can enhance the use of the reflexive behaviors: mirroring, turn-taking, and co-regulation. We observed a statistically significant correlation between the Reflexive Interaction and the total score (r = 0.937; p < 0.01), and all other evaluative criteria, with correlations ranging from r = 0.87 (p < 0.01) for Musical Quality to r = 0.92 (p < 0.01) for Musical Organization. Thus, the higher the children's use of reflexive interaction, the better their results in each criterion and in the ability to improvise. This result can support the hypothesis that reflexive interaction is a fundamental component of musical improvised dialog. Instead, although the differences between the CG and the Experimental Groups 1 and 2 indicate that the use of the MIROR Impro appears to be "necessary" (CG > EG1) and "sufficient" (CG < EG2) to improve the ability to improvise, we cannot generalize these results because the results are not statistically significant (t-test, comparing CG and EG1: p = 0.388; CG and EG2: p = 0.285). Finally, due to the resolution of Figures 5-9 being low, they have been replaced with new figures with a higher resolution. The corrected Figures, Figures 5-9 appear below. The authors apologize for these errors and state that these do not change the scientific conclusions of the article in any way.

  • 3. Addessi, Anna Rita
    et al.
    Anelli, Filomena
    Benghi, Diber
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Child-Computer Interaction at the Beginner Stage of Music Learning: Effects of Reflexive Interaction on Children's Musical Improvisation2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article childrens musical improvisation is investigated through the reflexive interaction paradigm. We used a particular system, the MIROR-Impro, implemented in the framework of the MIROR project (EC-FP7), which is able to reply to the child playing a keyboard by a reflexive output, mirroring (with repetitions and variations) her/his inputs. The study was conducted in a public primary school, with 47 children, aged 6-7. The experimental design used the convergence procedure, based on three sample groups allowing us to verify if the reflexive interaction using the MIROR-Impro is necessary and/or sufficient to improve the childrens abilities to improvise. The following conditions were used as independent variables: to play only the keyboard, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro but with not-reflexive reply, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with reflexive reply. As dependent variables we estimated the childrens ability to improvise in solos, and in duets. Each child carried out a training program consisting of 5 weekly individual 12 min sessions. The control group played the complete package of independent variables; Experimental Group 1 played the keyboard and the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with not-reflexive reply; Experimental Group 2 played only the keyboard with the reflexive system. One week after, the children were asked to improvise a musical piece on the keyboard alone (Solo task), and in pairs with a friend (Duet task). Three independent judges assessed the Solo and the Duet tasks by means of a grid based on the TAI-Test for Ability to Improvise rating scale. The EG2, which trained only with the reflexive system, reached the highest average results and the difference with EG1, which did not used the reflexive system, is statistically significant when the children improvise in a duet. The results indicate that in the sample of participants the reflexive interaction alone could be sufficient to increase the improvisational skills, and necessary when they improvise in duets. However, these results are in general not statistically significant. The correlation between Reflexive Interaction and the ability to improvise is statistically significant. The results are discussed on the light of the recent literature in neuroscience and music education.

  • 4.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Understanding Individuals' Learning and Decision Processes in a Changing Environment by Using Panel Data2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When a new transport service is introduced, people have to learn and familiarize themselves with the new service before they decide to adopt it. These processes are developed over time, thus produce dynamics in individuals’ behavioural responses towards the service. This affects the demand of the new service, thus affect revenues. Available studies have examined the factors influencing these responses from microeconomic perspectives. The influence of the theory-based subjective factors has not been examined empirically. Understanding these would assist transport and urban planners to design a better marketing strategy to increase the market share of the new service. A change in seasons affect individuals’ activity-travel decisions, thus produce dynamics in activitytravel patterns in different seasons. Individuals’ constraints, in a form of mandatory activities (working/studying), are influencing individuals’ decisions to participate in day-to-day nonmandatory activities (leisure and routine activities). The interdependency between travel demand, time allocation and mode choice that considers interactions between mandatory and non-mandatory activities, in different seasons is less explored. Understanding these would assist transport planners and operators to manage travel demand strategies across different seasons of the year and provide better transportation systems for all individuals. This thesis includes five papers. Paper I explores individuals’ characteristics of the quick-response and the adopters of the new public transport (PT) service and examines the temporal effects. Paper II investigates the subjective factors influencing a quick-response to the new PT service by proposing a modified attitude-behaviour framework. Paper III and IV analyse the effects of seasonal variations and individuals’ constraints on their day-to-day activity-travel decisions and patterns. Paper V analyses the attrition and fatigue in the two-week travel diary panel survey instrument.

  • 5.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Subjective Factors Influencing Individual's Response to a New Public Transport ServiceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The timing and nature of people’s responses can be expected to vary when a new element enter their environment. For example, when an individual is provided with a new or modified transport service. This time-scale of behavioural responses will affect the patronage of, and short- and long-term demands on the new service over time. Understanding the underlying factors that influence an individual’s response over time to a new or modified transport service would enable us to identify trigger factors that make the new service attractive from an individual’s point of view. Chatterjee (2001) and Douglas (2003) argued that motives other than instrumental factors related to public transport use, such as attitudes, awareness, travel habits and learning processes, can influence individual responses over time to changes in the travel environment. Unfortunately, despite their importance, there have been few studies that examined this argument empirically. To address this research gap, this paper aims to investigate the influences of subjective factors on individuals’ responses to the introduction of a modified public transport (PT) service over time by proposing and testing an alternative model that modifies the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model framework. This paper also aims to investigate the behavioural change in terms of attitudes and perceptions on individuals’ resources and constraints in using a modified PT service over time after its introduction. The case study involves the new extension of a tram line connecting the suburbs of Alvik and Solna Centrum in Stockholm, Sweden. Four waves of a panel survey were conducted with 96 individuals who lived along the new service, from just before the new service was introduced and until seven months after its introduction. A structural equation modelling technique was used to estimate the relationships between behavioural constructs and panel data, then incorporate them into a discrete choice model. The results show that intention influences individual’s quick-response choice. The panel analysis shows that past behaviour in using the new service influenced current behaviour, and that perceived walking distance in using the service consistently influenced the frequency of using the new service over time.

