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  • 1.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Anund, A.
    Fors, C.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Association of drivers’ sleepiness with heart rate variability: A pilot study with drivers on real roads2017In: EMBEC & NBC 2017, Springer, 2017, Vol. 65, p. 149-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle crashes lead to huge economic and social consequences, and one non-negligible cause of accident is driver sleepiness. Driver sleepiness analysis based on the monitoring of vehicle acceleration, steering and deviation from the road or physiological and behavioral monitoring of the driver, e.g., monitoring of yawning, head pose, eye blinks and eye closures, electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram and electrocardiogram (ECG), have been used as a part of sleepiness alert systems. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a potential method for monitoring of driver sleepiness. Despite previous positive reports from the use of HRV for sleepiness detection, results are often inconsistent between studies. In this work, we have re-evaluated the feasibility of using HRV for detecting drivers’ sleepiness during real road driving. A database consists of ECG measurements from 10 drivers, driving during morning, afternoon and night sessions on real road were used. Drivers have reported their average sleepiness level by using the Karolinska sleepiness scale once every five minutes. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of HRV indexes to distinguish between alert, first signs of sleepiness and severe sleepiness states. The results suggest that individual subjects show different reactions to sleepiness, which produces an individual change in HRV indicators. The results motivate future work for more personalized approaches in sleepiness detection.

  • 2.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Understanding Individuals' Learning and Decision Processes in a Changing Environment by Using Panel Data2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When a new transport service is introduced, people have to learn and familiarize themselves with the new service before they decide to adopt it. These processes are developed over time, thus produce dynamics in individuals’ behavioural responses towards the service. This affects the demand of the new service, thus affect revenues. Available studies have examined the factors influencing these responses from microeconomic perspectives. The influence of the theory-based subjective factors has not been examined empirically. Understanding these would assist transport and urban planners to design a better marketing strategy to increase the market share of the new service. A change in seasons affect individuals’ activity-travel decisions, thus produce dynamics in activitytravel patterns in different seasons. Individuals’ constraints, in a form of mandatory activities (working/studying), are influencing individuals’ decisions to participate in day-to-day nonmandatory activities (leisure and routine activities). The interdependency between travel demand, time allocation and mode choice that considers interactions between mandatory and non-mandatory activities, in different seasons is less explored. Understanding these would assist transport planners and operators to manage travel demand strategies across different seasons of the year and provide better transportation systems for all individuals. This thesis includes five papers. Paper I explores individuals’ characteristics of the quick-response and the adopters of the new public transport (PT) service and examines the temporal effects. Paper II investigates the subjective factors influencing a quick-response to the new PT service by proposing a modified attitude-behaviour framework. Paper III and IV analyse the effects of seasonal variations and individuals’ constraints on their day-to-day activity-travel decisions and patterns. Paper V analyses the attrition and fatigue in the two-week travel diary panel survey instrument.

  • 3.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Subjective Factors Influencing Individual's Response to a New Public Transport ServiceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The timing and nature of people’s responses can be expected to vary when a new element enter their environment. For example, when an individual is provided with a new or modified transport service. This time-scale of behavioural responses will affect the patronage of, and short- and long-term demands on the new service over time. Understanding the underlying factors that influence an individual’s response over time to a new or modified transport service would enable us to identify trigger factors that make the new service attractive from an individual’s point of view. Chatterjee (2001) and Douglas (2003) argued that motives other than instrumental factors related to public transport use, such as attitudes, awareness, travel habits and learning processes, can influence individual responses over time to changes in the travel environment. Unfortunately, despite their importance, there have been few studies that examined this argument empirically. To address this research gap, this paper aims to investigate the influences of subjective factors on individuals’ responses to the introduction of a modified public transport (PT) service over time by proposing and testing an alternative model that modifies the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model framework. This paper also aims to investigate the behavioural change in terms of attitudes and perceptions on individuals’ resources and constraints in using a modified PT service over time after its introduction. The case study involves the new extension of a tram line connecting the suburbs of Alvik and Solna Centrum in Stockholm, Sweden. Four waves of a panel survey were conducted with 96 individuals who lived along the new service, from just before the new service was introduced and until seven months after its introduction. A structural equation modelling technique was used to estimate the relationships between behavioural constructs and panel data, then incorporate them into a discrete choice model. The results show that intention influences individual’s quick-response choice. The panel analysis shows that past behaviour in using the new service influenced current behaviour, and that perceived walking distance in using the service consistently influenced the frequency of using the new service over time.

