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  • 1.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Enabling socio-technical transitions – electric vehicles and high voltage electricity grids as focal points of low emission futures2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Today humankind is facing numerous sustainability challenges that require us to question CO2 intensive practices like those present in the transport and energy sector. To meet those challenges, many countries have adopted ambitious climate targets. Achieving such targets requires an understanding of the wider socio-technical context of transitions. The aim of this licentiate thesis is therefore to analyse such socio-technical transitions towards low-emission futures enabled by the electrification of passenger cars and high voltage grid development.

    A combination of different transitions theories (for ex. Multi-level perspective and Technological innovation systems) and institutional theory has been used. To reach the aim paper I analyses the climate impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and policy measures to achieve a breakthrough scenario for EVs. The results show that a mixture of short and long term policies are needed that take into account the technology development stage and behavioural aspects of EV adopters. Paper II addresses the need to include the high voltage transmission grid and its planning procedures as a central part of debates on transitions. Therefore the opportunities, challenges and reasons for conflict in the established regime are studied. The results show that in order to achieve a sustainable grid development regime, it is necessary to spend time on achieving legitimacy and social sustainability. The third paper uses semi-structured expert interviews and focuses on innovation dynamics for EV adoption. By focusing on dynamics instead of single policy measures, it is possible to grasp interactions within a niche, but also in between a niche, regime and landscape. The results show that strong initial technology legitimacy was needed to start substantial innovation dynamics. This could be further strengthened with a strong and broad coalition of actors. Both those factors led, if present, to an improved variety and match of policy instruments.

    As such this thesis has shown that transitions are not just about technology or policy instruments as such but about the dynamics and processes needed to enable them. This can be relevant in other transitions that otherwise may underestimate the importance of these components.

  • 2.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    System innovation dynamics around electric vehicles. The cases of Norway, Denmark and Sweden.Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the comparison of electric car innovation patterns in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Doing so, it takes a closer look at what the most essential dynamics in the systems were over time and what enabled those dynamics. The main research aim is to contribute to a wider understanding of why Norway is so much ahead of Sweden and Denmark in electric car adoption. The purpose is also to adopt a perspective that goes beyond a mere focus on economic policy instruments. In order to do so different theory elements are combined in a framework. These elements stem from the transition theory literature field, especially the technological innovation system (TIS) and the multi-level perspective (MLP). This combination allows analysing the development behind a dynamic, not just when it comes to an innovation itself but also with regards to the established regime. The data is gathered through analysis of existing documents and data as well as a series of 27 expert interviews conducted in the three case countries. The findings suggest that there are important differences in transition patterns that can account for the electric vehicle (EV) diffusion situation we can find nowadays in the three Nordic countries. An important stepping stone was the need for a very strong legitimacy of the original EV vision that is also anchored in a coordinated, sector overarching coalition of actors that thinks strategically and long term. Moreover some general beneficial dynamics could be identified across the countries in question. In Norway these beneficial dynamics can be summarised as a systems motor, in Denmark as a failed entrepreneurial motor that shifted towards a constrained municipal motor and in Sweden as a loosely, coordinated and weaker version of a systems motor.

  • 3.
    Darmani, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    Niesten, Eva M. M. I.
    Hekkert, Marko P.
    Characteristics of investors in onshore wind power in Sweden2017Inngår i: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, Vol. 24, s. 67-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to facilitate the transition to electricity industries with low CO2 emissions, it is important to understand which firms invest in renewable energy technologies. This study concentrates on the heterogeneous characteristics of investors in wind power that are embedded in the investors' dynamic capabilities. Data on 617 investors in the Swedish onshore wind industry are analyzed. Investors with higher investment and management experience and a mixed generation portfolio whose business is electricity production have more assets in wind. Investors' age in the wind industry has a negative relation with assets in wind, illustrating that latecomers are investing more. Individual incumbents of the electricity industry hold a relatively large amount of assets in the Swedish wind industry, but the group of incumbents as a whole possesses only 15 percent of wind assets. The results suggest that tailor-made policies could stimulate a greater variety of firms to invest in wind power.

  • 4.
    Giertz, Eric
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    Dynamics in Swedish Industry and Political History2016Inngår i: A Dynamic Mind: Perspectives on Industrial Dynamics in Honour of Staffan Laestadius / [ed] Pär Blomkvist, Petter Johansson, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016, 1, s. 321-367Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rules and regulations for industry are of great importance for the wellbeing of a country. In this chapter I discuss the complex inter-play between governmental actions and industrial development in Sweden during one and a half century. I divide the period into three phases.

