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  • 1.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Anund, A.
    Fors, C.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Association of drivers’ sleepiness with heart rate variability: A pilot study with drivers on real roads2017In: EMBEC & NBC 2017, Springer, 2017, Vol. 65, p. 149-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle crashes lead to huge economic and social consequences, and one non-negligible cause of accident is driver sleepiness. Driver sleepiness analysis based on the monitoring of vehicle acceleration, steering and deviation from the road or physiological and behavioral monitoring of the driver, e.g., monitoring of yawning, head pose, eye blinks and eye closures, electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram and electrocardiogram (ECG), have been used as a part of sleepiness alert systems. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a potential method for monitoring of driver sleepiness. Despite previous positive reports from the use of HRV for sleepiness detection, results are often inconsistent between studies. In this work, we have re-evaluated the feasibility of using HRV for detecting drivers’ sleepiness during real road driving. A database consists of ECG measurements from 10 drivers, driving during morning, afternoon and night sessions on real road were used. Drivers have reported their average sleepiness level by using the Karolinska sleepiness scale once every five minutes. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of HRV indexes to distinguish between alert, first signs of sleepiness and severe sleepiness states. The results suggest that individual subjects show different reactions to sleepiness, which produces an individual change in HRV indicators. The results motivate future work for more personalized approaches in sleepiness detection.

  • 2.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Understanding Individuals' Learning and Decision Processes in a Changing Environment by Using Panel Data2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When a new transport service is introduced, people have to learn and familiarize themselves with the new service before they decide to adopt it. These processes are developed over time, thus produce dynamics in individuals’ behavioural responses towards the service. This affects the demand of the new service, thus affect revenues. Available studies have examined the factors influencing these responses from microeconomic perspectives. The influence of the theory-based subjective factors has not been examined empirically. Understanding these would assist transport and urban planners to design a better marketing strategy to increase the market share of the new service. A change in seasons affect individuals’ activity-travel decisions, thus produce dynamics in activitytravel patterns in different seasons. Individuals’ constraints, in a form of mandatory activities (working/studying), are influencing individuals’ decisions to participate in day-to-day nonmandatory activities (leisure and routine activities). The interdependency between travel demand, time allocation and mode choice that considers interactions between mandatory and non-mandatory activities, in different seasons is less explored. Understanding these would assist transport planners and operators to manage travel demand strategies across different seasons of the year and provide better transportation systems for all individuals. This thesis includes five papers. Paper I explores individuals’ characteristics of the quick-response and the adopters of the new public transport (PT) service and examines the temporal effects. Paper II investigates the subjective factors influencing a quick-response to the new PT service by proposing a modified attitude-behaviour framework. Paper III and IV analyse the effects of seasonal variations and individuals’ constraints on their day-to-day activity-travel decisions and patterns. Paper V analyses the attrition and fatigue in the two-week travel diary panel survey instrument.

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    Nursitihazlin's Kappa
  • 3.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Subjective Factors Influencing Individual's Response to a New Public Transport ServiceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The timing and nature of people’s responses can be expected to vary when a new element enter their environment. For example, when an individual is provided with a new or modified transport service. This time-scale of behavioural responses will affect the patronage of, and short- and long-term demands on the new service over time. Understanding the underlying factors that influence an individual’s response over time to a new or modified transport service would enable us to identify trigger factors that make the new service attractive from an individual’s point of view. Chatterjee (2001) and Douglas (2003) argued that motives other than instrumental factors related to public transport use, such as attitudes, awareness, travel habits and learning processes, can influence individual responses over time to changes in the travel environment. Unfortunately, despite their importance, there have been few studies that examined this argument empirically. To address this research gap, this paper aims to investigate the influences of subjective factors on individuals’ responses to the introduction of a modified public transport (PT) service over time by proposing and testing an alternative model that modifies the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model framework. This paper also aims to investigate the behavioural change in terms of attitudes and perceptions on individuals’ resources and constraints in using a modified PT service over time after its introduction. The case study involves the new extension of a tram line connecting the suburbs of Alvik and Solna Centrum in Stockholm, Sweden. Four waves of a panel survey were conducted with 96 individuals who lived along the new service, from just before the new service was introduced and until seven months after its introduction. A structural equation modelling technique was used to estimate the relationships between behavioural constructs and panel data, then incorporate them into a discrete choice model. The results show that intention influences individual’s quick-response choice. The panel analysis shows that past behaviour in using the new service influenced current behaviour, and that perceived walking distance in using the service consistently influenced the frequency of using the new service over time.

  • 4.
    Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    Dept. of Communication studies, Linköping University.
    Garbis, Christer
    Dept. of Communication studies, Linköping University.
    Team communication and coordination as distributed cognition1998In: Proceedings of 9th Conference of Cognitive Ergonomics: Cognition and cooperation / [ed] T. Green, L. Bannon, C. Warren, Buckley, 1998, p. 151-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we argue that the predominant modelsof Situation Awareness (SA) are inadequate for thestudy of systems operated by teams. The reason forthis is that these models are based on mentalisticassumptions focusing almost exclusively onindividuals. We suggest that, to study the control ofdynamic systems, it is necessary to shift the unit ofanalysis from the individual to the whole cognitivesystem comprising a team of people as well as theartefacts which they use. Thus, our vantage point isthe theoretical framework of distributed cognition.Through two field studies we try to demonstrate howteam situation awareness is actively constructed viathe communicative practices which the team uses inits work.

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  • 5.
    Boon, Edward
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    A Qualitative Study of Consumer-Generated Videos about Daily Deal Web sites2013In: Psychology & Marketing, ISSN 0742-6046, E-ISSN 1520-6793, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 843-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deal of the day, also known as social couponing, is an e-commerce business model that offers consumers heavily discounted deals on a regular (daily) basis, and gives merchants access to a mailing list of potential new customers in exchange for a commission. There are thousands of deal Web sites worldwide, offering deals from industries as diverse as hospitality, consumer electronics, fashion, and medical services. This study was performed to learn more about consumers' attitude toward deal of the day, and their motivations for purchasing (or not purchasing) daily deals. A systematic qualitative methodology called BASIC IDS was used to analyze 30 consumer-generated YouTube videos about deal Web sites. The analysis showed that many deal-prone consumers can be considered deal mavens; they take effort to learn about different sites and offerings and are eager to share their knowledge with others. Although many of these mavens show hedonistic shopping tendencies, others appear to focus mainly on utility, that is, monetary savings. Consumers with a negative attitude toward deal of the day are often worried about receiving poor service, and some believe that redeeming a deal voucher makes them look cheap.

