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  • 1. Acs, Zoltan
    et al.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    The Entrepreneruship-Philanthropy Nexus: Implication for internationalization2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how Sweden and the United States have been impacted by philanthropicactivities, commercialization of university-based knowledge and internationalentrepreneurship. The analysis comprises a detailed case study of Swedish and U.S.universities, as well as a statistical analysis of the impact of philanthropy on economicgrowth. The results show that the United States has prompted a university system based oncompetition and variety, with an emphasis on philanthropy, promoting knowledge creation.International entrepreneurship has been an important mechanism by which this knowledge isglobalized leading to increased economic growth. Conversely, Swedish universities werecharacterized by less commercialized R&D and weak links to the commercial sector, rootedtraditionally in dependence on tax-financed and homogenous university structure. TheSwedish model has begun to change with important implications for development in smallerdomestic markets. The analysis has important implications for knowledge creation as asource of economic growth through international entrepreneurship taking advantage ofglobalization, especially for smaller countries.

  • 2.
    Adnot, Thibault
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Project Management within start-ups: Literary review and case studies in Stockholm, Sweden2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the way start-ups use Project Management, what their needs in this field are, and what tools they use to support it. In the first part of this paper, a comprehensive literature review is performed, divided into three main parts. First, Project Management in general is studied; second its benefits to SMEs are pinpointed; and finally its application to startups are reviewed. The second part of this paper is based on three case studies of start-ups in the Stockholm-region. Five representatives of these start-ups were interviewed, and the results of these face-to-face conversations are first exposed and then discussed by the author.

    In the end, this paper shows the traditional phase-based approach to Project Management does not suit start-ups. Instead, a more agile and iterative method is put forward, such as SCRUM. It is argued that such strategy should be kept by start-ups when growing and tapping other markets outside Sweden, although it is recognized that Project Management should become more formal than the general “on the go” approach witnessed in the three start-ups.

  • 3.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Understanding Individuals' Learning and Decision Processes in a Changing Environment by Using Panel Data2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When a new transport service is introduced, people have to learn and familiarize themselves with the new service before they decide to adopt it. These processes are developed over time, thus produce dynamics in individuals’ behavioural responses towards the service. This affects the demand of the new service, thus affect revenues. Available studies have examined the factors influencing these responses from microeconomic perspectives. The influence of the theory-based subjective factors has not been examined empirically. Understanding these would assist transport and urban planners to design a better marketing strategy to increase the market share of the new service. A change in seasons affect individuals’ activity-travel decisions, thus produce dynamics in activitytravel patterns in different seasons. Individuals’ constraints, in a form of mandatory activities (working/studying), are influencing individuals’ decisions to participate in day-to-day nonmandatory activities (leisure and routine activities). The interdependency between travel demand, time allocation and mode choice that considers interactions between mandatory and non-mandatory activities, in different seasons is less explored. Understanding these would assist transport planners and operators to manage travel demand strategies across different seasons of the year and provide better transportation systems for all individuals. This thesis includes five papers. Paper I explores individuals’ characteristics of the quick-response and the adopters of the new public transport (PT) service and examines the temporal effects. Paper II investigates the subjective factors influencing a quick-response to the new PT service by proposing a modified attitude-behaviour framework. Paper III and IV analyse the effects of seasonal variations and individuals’ constraints on their day-to-day activity-travel decisions and patterns. Paper V analyses the attrition and fatigue in the two-week travel diary panel survey instrument.

  • 4.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. VTI.
    Understanding Seasonal Variation in Individual's Activity Participation and Trip Generation by Using Four Consecutive Two-Week Travel DiaryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the interactions between travel demand, time allocation and mode choice in different seasons by jointly modeling the work and/or study, routine and leisure activity-travel engagements of 67 individuals in Stockholm, Sweden. A longitudinal panel two-week travel diary data collected in four consecutive waves over a span of seven months period that covers all four different seasons; autumn, winter, spring and summer, were analysed by using simultaneous Tobit models. The model was applied to explore the interactions among each activity-travel indicator, and individuals’ unique characteristics and endogeneity in activity-travel engagements between different seasons were also considered in the model system. The results of models reveal clear trade-offs between mandatory activities (work and/or study) and non-mandatory activities (routine and leisure), regardless of any seasons, although the magnitudes vary between seasons. There is also a positive mutual endogeneity relationship between number of trips and activity duration within the same activity type. The trade-offs between work and/or study trips towards routine and leisure trips are larger in winter and spring respectively, than in other seasons. It is also found that mode effects on travel time for conducting mandatory activity are much larger in spring than in other seasons. However, the effects of public transport and slow modes on travel time for leisure activities are much larger in summer than in other seasons.

  • 5.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Examining the effects of out-of-home and in-home constraints on leisure activity participation in different seasons of the year2016In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using multi-day, multi-period travel diaries data of 56 days (four waves of two-week diaries) for 67 individuals in Stockholm, this study aims to examine the effects of out-of-home and in-home constraints (e.g. teleworking, studying at home, doing the laundry, cleaning and taking care of other household member[s]) on individuals’ day-to-day leisure activity participation decisions in four different seasons. This study also aims to explore the effects of various types of working schedules (fixed, shift, partial- and full-flexible) on individuals’ decisions to participate in day-to-day leisure activities. A pooled model (56 days) and wave-specific models (14 days in each wave) are estimated by using dynamic ordered Probit models. The effects of various types of working schedules are estimated by using 28 days of two waves’ data. The results show that an individual’s leisure activity participation decision is significantly influenced by out-of-home work durations but not influenced by in-home constraints, regardless of any seasons. Individuals with shift working hours engage less in day-to-day leisure activities than other workers’ types in both spring and summer seasons. The thermal indicator significantly affects individuals’ leisure activity participation decisions during the autumn season. Individuals exhibit routine behaviour characterized by repeated decisions in participating in day-to-day leisure activities that can last up to 14 days, regardless of any seasons.