  • 6.
    Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    Dept. of Communication studies, Linköping University.
    Garbis, Christer
    Dept. of Communication studies, Linköping University.
    Team communication and coordination as distributed cognition1998In: Proceedings of 9th Conference of Cognitive Ergonomics: Cognition and cooperation / [ed] T. Green, L. Bannon, C. Warren, Buckley, 1998, p. 151-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we argue that the predominant modelsof Situation Awareness (SA) are inadequate for thestudy of systems operated by teams. The reason forthis is that these models are based on mentalisticassumptions focusing almost exclusively onindividuals. We suggest that, to study the control ofdynamic systems, it is necessary to shift the unit ofanalysis from the individual to the whole cognitivesystem comprising a team of people as well as theartefacts which they use. Thus, our vantage point isthe theoretical framework of distributed cognition.Through two field studies we try to demonstrate howteam situation awareness is actively constructed viathe communicative practices which the team uses inits work.

  • 7.
    Arvidsson, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Skedung, Lisa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Aikala, Maiju
    Oy Keskuslaboratorio - Centrallaboratorium Ab.
    Danerlöv, Katrin
    YKI Institute for Surface Chemistry.
    Kettle, John
    Oy Keskuslaboratorio - Centrallaboratorium Ab.
    Rutland, Mark
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Haptic perception of fine surface texture: Psychophysical interpretation of the multidimensional spaceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bjurling, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Timing in piano music: Testing a model of melody lead2008In: Proc. of the 10th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, Sapporo, Japan, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Boon, Edward
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    A Qualitative Study of Consumer-Generated Videos about Daily Deal Web sites2013In: Psychology & Marketing, ISSN 0742-6046, E-ISSN 1520-6793, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 843-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deal of the day, also known as social couponing, is an e-commerce business model that offers consumers heavily discounted deals on a regular (daily) basis, and gives merchants access to a mailing list of potential new customers in exchange for a commission. There are thousands of deal Web sites worldwide, offering deals from industries as diverse as hospitality, consumer electronics, fashion, and medical services. This study was performed to learn more about consumers' attitude toward deal of the day, and their motivations for purchasing (or not purchasing) daily deals. A systematic qualitative methodology called BASIC IDS was used to analyze 30 consumer-generated YouTube videos about deal Web sites. The analysis showed that many deal-prone consumers can be considered deal mavens; they take effort to learn about different sites and offerings and are eager to share their knowledge with others. Although many of these mavens show hedonistic shopping tendencies, others appear to focus mainly on utility, that is, monetary savings. Consumers with a negative attitude toward deal of the day are often worried about receiving poor service, and some believe that redeeming a deal voucher makes them look cheap.

  • 10. Borosund, Elin
    et al.
    Cvancarova, Milada
    Moore, Shirley M.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Ruland, Cornelia M.
    Preliminary Results Of Two Web-Based Interventions On Symptom Distress, Anxiety And Depression Among Breast Cancer Patients2014In: Annals of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 0883-6612, E-ISSN 1532-4796, Vol. 47, p. S188-S188Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Real-time visualization of musical expression2004In: Proceedings of Network of Excellence HUMAINE Workshop "From Signals to Signs of Emotion and Vice Versa", Santorini, Greece, Institute of Communication and Computer Systems, National Technical University of Athens, 2004, p. 19-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A system for real-time feedback of expressive music performance is presented.The feedback is provided by using a graphical interface where acoustic cues arepresented in an intuitive fashion. The graphical interface presents on the computerscreen a three-dimensional object with continuously changing shape, size,position, and colour. Some of the acoustic cues were associated with the shape ofthe object, others with its position. For instance, articulation was associated withshape, staccato corresponded to an angular shape and legato to a rounded shape.The emotional expression resulting from the combination of cues was mapped interms of the colour of the object (e.g., sadness/blue). To determine which colourswere most suitable for respective emotion, a test was run. Subjects rated how welleach of 8 colours corresponds to each of 12 music performances expressingdifferent emotions.

  • 12.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    What is the color of that music performance?2005In: Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference - ICMC 2005, Barcelona, 2005, p. 367-370Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The representation of expressivity in music is still a fairlyunexplored field. Alternative ways of representing musicalinformation are necessary when providing feedback onemotion expression in music such as in real-time tools formusic education, or in the display of large music databases.One possible solution could be a graphical non-verbal representationof expressivity in music performance using coloras index of emotion. To determine which colors aremost suitable for an emotional expression, a test was run.Subjects rated how well each of 8 colors and their 3 nuancescorresponds to each of 12 music performances expressingdifferent emotions. Performances were playedby professional musicians with 3 instruments, saxophone,guitar, and piano. Results show that subjects associateddifferent hues to different emotions. Also, dark colorswere associated to music in minor tonality and light colorsto music in major tonality. Correspondence betweenspectrum energy and color hue are preliminary discussed.

  • 13.
    Bresin, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    de Witt, Anna
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Papetti, Stefano
    University of Verona.
    Civolani, Marco
    University of Verona.
    Fontana, Federico
    University of Verona.
    Expressive sonification of footstep sounds2010In: Proceedings of ISon 2010: 3rd Interactive Sonification Workshop / [ed] Bresin, Roberto; Hermann, Thomas; Hunt, Andy, Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2010, p. 51-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we present the evaluation of a model for the interactive sonification of footsteps. The sonification is achieved by means of specially designed sensored-shoes which control the expressive parameters of novel sound synthesis models capable of reproducing continuous auditory feedback for walking. In a previousstudy, sounds corresponding to different grounds were associated to different emotions and gender. In this study, we used an interactive sonification actuated by the sensored-shoes for providing auditory feedback to walkers. In an experiment we asked subjects to walk (using the sensored-shoes) with four different emotional intentions (happy, sad, aggressive, tender) and for each emotion we manipulated the ground texture sound four times (wood panels, linoleum, muddy ground, and iced snow). Preliminary results show that walkers used a more active walking style (faster pace) when the sound of the walking surface was characterized by an higher spectral centroid (e.g. iced snow), and a less active style (slower pace) when the spectral centroid was low (e.g. muddy ground). Harder texture sounds lead to more aggressive walking patters while softer ones to more tender and sad walking styles.