  • 4.
    Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    Dept. of Communication studies, Linköping University.
    Garbis, Christer
    Dept. of Communication studies, Linköping University.
    Team communication and coordination as distributed cognition1998In: Proceedings of 9th Conference of Cognitive Ergonomics: Cognition and cooperation / [ed] T. Green, L. Bannon, C. Warren, Buckley, 1998, p. 151-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we argue that the predominant modelsof Situation Awareness (SA) are inadequate for thestudy of systems operated by teams. The reason forthis is that these models are based on mentalisticassumptions focusing almost exclusively onindividuals. We suggest that, to study the control ofdynamic systems, it is necessary to shift the unit ofanalysis from the individual to the whole cognitivesystem comprising a team of people as well as theartefacts which they use. Thus, our vantage point isthe theoretical framework of distributed cognition.Through two field studies we try to demonstrate howteam situation awareness is actively constructed viathe communicative practices which the team uses inits work.

  • 5.
    Boon, Edward
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    A Qualitative Study of Consumer-Generated Videos about Daily Deal Web sites2013In: Psychology & Marketing, ISSN 0742-6046, E-ISSN 1520-6793, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 843-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deal of the day, also known as social couponing, is an e-commerce business model that offers consumers heavily discounted deals on a regular (daily) basis, and gives merchants access to a mailing list of potential new customers in exchange for a commission. There are thousands of deal Web sites worldwide, offering deals from industries as diverse as hospitality, consumer electronics, fashion, and medical services. This study was performed to learn more about consumers' attitude toward deal of the day, and their motivations for purchasing (or not purchasing) daily deals. A systematic qualitative methodology called BASIC IDS was used to analyze 30 consumer-generated YouTube videos about deal Web sites. The analysis showed that many deal-prone consumers can be considered deal mavens; they take effort to learn about different sites and offerings and are eager to share their knowledge with others. Although many of these mavens show hedonistic shopping tendencies, others appear to focus mainly on utility, that is, monetary savings. Consumers with a negative attitude toward deal of the day are often worried about receiving poor service, and some believe that redeeming a deal voucher makes them look cheap.

  • 6.
    Farah, Haneen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Traffic and Logistics (closed 20110301).
    Toledo, Tomer
    Passing behavior on two-lane highways2010In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 355-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-lane highways make up a substantial proportion of the road network in most of the world. Passing is among the most significant driving behaviors on two-lane highways. It substantially impacts the highway performance. Despite the importance of the problem, few studies attempted to model passing behavior. In this research, a model that attempts to capture both drivers' desire to pass and their gap acceptance decisions to complete a desired passing maneuver is developed and estimated using data on passing maneuvers collected with a driving simulator. Sixteen different scenarios were used in the experiment in order to capture the impact of factors related to the various vehicles involved, the road geometry and the driver characteristics in the model. A passing behavior model is developed that includes choices in two levels: the desire to pass and the decision whether or not to accept an available passing gap. The probability to complete a passing maneuver is modeled as the product of the probabilities of a positive decision on both these choices. The estimation results show that modeling the drivers' desire to pass the vehicle in front has a statistically significant contribution in explaining their passing behavior. The two sub-models incorporate variables that capture the impact of the attributes of the specific passing gap that the driver evaluates and the relevant vehicles, the geometric characteristics of the road section and the driver characteristics and account for unobserved heterogeneity in the driver population.