  • 6.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Activity-based offices: Synergies and trade-offs between energy efficiency and employees' work environment2019In: Eceee Summer Study Proceedings, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy , 2019, p. 1499-1504Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use in office buildings is significant. At the same time, more than half of the Swedish office buildings were erected before 1970, which means that extensive refurbishments and new establishments are expected. Requirements on efficiency in terms of costs, space and energy use are then usually high. To achieve both energy efficient buildings and stimulating workplaces, there is a trend towards the implementation of activity-based offices. The activity-based workplace is structured to fit the employees' work tasks and may give an impression of stimulating employees' creativity. However, studies show that the work environment does not suit everyone. Instead, mainly managers and employees who frequently interact with others are supported by activity-based working. Practical examples indicate that the efficiency of buildings may affect the employees´ wellbeing and work environment negatively - i.e. aspects linked to social sustainability. Nevertheless, knowledge on synergies and trade-offs between environmental and social sustainability goals is limited regarding the workplace in energy efficient buildings. It has for instance been shown previously that studies on green buildings mainly focus on environmental sustainability aspects, while the social dimension is basically lacking. This includes aspects of physical and psychological well-being. Still, understanding the interaction between different sustainability dimensions is crucial for implementing sustainability work in practice. The study presented in this paper is part of an ongoing Swedish research project exploring the consequences of energy efficient office buildings on the employees' work environment based on case studies and literature. This paper presents a literature review of scientific papers on the topic and describes the outline of the case studies to be executed during spring 2019. It is concluded that scientific literature focusing on both energy efficiency and work environment at the activity-based workplace is scarce. Still, to ensure that environmental benefits are not realized at the expense of the employees' well-being, it is highly important to further explore potential synergies and trade-offs between social and environmental sustainability factors. 

  • 7.
    Bäcklander, Gisela
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    To see or not to see: Importance of sensemaking in employee self-direction2019In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 25-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being self-directed is one of the most sought-after employee attributes. The present study examines managers’ approaches to and conceptualization of employee self-directedness through semi-structured interviews with 13 managers from five companies in the Stockholm area. Analysis suggests two different emphases in trying to increase self-direction, with differing underlying assumptions: an evaluation emphasis where self-direction is conceptualized as an inherent property of the individual, and a cultivation emphasis suggesting a more interactionist perspective of self-direction as an emergent behavior based on the interaction of individual and situational characteristics. Further, a “seeing work”-skill emerged in all interviews, implicating situational judgment and attention as core to what is ultimately seen as successful self-direction. Managers with a cultivation emphasis mentioned as viable tactics those focused on supporting sensemaking and thus enriching the working situation to enable better discretionary situational judgements.

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    Bäcklander 2019 To see or not to see_postprint
  • 8.
    Bäcklander, Gisela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Rosengren, Calle
    Kaulio, Matti
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Managing Intensity in Knowledge Work: Self-Leadership Practices among Danish Management ConsultantsIn: Journal of Management and Organization, ISSN 1833-3672, E-ISSN 1839-3527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the sources of knowledge workers’ work intensity and the self-leading strategies they apply to deal with it. The paper is based on focus group interviews with management consultants in a Danish management consultancy firm. Work intensity was identified as resulting from a combination of: (1) a results-only focus, (2) vagueness, (3) boundaryless work, and (4) low control of the quantitative load. A framework for self-leading strategies is developed based on the dimensions of reactive/proactive and self-focused/externally-focused strategies in different combinations. The results indicate that while consultants expressed a belief in internal self-discipline strategies of a more reactive nature, in fact, external and proactive strategies were the most effective in practice. In conclusion, the paper contributes to an extension of self-leadership theory to better account for current research on self-control.

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    Bäcklander Rosengren Kaulio Managing Intensity in Knowledge Work Self-Leadership Practices among Danish Management Consultants
  • 9.
    Bäcklander, Gisela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Rosengren, Calle
    Kaulio, Matti
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Managing Intensity in Knowledge Work: Self-Leadership Practices among Danish Management ConsultantsIn: Journal of Management and Organization, ISSN 1833-3672, E-ISSN 1839-3527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the sources of knowledge workers’ work intensity and the self-leading strategies they apply to deal with it. The paper is based on focus group interviews with management consultants in a Danish management consultancy firm. Work intensity was identified as resulting from a combination of: (1) a results-only focus, (2) vagueness, (3) boundaryless work, and (4) low control of the quantitative load. A framework for self-leading strategies is developed based on the dimensions of reactive/proactive and self-focused/externally-focused strategies in different combinations. The results indicate that while consultants expressed a belief in internal self-discipline strategies of a more reactive nature, in fact, external and proactive strategies were the most effective in practice. In conclusion, the paper contributes to an extension of self-leadership theory to better account for current research on self-control.

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    Bäcklander, Rosengren & Kaulio Managing Intensity in Knowledge Work Self-Leadership Practices among Danish Management Consultants JMO
  • 10. Cassar, M.
    et al.
    Dabirian, Amir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Marketing and Entrepreneurship.
    Diba, H.
    Konietzny, J.
    Self-Affirmation of Narcissists on Social Media: A Study Proposing a New Method of Categorization on Facebook Ads2018In: Back to the Future: Using Marketing Basics to Provide Customer Value / [ed] Nina Krey, Patricia Rossi, Springer Nature , 2018, p. 93-101Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the possibility of creating a new category of Facebook ads based on the personality of the user. The introduction of social media channels such as Facebook has provided a new platform for performing self-affirmation theory tests and related behavioral studies. This paper is based on the subsidiary hypothesis that while self-affirming themselves, Facebook users disclose information about their personality. A lexical analysis of each user’s Facebook posts can therefore be used for the purpose of profiling the user. The analysis and categorization of users’ posts based on their behavioral and personality traits can potentially assist marketers interested in targeted marketing to reach a specific audience through this powerful online channel. Hence, this study proposes an innovative method that measures narcissistic personality by analyzing a user’s Facebook posts. 

  • 11.
    Ekström, Axel G.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. Lund University Cognitive Science, Lund, Sweden, Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Niehorster, D. C.
    Olsson, E. J.
    Self-imposed filter bubbles: Selective attention and exposure in online search2022In: Computers in Human Behavior Reports, ISSN 2451-9588, Vol. 7, article id 100226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly assumed that algorithmic curation of search results creates filter bubbles, where users’ beliefs are continually reinforced and opposing views are suppressed. However, empirical evidence has failed to support this hypothesis. Instead, it has been suggested that filter bubbles may result from individuals engaging selectively with information in search engine results pages. However, this “self-imposed filter bubble hypothesis” has remained empirically untested. In this study, we find support for the hypothesis using eye-tracking technology and link selection data. We presented partisan participants (n = 48) with sets of simulated Google Search results, controlling for the ideological leaning of each link. Participants spent more time viewing own-side links than other links (p = .037). In our sample, participants who identified as right-wing exhibited a greater such bias than those that identified as left wing (p < .001). In addition, we found that both liberals and conservatives tended to select own-side links (p < .001). Finally, there was a significant effect of trust, such that links associated with less trusted sources were attended less and selected less often by liberals and conservatives alike (p < .001). Our study challenges the efficacy of policies that aim at combatting filter bubbles by presenting users with an ideologically diverse set of search results. 