  • 6. Ahtiainen, Heini
    et al.
    Artell, Janne
    Czajkowski, Mikolaj
    Hasler, Berit
    Hasselström, Linus
    Enveco Environmental Economics Consultancy, Sweden.
    Huhtala, Anni
    Meyerhoff, Jürgen
    Smart, James C.R.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Alemu, Muhammed H.
    Angeli, Daija
    Dahlbo, Kim
    Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi
    Hyytiäinen, Kari
    Karloseva, Aljona
    Khaleeva, Julia
    Maar, Marie
    Martinsen, Louise
    Nommann, Tea
    Pakalniete, Kristine
    Oskolokaite, Ieva
    Semeniene, Daiva
    Benefits of meeting nutrient reduction targets for the Baltic Sea: a contingent valuation study in the nine coastal states2014In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2160-6552, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 278-305Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Lysenkovac, Mariya
    Smedberg, Niklas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Looplocal: a Heuristic Visualization Tool for the Strategic Facilitation of Industrial Symbiosis2012In: Greening of Industry Netowrk Proceedings / [ed] Leo Baas, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) developments have been differentiated as ‘self organized’, ‘facilitated’, and ‘planned’. This article introduces a tool that has been built with objectives to support the strategic facilitation of IS. ‘Looplocal’ is a visualization tool built to assist in 1) the identification of regions prone to new industrial symbiosis activities 2) market potential exchanges to key actors and 3) assist aspiring facilitators to assess the various strategies and social methodologies available for the initial phases of a facilitated industrial symbiosis venture. This tool combines life cycle inventory (LCI) data, waste statistics, and national industrial data (including geographic, activity, economic, and contact information) to perform a heuristic analysis of raw material and energy inputs and outputs (wastes). Along with an extensive list of ‘waste to raw material’ substitutions (which may be direct, combined, or upgraded) gathered from IS uncovering studies, IS organizations, and waste and energy professionals; heuristic regional output to input ‘matching’ can be visualized. On a national or regional scale the tool gives a quick overview of what could be the most interesting regions to prioritize resources for IS facilitation. Focusing in on a regional level, the tool visualizes the potential structure of the network in that region (centralized, decentralized, or distributed), allowing a facilitator to adapt the networking approach correspondingly. The tool also visualizes potential IS transfer information, along with key stakeholder data. The authors have performed a proof of concept run of this tool in the ‘industrial disperse’ context of Sweden. In its early stages of application, the method has proven capable of identifying regions prone to the investment of facilitators’ resources. The material focus and custom possibilities for the tool show potential for a wide spectrum of potential facilitators: from waste management companies (using the tool as a strategic market analysis tool) to national or regional authorities looking to lower negative environmental impacts, to ‘sustainable’ industry sectors looking to strengthen market positioning. In conjunction with proper long term business models, such a tool could be reusable itself over the evolution of facilitation activities and aims.

  • 8.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Measuring the Socio-economic Benefits of Train Timetables: Application to Commuter Train Services in Stockholm2017In: 20th EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT 2017, 4-6 September 2017, Budapest, Hungary, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 27, p. 849-856Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On highly used railway lines with heterogeneous traffic, timetabling is challenging. In particular, the limited existing capacity means that to guarantee an acceptable level of quality, the infrastructure manager must cancel some train services on the expense of others. In this article, we study the conflict between commercial long-distance trains and subsidized commuter trains with a socio-economic perspective (i.e. travelers and train operators). The study attempts to answer the following question: What is the socio-economic effect of modifying the timetable of a commuter service?The case study treats the commuter train services in Stockholm. Trip data was collected from the local commuter train operator. An entropy maximization-based model was implemented to estimate the dynamic network Origin-Destination (OD) matrix. This dynamic matrix, of one full working day, was then used to estimate the number of travelers per train, and further converted for use in the microscopic simulation tool RailSys. Travel and waiting time are estimated for each OD pair and with that the generalized costs for the travelers and operators. The effect of crowding in the trains is included in the estimation. The article can be considered as an initiation to a novel method to calculate effects of changes in commuter train timetables. This novel approach enables to price commercial train slots in the capacity allocation process such as in an auction. It provides a new way to estimate the local train operator´s valuation of the different parameters (i.e. waiting, travel time and interchanges). Using RailSys for the estimation of times makes it possible to include capacity aspects that normally are difficult to reveal.

  • 9. Andersson, David Emanuel
    et al.
    Andersson, Åke E.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Unemployment in European regions: structural problems versus the Eurozone hypothesis2015In: Journal of Economic Geography,, ISSN 1468-2702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unemployment rates differ dramatically across European regions. This article analyses these differences by integrating institutional and spatial perspectives into a unified dynamic framework distinguishing between slow and fast processes of change. The framework forms the basis for an econometric model that is used to analyse labour market differences among European Nomenclature des unités territoriales statistiques 2 regions. The results of random-effects models indicate that four key factors—all of which are of the slowly changing type—explain a large part of the variation in unemployment as well as employment rates. Flexible labour market regulations and above-average levels of interpersonal trust are institutional factors that reduce unemployment. Accessibility factors such as inter-regional transport connectivity and local access to skilled workers have similarly substantial effects. Whether a region belongs to the Eurozone or not seems to be less important.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    CIRCLE, Lund University and Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Creative Destruction and Productivity: Entrepreneurship by Type, Sector and Sequence2012In: Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, ISSN 2045-2101, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 125-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Schumpeter claimed the entrepreneur to be instrumental for creative destruction and industrial dynamics. Entrepreneurial entry serves to transform and revitalize industries, thereby enhancing their competitiveness. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if entry of new firms influences productivity amongst incumbent firms, and the extent to which altered productivity can be attributed sector and time specific effects.

    Design/methodology/approach – Implementing a unique dataset the paper estimates a firm-level production function in which the productivity of incumbent firms is modeled as a function of firm attributes and regional entrepreneurship activity.

    Findings – The analysis finds support for positive productivity effects of entrepreneurship on incumbent firms, albeit the effect varies over time, what the authors refer to as a “delayed entry effect”. An immediate negative influence on productivity is followed by a positive effect several years after the initial entry. Moreover, the productivity of incumbent firms in services sectors appears to be more responsive to regional entrepreneurship, as compared to the productivity of manufacturing firms.