    The first phase was initiated in the mid-1800s when a number of decisions speeded up the process of industrialization in Sweden – giving Sweden many new ventures founded by entrepreneurs. The second phase was initiated by the depression after World War I. The ownership of Swedish industry was concentrated to a few financial spheres, which closely cooperated with the Social Democratic government and the reformist labor movement. The third phase was initiated by the crises in the mid-1970s. The Social Democrats lost the election in 1976 and a new political era was born. In the late 1980s it was also followed by a new globalization era in industry.

    Globalization has fundamentally changed possibilities for small nations, like Sweden, to form national strategies for growth. But still the “Swedish model” from last century evokes a nostalgic response from many Swedes. Also, some concepts and institutions, as well as rules and regulations, still survive with some strength, even though they originated in a different era and are less relevant today. I hope that the reader of this chapter shall be aware that yesterday’s successful principles of setting rules for industry, as well as organizing and managing different businesses might no longer be appropriate.

  • 5.
    Giertz, Eric
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    Hjorth, Mikael
    Lindhagen, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell Management.
    Engwall, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell Management.
    Gens, Magnus
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    Svensk konsultsektor i ny belysning: Utvecklingstrender och dynamik2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konsultsektorn är inte en bransch i vanlig mening. Den består av företag med likartad affärslogik som är verksamma i helt olika branscher. Den expanderar i takt med att kunderna väljer att upphandla konsulter som gör utredningar, projekterar byggen, utvecklar produkter och IT-system, konstruerar maskiner, utformar reklamkampanjer, patentansökningar och affärsavtal, genomför revisioner och tester av olika slag, sköter rekrytering, bokföring eller telefonintervjuer, utvecklar organisationsformer, interna rutiner och mycket mer.

    Denna rapport baseras på en unik kartläggning av konsultföretag i Sverige. Initialt skapades en bruttolista av alla företag med SNI-koder som kunde tänkas dölja kunskapsintensiva konsultföretag. I nästa steg inhämtades uppgifter, bland annat via företagens hemsidor, om alla aktiebolag i bruttolistan med minst fem anställda. Cirka en tredjedel av bolagen sorterades då bort. Återstående företag, som kunde klassificeras som konsultföretag, samlades i en databas och kategoriserades efter verksamhetens inriktning. Databasen som är grunden för vår analys omfattar 6 421 företag med minst fem anställda. De hade 212 753 heltidsekvivalenter sysselsatta på 10 075 arbetsställen i Sverige år 2012. Därutöver fanns en lång svans av små aktiebolag med 1-4 anställda. Små bolag med liten omsättning, som kan antas vara bolag för bisysslor, sorterades bort. Av 46 703 aktiebolag med 1-4 anställda återstod därefter 10 205. Dessa hade uppskattningsvis 35 212 heltidsekvivalenter sysselsatta år 2012. Totalt rör det sig således om cirka 250 000 anställda i konsultsektorns aktiebolag. Studien bygger på heltidsekvivalenter som mått på anställda. Därför är det betydligt fler fysiska personer som arbetar inom de inkluderade företagen – lågt räknat cirka 300 000.

    Sett över en längre tidsperiod har den totala sysselsättningen inom konsultsektorn ständigt ökat i Sverige. Under de senaste fyra decennierna har antalet yrkesverksamma ökat från knappt 100 000 till cirka 300 000, eller från knappt tre till drygt sex procent av den totala sysselsättningen. I föreliggande analys har vi delat in konsultföretagen efter den funktion de fyller i fem olika huvudinriktningar. Den största inriktningen, Konsultföretag inom organisation och ledning, som domineras av undergruppen IT inom administration och management, svarade för knappt 31 % av sysselsättningen. Konsultföretag inom extern funktionell expertis svarade för drygt 21 %, Bemanningsföretag för drygt 20 %, Konsultföretag inom objektrelaterad projektering för drygt 17 % och Konsultföretag inom FoU för drygt 10 %. Att konsultsektorn expanderar är knappast en modetrend. Det är snarare en konsekvens av att det i takt med ökad komplexitet blir svårt för kunderna att ha egen anställd personal inom alla viktiga kompetensområden.

    Konsultsektorn har generellt en stark koncentration till storstäder. Den finns visserligen representerad i nästan alla delar av vårt land men koncentrationen till i första hand Stockholmsområdet, men även Göteborg och Malmö, är påfallande hög. Företag i Storstockholm svarar för över 40 % av alla konsulter i Sverige. Det är inte bara i absoluta tal som Stockholm utmärker sig. När sysselsättningen i konsultföretag med minst fem anställda sätts i relation till antalet invånare i åldrarna 16-64 år, så har Stockholms län, med 6,3 %, mer än dubbelt så stor andel som andra län, utom Västra Götalands län med 4,1 %. Graden av koncentration till Stockholm och övriga storstäder varierar dock mellan olika inriktningar.