  • 14.
    Bresin, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Delle Monache, Stefano
    University of Verona.
    Fontana, Federico
    University of Verona.
    Papetti, Stefano
    University of Verona.
    Polotti, Pietro
    University of Verona.
    Visell, Yon
    McGill University.
    Auditory feedback through continuous control of crumpling sound synthesis2008In: Proceedings of Sonic Interaction Design: Sound, Information and Experience. A CHI 2008 Workshop organized by COST Action IC0601, IUAV University of Venice , 2008, p. 23-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A realtime model for the synthesis of crumpling sounds ispresented. By capturing the statistics of short sonic transients which give rise to crackling noise, it allows for a consistent description of a broad spectrum of audible physical processes which emerge in several everyday interaction contexts.The model drives a nonlinear impactor that sonifies every transient, and it can be parameterized depending on the physical attributes of the crumpling material. Three different scenarios are described, respectively simulating the foot interaction with aggregate ground materials, augmenting a dining scenario, and affecting the emotional content of a footstep sequence. Taken altogether, they emphasize the potential generalizability of the model to situations in which a precise control of auditory feedback can significantly increase the enactivity and ecological validity of an interface.

  • 15.
    Bresin, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Emotion rendering in music: Range and characteristic values of seven musical variables2011In: Cortex, ISSN 0010-9452, E-ISSN 1973-8102, Vol. 47, no 9, p. 1068-1081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies on the synthesis of emotional expression in music performance have focused on the effect of individual performance variables on perceived emotional quality by making a systematical variation of variables. However, most of the studies have used a predetermined small number of levels for each variable, and the selection of these levels has often been done arbitrarily. The main aim of this research work is to improve upon existing methodologies by taking a synthesis approach. In a production experiment, 20 performers were asked to manipulate values of 7 musical variables simultaneously (tempo, sound level, articulation, phrasing, register, timbre, and attack speed) for communicating 5 different emotional expressions (neutral, happy, scary, peaceful, sad) for each of 4 scores. The scores were compositions communicating four different emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, calmness). Emotional expressions and music scores were presented in combination and in random order for each performer for a total of 5 x 4 stimuli. The experiment allowed for a systematic investigation of the interaction between emotion of each score and intended expressed emotions by performers. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), repeated measures, with factors emotion and score was conducted on the participants' values separately for each of the seven musical factors. There are two main results. The first one is that musical variables were manipulated in the same direction as reported in previous research on emotional expressive music performance. The second one is the identification for each of the five emotions the mean values and ranges of the five musical variables tempo, sound level, articulation, register, and instrument. These values resulted to be independent from the particular score and its emotion. The results presented in this study therefore allow for both the design and control of emotionally expressive computerized musical stimuli that are more ecologically valid than stimuli without performance variations.

  • 16.
    Bresin, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Influence of Acoustic Cues on the Expressive Performance of Music2008In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, Sapporo, Japan, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Broms, Loove
    et al.
    Interactive Intstitute.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    Interactive Institute.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Nyblom, Åsa
    Interactive Institute.
    Ilstedt Hjelm, Sara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design.
    Ehrnberger, Karin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design.
    Coffee Maker Patterns and the Design of Energy Feedback Artefacts2010In: DIS '10 Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems, 2010, p. 93-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart electricity meters and home displays are being installed in people’s homes with the assumption that households will make the necessary efforts to reduce their electricity consumption. However, present solutions do not sufficiently account for the social implications of design. There is a potential for greater savings if we can better understand how such designs affect behaviour. In this paper, we describe our design of an energy awareness artefact – the Energy AWARE Clock – and discuss it in relation to behavioural processes in the home. A user study is carried out to study the deployment of the prototype in real domestic contexts for three months. Results indicate that the Energy AWARE Clock played a significant role in drawing households’ attention to their electricity use. It became a natural part of the household and conceptions of electricity became naturalized into informants’ everyday language.

  • 18.
    Buckley, Jeffrey
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Canty, Donal
    University of Limerick.
    White, David
    University of Limerick.
    Seery, Niall
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Campbell, Mark
    University of Limerick.
    Spatial working memory and neural efficiency in mental rotations: An insight from pupillometry2018In: Engineering Design Graphics Journal, ISSN 0046-2012Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Burger, Birgitta
    et al.
    Finnish Centre of Excellence in Interdisciplinary Music Research, Department of Music, University of Jyväskylä.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Communication of Musical Expression by Means of Mobile Robot Gestures2010In: Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces, ISSN 1783-7677, E-ISSN 1783-8738, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 109-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed a robotic system that can behave in an emotional way. A 3-wheeled simple robot with limited degrees of freedom was designed. Our goal was to make the robot displaying emotions in music performance by performing expressive movements. These movements have been compiled and programmed based on literature about emotion in music, musicians’ movements in expressive performances, and object shapes that convey different emotional intentions. The emotions happiness, anger, and sadness have been implemented in this way. General results from behavioral experiments show that emotional intentions can be synthesized, displayed and communicated by an artificial creature, also in constrained circumstances.