    Originality/value – The paper employs a firm-level production function approach allowing for time lags of the effect of entrepreneurship. The unique data implemented allow the authors to identify genuinely new ventures as compared to those associated with reorganizations of existing businesses, thereby overcoming much of data deficiencies in previous studies. In addition, data are distributed on Swedish functional labor market regions.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Gråsjö, U.
    Karlsson, C.
    Knowledge, Knowledge Flows and Regional Growth: An analysis of the importance of knowledge accessibility2007In: ICFAI Journal of Knowledge Management, ISSN 0972-9216, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 7-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Gråsjö, Urban
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Human Capital and Productivity in a Spatial Economic System: relating the extent of spatial dependence to localities’ position2008In: Annales d'Economie et Statistique, ISSN 0769-489X, no 87/88, p. 125-144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Gråsjö, Urban
    Karlsson, Charlie
    University and Industry R&D Accessibility and Regional Growth2008In: Scienze Regionali, ISSN 1720-3929, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 97-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shortcoming of traditional endogenous growth approaches is their assumption that the stock of knowledge is generally accessible across space. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the contribution of R&D to economic growth in Swedish municipalities, taking account of the variation in R&D accessibility among different municipalities. We argue that the interaction possibilities at different spatial scales can be properly represented by an accessibility approach which discounts interaction potentials using travel time distances. The main result of the analysis is that knowledge accessibility in a given period has a statistically significant effect on the growth in value-added per employee in subsequent periods. Furthermore, the knowledge resources in a given municipality tend to have a positive effect on the growth of another municipality, conditional on the municipalities belonging to the same functional region.

  • 14. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Johansson, B.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Introduction2013In: Innovation and Growth: From R&D Strategies of Innovating Firms to Economy-wide Technological Change, Oxford University Press , 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Innovation Ideas and Regional Characteristics: product innovations and export entrepreneurship by firms in Swedish regions2008In: Growth and Change, ISSN 0017-4815, E-ISSN 1468-2257, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 193-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses upon the ways in which characteristics of regions in regards to knowledge sources, communication opportunities, and absorptive capacity influence the development of innovation ideas among existing and potential entrepreneurs. We formulate a model where entrepreneurs or innovating firms introduce new products in a quasi-temporal setting. Market conditions are characterised by monopolistic competition between varieties belonging to the same product group, in which there is entry and exit of varieties. A stochastic process is assumed to generate new innovation ideas as time goes by, and a firm (entrepreneur) who receives such an idea has to transform the idea to an innovation, which in the model is specified as a particular variety combined with a specific destination market. The theoretical model is used as a reference when formulating two regression models, with which we estimate how a set of regional characteristics are associated with the likelihood of innovation ideas across Swedish local labour market regions. In one model, we examine the emergence of new export varieties, and in the second model, we investigate the appearance of new export firms. Results are consistent with the assumption that knowledge and information flows have a positive influence on the frequency of arrival of innovation ideas to firms.

  • 16. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Multinationals in the Knowledge Economy: A case study of AstraZeneca in Sweden2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multinational companies play a large and growing role in the world economy. Theycontribute about 10 percent to world GDP and about two thirds to global exports. Inthe vast majority of the countries in the world, the presence of multinationals has alsobeen growing over time.

    This report presents a case study of the role of a large multinational company, activein one of the most R&D and knowledge intensive industries of the world, withestablishments in a small open economy. The case study examines the role ofAstraZeneca in the Swedish economy, i.e. an economy dominated by multinationalcompanies. They account for almost all of Sweden’s aggregate investments in privateR&D, over 90 percent of the country’s exports and imports as well as a significantshare of the total number of employees in the private sector. The analyses in the reportmake it possible to assess the importance of the local presence of such a largeknowledge-intensive multinational for Sweden.

