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  • 1.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Understanding Individuals' Learning and Decision Processes in a Changing Environment by Using Panel Data2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When a new transport service is introduced, people have to learn and familiarize themselves with the new service before they decide to adopt it. These processes are developed over time, thus produce dynamics in individuals’ behavioural responses towards the service. This affects the demand of the new service, thus affect revenues. Available studies have examined the factors influencing these responses from microeconomic perspectives. The influence of the theory-based subjective factors has not been examined empirically. Understanding these would assist transport and urban planners to design a better marketing strategy to increase the market share of the new service. A change in seasons affect individuals’ activity-travel decisions, thus produce dynamics in activitytravel patterns in different seasons. Individuals’ constraints, in a form of mandatory activities (working/studying), are influencing individuals’ decisions to participate in day-to-day nonmandatory activities (leisure and routine activities). The interdependency between travel demand, time allocation and mode choice that considers interactions between mandatory and non-mandatory activities, in different seasons is less explored. Understanding these would assist transport planners and operators to manage travel demand strategies across different seasons of the year and provide better transportation systems for all individuals. This thesis includes five papers. Paper I explores individuals’ characteristics of the quick-response and the adopters of the new public transport (PT) service and examines the temporal effects. Paper II investigates the subjective factors influencing a quick-response to the new PT service by proposing a modified attitude-behaviour framework. Paper III and IV analyse the effects of seasonal variations and individuals’ constraints on their day-to-day activity-travel decisions and patterns. Paper V analyses the attrition and fatigue in the two-week travel diary panel survey instrument.

  • 2.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Subjective Factors Influencing Individual's Response to a New Public Transport ServiceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The timing and nature of people’s responses can be expected to vary when a new element enter their environment. For example, when an individual is provided with a new or modified transport service. This time-scale of behavioural responses will affect the patronage of, and short- and long-term demands on the new service over time. Understanding the underlying factors that influence an individual’s response over time to a new or modified transport service would enable us to identify trigger factors that make the new service attractive from an individual’s point of view. Chatterjee (2001) and Douglas (2003) argued that motives other than instrumental factors related to public transport use, such as attitudes, awareness, travel habits and learning processes, can influence individual responses over time to changes in the travel environment. Unfortunately, despite their importance, there have been few studies that examined this argument empirically. To address this research gap, this paper aims to investigate the influences of subjective factors on individuals’ responses to the introduction of a modified public transport (PT) service over time by proposing and testing an alternative model that modifies the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model framework. This paper also aims to investigate the behavioural change in terms of attitudes and perceptions on individuals’ resources and constraints in using a modified PT service over time after its introduction. The case study involves the new extension of a tram line connecting the suburbs of Alvik and Solna Centrum in Stockholm, Sweden. Four waves of a panel survey were conducted with 96 individuals who lived along the new service, from just before the new service was introduced and until seven months after its introduction. A structural equation modelling technique was used to estimate the relationships between behavioural constructs and panel data, then incorporate them into a discrete choice model. The results show that intention influences individual’s quick-response choice. The panel analysis shows that past behaviour in using the new service influenced current behaviour, and that perceived walking distance in using the service consistently influenced the frequency of using the new service over time.

  • 3.
    Bahri, Leila
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Carminati, Barbara
    Ferrari, Elena
    Univ Insubria, Dept Theoret & Appl Sci, Varese, Italy..
    Knowledge-based approaches for identity management in online social networks2018In: WILEY INTERDISCIPLINARY REVIEWS-DATA MINING AND KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY, ISSN 1942-4787, Vol. 8, no 5, article id e1260Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When we meet a new person, we start by introducing ourselves. We share our names, and other information about our jobs, cities, family status, and so on. This is how socializing and social interactions can start: we first need to identify each other. Identification is a cornerstone in establishing social contacts. We identify ourselves and others by a set of civil (e.g., name, nationality, ID number, gender) and social (e.g., music taste, hobbies, religion) characteristics. This seamlessly carried out identification process in face-to-face interactions is challenged in the virtual realms of socializing, such as in online social network (OSN) platforms. New identities (i.e., online profiles) could be created without being subject to any level of verification, making it easy to create fake information and forge fake identities. This has led to a massive proliferation of accounts that represent fake identities (i.e., not mapping to physically existing entities), and that poison the online socializing environment with fake information and malicious behavior (e.g., child abuse, information stealing). Within this milieu, users in OSNs are left unarmed against the challenging task of identifying the real person behind the screen. OSN providers and research bodies have dedicated considerable effort to the study of the behavior and features of fake OSN identities, trying to find ways to detect them. Some other research initiatives have explored possible techniques to enable identity validation in OSNs. Both kinds of approach rely on extracting knowledge from the OSN, and exploiting it to achieve identification management in their realms. We provide a review of the most prominent works in the literature. We define the problem, provide a taxonomy of related attacks, and discuss the available solutions and approaches for knowledge-based identity management in OSNs. This article is categorized under: Fundamental Concepts of Data and Knowledge > Human Centricity and User Interaction Application Areas> Internet and Web-Based Applications Application Areas> Society and Culture