  • 12.
    Elvnäs, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Håkansson, Malin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Carter, Ned
    SALAR.
    How to Use OBM Successfully With Leaders in the Context of Work Analysis2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming behavior science into applications that can be useful to real leaders is challenging. There are difficulities in identifying and recording leadership behaviors in field settings, and in describing and measuring changes in dynamic real-life situations . This seminar will present experiences of using OBM and Komaki´s taxonomy of operant leadership (OSTI) in a broader context of work analysis, a context that OBM needs and one that leaders can understand. This is accomplished without abandoning the strategies and tactics of behavioral science that are the hallmarks of OBM. Examples from an eight-year project including 3000 video observations of more than 500 leaders from multiple settings in several different branches of business, in combination with data from time allocation studies for leaders, will be presented. The summary of the results will be shown to contribute to the understanding of OBM in a system perspective. The findings have implications for the design of OBM-oriented leadership interventions.

  • 13.
    Enoksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    A qualitative study of adolescents’ use and perception of Internet-delivered CBT: The case of Social Anxiety Disorder2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Farah, Haneen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Traffic and Logistics.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Passing behavior on two-lane highways2010In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 355-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-lane highways make up a substantial proportion of the road network in most of the world. Passing is among the most significant driving behaviors on two-lane highways. It substantially impacts the highway performance. Despite the importance of the problem, few studies attempted to model passing behavior. In this research, a model that attempts to capture both drivers' desire to pass and their gap acceptance decisions to complete a desired passing maneuver is developed and estimated using data on passing maneuvers collected with a driving simulator. Sixteen different scenarios were used in the experiment in order to capture the impact of factors related to the various vehicles involved, the road geometry and the driver characteristics in the model. A passing behavior model is developed that includes choices in two levels: the desire to pass and the decision whether or not to accept an available passing gap. The probability to complete a passing maneuver is modeled as the product of the probabilities of a positive decision on both these choices. The estimation results show that modeling the drivers' desire to pass the vehicle in front has a statistically significant contribution in explaining their passing behavior. The two sub-models incorporate variables that capture the impact of the attributes of the specific passing gap that the driver evaluates and the relevant vehicles, the geometric characteristics of the road section and the driver characteristics and account for unobserved heterogeneity in the driver population.

  • 15.
    Favero, Federico
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Lighting Design.
    Lowden, Arne
    Stress Research Institute at the Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Ejhed, Jan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Study of the Effects of Daylighting and Artificial Lighting at 59° Latitude on Mental States, Behaviour and Perception2023In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 2, article id 1144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is a documented preference for daylighting over artificial electric lighting indoors, there are comparatively few investigations of behaviour and perception in indoor day-lit spaces at high latitudes during winter. We report a pilot study designed to examine the effects of static artificial lighting conditions (ALC) and dynamic daylighting conditions (DLC) on the behaviour and perception of two groups of participants. Each group (n = 9 for ALC and n = 8 for DLC) experienced one of the two conditions for three consecutive days, from sunrise to sunset. The main results of this study show the following: indoor light exposure in February in Stockholm can be maintained over 1000 lx only with daylight for most of the working day, a value similar to outdoor workers’ exposure in Scandinavia; these values can be over the recommended Melanopic Equivalent Daylight Illuminance threshold; and this exposure reduces sleepiness and increases amount of activity compared to a static artificial lighting condition. Mood and feeling of time passing are also affected, but we do not exactly know by which variable, either personal or group dynamics, view or variation of the lighting exposure. The small sample size does not support inferential statistics; however, these significant effects might be large enough to be of importance in practice. From a sustainability point of view, daylighting can benefit energy saving strategies and well-being, even in the Scandinavian winter.

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    PaperIII_Sustainability
  • 16. Garvey, R.
    et al.
    Westlander, Gunnela
    KTH.
    Training Mentors-Behaviors Which Bring Positive Outcomes in Mentoring2012In: The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Coaching and Mentoring, John Wiley & Sons, 2012, p. 243-265Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Ghalambaz, Soodabeh
    et al.
    Payame Noor Univ PNU, Dept Management, POB 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran..
    Hulme-Smith, Christopher
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    A Scientometric Analysis of Energy Management in the Past Five Years (2018-2022)2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 18, p. 11358-, article id 11358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy management is an essential part of the integration of renewable energy in energy systems, electric vehicles, energy-saving strategies, waste-heat recovery, and building energy. Although many publications considered energy management, no study addressed the connection between scientists, organizations, and countries. The present study provides a scientometric analysis that addresses the trend of publications and worldwide dynamic maps of connectivity and scientists, organizations, and countries and their contribution to energy management. The results showed that Javaid Nadeem published the most papers in the field of energy management (90) while Xiao Hu received the most citations (1394). The university with the highest number of publications in energy management is the Islamic Azad University (144 papers), while the Beijing Institute of Technology has received the most citations (2061 citations) and the largest h-index (28). China and the United States are in the first and second rank in terms of total publications, citations, and h-index. Pakistan has the most publications relative to the country's research and development investment level. The maps of co-authorship show islands of isolated groups of authors. This implies that the researchers in energy management are not well-connected. Bibliographic coupling of countries revealed China and USA are influential contributors in the field, and other countries were coupled mostly through these two countries.

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    fulltext
  • 18. Gogoulou, E.
    et al.
    Boman, Magnus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Abdesslem, F. B.
    Isacsson, N.
    Kaldo, V.
    Sahlgren, M.
    Predicting treatment outcome from patient texts: The case of internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy2021In: EACL 2021 - 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Proceedings of the Conference, Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) , 2021, p. 575-580Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the feasibility of applying standard text categorisation methods to patient text in order to predict treatment outcome in Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy. The data set is unique in its detail and size for regular care for depression, social anxiety, and panic disorder. Our results indicate that there is a signal in the depression data, albeit a weak one. We also perform terminological and sentiment analysis, which confirm those results.

  • 19.
    Göreke, Hande D.
    et al.
    Industrial Systems, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden; Informatics and Media, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Djupsjöbacka, Anders
    Industrial Systems, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schenkman, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. Industrial Systems, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andrén, Börje
    Industrial Systems, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hermann, David S.
    Display Systems, Volvo Car Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Industrial Systems, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden; Computer and Electrical Engineering, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Perceptual Judgments of Simulated Low Temperatures in LCD based Vehicle Displays2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-known drawback with LCD-displays in cold is a slow pixel response leading to poor picture quality. Low temperatures can constitute a hazard in viewing important displays in cars. Perceptual experiments with 20 test-persons were conducted to find clear and acceptable ranges on screens simulating distortions in low temperatures. The results showed perception over clear and acceptable image quality was impaired beyond -20°C for the LCD-screen in the experiments.