    Konsultsektorn som helhet kännetecknas av strukturomvandlingar, branschglidningar och stor dynamik. Det tar sig bland annat uttryck i fusioner, förvärv och börsintroduktioner. Inom några verksamhetsinriktningar har också större svenska bolag blivit uppköpta av utländska börsnoterade koncerner. Inom andra inriktningar, som domineras av partnerägda bolag, ingår svenska bolag numera i stora internationella nätverk av olika slag. Parallellt sker inom vissa inriktningar en ökad uppsplittring i små levebrödsbolag som knyts samman i nätverksorganisationer av olika slag. Även om de kvantitativa uppgifterna i vår databas baseras på situationen år 2012, så är alla strukturförändringar – i form av bland annat nedläggningar, fusioner och förvärv – som skett före den 1 januari 2016 beaktade i kvalitativa beskrivningar och exemplifieringar i rapporten.

    En del konsultföretag söker skapa strukturkapital och systematiskt dra kvalitets- och effektivitetsmässig nytta av att det – inte minst till följd av digitalisering – uppstår en slags stordriftsfördelar inom delar av konsultsektorn. En ambition i vår studie har varit att kartlägga vilka förutsättningar konsultföretag i Sverige har att bygga strukturkapital. Det är ju exempelvis stor skillnad mellan å ena sidan ett konsultföretag som mot timarvode hyr ut personal som sitter i kundernas lokaler och leds av kundernas personal och å andra sidan ett konsultföretag som mot ett fast arvode genomför ett väldefinierat projekt i eget kontor i Sverige och/eller utomlands. Under sommaren år 2015 lät vi sålunda genomföra intervjuer i konsultbolag med mer än cirka 20 anställda i Sverige. Frågorna fokuserade på var konsulterna utför sitt arbete, vem som leder dem operativt i uppdragen, eventuell export eller användning av offshoring, utnyttjande av underkonsulter, antal kunder per konsult, kundrelationer och debiteringsprinciper.

    Intervjuresultatet antyder att det i Sverige främst är Konsultföretag inom extern funktionell expertis som systematiskt bygger strukturkapital och söker effektivisera och kvalitetssäkra konsulternas arbete. De företag som debiterar fast pris har då även möjlighet att öka sina marginaler. Två huvudinriktningar med motsatt mönster är Konsultföretag inom FoU samt Bemanningsföretag. Båda dessa inriktningar domineras av företag som har utlokaliserade konsulter, vilka sitter ute hos kund och leds av kundernas personal. Varje konsult har dessutom endast ett fåtal olika uppdragsgivare per år. Undergruppen Bygg och anläggning inom huvudinriktningen Konsultföretag inom objektrelaterad projektering samt undergruppen IT inom administration och management i huvudinriktningen Konsultföretag inom organisation och ledning svarar tillsammans för drygt 40 % av alla anställda i konsultsektorn. De domineras av större företag som ingår i internationella koncerner. Vår bedömning är att dessa koncerner, trots sin storlek, bygger förhållandevis lite strukturkapital. Dessutom är timdebitering fortfarande helt dominerande.

    Sammanfattningsvis konstaterar vi att konsultsektorn är expansiv och att den spelar en betydelsefull roll för utvecklingen i näringslivet och i samhället som helhet. Sektorn är dynamisk och många konsultföretag står inför stora utmaningar. Det verkar finnas utrymme för exempelvis nya affärsmodeller, nya strategiska val och internationell expansion.

  • 6.
    Gullberg, Anders
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Företal: Byggboomen i Stockholm 1896-19082012Inngår i: Bubblan som sprack: Byggboomen i Stockholm 1896-1908 / [ed] Perlinge, Anders, Stockholm: Stockholmia förlag, 2012, s. 7-9Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Gullberg, Anders
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Företal: Sotare i Stockholm 1600-19002012Inngår i: Sotare i Stockholm 1600-1900 / [ed] Peterson, Gunilla, Stockholm: Stockholmia förlag, 2012, s. 11-12Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Hasselgren, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Karl Marx - en 1800-tals europé2014Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, nr 4, s. 82-85Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste fem–sex åren har intresset för det idéarv som Karl Marx (och samarbetspartnern Friedrich Engels) lämnade efter sig oväntat återkommit. Nuförtiden är det få som öppet etiketterar sig marxister – det har liksom kommit ur mode efter murens fall. Men tankegodset och tankemönstren lever.