  • 17. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Dynamics of Entry and Exit of Product Varieties: – what evolution dynamics can account for the empirical regularities?2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Firm-level heterogeneity is substantial even in narrowly defined industries. This paper focuses on formulating evolution dynamics which can account for the observed heterogeneity and its maintenance. Based on examination of data on Swedish firm’ supply pattern to different markets over time, we present a parsimonious model that has the ambition to capture the picture of heterogeneous firms, while accommodating the simultaneous exit and entry of destination varieties in firms’ supply pattern. The model assumes both scale economies of firms and pathdependence, where the latter is manifested in such a way that the arrival rate of innovation ideas to an individual firm is a function of each firm’s stock of varieties at every given point in time. The path-dependence phenomenon is an “explosive” non-linearity, whereas conservation mechanisms include development of demand and exit of established varieties. The described path dependence explains the skewed distribution of varieties across firms, but the question of what keeps the “equilibrium” away from competitive exclusion where only few large firms remain. We make use of simulations to depict and assess the innovation dynamics of the proposed model.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Regional innovation systems in small and medium-sized regions: A critical review and assessment2006In: The Emerging Digital Economy: Entrepreneurship, Clusters and Policy, Springer-Verlag , 2006, p. 55-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    The Location of Industry R&D and the Location of University R&D: how are they related?2008In: Innovation, Dynamic Regions and Regional Dynamics, Berlin: Springer , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Klaesson, Johan
    Growth Dynamics in a Municipal Market-Accessibility Hierarchy: Does the ICT service sectors follow the overall pattern?2006In: The Emerging Digital Economy: Entrepreneurship, Clusters and Policy, Springer-Verlag , 2006, p. 187-214Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Klaesson, Johan
    Regional Interaction and Economic Diversity: exploring the role of geographically overlapping markets for a municipality’s diversity in retail and durables2009In: Innovation, Agglomeration and Regional Competition, Edward Elgar , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Globalisering, arbetskraftens rörlighet och produktivitet2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Teknologiska framsteg och kunskapsutveckling är den viktigaste förklaringen till högre tillväxt och ett ökat välstånd. I en dynamisk global ekonomi där teknikfronten flyttas framåt i allt snabbare takt blir därför förmågan att tillgodogöra sig ny teknik allt viktigare. Betydelsen av väl fungerande utbildningssystem och starka forskningsmiljöer för produktivitet och tillväxt är väl känt, däremot är kunskaperna beträffande hur kunskap sprids mellan företag och regioner betydligt mer begränsade. Genom att använda ett unikt datamaterial visar författarna att en ökad rörlighet av högutbildade har en positiv inverkan på produktiviteten. Tolkningen är att högutbildade är bärare av kunskap som sprids och kombineras med redan befintlig kunskap vilket i sin tur har positiva produktivitetseffekter. Flöden av arbetskraft mellan företag, regioner och länder blir en viktig komponent för att öka tillväxt och välstånd. Politiken bör därför utforma system som skapar goda förutsättningar för rörlighet samt reducerar inlåsningseffekter i den svenska ekonomin. Resultaten pekar också på att "täta" miljöer som storstäder och klusterbildningar är särskilt gynnsamma för kunskapsspridning, skapandet av humankapital, innovationer och tillväxt.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE) Lunds Universitet.
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    LABOR MOBILITY AND SPATIAL DENSITY2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on a much cited but seldom measured micro-foundation for agglomerations: inter-firm labor mobility. Labor mobility has been advanced as a vehicle for knowledge flows and labor market efficiency, and is often maintained to be an important source of agglomeration economies. Based on matched employer-employee data, we estimate the influence that spatial employment density has on the probability of inter-firm job-switching, while controlling for ample attributes of each worker and employer. The rate of inter-firm labor mobility varies substantially across regions and we document a systematic and robust positive influence of density on the probability of job switching. The likelihood that such switching is intra-regional is significantly higher if the employees operate in denser regions, verifying that labor mobility (and thus the effects mediated by it) is indeed localized. Higher rates of inter-firm labor mobility appear as a likely mechanism behind the empirically verified productivity advantage of dense regions.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Matts
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Parking Policy under Strategic InteractionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I  examine   the   effect   on   parking   policy   of   strategic   interaction   between jurisdictions. To do this I use an inventory scheme and an analytical model basedon Hotelling’s linear city model. I conclude that the procedure for setting supplyhas a downward effect on prices, that resource flow competition implies that thecompetitive prices are higher than the efficient prices (but that the effect of thesupply procedures makes this effect incongruous), that road investments lowersparking prices and that municipality’ park-and-ride policies often leads to the fullbenefits of public transport investments not being attained.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Matts
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Policy Analysis for Different Types of Decision-Making Situations2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis seeks to contribute to decision support for policy makers in the transport sector. In order to frame the papers and to relate them to the broad field of “policy analysis”, I have structured the papers around a simple framework with three decision levels: responsibility, policy gap, and policy measure. The thesis contains five papers.

    “Transaction and transition costs during the deregulation of the Swedish Railway market” is a paper in the transaction cost school. We studied the costs associated with the shift from monopoly to competition in the Swedish railway market, and we found that the change resulted in comparatively small transaction costs, but that transition and misalignment costs seem to be larger. 

    In “Parking policy under strategic interaction”, I examined the effect of strategic interaction between jurisdictions using an analytical model based on Hotelling’s linear city model. I conclude that the procedure for setting supply in most municipalities has a strong downward effect on municipal parking fees and that resource flow competition implies that the fees are higher than the efficient prices (but that the effect of the supply procedures makes this effect incongruous).

    In “Validation of aggregate reference forecasts for passenger transport”, we followed up the Swedish national forecasts for passenger transport produced from 1975 to 2009 and tried to explain the deviations. We found that the forecasts during the last decades have overestimated car traffic, and that this is due to input errors. The potential problem of using cross-sectional models for forecasting intertemporal changes seems to have been limited.

    In “The kilometer tax and Swedish industry - effects on sectors and regions”, we estimated factor demand elasticities in the Swedish manufacturing industry and used these to analyze the effects of a kilometer tax for heavy goods vehicles. We found that the kilometer tax leads to factor substitution in that it decreases transport demand and increases labor demand. The effects on output are less pronounced.  

    In “The effect of minimum parking requirements on the housing stock”, we used a model of the rental, asset, and construction markets. We quality-assured our assumptions and our results through interviews with market actors. In our example suburb, we found that parking norms reduced the housing stock by 1.2% and increased rents by 2.4%. 

  • 26.
    Andersson, Roland
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Mandell, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Så skapas attraktiva städer2014Book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Andersson, Roland
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Nabavi, Pardis
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The impact of advanced vocational education and training on earnings in Sweden2014In: International Journal of Training and Development, ISSN 1360-3736, E-ISSN 1468-2419, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 256-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have established a relationship between greater education and training and higher earnings but it is difficult to infer that the former causes the latter if those with higher earnings tend to engage in more education and training. The present study attempts to control for ability and family background to see if stronger inferences can be made about education and training as the independent variable. The study focuses upon advanced vocational education and training (AVET) in Sweden. This is post-secondary school education for individuals who are 20 years of age or older. The aim of this article is to estimate the effects of AVET on earnings by controlling for selection bias. We used various approaches such as instrumental variables, Hausman–Taylor estimates, fixed effects estimates and propensity score matching to achieve this aim. A panel, or longitudinal, data set for eight different labor markets in Sweden for the period 1996–2008 was used. The results indicate that earnings from AVET are higher than the return on investment in comprehensive education. The average effect on income is estimated to be in the range of 3–8 percent.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Roland
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Söderberg, B.
    Financing roads and railways with decentralized real estate taxes: The case of Sweden2012In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 839-853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roads and railways in Sweden are mainly financed with national government taxes. However, the regional distribution of benefits differs widely from that of tax payments. As a consequence, overspending is likely to occur. A condition for efficiency is that the collective of users should pay for such projects. Therefore, we propose a new regional order for financing projects: government expenditures for transportation projects should be transferred to regions as well as the real estate tax to finance them. We present estimates of the size of such expenditures and of the income from real estate taxes following decentralization to regions.