  • 20.
    Kaldo, V.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Isacsson, N.
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Forsell, E.
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bjurner, P.
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ben Abdesslem, F.
    Boman, Magnus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    AI-driven adaptive treatment strategies in internet-delivered CBT2021In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 64, p. S20-S20Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Lindborg, PerMagnus
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Physiological measures regress onto acoustic and perceptual features of soundscapes2013In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Music Emotion (ICME3) / [ed] Geoff Luck, Olivier Brabant, University of Jyväskylä, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no exact model for the relationship between the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and evoked or perceived emotion. Music has long been a privileged field for exploration, while the contribution of soundscape research is more recent. It is known that health is influenced by the sonic environment, and the study here presented aimed to investigate the nature and strength of relationships between soundscape features and physiological responses linked to relaxation or stress. In a controlled experiment, seventeen healthy volunteers moved freely inside a physical installation listening to soundscape recordings of nature, urban parks, eateries, and shops, reproduced using 3D ambisonic techniques. Physiological responses were continuously captured, then detrended, downsampled, and analysed with multivariate linear regression onto orthogonal acoustic and perceptual stimuli features that had been previously determined. Measures of Peripheral Temperature regressed onto SoundMass, an acoustic feature, and onto Calm-to-Chaotic, a perceptual feature, in each case with a moderately sized effect. A smaller effect was found for Heart Rate onto VariabilityFocus, an acoustic feature, and for Skin Conductance onto the interaction between the acoustic features. These relationships could be coherently accounted for by neurophysiological theory of how ANS activation leads to emotional relaxation or stress. We discuss limitations of the present study and considerations for future soundscape emotion research, as well as more immediate practical implications.

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    PaperA-Lindborg-2013-Physiology.Soundscape
  • 22.
    Lindborg, PerMagnus
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Sound perception and design in multimodal environments2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is about sound in context. Since sensory processing is inherently multimodal, research in sound is necessarily multidisciplinary. The present work has been guided by principles of systematicity, ecological validity, complementarity of  methods, and integration of science and art. The main tools to investigate the mediating relationship of people and environment through sound have been empiricism and psychophysics. Four of the seven included papers focus on perception. In paper A, urban soundscapes were reproduced in a 3D installation. Analysis of results from an experiment revealed correlations between acoustic features and physiological indicators of stress and relaxation. Paper B evaluated soundscapes of different type. Perceived quality was predicted not only by psychoacoustic descriptors but also personality traits. Sound reproduction quality was manipulated in paper D, causing two effects on source localisation which were explained by spatial and semantic crossmodal correspondences. Crossmodal correspondence was central in paper C, a study of colour association with music. A response interface employing CIE Lab colour space, a novelty in music emotion research, was developed. A mixed method approach supported an emotion mediation hypothesis, evidenced in regression models and participant interviews. Three papers focus on design. Field surveys and acoustic measurements were carried out in restaurants. Paper E charted relations between acoustic, physical, and perceptual features, focussing on designable elements and materials. This investigation was pursued in Paper F where a taxonomy of sound sources was developed. Analysis of questionnaire data revealed perceptual and crossmodal effects. Lastly, paper G discussed how crossmodal correspondences facilitated creation of meaning in music by infusing ecologically founded sonification parameters with visual and spatial metaphors. The seven papers constitute an investigation into how sound affects us, and what sound means to us.

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    Thesis
  • 23.
    Lindborg, PerMagnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Kwan, Nicholas A
    Nanyang Technological University.
    Audio Quality Moderates Localisation Accuracy: Two Distinct Perceptual Effects2015In: Proc. 138th Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, Warsaw, Poland: Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Audio quality is known to cross-modally influence reaction speed, sense of presence, and visual quality. We designed an experiment to test the effect of audio quality on source localisation. Stimuli with different MP3 compression rates, as a proxy for audio quality, were generated from drum samples. Participants (n = 18) estimated the position of a snare drum target while compression rate, masker, and target position were systematically manipulated in a full-factorial repeated-measures experiment design. Analysis of variance revealed that location accuracy was better in wide target positions than in narrow, with a medium effect size; and that the effect of target position was moderated by compression rate in different directions for wide and narrow targets. The results suggest that there might be two perceptual effects at play: one, whereby increased audio quality causes a widening of the soundstage, possibly via a SMARC-like mechanism, and two, whereby it enables higher localisation accuracy. In the narrow target positions in this experiment, the two effects acted in opposite directions and largely cancelled each other out. In the wide target presentations, their effects were compounded and led to significant correlations between compression rate and localisation error.

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    PaperD-Lindborg+Kwan-2015-Localisation
  • 24. Lo, Julia C.
    et al.
    Sehic, Emdzad
    Brookhuis, Karel A.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan A.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Explicit or implicit situation awareness?: Measuring the situation awareness of train traffic controllers2016In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 43, p. 325-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on situation awareness (SA) predominantly focused on its explicit, reasoned, conscious features rather than on the implicit, intuitive, unconscious aspects that are often identified with expert operators. This research investigated implicit levels of SA of train traffic controllers (TTCs) in order to contribute to the body of knowledge on rail human factors research and SA. A novel approach was used to uncover levels of implicit SA through a set of three analyses: (1) fairly low SAGAT values with correlations between SAGAT scores and multiple performance indicators; (2) negative correlations between work experience and SAGAT scores; and (3) structurally lower level-1 SA (perception) scores in comparison to level-2 SA (comprehension) scores in accordance with Endsley's three-level model. Two studies were conducted: A pilot study which focused on SA measurements with TTCs in a monitoring mode (N = 9) and the main study, which involved TTCs from another control center (N = 20) and three different disrupted conditions. In the pilot study, SA was measured through the situation-awareness global assessment technique (SAGAT), perceived SA and observed SA, and performance was measured through punctuality and unplanned stops of trains before red signals. In the main study, SA was measured through SAGAT, and perceived SA and multiple performance indicators, such as arrival and departure punctuality and platform consistency, were assessed. In both studies, the set of three analyses showed consistent and persistent indications of the presence of implicit SA. Endsley's three-level model and related SAGAT method can be constrained by the presence of these intuitive, unconscious processes and inconsistent findings on correlations between SAGAT scores and performance. These findings provide insights into the SA of TTCs in the Netherlands and can support the development of training programs and/or the design of a new traffic management system.

  • 25.
    Mäkivierikko, Aram
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    A Needs-Based Approach towards Fostering Long-term Engagement with Energy Feedback among Local Residents2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach the current climate goals, energy consumption needs to decrease in all sectors, including households, which produce 20% of the European emissions. However, it is difficult to increase residents’ engagement in their household electricity consumption as it is an ‘invisible’ form of energy, the monetary incentives are often too small and environmental incentives are not very effective. Building on the idea that an engagement mechanism should be based on user needs, and recent research showing that social influence can be an effective way to affect consumption behaviour, this thesis examines the potential of a neighbourhood-based digital local social network providing feedback on household electricity consumption as an engagement solution. By helping neighbours to know each other better, such a network could meet the basic human need of belonging to a group, while also taking advantage of the social influence between neighbours to increase the effectiveness of the energy feedback provided.