  • 9.
    Hasselgren, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Marginal Cost Controversies in Swedish Transport Infrastructure Policy2013Inngår i: Aalborg Universitet - Trafikdage - Selected papers, ISSN 1903-1092, E-ISSN 1903-1092, ISSN 1903-1092Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important that resources spent in transport infrastructure systems come to the best possible use. During the last four decades it has generally been argued that good resource utilization most likely comes about in cases where welfare economic principles are pursued. This holds both for the planning of transport infrastructure measures based on cost benefit analysis and for the use of the existing systems based on prices reflecting the short term social marginal costs of the transportation actually carried out. This article argues that, seen in a longer time perspective, there has however been a controversy regarding which financing principles that should be seen as most accurate. And this controversy has been persistent in Sweden since the 1930s.

    An institutional perspective where the direct relation between the users and the organizations that manage the infrastructure system, and with an interest for dynamism, learning and organizational aspects, has been in conflict with the welfare economic perspective. According to the institutional perspective the users should pay the full cost and subsidies by the public sector are questioned. An outcome of the present turn in the transport infrastructure discussion, with more interest for alternative financing and demand for heavy new investments, might be a revival of full cost principles in financing rather than marginal cost models. Once again the financing and pricing principles and their relation to efficiency might become a centerpiece of the debate.

  • 10.
    Hasselgren, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Pricing Principles, Efficiency Concepts and Incentive Models in Swedish Transport Infrastructure Policy2013Inngår i: VTI Transportforum 2013 – Granskade artiklar: VTI rapport 787 / [ed] Göran Blomqvist, Linköping: VTI , 2013, s. 22-35Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the shift of the Swedish goverment´s policies for the financing through taxation, fees and prices paid for the use of roads and railroads from 1945 until the 2010s is discussed. It is argued that the shift from a full-cost coverage principle to a short term social marginal cost principle can be seen in the light of the controversy between a Coasean and a Pigovian perspective.

    The Coasean perspective furthers an institutional view where organizations and dynamic development matters while the Pigovian perspective furthers a welfare economic equilibrium view where organizations are less focused. It is argued that the shift in policies coincided with less interest and focus on the organizational perspective and incentives for organizational efficiency, which can be seen in the public documents from the time.

    The government seems to have been guided by a mar ket failure stance since the 1970s which has motivated growing intervention, following a mar ket-economy stance in the first 25 years after the nationalization of roads and railroads. A current opening in transport infrastructure policies with more room for alternative financing, user charges and fees might, even though also consistent with short term social marginal cost principles, signal a revival of a perspective more in line with the Coasean view.

  • 11.
    Hasselgren, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    The Reluctant Infrastructure Manager: 70 Years of Government Ownership of Transport Infrastructure in Sweden2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments have a choice whether to intervene in the transport infrastructure sector to manage, finance and organize and sometimes own the assets of the sector or to rely on markets and private sector actors for the provision of these systems. In Sweden, like in most other countries, the government has, since the 19th century, gradually taken a more active role both for railroads and roads, including most of the roles outlined above.

    From the 1840s, railroads and a more modern road system developed based on a mix of government and private/local government initiatives. A step towards centralization was taken in the 1930-40s, as the private- and local government-owned railroads and rural public roads, a majority of the total system, were taken over (nationalized) by the State. The government still owns these assets.

    In this paper, the development of railroad and road infrastructure is analyzed based on a co-evolutionary perspective, including the influence of technology, economics and politics. The perspective is used in order to facilitate an understanding and explanation of the successive steps that led to the decision to nationalize railroads and roads. The following time periods up to 2010 are also analyzed with the perspective as a relief.

    Based on a study primarily of the public documents of the time it is argued that the nationalization can be seen as a more or less logical step in a process of centralization that had been going on since the mid-1800s. Business economics rationality and cost reduction were important arguments for nationalization. Arguments in favor of the nationalization were that it was seen as a modernization of the sector, which also allowed for the introduction of new technology and a reduction of differences in road taxes. Welfare economics reasoning and discussions on natural monopolies were, however, not the focus.

    It is further argued that the government waited for some time to take the final steps to nationalize the railroads and roads. The government entered the scene as a rather reluctant infrastructure manager.

    The Parliament’s 1963 decision on transport policy, which is generally seen as among the most important policy decisions in the sector since the 1940s, might, it is argued, have been given a too important role. However, it is argued that the proposals put forward by the 1944 Transport Committee, which were never formally decided upon, were perhaps more influential. These proposals were largely market-friendly within the framework of the government ownership and financing model. The railroad and road systems should be run more or less as private businesses within this framework, with a focus on business economics efficiency, a full cost responsibility, and a competition view on the transport market.