  • 29.
    Annadotter, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Vilka är orsakerna till ett ökat behov av bostäder till Helsingborgs bostadssociala program och hur ska bostadsbehovet lösas?: En förstudie.2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Helsingborgshems formulering av problemet som denna rapport adresserar är att man önskar få besked av socialtjänsten, i detta fall Arbetsmarknadsförvaltningen och Socialförvaltningen, hur behovet av en utökning av det bostadssociala programmet ser ut. Hur många lägenheter per år är behovet och vilka klienter eller klientgrupper hos förvaltningarna är det som har behovet?

     

    Inom Helsingborg stad är det Arbetsmarknadsförvaltningen, Socialförvaltningen, Vård- och Omsorgsförvaltningen och Fastighetsförvaltningen som samarbetar inom ramen för det bostadssociala programmet. Fastighetsförvaltningen fungerar som spindeln i nätet, administrerar och fördelar remisser från förvaltningarna på de lägenheter som ställs till socialtjänstens förfogande av Helsingborgshem och privata fastighetsägare.

     

    Från den 1 januari 2015 har socialnämnden och dess förvaltning samordningsansvaret för det bostadssociala programmet.

     

    I intervjuerna har framkommit att gruppen av försörjningsstödstagare som saknar övrig social eller ekonomisk problematik inte är ny för Socialförvaltningen utan har funnits länge, att man inte vet om gruppen har ökat eller inte samt att man har svårt att bedöma hur många personer som utgör behovet av en utökning av det bostadssociala programmet. Socialförvaltningen uppger ändå att det kan röra sig om ca 50 personer eller fler. Man betonar att siffran är en grov uppskattning och att man vill återkomma om antalet. Fastighetsförvaltningen bedömer sitt behov till ca 40-50 personer. Dessa personer har enligt förvaltningarna ingen så kallad bostadsproblematik, innebärande att personerna inte har någon belastning som gör att de inte kan uppfylla hyreslagens krav på en hyresgäst. Dessa personer skulle enligt nuvarande regler vara kvalificerade för ett förstahandskontrakt med hyresgaranti inom det bostadssociala programmet. Arbetsmarknadsförvaltningen uppger att de inte har något utökat behov av lägenheter med hyresgarantier inom det bostadsociala programmet.

     

    Ett urval reflektioner, slutsatser och rekommendationer är:

     

    • Hemlösheten i Sverige idag kan till stor del förklaras av en mängd dysfunktionaliteter på strukturell och institutionell nivå i samhället, se avsnitt 3 och Appendix 2. En kompletterande förklaring av den pågående snabba ökningen av hemlösheten är den internationella flyktingkrisen och antalet asylsökande som kommer till Sverige.
    • Helsingborgs stad har ett upparbetat och välfungerande system för det bostadssociala programmet som berörda förvaltningar nu ser över med syftet att åstadkomma ett ännu bättre system för det bostadssociala programmet. Enligt uppgift (feb 2016) finns ett förslag från arbetsgruppen som innebär smärre justeringar av programmet eftersom man i stort är nöjda med gällande ordning.
    • Helsingborgs stad behöver kommunicera med, informera och engagera fler privata fastighetsägare i staden att delta i det bostadssociala programmet och att bidra med lägenheter motsvarande sin marknadsandel av hyresmarknaden i Helsingborg. Det bedöms här som nödvändigt för att uppnå stadens mål: att minska segregation och utanförskap. Vid behov kan staden använda verktygen markanvisningar och exploateringsavtal för att få även nyproducerade lägenheter till det bostadssociala programmet.
    • Relevant och korrekt statistik behöver föras av och kommuniceras mellan alla parter i det bostadssociala programmet, det vill säga förvaltningarna och fastighetsägarna.
    • Den kommunala hyresnormen behöver höjas för att möjliggöra lägenheter med hyresgaranti i fler bostadsområden.
    • Socialförvaltningen i Helsingborg har svårt att bedöma behovet av fler hyreslägenheter med hyresgaranti. De problem som orsakar svårigheter av en behovsbedömning behöver identifieras, kommuniceras och lösas.
    • Bygg fler hållbara bostäder, även till låginkomsttagare. Öka konkurrens och innovation i nyproduktion och på bostadsmarknaden.
    • Ingen av förvaltningarna har identifierat vilka klientgrupper som står för det ökade behovet av hyreslägenheter med hyresgaranti.
  • 30.
    Annadotter, Kerstin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Grannskapseffekter på områdesnivå- en fördjupad studie av bostadsrättsombildning i allmännyttan: Arbetsrapport 3: Ekonomiska investeringar i Dalen och Östberga2014Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Annadotter, Kerstin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Hungria Gunnelin, Rosane
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Bostadsrättsprisernas nivå och utveckling i Dalen och Östberga, åren 2005 - 2012: Arbetsrapport nr 2 i projekt Grannskapseffekter på områdesnivå - en fördjupad studie av bostadsrättsombildning i allmännyttan2014Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Anop, Sviatlana
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Apartment price determinants: A comparison between Sweden and Germany2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Similar development of economic fundamentals in Germany over the last two decades did not lead to the same dramatic house price increases as it is in Sweden. What can explain this house price stability over a long period? This thesis attempts to find the answer this question.

    The first paper in this thesis contains an extended literature review on the studies focused on the factors affecting house prices in the short and in the long run. Existing literature adopts a broad variation of approaches and reaches different conclusions attempting to answer the question about what are the key drivers of house prices. Conclusions often depend on the model specifications and econometric methods applied. Though there is a considerable agreement in real estate economics theory regarding the main factors that affect house prices (or so called “fundamental determinants”), it is hard to find a consistent definition regarding what factors can be considered as “fundamentals” and what factors belong to “non-fundamentals”. The dominating factors that are presented in the majority of the studies are income, population, interest rate, housing stock and unemployment. Studies done after the recent financial crisis put more attention on such factors as the behavior of the market participants, financing conditions and regulations. The characteristics of the bank lending and valuation policies as well as regulations on the rental market have received attention in the research literature, but the impact of these factors on house price dynamics is not measured and not well described. Therefore the other two papers in this thesis aim to provide a better insight in to the factors that create fluctuations in housing markets.