    This thesis sought to: 1) Identify needs of residents that could be served by a local social network and explore whether such a network could provide a beneficial context for energy feedback; 2) identify and evaluate a set of design principles for energy feedback and use them to propose a prototype feedback design suitable for use in a local social network; and 3) design and implement a baseline study for measuring changes in aspects of social and environmental sustainability in a neighbourhood that introduction of a local social network can achieve, such as social cohesion, trust, safety, and energy attitudes and behaviour.

    In order to achieve these objectives, the Research Through Design methodology was used. This resulted in mixed methods research using quantitative (household survey) and qualitative (focus group interviews, stakeholder consultation workshop) methods. The research was conducted in two eco-districts in Stockholm, Sweden: Hammarby Sjöstad and Stockholm Royal Seaport.

    Regarding the first objective, results from the household survey indicated a need for increased interaction between neighbours in Stockholm Royal Seaport, while the focus group discussions revealed local communication needs that a local social network could meet. However, the possibility to use social influence between neighbours in increasing the intention to save energy was shown to be rather weak, possibly because of the current low level of connection between neighbours. Regarding the second objective, a set of design principles was identified using a literature study. They were used to create a design prototype of energy feedback that was presented to potential end-users in a stakeholder consultation workshop and then refined using suggestions given in the workshop. The workshop indicated support for many of the design principles as they were indirectly mentioned in the discussions. The design principle of fair feedback was further explored, suggesting use of typical household consumption as part of a fair comparison metric and when setting reduction goals.

    Regarding the third objective, an evaluation method with baseline survey and follow-up surveys was suggested. The household survey served as a baseline for measuring social and environmental sustainability aspects in a neighbourhood. Further research is needed on the effectiveness of a local social network as an engagement mechanism for energy feedback.

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    Mäkivierikko 2019 - A Needs-Based Approach towards Fostering Long-term Engagement with Energy Feedback among Local Residents
  • 26.
    Mäkivierikko, Aram
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Sustaining Sustainable Behaviours of Citizens by Creating Value in Their Everyday Life2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over 60% of global greenhouse gas emissions derive from household consumption patterns. To reach the 1.5-degree target set in the Paris Agreement, new interventions to influence household behaviours are needed. This thesis examined two areas, household electricity consumption and waste sorting, where behaviour plays a large role. To change behaviour, households need information and feedback regarding their consumption, but in an era of information overload it is difficult to reach individuals. This thesis explored whether households can be better reached by a service that creates value for its users, so that feedback is noticed and acted upon over a sustained period. Specific objectives were to: (1) identify needs of citizens that could be addressed with a local digital service and develop such a service; (2) design and develop elements of the service to promote selected sustainable behaviours affecting household electricity consumption and household waste sorting; and (3) evaluate whether these elements can improve awareness of sustainability matters and promote pro-environmental behaviour among residents.

    To fulfil objective (1), a local social network for neighbourhoods was designed and developed. A phone survey in Stockholm Royal Seaport confirmed low neighbour interaction, while focus group interviews in Hammarby Sjöstad identified specific local information and communication needs. To fulfil objective (2), a subset of design principles identified from the literature was used to design feedback for the local social network. The feedback was developed into a prototype through workshop and focus group discussions. To fulfil objective (3), residents were provided with feedback and interventions in two pilot studies in Stockholm, a 15-month study on electricity consumption involving 281 students at KTH and a 12-month study on waste sorting involving 61 households in Stockholm Royal Seaport having an automatic waste collection system. The study on electricity showed a 3.3 %-unit peak-hour reduction for the intervention group and 46 %-unit reduction for saving participants. Average participation in peak load reduction was 3 months, but some stayed for almost the entire period, indicating potential for long-term engagement. Incentives were not necessary, but improved outcomes. The waste study found increased plastic sorting among app users, but also challenges in data collection and analysis. Overall, the value-creating approach can be useful if user needs are met correctly, and reaches a larger user group with feedback than conventional energy apps.

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    fulltext
  • 27.
    Nilsonne, Åsa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Askenfelt, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Measuring the rate of change of voice fundamental frequency in fluent speech during mental depression1988In: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 716-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method of measuring the rate of change of fundamental frequency has been developed in an effort to find acoustic voice parameters that could be useful in psychiatric research. A minicomputer program was used to extract seven parameters from the fundamental frequency contour of tape‐recorded speech samples: (1) the average rate of change of the fundamental frequency and (2) its standard deviation, (3) the absolute rate of fundamental frequency change, (4) the total reading time, (5) the percent pause time of the total reading time, (6) the mean, and (7) the standard deviation of the fundamental frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated on (a) a material consisting of synthetic speech and (b) voice recordings of depressed patients who were examined during depression and after improvement.

  • 28.
    Pitt, Christine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Lilford, Neil
    Caruana, A.
    Inferring the Personalities of B2B Salespeople from Text-Based Interviews: An Exploratory Study: An Abstract2018In: Back to the Future:: Using Marketing Basics to Provide Customer Value / [ed] Nina Krey, Patricia Rossi, Springer Nature , 2018, p. 401-Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the traits of the successful salesperson has long been a challenge to both sales practitioners and marketing scholars. The costs of poor recruiting, selection, and hiring decisions are considerable, and so ideally, firms would like to be able to identify as quickly and as effectively as possible what makes a high-performing salesperson. This is especially true in B2B environments, where personal selling is still a very important part of a firm’s marketing communication mix. A number of tools, including personality analysis, have been used over the years to attempt to identify the traits of the successful sales performer. This paper describes a study in which the text from depth interviews with a sample of salespersons in a B2B environment was subjected to content analysis using IBM’s Watson software to produce personality profiles of the individual salespersons. The salespersons could then be segmented into different groups, depending on their personality traits. The limitations are acknowledged, managerial implications discussed, and avenues for future research identified. 

  • 29. Polak, Rainer
    et al.
    Jacoby, Nori
    Fischinger, Timo
    Goldberg, Daniel
    Holzapfel, André
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    London, Justin
    Cross-cultural variation in sensorimotor synchronization with simple rhythms: A comparative tapping study2017Conference paper (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 30. Reiman, Arto
    et al.
    Putkonen, Ari
    Nevala, Nina
    Nyberg, Mika
    Väyrynen, Seppo
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Delivery truck drivers work outside their cabs: ergonomic video analyses supplemented with national accident statistics2015In: Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, ISSN 1090-8471, E-ISSN 1520-6564, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 340-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delivery truck drivers' work contains various physically and psychosocially demanding work situations. Fifteen drivers' and 8 other stakeholders' identifications of such work situations were examined by video analyses in this study. The identifications were analyzed in-depth by the researchers and compared with statistics on 3,507 accidents in the Finnish trucking industry. The aim was to determine what kind of identifications were made and to what degree the identifications coincided among the participants and with the accident statistics. The drivers' identifications differed from the statistics data. The statistics showed a significantly higher relative frequency of movement-related situations. However, the identifications also included risks for future workload-related musculoskeletal disorders. Most commonly, these were emphasized during manual materials handling. The participation of different interest groups seems to increase the amount of relevant information obtained. Nonetheless, the age of the evaluator seems not to affect the analyses.