    The transport policy decision was formally approved in 1963, and it was largely based on the principles of the 1944 Transport Committee. These policies opened for a further restructuring of the transport sector, including transport infrastructure. The road system was expanded, while the railroads contracted, suffering from high costs and a decreasing market. There was, however, a gradually growing criticism towards both the planning practices and new construction programs for the road system, and against the effects the policies seemed to have for the railroad system.

    The transport polices were changed during the 1970s. The 1979 Parliamentary decision on a revised transport policy brought a formal end to the policies based on market forces, competition and business economics, all of which were features of the 1963 decision. The new management philosophy was based on welfare economics, which should be the new basis for transport infrastructure and transport policies when it came to planning, management and pricing/taxation.

    An interesting phase in the historical development of transport policy was a return in the 1988 Parliamentary decision to a goal structure closer to the earlier (1963) formulation of transport policies. In a following decision in 1998, another turn was made, which has since established welfare economics as the basis for transport infrastructure policies.

    The principles set in the 1940s, with a firm base in a “cost responsibility principle” and a business economics perspective on transport infrastructure combined with government ownership and financing, was finally shifted to more of a welfare economics basis during the 1980-90s.

    This was, it is argued, a way of reflecting a more active political agenda with new goals for transport policy. The policy shift was combined with deregulation and some privatization steps from the 1980s onwards. If the former policies might be seen as expressing a contradiction between government ownership and business economics, the new policies made a contradiction between deregulation and more developed and wider political goals in combination with welfare economics obvious. The government might be seen having gone from reluctance to contradiction as the basic stance of its policies as owner of railroads and roads.

  • 12.
    Hasselgren, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    The Swedish Government as Owner of Transport Infrastructure: Policy formation from the 1930s to the 2010s2012Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 1402-8700, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 49-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments have a choice whether to intervene in the transport infrastructure sector to manage, finance and own the assets of the sector, or to rely on markets and private sector actors for the provision of these systems. In this article the development of rail and road infrastructure in Sweden and the choice between government and market provision of these systems are analyzed from a co-evolutionary perspective. Technology, economics, and politics have influenced the government’s policy formation and decisions on organizational models over time, such as the nationalization of roads and railroads in the 1930s-40s. The aim for improved economic efficiency and reduction of cost differences between different parts of the country rather than political ideology explain why roads and railroads were nationalized. Through adjusting its ownership role and policy content the government has, over time, accommodated to the different influences from technology, economics and politics. The government’s ownership of transport infrastructure has not been challenged since the nationalization. This could be seen as a sign of a successful gradual policy adjustment from the government’s side, thereby avoiding private sector solutions.

  • 13.
    Johansson, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    A Silent Revolution: The Swedish Transition towards Heat Pumps, 1970-20152017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, more than half of all Swedish single-family houses have an installed heat pump and more heat is supplied by heat pumps in Sweden than in any other nation. Despite the enormous impact of heat pumps on the Swedish energy system, the transition towards their use has gone relatively unnoticed. Hence the title of this thesis, ‘A silent revolution’.

    This thesis provides an in-depth study of the Swedish transition towards heat pumps and how Swedish industries contributed to it. It approaches the topic from the perspective of value networks and ‘coopetition’, combined with the concept of complementarities. This approach has been inspired by the work of Verna Allee (2009) and Erik Dahmén (1991). In this thesis, value networks are networks of actors surrounding a specific business model, coopetition is used to describe the relationships between actors (as both competitive and cooperative), and the concept of complementarities is used to analyze the dynamics between synergistic elements and value networks in Sweden’s heat pump sector and energy system.

    Based on this approach, the thesis explains how a durable web of relations and interdependencies between complementarities has developed within the heat pump sector and the energy system in Sweden, and between the two, during the country’s transition to widespread use of heat pumps.

    Interest in heat pumps arose in Sweden and other parts of Europe during the 1970s. The Swedish energy system had been caught between international oil crises and national political mobilisation against nuclear power expansion. In this period of negative transformation pressure, the heat pump appeared as a promising alternative that could mitigate the use of oil and electricity for heating. In the 1970s, an early Swedish heat pump industry formed together with a growing heat pump market. A large number of diverse actors became involved in the Swedish heat pump sector, and the intense coopetition dynamics relating to heat pumps following the 1970s oil crisis contributed to durable connections between complementarities during the early stages of the transition.