  • 20.
    Bäcklander, Gisela
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    To see or not to see: Importance of sensemaking in employee self-direction2019In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 25-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being self-directed is one of the most sought-after employee attributes. The present study examines managers’ approaches to and conceptualization of employee self-directedness through semi-structured interviews with 13 managers from five companies in the Stockholm area. Analysis suggests two different emphases in trying to increase self-direction, with differing underlying assumptions: an evaluation emphasis where self-direction is conceptualized as an inherent property of the individual, and a cultivation emphasis suggesting a more interactionist perspective of self-direction as an emergent behavior based on the interaction of individual and situational characteristics. Further, a “seeing work”-skill emerged in all interviews, implicating situational judgment and attention as core to what is ultimately seen as successful self-direction. Managers with a cultivation emphasis mentioned as viable tactics those focused on supporting sensemaking and thus enriching the working situation to enable better discretionary situational judgements.

  • 21.
    Bäcklander, Gisela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Rosengren, Calle
    Kaulio, Matti
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Managing Intensity in Knowledge Work: Self-Leadership Practices among Danish Management ConsultantsIn: Journal of Management and Organization, ISSN 1833-3672, E-ISSN 1839-3527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the sources of knowledge workers’ work intensity and the self-leading strategies they apply to deal with it. The paper is based on focus group interviews with management consultants in a Danish management consultancy firm. Work intensity was identified as resulting from a combination of: (1) a results-only focus, (2) vagueness, (3) boundaryless work, and (4) low control of the quantitative load. A framework for self-leading strategies is developed based on the dimensions of reactive/proactive and self-focused/externally-focused strategies in different combinations. The results indicate that while consultants expressed a belief in internal self-discipline strategies of a more reactive nature, in fact, external and proactive strategies were the most effective in practice. In conclusion, the paper contributes to an extension of self-leadership theory to better account for current research on self-control.

  • 22.
    Bäcklander, Gisela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Rosengren, Calle
    Kaulio, Matti
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Managing Intensity in Knowledge Work: Self-Leadership Practices among Danish Management ConsultantsIn: Journal of Management and Organization, ISSN 1833-3672, E-ISSN 1839-3527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the sources of knowledge workers’ work intensity and the self-leading strategies they apply to deal with it. The paper is based on focus group interviews with management consultants in a Danish management consultancy firm. Work intensity was identified as resulting from a combination of: (1) a results-only focus, (2) vagueness, (3) boundaryless work, and (4) low control of the quantitative load. A framework for self-leading strategies is developed based on the dimensions of reactive/proactive and self-focused/externally-focused strategies in different combinations. The results indicate that while consultants expressed a belief in internal self-discipline strategies of a more reactive nature, in fact, external and proactive strategies were the most effective in practice. In conclusion, the paper contributes to an extension of self-leadership theory to better account for current research on self-control.

  • 23.
    Bäcklander, Gisela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Rosengren, Calle
    Lunds Universitet.
    Lid Falkman, Lena
    Handelshögskolan.
    Stenfors, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Seddigh, Aram
    Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Osika, Walter
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Stenström, Emma
    Handelshögskolan.
    Navigating the Activity Based Working Environment – Relationships of Self-Leadership, Autonomy and Information Richness with Cognitive Stress and Performance2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, E-ISSN 2002-2867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Activity Based Working Environment (ABWE) offices, employees are allowed increased autonomy and are expected to choose where, when, with whom, and to some degree with what, to work; in other words, employees are expected to self-lead to a higher degree and to coordinate and align with colleagues. Effects of these expectations on employees’ cognitive stress and performance are understudied. In the present study, Swedish ABWE workers (N = 416) are compared with workers in cell offices (N = 30) and landscape offices (N = 64), and relationships of self-leadership, information richness, and autonomy with cognitive stress and performance were examined using regression analysis. Results show no relationship between office type and outcomes. For cognitive stress, information richness had the largest negative relationship, followed by self-leadership: goal-setting and autonomy. For performance, self-leadership: goal-setting had the largest positive relationship, followed by information richness. This suggests that when organizational situations cannot be strongly structured – for example because the best work process is not known, or innovation or different collaboration constellations are needed – they need instead to be enriched so that employee orientation and coordination do not become too much of a burden on the individual employee, disrupting cognitive functioning and performance.

  • 24. Camurri, A.
    et al.
    Bevilacqua, F.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Maestre, E.
    Penttinen, H.
    Seppänen, J.
    Välimäki, V.
    Volpe, G.
    Warusfel, O.
    Embodied music listening and making in context-aware mobile applications: the EU-ICT SAME Project2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Camurri, Antonio
    et al.
    University of Genova.
    Volpe, Gualtiero
    University of Genova.
    Vinet, Hugues
    IRCAM, Paris.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Fabiani, Marco
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Dubus, Gaël
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Maestre, Esteban
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona.
    Llop, Jordi
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona.
    Kleimola, Jari
    Oksanen, Sami
    Välimäki, Vesa
    Seppanen, Jarno
    User-centric context-aware mobile applications for embodied music listening2009In: User Centric Media / [ed] Akan, Ozgur; Bellavista, Paolo; Cao, Jiannong; Dressler, Falko; Ferrari, Domenico; Gerla, Mario; Kobayashi, Hisashi; Palazzo, Sergio; Sahni, Sartaj; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman); Stan, Mircea; Xiaohua, Jia; Zomaya, Albert; Coulson, Geoffrey; Daras, Petros; Ibarra, Oscar Mayora, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin , 2009, p. 21-30Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper surveys a collection of sample applications for networked user-centric context-aware embodied music listening. The applications have been designed and developed in the framework of the EU-ICT Project SAME (www.sameproject.eu) and have been presented at Agora Festival (IRCAM, Paris, France) in June 2009. All of them address in different ways the concept of embodied, active listening to music, i.e., enabling listeners to interactively operate in real-time on the music content by means of their movements and gestures as captured by mobile devices. In the occasion of the Agora Festival the applications have also been evaluated by both expert and non-expert users