  • 7. Garvey, R.
    et al.
    Westlander, Gunnela
    KTH.
    Training Mentors-Behaviors Which Bring Positive Outcomes in Mentoring2012In: The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Coaching and Mentoring, John Wiley & Sons, 2012, p. 243-265Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Langbroek, J. H. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Change towards electric vehicle use in Greater Stockholm2017In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 306-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies electric vehicle (EV) adoption in Greater Stockholm in Sweden using the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM) and the Protection Motivation Theory as a framework and considers socio-cognitive, behavioural and socio-economic attributes that may influence the process towards electric vehicle use. TTM considers behavioural change as a process consisting of five stages-of-change rather than as an event. Some key findings were made: (1) from the earlier to the later stages-of-change, the attitude towards EVs becomes more positive, the knowledge about EVs increases and the self-efficacy is consistently increasing. (2) The threat appraisal and response efficacy of EVs increase from stage to stage in the stages prior to the actual change but have a lower level for the stages after the change. (3) The explanatory power of regression models modelling both pre-contemplation and all stages-of-change increases significantly when incorporating socio-cognitive variables such as self-efficacy, threat-appraisal, response efficacy and attitudes towards EVs. (4) The modal share of the car is consistently increasing throughout the stages-of-change. The results indicate that policy measures aiming at increasing knowledge and self-efficacy of car drivers related to EV use can stimulate electric vehicle adoption. Also, the relative advantages of EVs for car drivers should get more attention rather than only emphasizing the environmental advantages.

  • 9.
    Lindborg, PerMagnus
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Physiological measures regress onto acoustic and perceptual features of soundscapes2013In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Music Emotion (ICME3) / [ed] Geoff Luck, Olivier Brabant, University of Jyväskylä, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no exact model for the relationship between the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and evoked or perceived emotion. Music has long been a privileged field for exploration, while the contribution of soundscape research is more recent. It is known that health is influenced by the sonic environment, and the study here presented aimed to investigate the nature and strength of relationships between soundscape features and physiological responses linked to relaxation or stress. In a controlled experiment, seventeen healthy volunteers moved freely inside a physical installation listening to soundscape recordings of nature, urban parks, eateries, and shops, reproduced using 3D ambisonic techniques. Physiological responses were continuously captured, then detrended, downsampled, and analysed with multivariate linear regression onto orthogonal acoustic and perceptual stimuli features that had been previously determined. Measures of Peripheral Temperature regressed onto SoundMass, an acoustic feature, and onto Calm-to-Chaotic, a perceptual feature, in each case with a moderately sized effect. A smaller effect was found for Heart Rate onto VariabilityFocus, an acoustic feature, and for Skin Conductance onto the interaction between the acoustic features. These relationships could be coherently accounted for by neurophysiological theory of how ANS activation leads to emotional relaxation or stress. We discuss limitations of the present study and considerations for future soundscape emotion research, as well as more immediate practical implications.

  • 10.
    Lindborg, PerMagnus
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Sound perception and design in multimodal environments2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is about sound in context. Since sensory processing is inherently multimodal, research in sound is necessarily multidisciplinary. The present work has been guided by principles of systematicity, ecological validity, complementarity of  methods, and integration of science and art. The main tools to investigate the mediating relationship of people and environment through sound have been empiricism and psychophysics. Four of the seven included papers focus on perception. In paper A, urban soundscapes were reproduced in a 3D installation. Analysis of results from an experiment revealed correlations between acoustic features and physiological indicators of stress and relaxation. Paper B evaluated soundscapes of different type. Perceived quality was predicted not only by psychoacoustic descriptors but also personality traits. Sound reproduction quality was manipulated in paper D, causing two effects on source localisation which were explained by spatial and semantic crossmodal correspondences. Crossmodal correspondence was central in paper C, a study of colour association with music. A response interface employing CIE Lab colour space, a novelty in music emotion research, was developed. A mixed method approach supported an emotion mediation hypothesis, evidenced in regression models and participant interviews. Three papers focus on design. Field surveys and acoustic measurements were carried out in restaurants. Paper E charted relations between acoustic, physical, and perceptual features, focussing on designable elements and materials. This investigation was pursued in Paper F where a taxonomy of sound sources was developed. Analysis of questionnaire data revealed perceptual and crossmodal effects. Lastly, paper G discussed how crossmodal correspondences facilitated creation of meaning in music by infusing ecologically founded sonification parameters with visual and spatial metaphors. The seven papers constitute an investigation into how sound affects us, and what sound means to us.