  • 31.
    Rosa, E.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Lyskov, E.
    Grönkvist, M.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology. Swedish Aerospace Physiology Center.
    Dahlström, N.
    Lund University School of Aviation, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Knez, I.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Ljung, R.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Willander, J.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Cognitive performance, fatigue, emotional, and physiological strains in simulated long-duration flight missions2022In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 224-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilots in long-duration flight missions in single-seat aircraft may be affected by fatigue. This study determined associations between cognitive performance, emotions and physiological activation and deactivation–measured by heart rate variability (HRV)–in a simulated 11-h flight mission in the 39 Gripen aircraft. Twelve participants volunteered for the study. Perceived fatigue was measured by the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Index (SPFI). Cognitive performance was measured by non-executive and executive tasks. Emotions were assessed by the Circumplex Affect Space instrument. HRV was considered in relation to the cognitive tasks in four time points–Hours 3, 5, 7, 9–and their associations with emotional ratings. Results indicated a decrease in performance in the non-executive task after approximately 7 h. This result was correlated with self-reported measures of fatigue. HRV, assessed by indices of parasympathetic modulation, remained unchanged for both non-executive and executive tasks over time (p >.05 for all). Significant correlations were observed between emotions and HRV; with increased boredom, increased passiveness, decreased stimulation, and decreased activeness, HRV indicators increased (p <.05). This suggests that a low self-regulatory effort for maintaining performance in these conditions was prevalent and that pilots could adapt to some degree to the demands and fatigue of long-duration missions.

  • 32.
    Rosa, Eduardo
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi..
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
    Dahlström, Nicklas
    Lund University School of Aviation, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Knez, Igor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi..
    Ljung, Robert
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap..
    Willander, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi..
    Fatigue, emotion and cognitive performance in simulated long-duration single-piloted flight missionsIn: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance, ISSN 2375-6314Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33. Rosa, Eduardo
    et al.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
    Dahlström, Nicklas
    Knez, Igor
    Ljung, Robert
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Willander, Johan
    Effects of Fatigue on Cognitive Performance in Long-Duration Simulated Flight Missions: Effects of Fatigue on Cognition in Long Flight Missions2020In: Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, ISSN 2192-0923, E-ISSN 2192-0931, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 82-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fighter pilots may be exposed to extended flight missions. Consequently, there is increasing concern about fatigue. We investigated the effects of fatigue and cognitive performance in a simulated 11-hr mission in the 39 Gripen fighter aircraft. Five cognitive tasks were used to assess cognitive performance. Fatigue was measured with the Samn–Perelli Fatigue Index. Results showed that performance in the non-executive task degraded after approximately 7 hr. Fatigue ratings showed a matching trend to the performance in this task. Performance in tasks taxing executive functions did not decline. We interpreted that fatigue can be overridden by increased attentional effort for executive tasks but not for non-executive components of cognition. Participants underestimated their performance and metacognitive accuracy was not influenced by fatigue.

  • 34.
    Rosa, Eduardo
    et al.
    Univ Gävle, Kungsbacksvagen 47,Hus 55,Room 310, S-80176 Gävle, Sweden.;Univ Gävle, Dept Psychol, Gävle, Sweden..
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC. Univ Gävle, Kungsbacksvagen 47,Hus 55,Room 310, S-80176 Gävle, Sweden..
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology. Univ Gävle, Kungsbacksvagen 47,Hus 55,Room 310, S-80176 Gävle, Sweden..
    Dahlstrom, Nicklas
    Univ Gävle, Kungsbacksvagen 47,Hus 55,Room 310, S-80176 Gävle, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Lund Univ Sch Aviat, Lund, Sweden..
    Knez, Igor
    Univ Gävle, Kungsbacksvagen 47,Hus 55,Room 310, S-80176 Gävle, Sweden..
    Ljung, Robert
    Univ Gävle, Kungsbacksvagen 47,Hus 55,Room 310, S-80176 Gävle, Sweden.;Univ Gävle, Dept Environm Psychol, Gävle, Sweden..
    Willander, Johan
    Univ Gävle, Kungsbacksvagen 47,Hus 55,Room 310, S-80176 Gävle, Sweden.;Univ Gävle, Dept Psychol, Gävle, Sweden..
    Fatigue, Emotion, and Cognitive Performance in Simulated Long-Duration, Single-Piloted Flight Missions2021In: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance, ISSN 2375-6314, E-ISSN 2375-6322, Vol. 92, no 9, p. 710-719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Fatigue of air force pilots has become an increasing concern due to changes in mission characteristics. In the current study we investigated fatigue, emotions, and cognitive performance in a simulated 11-h mission in the 39 Gripen fighter aircraft. METHODS: A total of 12 subjects were evaluated in a high-fidelity dynamic flight simulator for 12 consecutive hours. Perceived fatigue was measured by the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Index (SPFI). Emotions were assessed with the Circumplex Affect Space. Cognitive performance was assessed by five cognitive tasks. RESULTS: Significant increase in self-reported fatigue, general decrease in two positive emotional states, as well increase of one negative emotional state occurred after approximately 7 h into the mission. Self-reported fatigue negatively correlated with enthusiasm and cheerfulness (r' = -0.75; -0.49, respectively) and positively correlated with boredom and gloominess (r' = -0.61; r' = -0.30, respectively). Response time in the low-order task negatively correlated with enthusiasm, cheerfulness and calmness (r' = -0.44; r' = -0.41; r' = -0.37, respectively) and positively correlated with boredom and anxiousness (r' = 0.37; r' = 0.28, respectively). Mission duration had an adverse impact on emotions in these environmental conditions, particularly after 7 h. DISCUSSION: These results contribute to the understanding of fatigue development in general and of emotion-cognition relationships. These findings emphasize that both emotional states and the type of cognitive tasks to be performed should be considered for planning long-duration missions in single-piloted fighter aircrafts as to increase the probability of missions' success.

  • 35. Rosa, Eduardo
    et al.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
    Dahlström, Nicklas
    Knez, Igor
    Ljung, Robert
    Willander, Johan
    Associations between fatigue, emotion and cognitive performance in long-duration flight missions2021In: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance, ISSN 2375-6314, E-ISSN 2375-6322Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Rose, Linda M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Neumann, W. Patrick
    Hägg, Göran M.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Kentta, Göran
    Fatigue and recovery during and after static loading2014In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 1696-1710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjectively assessed endurance time (ET), resumption time (RT) and perceived discomfort, pain or fatigue (PD), and objectively measured maximum force-exerting capacity were investigated for varying loads and durations of a pushing task with two repeated trials. Beyond the main results quantifying how the load scenario affected ET, RT and PD, three additional results are of note: (1) although the maximum pushing force did not change between trials, shorter ET, longer RT and higher PD indicated accumulation of fatigue in Trial 2; (2) the PD ratings showed a trend with a linear increase during loading and a curvilinear decrease during recovery; and (3) the RT and the load level for different relative loading times were found to have an unexpected U-shaped relationship, indicating lowest fatigue at the intermediate load level. These results can be used to model a more sustainable and productive work-recovery ratio.