    The second paper investigates the effects of macroeconomic indicators such as population, income housing stock, mortgage interest rate on house prices. Estimation is done by applying panel data methodology on regional data for major cities in Germany and Sweden and by using yearly observations from 1995 to 2010. Results suggest that the long-run development of apartment prices in Sweden can be explained by changes in such factors as population, disposable income per capita, mortgage interest rate, housing stock, and prices per square meter in the previous period. The price for the previous period has the highest impact in comparison with other factors in Sweden. At the same time for Germany this is the only factor that is valid for long-term house price development. Estimates for fundamental factors such as population, disposable income, mortgage interest rate and housing stock appeared as not significant in house price development in the long run in Germany. A closer analysis has shown that the fundamental factors developed in a similar way in both countries during the analyzed period, though the house prices dynamic is very different. The conclusion is that fundamental factors cannot provide an explanation for the differences in house price developments in two countries and further analysis of institutional differences in the housing markets is done in the third paper.

    Third paper applies a comparative analysis approach and hypothetico-deductive method in order to examine the differences in the banking policies on mortgage financing and approaches to valuation of mortgage properties in Germany and Sweden.  The results suggest that the extreme rise in Swedish house prices above the long-term trend was created by expanding bank lending policies that was supported by the general macroeconomic factors and regulation environment on the housing market. The main difference between countries in approaches to valuation for mortgage purposes is that in Germany that mortgage is based not on the market value as it is in Sweden, but on the long-run sustainable value, so called “fundamental” value. Mortgage lending value is determined in such a way that is also develops in the same tempo as fundamentals in the long-run and is not that procyclical as market value. Using a long-term sustainable value has a restrictive effect on the housing prices and in such a way stabilizes the market.  One more factor that gives stability to the housing market in Germany is the well-functioning rental market. Third paper contributes to a better understanding of necessary conditions for the house prices to rise in the long run above the fundamentals level and suggests policy solutions that can reduce the risks of housing bubbles and increase financial stability.

  • 33.
    Anop, Sviatlana
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Comparison of valuation and lending policies in Germany and SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Anop, Sviatlana
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Determinants of foreign direct investments in real estate in European countries - panel data analysis2010In: 17th ERES conference proceedings, Milan, Italy, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreign direct investments (FDI) have been one of the core features of globalization and the world economy over the past two decades. Statistical data shows that the level of FDI was continuously increasing during 2003-2007, but the directions and amount of such inflows differs significantly between the countries. Investments in Real Estate are just one of these inflows and European countries proved to be successful in this process. The objective of this study is to highlight theoretical and empirical findings about determinants of foreign direct investment in Real Estate in developed European countries. This paper first present and analyze existing scientific theories in this area with special attention to Real Estate investments, then focuses on assessing the relative significance of the factors that may attract FDI in Real Estate via a panel data regression analysis for a representative sample consisting of 15 OECD countries for 1996-2007. Results of the study suggest that certain variables such as size and growth of GDP, human capital and road infrastructure appear to be robust under different specifications. Significance of these factors estimates are also observed, confirming the relevant theoretical propositions. However certain differential variables that expected to have positive effect proved to be insignificant within the estimated data sample.

  • 35.
    Anop, Sviatlana
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    House price determinants: A comparison between major cities in Germany and SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Anop, Sviatlana
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    House price determinants in Germany and Sweden: panel data analysis2011In: 18th ERES conference proceedings, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Article has an aim to investigate the effects of macroeconomic indicators such as population, income levels, GDP, housing stock, interest rate and rent levels on house prices. Analysis is done by applying panel data methodology on regional data for major cities in Germany and Sweden and by using yearly observations from 1995 to 2009. Results confirm that population, GDP, income, housing stock, interest rate and price levels for other market segments have effects on housing prices. However, these effects can be different for certain indicators depending on market segment and model used.

  • 37.
    Anop, Sviatlana
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    House price dynamics: A literature reviewManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Armerin, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Optimal Stopping of a Killed Exponentially Growing ProcessManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a finite horizon optimal stopping problem. The value of the underlying process grows exponentially until a Poisson process jumps for the first time, at which the processes jumps to zero and stays there forever. As applications of this model we consider valuing real options and options written on the stock of a start-up company.

  • 39.
    Armerin, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH.
    Song, Han-Suck
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Valuing the housing cooperative conversion option2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1990s, both private and municipal owners of multifamily rentalproperties in Sweden have sold a large number of their properties to hous-ing cooperatives established by the property's tenants. One motivationfor the large increase in so called housing cooperative conversions is thatthe practice of rent regulation causes actual rents to be lower than market-clearing rent levels, especially in attractive areas in larger cities. By sell-ing the property to a housing cooperative, the property owner can takeadvantage of the positive price di®erence between the price of housing co-operative dwellings, which are determined by demand and supply, and thevalue of the property based on the assumption that the rents will continueto be lower than market rents.In this paper we use a real options approach to derive a closed-formvaluation formula for the option an owner of an income producing multi-family property has to sell it to a housing cooperative. In traditionaloption valuation models, the date when the option matures is known inadvance. However, it is common that the property owner does not knowin advance when the tenants (through the housing cooperative) will buythe property. In this paper we let the expected time to maturity, which isthe day when the tenants purchases the property from their landlord, tobe a random variable. The numerical examples suggest that the value ofthe conversion option increases as expected time to conversion increases,as well as when the volatility of the price of housing cooperative proper-ties increase. The real options approach suggested in this paper may beespecially useful to explicitly conceptualize the problem of valuing a rentalproperty with embedded options to switch it to another type of property.

  • 40.
    Aroles, Jérémy
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Rail infrastructure management: transaction cost theory applied to a French case study2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many changes have occurred since 1997 in the French rail institutional system. Réseau Ferré de France (RFF) was created as rail institutional network owner but delegates almost all its functions as infrastructure manager to the state owned railroad corporation called Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Français (SNCF). This reform results from the implementation of the EU directives concerning the introduction of free competition on the rail transport market in order to improve the economic efficiency of the sector.