  • 11.
    Lindborg, PerMagnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Friberg, Anders K
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Colour Association with Music is Mediated by Emotion: Evidence from an Experiment using a CIE Lab Interface and Interviews2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 12, article id e0144013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crossmodal associations may arise at neurological, perceptual, cognitive, or emotional levels of brain processing. Higher-level modal correspondences between musical timbre and visual colour have been previously investigated, though with limited sets of colour. We developed a novel response method that employs a tablet interface to navigate the CIE Lab colour space. The method was used in an experiment where 27 film music excerpts were presented to participants (n = 22) who continuously manipulated the colour and size of an on-screen patch to match the music. Analysis of the data replicated and extended earlier research, for example, that happy music was associated with yellow, music expressing anger with large red colour patches, and sad music with smaller patches towards dark blue. Correlation analysis suggested patterns of relationships between audio features and colour patch parameters. Using partial least squares regression, we tested models for predicting colour patch responses from audio features and ratings of perceived emotion in the music. Parsimonious models that included emotion robustly explained between 60% and 75% of the variation in each of the colour patch parameters, as measured by cross-validated R2. To illuminate the quantitative findings, we performed a content analysis of structured spoken interviews with the participants. This provided further evidence of a significant emotion mediation mechanism, whereby people tended to match colour association with the perceived emotion in the music. The mixed method approach of our study gives strong evidence that emotion can mediate crossmodal association between music and visual colour. The CIE Lab interface promises to be a useful tool in perceptual ratings of music and other sounds.

  • 12.
    Lindborg, PerMagnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Friberg, Anders K
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Personality traits influence perception of soundscape qualityIn: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are interested in how the perceived soundscape quality varies across everyday environments, and in predicting ratings using psychoacoustic descriptors and individual personality traits. Two listening experiments (n = 43, n = 42) with recordings of rural and urban parks, shops, and restaurants were conducted. Loudness, Fluctuation strength and other descriptors of soundscapes were extracted, and participant Big Five dimensions and Noise sensitivity were estimated. In Experiment 1, quality ratings depended strongly on soundscape type and weakly on traits such as Emotional stability. In Experiment 2, a multivariate regression model explained 25% of Pleasantness and 30% of Eventfulness (cross-validated adjusted R2). The contribution of personality traits reached a tenth of psychoacoustic descriptors. 36% of Noise sensitivity could be predicted by Big Five dimensions. The article discusses the results in light of personality theory. Both broad and narrow personality traits might be helpful to understand people's appraisal of sonic environments.

  • 13.
    Lindborg, PerMagnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Kwan, Nicholas A
    Nanyang Technological University.
    Audio Quality Moderates Localisation Accuracy: Two Distinct Perceptual Effects2015In: Proc. 138th Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, Warsaw, Poland: Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Audio quality is known to cross-modally influence reaction speed, sense of presence, and visual quality. We designed an experiment to test the effect of audio quality on source localisation. Stimuli with different MP3 compression rates, as a proxy for audio quality, were generated from drum samples. Participants (n = 18) estimated the position of a snare drum target while compression rate, masker, and target position were systematically manipulated in a full-factorial repeated-measures experiment design. Analysis of variance revealed that location accuracy was better in wide target positions than in narrow, with a medium effect size; and that the effect of target position was moderated by compression rate in different directions for wide and narrow targets. The results suggest that there might be two perceptual effects at play: one, whereby increased audio quality causes a widening of the soundstage, possibly via a SMARC-like mechanism, and two, whereby it enables higher localisation accuracy. In the narrow target positions in this experiment, the two effects acted in opposite directions and largely cancelled each other out. In the wide target presentations, their effects were compounded and led to significant correlations between compression rate and localisation error.