    The 1980s saw a rapid expansion of large heat pumps in Swedish district heating facilities. In the mid-1980s, however, oil prices dropped back to their previous low levels. This change, combined with other factors, such as lifted subsidies and higher interest rates, created a crisis for Swedish heat pump industry. The industry underwent a 10-year period of low sales of small heat pumps and the market for large heat pumps died out and never returned. Nevertheless, several connections between heat pump–related complementarities remained in Sweden after the mid-1980s. In conjunction with value network reconfigurations, changes in company ownerships and governmental industry support, these complementarities helped the Swedish heat pump sector to maintain both production and service capacity.

    Due to developments that took place largely outside the heat pump manufacturing sector, by the mid-1990s it became possible for the struggling Swedish industry to offer more reliable and standardised heat pumps to the Swedish home heating market. During the years after 1995, the Swedish heat pump market grew to become the biggest in Europe. The industry’s early development and growth gave Swedish companies a comparative advantage over its European competitors, with the result that the manufacturing of heat pumps remained concentrated to Swedish-based manufacturing facilities even after the Swedish heat pump industry became internationalised after 2005. As of 2015, Sweden had the greatest amount of heat production from heat pumps per capita of any European nation, and many heat pump markets in other European countries are 10 to 20 years behind the Swedish market in development.

    This thesis shows how the Swedish heat pump industry has co-evolved with the market and how developments in the industry contributed towards causing the transition to heat pumps to occur so early in Sweden relative to other European markets. It also shows that coopetition dynamics in a socio-technical transition change with the emergence and characteristics of structural tensions between complementarities, which has implications for the strategic management of external relations and partnerships during socio-technical transitions. It further argues that the combination of the value network, coopetition, and complementarity concepts can be conceptualised for descriptive and exploratory studies on the role of firms and industries in socio-technical transitions, thereby offering a complement to existing dominant frameworks in the area of transition studies. 

  • 14.
    Johansson, Petter
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Lagergren, Fredrik
    KTH.
    Göran, Reitberger
    Critical factors in different phases of the Swedish heat pump market development2013Inngår i: The Industrial, 2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the heat pump was invented in the mid 19th century it has been dependent on technological development of principally five main mechanical components as well as on economic, social and political factors to penetrate the market. It can therefore be useful to describe the heat pump as a sociotechnical system consisting of different components, or sub-systems, to understand how all components must align to achieve market acceptance. While technological and social conditions affecting the heat pump demand are currently in the process of aligning in several European emerging and growing markets, the Swedish heat pump market is slowing down due to signs of market saturation.

    Sweden has been a pioneering nation in the field of heat pumps and the heat pump has had a larger market impact in Sweden than anywhere else. Since the birth of the market in the 1970s it has gone through several phases: Growth from 1979, a market collapse in the mid 1980s, a strong growth once more from 1995 to 2006, and a recent decline in sales. This article studies these shifts in market demand by answering the research question: What critical factors have affected the heat pump market in Sweden during different phases of its development? These critical factors have been mapped out through interviews with researchers and industry representatives together with an extensive literature review and analysis of secondary available data such as statistical reviews and research program records.

    This article arguments that the market demand has correlated to the alignment of factors in the heat pump sociotechnical system, and that too much focus has previously been on subsidies when trying to explain the causes behind the heat pump market development in Sweden. Subsidies has only been one factor out of many. Understanding the market development of energy technologies such as heat pumps from a sociotechnical perspective is useful knowledge for practitioners and policy makers engaged in emerging energy markets as well as researchers in the field. 

  • 15.
    Kaiserfeld, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och historia.
    Exploring European Travel: The Swedish Package Tour2015Inngår i: MAKING OF EUROPEAN CONSUMPTION: FACING THE AMERICAN CHALLENGE, PALGRAVE , 2015, s. 178-199Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Kaiserfeld, Thomas
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Innovativ verksamhet vid AGA i ekonomisk-historisk belysning2004Inngår i: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 124, nr 3, s. 460-467Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Kärrlander, Tom
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för bank och finans, Cefin.
    Ekonomisk historia - självklart eller hur?2009Inngår i: Ekonomisk debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 72-74Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Kärrlander, Tom
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för bank och finans, Cefin.
    Jacob Wallenberg 1892 - 19802009Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 57, nr 1, s. 117-118Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Kärrlander, Tom
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för bank och finans, Cefin.
    Krishanterare före sin tid. Hans Järta (1774 - 1847) (Crisis manager before his time. Hans Järta 1774 - 1847)2012Inngår i: Pengamakarna (The Moneymakers): 350 år av entreprenörskap och innovation inom det svenska finansiella systemet (350 years of entrepreneurship and innovation in the Swedish financial system) / [ed] Tom Petersson, Malmö: Bokförlaget Atlantis, 2012, s. 95-118Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 20.
    Kärrlander, Tom
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för bank och finans, Cefin.
    Malmö diskont 1817: an institutional analysis of a banking crisis2013Inngår i: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 20, nr 02, s. 163-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Malmö diskont, a Swedish bank, was forced to close in 1817 after 14 years of operation because of a bank run. At the time, it was one of only three private commercial banks in Sweden. Eventually, all three banks succumbed to bank runs. The purpose of this article is to study the 1817 banking crisis from a new perspective by attempting to answer the following research question: why did Malmö diskont go under? Institutional theory is used here as a research tool. The assumption is that institutions set the limits for individuals' actions and sometimes direct them towards particular actions. The conclusions are derived from analysing the institutional framework at the time and how it interacted with Malmö diskont. The crisis evolved in two stages. The first stage occurred when the financial position of Malmö diskont severely deteriorated in the interaction between institutions and actors in 1817. The implementation of a bailout and a new institutional structure would have been necessary to save the bank. This conclusion complements earlier theories related to monetary or credit overexpansion as to why banking crises occur. The second stage occurred when the Swedish government allowed Malmö diskont to fall in October 1817.