  • 26.
    Cao, Wei
    et al.
    South China Normal Univ, Ctr Opt & Electromagnet Res, South China Acad Adv Optoelect, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Song, Wenxu
    South China Normal Univ, Ctr Opt & Electromagnet Res, South China Acad Adv Optoelect, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Li, Xinge
    South China Normal Univ, Sch Psychol, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Zheng, Sixiao
    Fudan Univ, Acad Engn & Technol, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Ge
    Caihongqiao Children Rehabil & Serv Ctr Panyu Dis, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Yanting
    South China Normal Univ, Sch Psychol, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    He, Sailing
    South China Normal Univ, Ctr Opt & Electromagnet Res, South China Acad Adv Optoelect, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Zhu, Huilin
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Child Dev & Behav Ctr, Affiliated Hosp 3, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Jiajia
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Interaction With Social Robots: Improving Gaze Toward Face but Not Necessarily Joint Attention in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that robot-based interventions for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) hold promise, but the question remains as to whether social humanoid robots could facilitate joint attention performance in children with ASD. In this study, responsive joint attention was measured under two conditions in which different agents, a human and a robot, initiated joint attention via video. The participants were 15 children with ASD (mean age: 4.96 +/- 1.10 years) and 15 typically developing (TD) children (mean age: 4.53 +/- 0.90 years). In addition to analyses of fixation time and gaze transitions, a longest common subsequence approach (LCS) was employed to compare participants' eye movements to a predefined logical reference sequence. The fixation of TD toward agent's face was earlier and longer than children with ASD. Moreover, TD showed a greater number of gaze transitions between agent's face and target, and higher LCS scores than children with ASD. Both groups showed more interests in the robot's face, but the robot induced a lower proportion of fixation time on the target. Meanwhile participants showed similar gaze transitions and LCS results in both conditions, suggesting that they could follow the logic of the joint attention task induced by the robot as well as human. We have discussed the implications for the effects and applications of social humanoid robots in joint attention interventions.

  • 27.
    Castellano, Ginevra
    et al.
    InfoMus Lab, DIST, University of Genova.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Camurri, Antonio
    InfoMus Lab, DIST, University of Genova.
    Volpe, Gualtiero
    InfoMus Lab, DIST, University of Genova.
    Expressive Control of Music and Visual Media by Full-Body Movement2007In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, NIME '07, New York, NY, USA: ACM Press, 2007, p. 390-391Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe a system which allows users to use their full-body for controlling in real-time the generation of an expressive audio-visual feedback. The system extracts expressive motion features from the user’s full-body movements and gestures. The values of these motion features are mapped both onto acoustic parameters for the real-time expressive rendering ofa piece of music, and onto real-time generated visual feedback projected on a screen in front of the user.

  • 28. Castellano, Ginevra
    et al.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Camurri, Antonio
    Volpe, Gualtiero
    User-Centered Control of Audio and Visual Expressive Feedback by Full-Body Movements2007In: Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction / [ed] Paiva, Ana; Prada, Rui; Picard, Rosalind W., Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, p. 501-510Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe a system allowing users to express themselves through their full-body movement and gesture and to control in real-time the generation of an audio-visual feedback. The systems analyses in real-time the user’s full-body movement and gesture, extracts expressive motion features and maps the values of the expressive motion features onto real-time control of acoustic parameters for rendering a music performance. At the same time, a visual feedback generated in real-time is projected on a screen in front of the users with their coloured silhouette, depending on the emotion their movement communicates. Human movement analysis and visual feedback generation were done with the EyesWeb software platform and the music performance rendering with pDM. Evaluation tests were done with human participants to test the usability of the interface and the effectiveness of the design.

  • 29.
    Ceccato, Vania
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The nature of rape places2014In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 40, p. 97-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to characterise the distribution and the urban landscape in which outdoor rapes happen in Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) underlie the methodology of this research that combines crime police records, police protocols and information from fieldwork of a sample of rape places. Rapes are concentrated in the inner city areas but follow a patchy pattern in some parts of the periphery. Rapes happen in places with poor visibility but that offer an easy escape for the offender. A large share of them happen in the weekends, holidays and hot months of the year, which can be associated with unstructured leisure routine activities of individuals. Results show that the role of environment on the occurrence of rape varies over time and space - a fact with important implications for research and safety interventions.

  • 30.
    De Witt, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sound design for affective interaction2007In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics / [ed] Paiva, A; Prada, R; Picard, RW, 2007, Vol. 4738, p. 523-533Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different design approaches contributed to what we see today as the prevalent design paradigm for Human Computer Interaction; though they have been mostly applied to the visual aspect of interaction. In this paper we presented a proposal for sound design strategies that can be used in applications involving affective interaction. For testing our approach we propose the sonification of the Affective Diary, a digital diary with focus on emotions, affects, and bodily experience of the user. We applied results from studies in music and emotion to sonic interaction design. This is one of the first attempts introducing different physics-based models for the real-time complete sonification of an interactive user interface in portable devices.

  • 31.
    Dellve, Lotta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Samuelsson, L.
    Waye, K. P.
    Preschool Children's Experience and Understanding of Their Soundscape2013In: Qualitative Research in Psychology, ISSN 1478-0887, E-ISSN 1478-0895, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise may be a serious health problem in preschools. This article explores how preschool-aged children experience, understand, and cope with the soundscape at their preschools. Using a qualitative approach, 36 children (4-6 years old) were interviewed in 11 focus groups. The children related their experience of sound to the consequences the sound had for themselves, their understanding of its source, and their bodily and emotional experience of it. Their perceived trustfulness, comprehensibility, sound descriptions, and manageability of given sounds were interpreted in the model as an expression of uncontrollability. The degree of uncontrollability of sounds accounted for whether children were nondisturbed, disturbed, or distressed by their experience of it. Distressing noise was experienced as both physically and emotionally painful. The children handled such distress by flight, attempting to reduce the hearing sensation, turning to their teachers, and using cognitive strategies. It is important to increase our understanding of how children cope with distressing sounds at preschools.