  • 4.
    Bäcklander, Gisela
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    To see or not to see: Importance of sensemaking in employee self-direction2019In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being self-directed is one of the most sought-after employee attributes. The present study examines managers’ approaches to and conceptualization of employee self-directedness through semi-structured interviews with 13 managers from five companies in the Stockholm area. Analysis suggests two different emphases in trying to increase self-direction, with differing underlying assumptions: an evaluation emphasis where self-direction is conceptualized as an inherent property of the individual, and a cultivation emphasis suggesting a more interactionist perspective of self-direction as an emergent behavior based on the interaction of individual and situational characteristics. Further, a “seeing work”-skill emerged in all interviews, implicating situational judgment and attention as core to what is ultimately seen as successful self-direction. Managers with a cultivation emphasis mentioned as viable tactics those focused on supporting sensemaking and thus enriching the working situation to enable better discretionary situational judgements.

  • 5.
    Haas, Tigran
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Ethnic Conflict and the Right to Return of Limbo Disaporas: Multifaceted Reflections on the Case of BiH2004In: Migration and Ethnic Studies (Migracijske i Etnicke Teme), ISSN 1133-2546, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 29-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the phenomenon of refugees and resettled persons in the process of forcedmigrations in the aftermath of man-made disasters. Although some of the ideas presented here couldhave wider application, the focus is on post-conflict zones within the former Yugoslavia, namely BiH.The paper uses the questions of ethnicity and nationalism within resettlement, dislocation and immigrationas a backdrop, into which the issue of globalization is also briefly reflected. The intention hereis not to cover a wide range of pressing topics, but simply to relate a number of issues arising in contemporarylarge-scale forced migrations to a resurgence of cultural specificity and ethnicized nationalismas counterpoints to globalization. The paper introduces the concept of “limbo diasporas” in the caseof Bosnian refugees in Sweden through reflection and linkage with the aforementioned concepts. Thepaper ends with some recommendations and open questions on social rehabilitation and ethnic healingas well as some general conclusions.

  • 6.
    Haas, Tigran
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Roberts, Andrew
    Hifab International AB.
    Opportunities for Sustaining Human Settlements in a Post-Conflict War Zone: The Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina1999In: Open House International, ISSN 0168-2601, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 54-65Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Hemphälä, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    An Empirical Test of the Importance of Knowledge Exchange for new Service Development in Swedish Pharmacies.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Hemphälä, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Feedback and Sustainable Competitive Advantage2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Hemphälä, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    The Influence of Internal Channels of Communication on Incremental and Radical Innovation in Swedish PharmaciesIn: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Smedberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Double-loop learning conversations in an online community on overweight2005In: IADIS International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age, 2005, p. 383-386Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The members of online health-communities are growing in number. One type of health-community is the one for people who suffer from overweight, who want to change behavior to lose weight. Learning a new behavior calls for investigating patterns of events, to question the way events are presented, and to create new mental models. This paper presents the results from a study of learning conversations held in an online community on overweight. In the conversations on learning, the most frequently used type of response was the one sympathizing with the ideas and beliefs of the sender, while the least used type of response was the one that rejected the ideas presented by the sender. Furthermore, there were more examples of members who presented counter-ideas in the conversations on obstacles and incentives than in the conversations on personal setbacks.