  • 37.
    Schenkman, Bo N.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Speech Technology, CTT.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Human echolocation: Pitch versus loudness information2011In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 840-852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blind persons emit sounds to detect objects by echolocation. Both perceived pitch and perceived loudness of the emitted sound change as they fuse with the reflections from nearby objects: Blind persons generally are better than sighted at echolocation, but it is unclear whether this superiority is related to detection of pitch, loudness, or both. We measured the ability of twelve blind and twenty-five sighted listeners to determine which of two sounds, 500 ms noise bursts, that had been recorded in the presence of a reflecting object in a room with reflecting walls using an artificial head. The sound pairs were original recordings differing in both pitch and loudness, or manipulated recordings with either the pitch or the loudness information removed. Observers responded using a 2AFC method with verbal feedback. For both blind and sighted listeners the performance declined more with the pitch information removed than with the loudness information removed. In addition, the blind performed clearly better than the sighted as long as the pitch information was present, but not when it was removed. Taken together, these results show that the ability to detect pitch is a main factor underlying high performance in human echolocation.

  • 38.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    van Leeuwen, Wessel
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Royal Inst Technol, Div Ergon, CBH Sch, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fischer, Hfikan
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kecklund, Goran
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Akerstedt, Torbiorn
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Does sleep deprivation increase the vulnerability to acute psychosocial stress in young and older adults?2018In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 96, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep loss and psychosocial stress often co-occur in today's society, but there is limited knowledge on the combined effects. Therefore, this experimental study investigated whether one night of sleep deprivation affects the response to a psychosocial challenge. A second aim was to examine if older adults, who may be less affected by both sleep deprivation and stress, react differently than young adults. 124 young (18-30 years) and 94 older (60-72 years) healthy adults participated in one of four conditions: i. normal night sleep & Placebo-Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), ii. normal night sleep & Trier Social Stress Test, iii. sleep deprivation & Placebo-TSST, iv. sleep deprivation & TSST. Subjective stress ratings, heart rate variability (HRV), salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and cortisol were measured throughout the protocol. At the baseline pre-stress measurement, salivary cortisol and subjective stress values were higher in sleep deprived than in rested participants. However, the reactivity to and recovery from the TSST was not significantly different after sleep deprivation for any of the outcome measures. Older adults showed higher subjective stress, higher sAA and lower HRV at baseline, indicating increased basal autonomic activity. Cortisol trajectories and HRV slightly differed in older adults compared with younger adults (regardless of the TSST). Moreover, age did not moderate the effect of sleep deprivation. Taken together, the results show increased stress levels after sleep deprivation, but do not confirm the assumption that one night of sleep deprivation increases the responsivity to an acute psychosocial challenge.

  • 39.
    Siepelmeyer, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Mäkivierikko, Aram
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    ‘There's an App for that’: Rethinking Waste Service Provision through App-Based Social Norms to Drive Household Recycling BehaviorManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving households’ waste and recycling behavior is essential for achieving sustainable production patterns. However, the potential for sustainable waste service offerings remains untapped as existing research largely relies on estimated data, short study periods, and unscalable interventions. We conducted a longitudinal field study to investigate the influence of a scalable, app-based behavioral intervention building on social norms on households’ waste and recycling behavior in a multi- residential setting. Using ‘smart’ waste chutes equipped with novel technology to collect objective data for municipal waste (MMW), plastic waste (PW) and newspaper waste (NPW) of 153 households over the course of 12 months, we find that while MMW levels remain stable and do not differ between households that did (vs. did not) install the waste-oriented smartphone app, recycling rates of PW and NPW increased for all households as a function of the intervention. Moreover, app users threw significantly more PW than households not using the app after but not before the intervention. Together, our results suggest that digital behavioral interventions based on novel data through ‘smart’ technologies can significantly improve households’ waste and recycling behavior, thereby presenting a pathway for increasing the service character of waste disposal and management that enables customers’ sustainability practices.

  • 40.
    Steffner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Schenkman, Bo
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Change blindness when viewing web pages2012In: Advances in Cognitive Engineering and Neuroergonomics, CRC Press , 2012, p. 23-32Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Change blindness on web pages was studied for 20 participants. The purpose was to find how change blindness appears for web pages, and which changes are easier to detect. The task was to detect if a change had occurred and to show this by the means of the cursor. Rensink´s flicker paradigm was used, where four categories of changes were presented. It was easier to detect a change not consisting of a person than one with a person. It was easier to detect a change to the left than to the right. The complexity of the web pages did not appear to have an effect, while large changes were easier to detect than small. The results may indicate that focused attention is differently sensitive for different kinds of changes. They also show that change blindness is a general phenomenon that can be applied to the perception of web pages. 

  • 41.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Intonation precision of choir singers1988In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 59-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Colldén, A
    Articulatory Fo perturbations and auditory feedback1988In: Journal of speech and hearing research, ISSN 0022-4685, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 187-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Singers are required to sing with a high degree of precision of fundamental frequency (Fo). Does this mean that they have learned to compensate for the change of pitch that has been described in speech during production of different vowels? Experienced choir singers sang sustained tones with a change of vowel in mid-tone. The fundamental frequency was measured, and the resulting Fo contours were evaluated with respect to Fo effects coincident with the vowel changes. The tasks were performed both with normal auditory feedback and with the auditory feedback masked by noise in headphones. The vowels (i) and (y) were found to be associated with higher Fo than other vowels. The irregularities in the Fo curves were somewhat larger in the absence of auditory feedback. This is consistent with findings during speech production. The instability in Fo, measured as the standard deviation over each tone, was also larger in the absence of feedback.

  • 43.
    Torre, Ilaria
    et al.
    Trinity College Dublin.
    Goslin, Jeremy
    University of Plymouth.
    White, Laurence
    Newcastle University.
    If your device could smile: People trust happy-sounding artificial agents more2020In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 105, p. 106215-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While it is clear that artificial agents that are able to express emotions increase trust in Human-Machine Interaction, most studies looking at this effect concentrated on the expression of emotions through the visual channel, e.g. facial expressions. However, emotions can be expressed in the vocal channel too, yet the relationship between trust and vocally expressive agents has not yet been investigated. We use a game theory paradigm to examine the influence of smiling in the voice on trusting behavior towards a virtual agent, who responds either trustworthily or untrustworthily in an investment game. We found that a smiling voice increases trust, and that this effect persists over time, despite the accumulation of clear evidence regarding the agents level of trustworthiness in a negotiated interaction. Smiling voices maintain this benefit even in the face of behavioral evidence of untrustworthiness.