  • 32.
    Eerola, Tuomas
    et al.
    Department of Music, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland .
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Emotional expression in music: Contribution, linearity, and additivity of primary musical cues2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, p. 487-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to manipulate musical cues systematically to determine the aspects of music that contribute to emotional expression, and whether these cues operate in additive or interactive fashion, and whether the cue levels can be characterized as linear or non-linear. An optimized factorial design was used with six primary musical cues (mode, tempo, dynamics, articulation, timbre, and register) across four different music examples. Listeners rated 200 musical examples according to four perceived emotional characters (happy, sad, peaceful, and scary). The results exhibited robust effects for all cues and the ranked importance of these was established by multiple regression. The most important cue was mode followed by tempo, register, dynamics, articulation, and timbre, although the ranking varied across the emotions. The second main result suggested that most cue levels contributed to the emotions in a linear fashion, explaining 77-89% of variance in ratings. Quadratic encoding of cues did lead to minor but significant increases of the models (0-8%). Finally, the interactions between the cues were non-existent suggesting that the cues operate mostly in an additive fashion, corroborating recent findings on emotional expression in music.

  • 33.
    Elvnäs, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Håkansson, Malin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Carter, Ned
    SALAR.
    How to Use OBM Successfully With Leaders in the Context of Work Analysis2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming behavior science into applications that can be useful to real leaders is challenging. There are difficulities in identifying and recording leadership behaviors in field settings, and in describing and measuring changes in dynamic real-life situations . This seminar will present experiences of using OBM and Komaki´s taxonomy of operant leadership (OSTI) in a broader context of work analysis, a context that OBM needs and one that leaders can understand. This is accomplished without abandoning the strategies and tactics of behavioral science that are the hallmarks of OBM. Examples from an eight-year project including 3000 video observations of more than 500 leaders from multiple settings in several different branches of business, in combination with data from time allocation studies for leaders, will be presented. The summary of the results will be shown to contribute to the understanding of OBM in a system perspective. The findings have implications for the design of OBM-oriented leadership interventions.

  • 34.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    The effects of meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noise on teachers' attention, episodic and semantic memory2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 393-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present experiment was to examine the effects of meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noise on attention, episodic and semantic memory, and also to examine whether the noise effects were age-dependent. A total of 96 male and female teachers in the age range of 35-45 and 55-65 years were randomly assigned to a silent or the two noise conditions. Noise effects found in episodic memory were limited to a meaningful text, where cued recall contrary to expectations was equally impaired by the two types of noise. However, meaningful irrelevant speech also deteriorated recognition of the text, whereas road traffic noise caused no decrement. Retrieval from two word fluency tests in semantic memory showed strong effects of noise exposure, one affected by meaningful irrelevant speech and the other by road traffic noise. The results implied that both acoustic variation and the semantic interference could be of importance for noise impairments. The expected age-dependent noise effects did not show up.

  • 35.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    KTH.
    Boman, Eva
    KTH.
    Hygge, Staffan
    Structural equation models of memory performance across noise conditions and age groups2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 449-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competing models of declarative memory were tested with structural equation models to analyze whether a second-order latent variable structure for episodic and semantic memory was invariant across age groups and across noise exposure conditions. Data were taken from three previous experimental noise studies that were performed with the same design, procedure, and dependent measures, and with participants from four age groups (13-14, 18-20, 35-45, and 55-65 years). Two noise conditions, road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech, were compared to a quiet control group. The structural models put to the test were taken from Nyberg et al. (2003), which employed several memory tests that were the same as ours and studied age-groups that partly overlapped with our groups. In addition we also varied noise exposure conditions. Our analyses replicated and supported the second-order semantic-episodic memory models in Nyberg et al. (2003). The latent variable structures were invariant across age groups, with the exception of our youngest group, which by itself showed a less clear latent structure. The obtained structures were also invariant across noise exposure conditions. We also noted that our text memory items, which did not have a counterpart in the study by Nyberg et al. (2003), tend to form a separate latent variable loading on episodic memory.

  • 36.
    Erséus, Andreas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Driver-Vehicle Interaction: Identification, Characterization and Modelling of Path Tracking Skill2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the dawn of the automobile, driver behaviour has been an issue. Driving can result in accidents that may harm not only the driver but also passengers and the surroundings. This calls for measures that restrict the usage of vehicles and to assist the individual driver to conduct the driving in a safe, yet practically efficient manner. The vehicles should therefore be both safe and intuitive, and preferably answer to thedifferent needs of all kinds of drivers.

    Driving skill can be defined in many ways, depending on the objective of the driving task, but answer in some way to the question of how well the driver can conduct the driving task. To assist low skill drivers without compromising the driving demand for high skill drivers, it is of highest importance that vehicles are tested and designed to meet those needs. This includes both the testing activities in the vehicle design phase in general but also the configuration for active systems and preventive safety, preferable with settings that adapts to the skill of the individual driver.

    The work here comprises the definition of skill and of driver recruitment procedures, scenario design, the development of an analysis method for objective measures, and the gathering of metrics to characterize the driver skill. Moreover, a driver model has been developed that makes use of driver skill characteristics. To gather the information needed, extensive multidisciplinary literature studies were conducted, as well as using field tests and test using an advanced moving base driving simulator. Here the focus is on path tracking skill, which is the main control aspect of driving, although the developed driving scenarios allow a varying degree of path planning, which is more related to regulation. The first simulator test was done with a very simple criterion fordriver selection, but the results gave a good insight into the variation between drivers ingeneral. For the following tests the recruitment procedure was refined to find drivers with high or low vehicle control and regulation skill, a recruitment that also was verified to really represent two different populations.

    A method was defined that successfully identified sets of skill-related measures, with some variation in composition depending on the path tracking demand on the driver. Int he curving road scenario, for example, the highest number of skill-related measures is identified in the curves, which is reasonable since the straight segments do not require the same amount of active control from the drivers.

    The driver model developed uses a quasi-static analytical description of the driver knowledge of the vehicle dynamics, but possesses the capability of nonlinear descriptions. The parameters in this model are mainly physical properties that easily can be related to the driving process. Metrics gathered are used for identification of the driver model setup for a double lane change scenario using an optimization routine, with adjusted parameter settings for different velocities.