  • 21.
    Kärrlander, Tom
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för bank och finans, Cefin. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Malmö diskont: en krisanatomi2008Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    In 1817, the then fourteen-year old bank, Malmö diskont, was the target of a bank run and the bank had to close. It had already been put under government control, due to mismanagement in the last few years of its existence. At the time, Malmö diskont was one of three privately owned banks and all three had to close as a result of a loss of confidence and bank runs also on the other two banks. Thus, private banks, with their roots in the 18th century disappeared, with noticeable economic repercussions. Although there was an unofficial credit market, consisting of the merchants and private bankers, (in addition to the government-owned Riksens Ständers Bank) it took a long time to restore confidence in privately owned commercial banks.

    This Licentiate thesis deals with this financial crisis in Sweden in 1817. The purpose is to describe this crisis from an institutional perspective and incorporate both formal and informal institutions to help explain why this crisis occurred. The basic assumption is that institutions both set the limits for individuals’ actions and sometimes direct them towards actions. The research questions were aimed at answering what institutions existed, to analyze the qualitative aspects of the institutions and try to answer how they may have influenced the actions of the Malmö diskont management. The results show that institutions at the time both influenced and paved the way for the dubious management of the bank in its last years. Sometimes, institutions widened the perceived area of discretion; at others, it curtailed the freedom of action to such an extent that the rules of the institutional framework became virtually unmanageable. The broader contribution of my research is to add to the theory of financial crises, how both explicit and implicit rules of the game contribute to crises.

  • 22.
    Kärrlander, Tom
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för bank och finans, Cefin.
    The Danger of Relocation of Money: Some Examples from History2014Inngår i: Preindustrial Commercial History: Flows and Contacts between Cities in Scandinavia and North Western Europe / [ed] Markus A. Denzel and Christina Dalhede, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2014, s. 43-60Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Much has been written about the role of domestic debt expansion preceding and causing financial crises but less about the characteristics of cross-border debt expansion. In this article, three cases of massive relocation of capital – cross-border or cross-region - have been examined: Malmö diskont in the early 19th century, Credit-Anstalt in the 1930s and Latin America in the 1970s and 1980s. Based on this examination, certain characteristics of such relocation have preliminarily been identified: an institutional change preceded the glut (defined on page 2) of money in the originating market, cross-border capital is easily available but volatile, the relocation of capital is followed by mismanagement and risky investments, small countries or markets are vulnerable to cross-border money and lastly; complacency by authorities, excessive confidence, lack of transparency tend to increase the size of relocation. Each of these findings merits a closer examination to be incorporated in and contribute to the general theories concerning the causes of financial crises.

  • 23.
    Kärrlander, Tom
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för bank och finans, Cefin.
    The Match King. Ivar Kreuger, the Financial Genius behind a Century of Wall Street Scandals2011Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 59, nr 2, s. 201-202Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 24.
    Kärrlander, Tom
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för bank och finans, Cefin.
    Äldre företags historia – några metodologiska reflexioner (Business history for old companies – some methodological thoughts)2011Inngår i: Business History in Sweden: näringslivshistoria i Sverige / [ed] Mikael Lönnborg & Paulina Rytkönen, Gidlunds förlag, 2011, s. 55-79Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Long, Vicky
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    Laestadius, Staffan
    An Indigenous Innovation: An Example from Mobile Communication Technology2016Inngår i: Oxford Development Studies, ISSN 1360-0818, E-ISSN 1469-9966, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 113-133Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the processes of indigenous (global South) innovation, particularly of the “high-tech” and “radical” kind, which have spurred technological catch-up, using the example of a third-generation (3G) Chinese mobile communications technology standard. Three hypotheses were generated from this study: (a) modularity-in-design opens new windows of opportunity for technological catching-up; (b) the lack of essential intellectual property rights acts as a key inducement, or a factor-saving bias, that influences the rate and direction of indigenous innovation in the global South; and (c) the long tail of an old technology affects the take-off of a new indigenous innovation, essentially by shortening the technological distance to be covered.