  • 44. Treen, E.
    et al.
    Money, Arthur
    KTH.
    Quantitative Insights from Qualitative Data: Using the Doubling Technique in Correspondence Analysis: An Abstract2018In: Back to the Future: Using Marketing Basics to Provide Customer Value: Using Marketing Basics to Provide Customer Value / [ed] Nina Krey, Patricia Rossi, Springer Nature , 2018, p. 451-452Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a study that began as a qualitative research piece, involving a series of depth interviews with a wide spectrum of art collectors. Text data from these interviews were analyzed using Watson, a natural language processing content analysis software that enables an identification of the main personality traits of each respondent. This software produced output percentile scores on the Big Five personality traits. The Big Five is the most widely used personality model and describes how a person engages with the world based on five dimensions: intro-/extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness. This data in turn became the input for a statistical analysis tool, correspondence analysis, which enabled us to group the respondents according to their personality traits and distinguish among different subgroups of art collectors to form more homogenous groups of art collectors based on the personality profiles. Due to the percentile scores of the output, we employed the use of a doubling technique to yield more valid results from the correspondence analysis. The doubling technique involved creating two points for each trait – the positive pole and the negative pole. This technique aided as a visual assessment for the grouping of art collectors into more homogenous groups based on personalities. The interpretation of the “doubled” points is effectively a visual assessment, for the total sample, of the distribution of the participant percentile scores for each of the five personality trait variables, which aided in grouping the respondents into distinct groups. Results showed four distinct groups of art collectors based on the relative personality profiles. The significance and implications of these results are discussed in regards to the four “types” of art collectors. Methodologically, this research addresses a means for marketing managers to uncover more insight into the psychographic traits of consumers. 

  • 45. Treen, E.
    et al.
    Pitt, Christine
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Content Analysis in Marketing Strategy: Applications of Hart’s Theory of Word Choice and Verbal Tone: An Abstract2018In: Marketing Transformation:: Marketing Practice in an Ever Changing World / [ed] Patricia Rossi, Nina Krey, Springer Nature , 2018, p. 29-Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of data from which organizational and consumer insights can be drawn is vast and increasing. Yet, the type of data that is becoming more rampant, for example, from social media, is changing to include text, images, and video. Consequently, new methods and techniques for analysis are emerging and producing fruitful insights. Yet, marketing practitioners and researchers still focus on traditional analyses from experimental or survey techniques. This paper breaks down content analysis into its theoretical underpinnings in order to shed light on its foundation as it pertains to marketing theory and practice. We draw upon Hart’s theory of word choice and verbal tone to show how content analysis can be used in a variety of marketing research and strategy phenomena, both at the individual and organizational levels. Aligning with Hart’s dimensions and calculated variables, which make up the theoretical foundation of DICTION, we present a number of applicable areas in marketing where content analysis can provide exceptional results. The theoretical framework proposed in this paper underscores the potential for content analysis as a viable marketing research and strategy tool for organizations. 

  • 46.
    Trnka, Jiri
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Persson, Mats
    National Defence Collage.
    Hörling, Pontus
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Nählinder, Staffan
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Artman, Henrik
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Framtida ledningscentraler: delrapport 1, omvärldsanalys2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en omvärldsanalys av forskning kring ledningscentraler. Syftetmed rapporten är att kartlägga och analysera vetenskapliga bidrag inom områdetpublicerade under åren 2005-2011. Rapporten sammanställer information om deviktigaste tidskriftsartiklarna inom området som fokuserar på ledningscentraler istort; såväl militära ledningscentraler, krishantering, trafikledning för flyg ochjärnväg, samt processkontroll (såsom kärnkraftverk). Rapporten beaktar ävenartiklar inom de olika forskningsområden som är särskilt centrala förledningscentraler, exempelvis situationsmedvetenhet, teamarbete, distribueratbeslutsfattande, datorstött arbete, informationsfusion och ledningsstödsystem.Rapporten sammanfattar den allmänna utvecklingen inom området, samtidentifierar aktuella trender inom forskningen. Rapporten innehåller även ensammanställning av sammanfattningar (abstracts) av de refereradetidskriftsartiklarna.

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  • 47.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Workplace Violence (WPV)– the Emergence and Juridification of a Social Problem2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since perceptions and definitions of violence are context-dependant; the amount of attention society directs at a given social problem affects both how it is perceived and the extent to which it becomes visible in official statistics. But the way in which a problem is defined is also of significance in relation to the measures that are proposed as a means of coming to terms with it.

    Aims: The objective is to analyse how the development of WPV as a social problem might be understood.

    Methods: On the basis of a contextual constructivist approach, the extent of and trends in complex social problems are viewed as being linked to both actual changes in underlying conditions (the objective explanation) and shifts in perceptions of what the problem consists in and how it should be dealt with (the constructionist explanation). The study of these two explanations requires different types of data. The data employed in this project are drawn from nationally representative victim surveys, articles published in trade journals and occupational injury reports in Sweden.

    Results: Defining violence as a societal problem produces a situation where the problem must be resolved by means of legal strategies, which leads to the concealment of the underlying causes. Knowledge appears to exist at workplaces themselves, but these are not given the resources they need to resolve the problem. What we are failing to address are the underlying factors that serve to structure the framework in which these interactions take place.

    Conclusion: Although more attention is now being focused on WPV, it appears to be a “top-down” perspective that is determining which measures should be introduced. Defining violence as a societal problem produces a situation where the problem must be resolved by means of legal strategies, which leads to the concealment of the underlying causes of the problem.

    Goals: Although the objective of crime prevention today has considerable legitimacy and is furnished with relatively substantial resources, we are at risk of completely failing to prevent violence as a result of having an overly simplistic understanding of the problem. To the extent that we lack both an analysis of the negative effects of social change on the prevalence of WPV and any interest in using measures other than legal strategies focused on individuals, we risk finding ourselves in a situation where measures to combat WPV are restricted to a focus on personal interactions between staff and clients. 

     

  • 48.
    Yadollahi, Elmira
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL.
    Couto, M.
    Dillenbourg, P.
    Paiva, A.
    Do Children Adapt Their Perspective to a Robot When They Fail to Complete a Task?2022In: Proceedings of Interaction Design and Children, IDC 2022, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) , 2022, p. 341-351Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial understanding and communication are essential skills in human interaction. An adequate understanding of others' spatial perspectives can increase the quality of the interaction, both perceptually and cognitively. In this paper, we take the first step towards understanding children's perspective-taking abilities and their tendency to adapt their perspective to a counterpart while completing a task with a robot. The elements used for studying children's behaviours are the frame of reference and perspective marking, which we evaluated through a task where players needed to compose instructions to guide each other to complete the task. We developed the interaction with an NAO robot and analyzed the children's instructions and their performance throughout the game. Our initial findings demonstrated that children tend to compose their first instruction by following the principle of least collaborative effort. Children significantly changed and adapted their perspective, i.e. frame of reference and perspective marking to the robot, mainly when the robot failed to follow their instructions correctly. Additionally, results show that children tend to create a mental model of their counterparts and the robot changing that frame of reference might affect their performance or the flow of the interaction.

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