    With a subjective comparison of the recorded driving simulator data, the method is verified to enable driver skill settings for driver models. In addition, the method allows metrics to be gathered for driver skill identification routines, meeting the defined objectives of the project.

  • 37.
    Fabiani, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Dubus, Gaël
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Interactive sonification of expressive hand gestures on a handheld device2012In: Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces, ISSN 1783-7677, E-ISSN 1783-8738, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 49-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present here a mobile phone application called MoodifierLive which aims at using expressive music performances for the sonification of expressive gestures through the mapping of the phone’s accelerometer data to the performance parameters (i.e. tempo, sound level, and articulation). The application, and in particular the sonification principle, is described in detail. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the perceived matching between the gesture and the music performance that it produced, using two distinct mappings between gestures and performance. The results show that the application produces consistent performances, and that the mapping based on data collected from real gestures works better than one defined a priori by the authors.

  • 38.
    Fabiani, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Dubus, Gaël
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Interactive sonification of emotionally expressive gestures by means of music performance2010In: Proceedings of ISon 2010, 3rd Interactive Sonification Workshop / [ed] Bresin, Roberto; Hermann, Thomas; Hunt, Andy, Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2010, p. 113-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a procedure for interactive sonification of emotionally expressive hand and arm gestures by affecting a musical performance in real-time. Three different mappings are described that translate accelerometer data to a set of parameters that control the expressiveness of the performance by affecting tempo, dynamics and articulation. The first two mappings, tested with a numberof subjects during a public event, are relatively simple and were designed by the authors using a top-down approach. According to user feedback, they were not intuitive and limited the usability of the software. A bottom-up approach was taken for the third mapping: a Classification Tree was trained with features extracted from gesture data from a number of test subject who were asked toexpress different emotions with their hand movements. A second set of data, where subjects were asked to make a gesture that corresponded to a piece of expressive music they just listened to, wereused to validate the model. The results were not particularly accurate, but reflected the small differences in the data and the ratings given by the subjects to the different performances they listened to.

  • 39. Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Larsson, Matilda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    The influences of static and interactive dynamic facial stimuli on visual strategies in persons with Asperger syndrome2011In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 935-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies, using eye tracking methodology, suggest that different visual strategies in persons with autism spectrum conditions, compared with controls, are applied when viewing facial stimuli. Most eye tracking studies are, however, made in laboratory settings with either static (photos) or non-interactive dynamic stimuli, such as video clips. Whether or not these results are transferable to a "real world" dialogue situation remains unclear. In order to examine the consistency of visual strategies across conditions, a comparison of two static conditions and an interactive dynamic "real world" condition, in 15 adults with Asperger syndrome and 15 matched controls, was made using an eye tracker. The static stimuli consisted of colour photos of faces, while a dialogue between the participants and the test leader created the interactive dynamic condition. A within-group comparison showed that people with AS, and their matched controls, displayed a high degree of stability in visual strategies when viewing faces, regardless of the facial stimuli being static or real, as in the interactive dynamic condition. The consistency in visual strategies within the participants suggests that results from studies with static facial stimuli provide important information on individual visual strategies that may be generalized to "real world" situations.

  • 40. Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Larsson, Matilda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    The importance of the eye area in face identification abilities and visual search strategies in persons with Asperger syndrome2010In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 724-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partly claimed to explain social difficulties observed in people with Asperger syndrome, face identification and visual search strategies become important. Previous research findings are, however, disparate. In order to explore face identification abilities and visual search strategies, with special focus on the importance of the eye area, 24 adults with Asperger syndrome and matched controls viewed puzzle pieced photos of faces, in order to identify them as one of three intact photos of persons. Every second puzzle pieced photo had the eyes distorted. Fixation patterns were measured by an eye tracker. Adults with Asperger syndrome had greater difficulties in identifying faces than controls. However, the entire face identification superiority in controls was found in the condition when the eyes were distorted supporting that adults with Aspergers syndrome do use the eye region to a great extent in face identification. The visual search strategies in controls were more effective and relied on the use of the 'face information triangle', i.e. the two eyes and the mouth, while adults with Asperger syndrome had more fixations on other parts of the face, both when obtaining information and during the identification part, suggesting a less effective use of the 'face information triangle'.

  • 41. Falkmer, Torbjern
    et al.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Dukic, Tania
    Bjällmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Larsson, Matilda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Fixation identification in centroid versus start-point modes using eye-tracking data2008In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 106, no 3, p. 710-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fixation-identification algorithms, needed for analyses of eye movements, may typically be separated into three categories, viz. (i) velocity-based algorithms, (ii) area-based algorithms, and (iii) dispersion-based algorithms. Dispersion-based algorithms are commonly used but this application introduces some difficulties, one being optimization. Basically, there are two modes to reach this goal of optimization, viz., the start-point mode and the centroid mode. The aim of the present study was to compare and evaluate these two dispersion-based algorithms. Manual inspections were made of 1,400 fixations in each mode. Odds ratios showed that by using the centroid mode for fixation detection, a valid fixation is 2.86 times more likely to be identified than by using the start-point mode. Moreover, the algorithm based on centroid mode dispersion showed a good interpretation speed, accuracy, robustness, and ease of implementation, as well as adequate parameter settings.

  • 42.
    Farah, Haneen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Traffic and Logistics (closed 20110301).
    Toledo, Tomer
    Passing behavior on two-lane highways2010In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 355-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-lane highways make up a substantial proportion of the road network in most of the world. Passing is among the most significant driving behaviors on two-lane highways. It substantially impacts the highway performance. Despite the importance of the problem, few studies attempted to model passing behavior. In this research, a model that attempts to capture both drivers' desire to pass and their gap acceptance decisions to complete a desired passing maneuver is developed and estimated using data on passing maneuvers collected with a driving simulator. Sixteen different scenarios were used in the experiment in order to capture the impact of factors related to the various vehicles involved, the road geometry and the driver characteristics in the model. A passing behavior model is developed that includes choices in two levels: the desire to pass and the decision whether or not to accept an available passing gap. The probability to complete a passing maneuver is modeled as the product of the probabilities of a positive decision on both these choices. The estimation results show that modeling the drivers' desire to pass the vehicle in front has a statistically significant contribution in explaining their passing behavior. The two sub-models incorporate variables that capture the impact of the attributes of the specific passing gap that the driver evaluates and the relevant vehicles, the geometric characteristics of the road section and the driver characteristics and account for unobserved heterogeneity in the driver population.