  • 14. Lo, Julia C.
    et al.
    Sehic, Emdzad
    Brookhuis, Karel A.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan A.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Explicit or implicit situation awareness?: Measuring the situation awareness of train traffic controllers2016In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 43, p. 325-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on situation awareness (SA) predominantly focused on its explicit, reasoned, conscious features rather than on the implicit, intuitive, unconscious aspects that are often identified with expert operators. This research investigated implicit levels of SA of train traffic controllers (TTCs) in order to contribute to the body of knowledge on rail human factors research and SA. A novel approach was used to uncover levels of implicit SA through a set of three analyses: (1) fairly low SAGAT values with correlations between SAGAT scores and multiple performance indicators; (2) negative correlations between work experience and SAGAT scores; and (3) structurally lower level-1 SA (perception) scores in comparison to level-2 SA (comprehension) scores in accordance with Endsley's three-level model. Two studies were conducted: A pilot study which focused on SA measurements with TTCs in a monitoring mode (N = 9) and the main study, which involved TTCs from another control center (N = 20) and three different disrupted conditions. In the pilot study, SA was measured through the situation-awareness global assessment technique (SAGAT), perceived SA and observed SA, and performance was measured through punctuality and unplanned stops of trains before red signals. In the main study, SA was measured through SAGAT, and perceived SA and multiple performance indicators, such as arrival and departure punctuality and platform consistency, were assessed. In both studies, the set of three analyses showed consistent and persistent indications of the presence of implicit SA. Endsley's three-level model and related SAGAT method can be constrained by the presence of these intuitive, unconscious processes and inconsistent findings on correlations between SAGAT scores and performance. These findings provide insights into the SA of TTCs in the Netherlands and can support the development of training programs and/or the design of a new traffic management system.

  • 15.
    Nilsonne, Åsa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Askenfelt, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Measuring the rate of change of voice fundamental frequency in fluent speech during mental depression1988In: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 716-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method of measuring the rate of change of fundamental frequency has been developed in an effort to find acoustic voice parameters that could be useful in psychiatric research. A minicomputer program was used to extract seven parameters from the fundamental frequency contour of tape‐recorded speech samples: (1) the average rate of change of the fundamental frequency and (2) its standard deviation, (3) the absolute rate of fundamental frequency change, (4) the total reading time, (5) the percent pause time of the total reading time, (6) the mean, and (7) the standard deviation of the fundamental frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated on (a) a material consisting of synthetic speech and (b) voice recordings of depressed patients who were examined during depression and after improvement.

  • 16. Polak, Rainer
    et al.
    Jacoby, Nori
    Fischinger, Timo
    Goldberg, Daniel
    Holzapfel, André
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    London, Justin
    Cross-cultural variation in sensorimotor synchronization with simple rhythms: A comparative tapping study2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Rose, Linda M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Neumann, W. Patrick
    Hägg, Göran M.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Kentta, Göran
    Fatigue and recovery during and after static loading2014In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 1696-1710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjectively assessed endurance time (ET), resumption time (RT) and perceived discomfort, pain or fatigue (PD), and objectively measured maximum force-exerting capacity were investigated for varying loads and durations of a pushing task with two repeated trials. Beyond the main results quantifying how the load scenario affected ET, RT and PD, three additional results are of note: (1) although the maximum pushing force did not change between trials, shorter ET, longer RT and higher PD indicated accumulation of fatigue in Trial 2; (2) the PD ratings showed a trend with a linear increase during loading and a curvilinear decrease during recovery; and (3) the RT and the load level for different relative loading times were found to have an unexpected U-shaped relationship, indicating lowest fatigue at the intermediate load level. These results can be used to model a more sustainable and productive work-recovery ratio.

  • 18.
    Schenkman, Bo N.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Speech Technology, CTT.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Human echolocation: Pitch versus loudness information2011In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 840-852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blind persons emit sounds to detect objects by echolocation. Both perceived pitch and perceived loudness of the emitted sound change as they fuse with the reflections from nearby objects: Blind persons generally are better than sighted at echolocation, but it is unclear whether this superiority is related to detection of pitch, loudness, or both. We measured the ability of twelve blind and twenty-five sighted listeners to determine which of two sounds, 500 ms noise bursts, that had been recorded in the presence of a reflecting object in a room with reflecting walls using an artificial head. The sound pairs were original recordings differing in both pitch and loudness, or manipulated recordings with either the pitch or the loudness information removed. Observers responded using a 2AFC method with verbal feedback. For both blind and sighted listeners the performance declined more with the pitch information removed than with the loudness information removed. In addition, the blind performed clearly better than the sighted as long as the pitch information was present, but not when it was removed. Taken together, these results show that the ability to detect pitch is a main factor underlying high performance in human echolocation.