  • 26.
    Metzger, Jonathan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Kunskapsekonomins pionjärer: konsultbranschens framväxt i Sverige och Stockholm2018Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27.
    Morgunova, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Arctic Offshore Hydrocarbon Resource Development: Past, Present and Vision of the Future2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy issues have always been on the global economics and geopolitics agenda, even though energy sources have been changing over time.

    In recent years, the awareness of Arctic offshore oil and natural gas development has escalated, yielding economic opportunities and incurring risks. The offshore Arctic is one of ‘edges’ of the global petroleum industry. The importance of these oil and natural gas resources extends beyond regional and national boarders and local economies, as these activities have become a key geopolitical, economic, and social concern. In an attempt to shed light on this growing issue, this thesis outlines the Arctic is a link in the global energy system and shows how it plays a special role.

    The aim of this research is to provide deeper insight into offshore hydrocarbon development activities in the Arctic. Historical approach is applied as a main conceptual framework to provide a critical link of past to the present in order to explore the origin and intensity of these activities in the Arctic.

    This licentiate thesis presents the results of an ongoing doctoral research project. The study provides several insights into Arctic offshore oil and natural gas resources development in the global context via an analysis of the relevant investments and technology from a country-by-country and historical perspective in the maximum period time frame between 1920 and 2025. The two papers included in this thesis explore the impact of investment and technology. This research project illustrates the importance of several factors influencing the Arctic offshore oil and natural gas production and highlights the most promising areas for cooperation at the industrial and global level.

    The implications of the study results can be useful for identifying and emphasizing the factors that influence offshore Arctic hydrocarbon resource development and investment trends, as well as making assumptions regarding future development. Topics for further research are discussed and refined relating to the ongoing study and the conceptual framework presented.

  • 28.
    Morgunova, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Role of Technology in expanding accessible oil and natural gas resources in the offshore arcticManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Morgunova, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Telegina, Elena
    Kutcherov, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Offshore Arctic Hydrocarbon Resource Development: Past and PresentManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    NORIN, NEDA
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    EMBEDDED CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY AS A DRIVER FOR COMPETITIVENESS2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is increasingly requested by society due to rising global issues. However the majority of companies, particularly the large ones, face huge challenges in properly addressing and integrating sustainability for creating shared value for society and their business. The purpose of the thesis is to address the empirical research gap in holistically defining and explaining the major aspects that are critical for corporate sustainability (CS) embedding in large established companies.

    Firstly, the framework of CS embedding has been developed which is supported by the simple CS three-stage model to be used for assessment of the CS embedding processes and stages in business. The model in particular focuses on these critical CS aspects: strategic and operational integration, innovation, and organisational culture. Secondly, the created model is applied in the case study of the large power company Vattenfall AB in order to assess the process, challenges and level of CS practices.

    The analysis resulted in structured findings and the list of major strategic recommendations to advice the company on CS advancement. The outcomes of the study can be applied to other large conservative companies of similar context that struggle with sustainability performance. The research has contributed by partially filling the knowledge gap of understanding how CS embedding works, its major aspects, challenges and opportunities it provides. The developed CS embedding framework and the CS three-stage model could be used in empirical research as well as applied practically by companies themselves.

  • 31.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Doomsday Demography: Myths and Reality2011Inngår i: Proceedings from the 10th International Conference Partnership of Business and Education in the Regional Innovation Development / [ed] Galina Yu. Assorina & Olga S. Kompaniets, 2011, s. 34-44Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Lunds universitet.
    Fattigvård, socialbidrag och synen på fattigdom i Sverige 1918-19972002Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria.
    Frihetstiden: "Inledning: Naturvetenskap som ekonomi" och selection of 18th century economic texts with introductions on M. Trie, J. Alströmer, J. Browallius, C. von Linné, J. Faggot (with Sven Widmalm)2011Inngår i: Jordpäron: En läsebok i svenskt ekonomiskt tänkande / [ed] Lars Magnusson & Anders Björnsson, Stockholm: Atlantis , 2011, s. 289-354Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria.
    The History of Environmental Economics2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Åberg, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria.
    Tillit på prov: Svensk-danska gasförbindelser2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
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