  • 11.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    How does the planning goal 'urban density' correspond to people's residential choices and everyday life?: A pilot study2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    How does the planning goal ’urban density’ correspond to people’s residential choices and everyday life?: Affordances in differing urban densities2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the basis of a project recently funded by FORMAS, Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning. Although there is consensus among planners and politicians that dense and compact cities are better for the environment than sprawling urban landscapes, much of what is currently being built is characterised by low urban density, ‘sprawl’. Generally researchers agree that ‘sprawl’ in industrialised countries is driven by rising average income and decreasing transport costs. Urban households can afford to demand larger dwelling units as well as daily travel long dis-tances. Individual decisions are aggregated into a force that governs the development towards ’sprawl’. The aim of the project is to analyse how urban environments can offer desired qualities, by studying households’ actual use and valuation of opportunities for work, service, leisure ac-tivities, culture and education within areas of different urban density. The contribution of the study will be a deeper understanding of what urban density means in the daily life of house-holds. The study will employ theories and concepts from planning research and environmental psy-chology. Urban density is a key concept. Range and variety of urban functions are then impor-tant additions to measurement of physical densities. Another key concept is ‘affordance‘. ’Affordance’ is here a quality or asset within a specific environment, which can be perceived and used by an individual for carrying out a certain activity. The main study is a survey covering around 2000 households within the Stockholm area. Four areas will be chosen, and around 500 households in each, admitting control for socio-economic subgroups. Study areas will be selected to illustrate different urban densities and structure, from inner city to garden suburb. The survey will cover blocks of questions con-cerning the most important affordances inherent in the actual environment of the household, such as place of work, shops, schools and social networks. The questions will be constructed to grade perceived, potential, shaped and utilised affordances in their environment. The concept of ’affordance’ will be tested as a tool for structured comparisons between urban areas regarding different aspects of density. The availability of affordances in different urban structures will be described and relationships between density, in all its aspects, and life styles can be tested.

  • 13.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Urban Density: measuring spatial dispersion of activities and affordances2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a consensus among planners and politicians that dense cities are better for the environment than sprawling urban landscapes. The aim of the project is to analyse how urban density affects people’s actions and choices of residential location.

    The study employs theories and concepts from planning research and environmental psychology. Urban density is a key concept. Range and variety of urban functions are then important additions to measurement of physical densities. Another key concept is ‘affordance‘. ’Affordance’ is a quality or asset within a specific environment, which can be perceived and used by an individual for carrying out a certain activity.

    The main method is a survey covering a stratified randomised sample of 4500 individuals in stratified within the Stockholm area. The stratified study areas were selected on criteria of physical density, mix of functions and accessibility within the region. The survey covers important ‘affordances’ inherent in the physical environment of the household, such as place of work, shops, schools and social networks. The data are analysed with statistical methods.

    The paper concentrates on perceived affordances regarding workplaces. Preliminary results show that respondents’ perceived number of alternative workplaces within 1 kilometre from home has a positive correlation to both physical density and mix of urban functions. Any further away from home than 1 km, increasing perceived affordances had a stronger correlation to accessibility.

    Preliminary conclusions are that physical density as such seems to increase the amount of perceived affordances only within a very close environment of the home. The range of affordances widens considerably with increasing accessibility. Probably accessibility outweighs physical density as a factor for influencing people’s choices of residential location.

  • 14.
    WU, Xiangyang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Mobile Technology as Interface to Public Space2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main idea is to make a short film about mobile technologies and the changing relationships between us and the public space under the age of these technologies. Some people might blame those mobile technologies like smart phones for separating us from each other. In my view, however, we cannot ask those technologies to take all the responsibilities, because new technologies will not be put into the market unless the society needs them. These technologies do change our perceptions on the public space in some ways, but there must be some deeper reasons behind. Based on the analogy of mobile technologies to "interfaces" to the environment like our skins, bodies and clothes, we are able to rethink the role of these technologies and our relationships with them and the public space. In big cities full of stimulations and strangers, we are always looking for different types of "filters" to help us control our experiences in order not to be too overwhelmed by the endless information. Living without these "filters" is like being naked in the wild field, which means we cannot control what we see, what we hear and what we touch. In the film, there are two story lines in parallel: one is about the overwhelming stimulations and anonymous individuals using mobiles technologies in public spaces; the other is about one person walking in the wood, stripping down clothes until being naked. By asking the question in the beginning and the end "what does it mean to be naked", I wish eachaudience could rethink the interrelationships between us, mobile technologies and public spaces.

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