  • 19.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Intonation precision of choir singers1988In: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 59-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Colldén, A
    Articulatory Fo perturbations and auditory feedback1988In: Journal of speech and hearing research, ISSN 0022-4685, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 187-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Singers are required to sing with a high degree of precision of fundamental frequency (Fo). Does this mean that they have learned to compensate for the change of pitch that has been described in speech during production of different vowels? Experienced choir singers sang sustained tones with a change of vowel in mid-tone. The fundamental frequency was measured, and the resulting Fo contours were evaluated with respect to Fo effects coincident with the vowel changes. The tasks were performed both with normal auditory feedback and with the auditory feedback masked by noise in headphones. The vowels (i) and (y) were found to be associated with higher Fo than other vowels. The irregularities in the Fo curves were somewhat larger in the absence of auditory feedback. This is consistent with findings during speech production. The instability in Fo, measured as the standard deviation over each tone, was also larger in the absence of feedback.

  • 21.
    Trnka, Jiri
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Persson, Mats
    National Defence Collage.
    Hörling, Pontus
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Nählinder, Staffan
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Artman, Henrik
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Framtida ledningscentraler: delrapport 1, omvärldsanalys2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en omvärldsanalys av forskning kring ledningscentraler. Syftetmed rapporten är att kartlägga och analysera vetenskapliga bidrag inom områdetpublicerade under åren 2005-2011. Rapporten sammanställer information om deviktigaste tidskriftsartiklarna inom området som fokuserar på ledningscentraler istort; såväl militära ledningscentraler, krishantering, trafikledning för flyg ochjärnväg, samt processkontroll (såsom kärnkraftverk). Rapporten beaktar ävenartiklar inom de olika forskningsområden som är särskilt centrala förledningscentraler, exempelvis situationsmedvetenhet, teamarbete, distribueratbeslutsfattande, datorstött arbete, informationsfusion och ledningsstödsystem.Rapporten sammanfattar den allmänna utvecklingen inom området, samtidentifierar aktuella trender inom forskningen. Rapporten innehåller även ensammanställning av sammanfattningar (abstracts) av de refereradetidskriftsartiklarna.

  • 22.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Workplace Violence (WPV)– the Emergence and Juridification of a Social Problem2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since perceptions and definitions of violence are context-dependant; the amount of attention society directs at a given social problem affects both how it is perceived and the extent to which it becomes visible in official statistics. But the way in which a problem is defined is also of significance in relation to the measures that are proposed as a means of coming to terms with it.

    Aims: The objective is to analyse how the development of WPV as a social problem might be understood.

    Methods: On the basis of a contextual constructivist approach, the extent of and trends in complex social problems are viewed as being linked to both actual changes in underlying conditions (the objective explanation) and shifts in perceptions of what the problem consists in and how it should be dealt with (the constructionist explanation). The study of these two explanations requires different types of data. The data employed in this project are drawn from nationally representative victim surveys, articles published in trade journals and occupational injury reports in Sweden.

    Results: Defining violence as a societal problem produces a situation where the problem must be resolved by means of legal strategies, which leads to the concealment of the underlying causes. Knowledge appears to exist at workplaces themselves, but these are not given the resources they need to resolve the problem. What we are failing to address are the underlying factors that serve to structure the framework in which these interactions take place.

    Conclusion: Although more attention is now being focused on WPV, it appears to be a “top-down” perspective that is determining which measures should be introduced. Defining violence as a societal problem produces a situation where the problem must be resolved by means of legal strategies, which leads to the concealment of the underlying causes of the problem.

    Goals: Although the objective of crime prevention today has considerable legitimacy and is furnished with relatively substantial resources, we are at risk of completely failing to prevent violence as a result of having an overly simplistic understanding of the problem. To the extent that we lack both an analysis of the negative effects of social change on the prevalence of WPV and any interest in using measures other than legal strategies focused on individuals, we risk finding ourselves in a situation where measures to combat WPV are restricted to a focus on personal interactions between staff and clients. 

     

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