    The French reorganized hybrid structure with RFF as owner of the network and SNCF as subcontractor for most issues influences the way investment projects are managed while RFF has restrictive commitments towards the French state concerning the modernisation and the renewal of the national network.

    Since 2008 new actors appear in the rail engineering sector. They are involved in the delegation of contracting ownership and technical master design of investment projects for RFF. Their introduction adds interactions in a framework where transactions are highly complex, uncertain and human specific. But so far they have shown improvements on productivity on specific types of projects.

    Today the idea of creating a unique infrastructure manager is shared by all stakeholders and supported by theoretical underpinnings. A consensus is however not reached on the details of a possible new reorganisation. Production costs representing by far the biggest part of the total costs must in any case be reduced. A further development of free competition in the rail engineering sector can help in this direction while safety issues connected to the railroad system might need specific regulation. Gathering the responsibilities of the infrastructure manager within a new independent institution might be the best compromise despite of social and cultural issues. It would moreover anticipate a reorganisation that might be soon required by the European Union.

  • 41.
    Asplund, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Economics.
    Friberg, Richard
    Wilander, Fredrik
    Demand and Distance: Evidence on Cross-Border Shopping2007In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 91, no 1-2, p. 141-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important issue for commodity taxation is the extent to which changes in foreign taxes affect the extent of cross-border shopping and thereby, domestic tax revenue. We use data from Swedish municipalities to estimate how responsive alcohol sales are to foreign prices, and relate the sensitivity to the location's distance to the border. Typical results suggest that the elasticity with respect to the foreign price is around 0.3 in the border region; moving 150 (400) km inland reduces the cross-price elasticity to 0.2 (0.1). Our estimates suggest that a recent Danish cut in the spirits tax reduced Swedish tax revenues from spirits sales by more than 2%, and that an attempt by Sweden to cut taxes in response would reduce tax revenues further.

  • 42.
    Atterhög, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Song, Han-Suck
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    A survey of policies that may increase access to home ownership for low income households2009In: Housing, Theory and Society, ISSN 1403-6096, E-ISSN 1651-2278, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 248-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article presents a systematic overview of strategies that may make home ownership affordable to more low-income households. Home ownership has been regarded as the preferred choice of tenure by most OECD countries for many decades and has often been supported with a wide range of methods that make ownership economically attractive. There are four distinct time periods of a typical “housing career”: (1) down payment accumulation stage, (2) transaction stage, (3) ownership stage and (4) selling stage. Although home ownership rates have been on the increase globally since the Second World War, recent signs indicate that this trend has been halted. However, it is argued that little is known on the actual effectiveness of most of the described policies and that a set of policies, focusing on at least the first three stages above, is needed should a government wish to encourage home ownership. Moreover, direct subsidies and grants are probably not very interesting considering the weak financial situation of most governments. Thus, selected policies would probably focus on the ability of the households to signal their characteristics and on strengthening various insurance markets so that they become open to more households at a reasonable price.

  • 43.
    Avdeitchikova, Sofia
    et al.
    Oxford Research.
    Nyström, Kristina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Access to Informal Venture Capital and Ambitious Entrepreneurship - Cross Country Evidence2016In: International Reveiw of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2009-2822, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 469-482, article id 1545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many empirical studies have emphasized the importance of institutional venture capital for enabling high growth entrepreneurship and innovation. Yet, there are reasons to believe that provision of informal venture capital will have as significant, if not more significant effect on entrepreneurship. Based on Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for 33 countries for the years 2001-2010, we study the relationship between the presence of informal investors in a country and the levels of general and ambitious entrepreneurship, defined as entrepreneurs that have intentions to grow their business, internationalize and/or innovate. Some of the main findings are that the overall level of access to informal venture capital is positively related to general entrepreneurship and ambitious entrepreneurship in terms of innovativeness, while access to arms-length money (i.e. informal investments made by work colleagues or strangers) appears to be positively related to ambitious entrepreneurship in terms of job growth expectations. The relationship between availability of arms-length money and the innovativeness of the entrepreneurial activities appears however to be negative.

  • 44.
    Axelson, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    How the Nordic countries approach CSR and MSI: A study of firms’ CSR actions. The Nordic model.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand for the private sector to include corporate social responsibility in their business and everyday work. This thesis has studied the corporate responsibility of firms in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden), compared with firms in 18 other OECD countries. The results are then analysed by referring to the institutional framework that firms operate in; national and international institutions. In particular, the thesis aims at examining whether there is a distinctive Nordic approach towards CSR. The Nordic countries are argued to operate in a specific national business system, influenced by the welfare state model which also impact firms’ approach towards CSR. Furthermore, the role of multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSIs) is emphasized. National institutions are, due to increased globalization and awareness of global governance gaps, increasingly challenged by international institutions. To address this issue variables are collected from the MSI UN Global Compact (UNGC) Implementation Survey from 2017, the main variable being overall CSR actions the companies take, and more specifically with regard to human rights (HR), labour rights (LR), environment (EN) and anti-corruption (AC). A simple OLS with robust standard errors was performed to define the relationship between the variables. The result show both similarities and differences between the Nordic and OECD companies, but also differences to a larger extent than expected between the Nordic countries. The main contribution of this study is thus to highlight factors that influences companies’ CSR, with possible implications for policy makers as well as managers on a national and international level. Further research should elaborate and expand the CSR actions and compare on a cross-country level instead of a Nordic and OECD level and include companies in other MSIs.

  • 45.
    Baltzopoulos, Apostolos
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics.
    Essays on High-Quality Entrepreneurship: On the Origins and Survival of Start-ups and the Role of Universities in the Location Decision2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four self-contained essays on the topic of entrepreneurship.