  • 43. Farisco, M.
    et al.
    Kotaleski, Jeanette H.
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Solna, Sweden.
    Evers, K.
    Large-scale brain simulation and disorders of consciousness. Mapping technical and conceptual issues2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, no April, article id 585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain's operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate the plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness (DOCs), e.g., Coma, Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, Minimally Conscious State. Notwithstanding their technical limitations, we suggest that simulation technologies may offer new solutions to old practical problems, particularly in clinical contexts. We take DOCs as an illustrative case, arguing that the simulation of neural correlates of consciousness is potentially useful for improving treatments of patients with DOCs.

  • 44. Ferrer-Wreder, L.
    et al.
    Adamson, Lena
    KTH.
    Kumpfer, K. L.
    Eichas, K.
    Advancing Intervention Science Through Effectiveness Research: A Global Perspective2012In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 109-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Effectiveness research is maturing as a field within intervention and prevention science. Effectiveness research involves the implementation and evaluation of the effectiveness of the dissemination of evidence-based interventions in everyday circumstances (i. e., type 2 translational research). Effectiveness research is characterized by diverse types of research studies. Progress in this field has the potential to inform several debates within intervention science [e. g., fidelity versus local and cultural adaptation; identification of core components, effective dissemination systems). Objective: To provide illustrations from different countries (Ireland, Italy, South Africa, Sweden, New Zealand, and the United States) of how intervention science might raise the value of future effectiveness or type 2 translational research. Methods: Themes raised by individual articles and across articles are summarized and expanded on in this commentary. Results: Themes consist of raising awareness about the importance of effectiveness research on the cultural adaptation of evidence-based interventions and intervention support structures, as well as further development of strategies to bridge the gap between research and practice. Conclusions: Effectiveness research has an important role to play in affecting systemic change on a population level and allowing us to gain a realistic global understanding of the phenomena we hope to change through interventions. Articles in this special issue provide reports from social scientists and practitioners located in various parts of the world and offer a rich, diverse portrait of effectiveness research and theory development. The totality of the work contained in this special issue anticipates many of the changes that intervention and prevention science will undergo as we progress and develop effective dissemination strategies for evidence-based interventions that promote positive youth development and prevent youth and family problems on a global scale.

  • 45.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Real-time control of music performance2008In: Sound to Sense - Sense to Sound: A state of the art in Sound and Music Computing / [ed] Polotti, Pietro; Rocchesso, Davide, Berlin: Logos Verlag , 2008, p. 279-302Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Overview of the KTH rule system for musical performance2006In: Advances in Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 1895-1171, E-ISSN 1895-1171, Vol. 2, no 2-3, p. 145-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The KTH rule system models performance principles used by musicians when performing a musical score, within the realm of Western classical, jazz and popular music. An overview is given of the major rules involving phrasing, micro-level timing, metrical patterns and grooves, articulation, tonal tension, intonation, ensemble timing, and performance noise. By using selections of rules and rule quantities, semantic descriptions such as emotional expressions can be modeled. A recent real-time implementation provides the means for controlling the expressive character of the music. The communicative purpose and meaning of the resulting performance variations are discussed as well as limitations and future improvements.

  • 47. Garvey, R.
    et al.
    Westlander, Gunnela
    KTH.
    Training Mentors-Behaviors Which Bring Positive Outcomes in Mentoring2012In: The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Coaching and Mentoring, John Wiley & Sons, 2012, p. 243-265Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48. Giordano, Bruno
    et al.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Walking and playing: What's the origin of emotional expressiveness in music?2006In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Music Perception & Cognition (ICMPC9), Bologna/Italy, August 22-26 2006 / [ed] Baroni, M.; Addessi, A. R.; Caterina, R.; Costa, M., Bologna: Bononia University Press, 2006, p. 436-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49. Goebl, W.
    et al.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Galembo, A.
    Once again: The perception of piano touch and tone: Can touch audibly change piano sound independently of intensity?2004In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, March 31st to April 3rd 2004 (ISMA2004), Nara, Japan, Nara, Japan: The Acoustical Society of Japan, CD-ROM , 2004, p. 332-335Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the old question of whether the timbreof isolated piano tones can be audibly varied independentlyof their hammer velocities—only through thetype of touch. A large amount of single piano tones wereplayed with two prototypical types of touch: depressingthe keys with the finger initially resting on the key surface(pressed), and hitting the keys from a certain distanceabove (struck). Musicians were asked to identify the typeof touch of the recorded samples, in a first block with allattack noises before the tone onsets included, in a secondblock without them. Half of the listeners could correctlyidentify significantly more tones than chance in the firstblock (up to 86% accuracy), but no one in block 2. Thosewho heard no difference tended to give struck ratings forlouder tones in both blocks.

  • 50.
    Grané, Oscar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Business Development and Entrepreneurship.
    Human Capital Values Among Entrepreneurs2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Whenever someone starts a company from scratch there is a great chance he or she (the entrepreneur) looks for funding. People who fund entrepreneurs and start-­‐ups are usually venture capitalists or business angels. Whether it is one or the other these people want to invest wisely. However without last year’s report piling up at the reception of this start-­‐up another approach is necessary. This master thesis focuses on how valuation is possible without haveing financial data. The main focus the thesis is to find whitch personal attributes you should look for in a successful future entrepreneur.

123 1 - 50 of 117
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