    [Essay I] uses a unique and detailed Swedish dataset to explore firm, regional, and industry determinants that stimulate spin-offs using the choice of the individuals as the level of analysis. The most important results are that the size of the region and of the local entrepreneurial culture (the relative number of SMEs) has a positive effect on the propensity of the individual to set up a new venture corroborating the results of past firm- and regional-level studies. Industrial specialization is shown to have a positive impact on spin-offs, albeit only in high-tech manufacturing and in knowledge intensive business service sectors. Moreover, using an entropy measure to disentangle unrelated and related variety, it is found that the former has a significantly negative while the latter a significantly positive effect on the propensity of the individual to start a spin-off.

    [Essay II] asks how localisation (MAR) and diversity (Jacobs) externalities affect opportunity-based entrepreneurship across all industry sectors in Sweden’s private economy in the period 1999-2005. MAR externalities are found to positively affect entrepreneurship across all sectors. Jacobs externalities, measured as related variety using an entropy measure, positively affect entrepreneurship in high-tech manufacturing and in knowledge intensive business services but have no significant effect on low-tech manufacturing and other services. The results suggest that previous studies that find no evidence of entrepreneurship benefiting from a diverse local market composition might be using too broad measures of variety.

    [Essay III] analyses how different R&D strategies of incumbent firms affect the quantity and quality of their entrepreneurial spawning. By examining entrepreneurial ventures of ex-employees of firms with different R&D strategies three things emerge: First, firms with persistent R&D investments with a general superiority in sales, exports, productivity, profitability and wages are less likely to generate entrepreneurs than firm with temporary or no R&D investments. Second, start-ups from knowledge intensive business service (KIBS) firms with persistent R&D investments have a significantly increased probability of survival.  No corresponding association between the R&D strategies of incumbents and survival of entrepreneurial spawns is found for incumbents in manufacturing sectors. Third, spin-outs from KIBS-firms are more likely to survive if they start in the same firm, indicating the importance of inherited related knowledge. The findings suggest that R&D intensive firms spur fewer entrepreneurs, but their entrepreneurial spawns tend to be of higher quality.

    [Essay IV] investigates how universities may affect regional entrepreneurship through the localisation decisions of entrepreneurial alumni. Empirically, a comprehensive, individual-level dataset from Sweden is used for the period 2003-2005. The results suggest that even when controlling for their spatial history, individuals have an increased propensity to set up in the region where they studied. This effect is found to substitute for both urbanisation economies and localisation economies as drivers of regional-level entrepreneurship. Thus, the analysis provides evidence on how universities affect regional economic development that complements the strong focus on spin-off activities by university researchers in previous studies.

  • 46.
    Basir, Nada
    et al.
    Schulich School of Business, York University, Canada.
    Beyhaghi, Mehdi
    College of Business, University of Texas at San Antonio, USA.
    Mohammadi, Ali
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    The Fate of Patents: An Exploratory Analysis of Patents as Signals of Reputational Advantage2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the reputation literature and signaling theory, this article builds on work that looks at patents as reputation signals.We build a multi-industry database of patents that expire due to lack of maintenance fee payments and test for a relationship between these patents and the firm’s IPO date.We find a significant and positive relationship between the likelihood of patents expiring due to lack of maintenance fee payments and the time to IPO. We also find that patents associated with firms which are not venture capital backed,are more likely to expire. Our findings suggest that patents that are used for signaling intentions are more likely to be underutilized.Implications for research and policy are discussed.

  • 47.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Peak Car? Drivers of  the recent decline in Swedish car use2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been well-known that economic variables such as GDP and fuel price as well as socio-demographic characteristics and spatial distribution are key factors explaining car use trends. However, due to the recently observed plateau of total car travel in many high income countries, it has been argued that other factors, such as changes in preferences, attitudes and life-styles, have become more important drivers of car use.  This paper shows that the two variables GDP per capita and fuel price explain most of the aggregate trends in car distances driven per adult in Sweden: as much as 80% over the years 2002 to 2012. The estimated elasticities are well in line with previous literature and can reasonably well reproduce the trend in car distances driven per adult back to 1980. We find, however, a substantial variation in elasticities between municipalities depending on public transport supply, population density, share of foreign-born inhabitants and the average income level.

  • 48.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Peak car?: Drivers of the recent decline in Swedish car use2015In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 42, p. 94-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been well-known that economic variables such as GDP and fuel price as well as socio-demographic characteristics and spatial distribution are key factors explaining car use trends. However, due. to the recently observed plateau of total car travel in many high income countries, it has been argued that other factors, such as changes in preferences, attitudes and life-styles, have become more important drivers of car use. This paper shows that the two variables, GDP per capita and fuel price, explain most of the aggregate trends in car distances driven per adult in Sweden: as much as 80% over the years 2002 to 2012. The estimated elasticities are well in line with previous literature and can reasonably well reproduce the trend in car distances driven per adult back to 1980. We find, however, a substantial variation in elasticities between municipalities depending on public transport supply, population density, share of foreign-born inhabitants and the average income level.

  • 49. Baum, C. F.
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Nabavi, Pardis
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Stephan, A.
    A new approach to estimation of the R&D–innovation–productivity relationship2016In: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply a generalized structural equation model approach to the estimation of the relationship between R&D, innovation and productivity that focuses on the potentially crucial heterogeneity across sectors. The model accounts for selectivity and handles the endogeneity of this relationship in a recursive framework which allows for feedback effects from productivity to future R&D investment. Our approach enables the estimation of the different equations as one system, allowing the coefficients to differ across sectors, and also permits us to take cross-equation correlation of the errors into account. Employing a panel of Swedish manufacturing and service firms observed in three consecutive Community Innovation Surveys in the period 2008–2012, our full-information maximum likelihood estimates show that many key channels of influence among the model's components vary meaningfully in their statistical significance and magnitude across six different sectors based on the OECD classification on technological and knowledge intensity. These results cast doubt on earlier research which does not allow for sectoral heterogeneity.

  • 50. Bazzazian, N.
    et al.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    The effect of employer prominence on employee entrepreneurship2012In: Academy of Management 2012 Annual Meeting, AOM 2012, Academy of Management , 2012, p. 1720-1725Conference paper (Refereed)
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