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  • 1.
    Abebe, Henok Girma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Belin, Matts-Åke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Equity and Social Justice considerations in road safety work: The case of Vision Zero in New York City2024In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 149, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses how Vision Zero (VZ) efforts in New York City (NYC) account for equity and social justice implications of road safety work. VZ policy documents, research literature, popular science and opinion articles on road safety work in the city were studied with a prime focus on equity and social justice. Twelve semi-structured interviews with stakeholders involved in road safety and transport planning in the city and at national level were conducted to gain an in-depth understanding of policy design, the adoption process, and the role of equity considerations in the city's road safety work. The results show that major equity and social justice issues arise in the adoption and implementation of VZ. These issues are primarily related to equity and fairness in the distribution of life saving interventions, the socio-economic impacts of road safety strategies, and the nature of community engagement in policy design and implementation. The findings point to a need for VZ practitioners to give due considerations to equity and social justice implications of VZ policies and strategies. Among others, it supports the need for understanding the nature of past equity and social justice problems in road safety and transport planning in the VZ policy design process. Moreover, the findings suggest the need for empirical studies on the socio-economic implications of VZ strategies and interventions.

  • 2.
    Agustina, Sri Pascarini
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Collaborative Governance in the Municipal Solid Waste Sector: Understanding the Collaboration Process in the Jakarta Collaboration Forum2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a global concern due to urban population growth, particularly in developing countries. Collaboration among stakeholders in the MSW sector is vital for addressing the challenges associated with MSW management. However, initiating and operating collaborations in this domain are complex and have received limited attention in existing research. This study aims to understand collaboration in the MSW sector, specifically focusing on the factors influencing collaboration initiation and the collaboration process. The study utilizes the collaborative governance framework developed by Emerson et al. (2012) and conducts a case study on Jakarta's MSW sector, examining the Large-Scale Social Collaboration (LSSC) forum for waste management.

    The analysis highlights the significant influence of the political and policy landscape in creating an enabling environment for collaboration in Jakarta's MSW sector. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play a crucial role in initiating and nurturing the collaboration forum. The presence of discussion spaces for the discovery of shared interests among stakeholders contributes to building trust. However, challenges arise from the diverse range of participants in the forum, hindering the identification of joint action. Government endorsement and the institutionalization of collaboration through a government decree are essential for fostering collaboration. This study suggests further research on applying collaborative governance in various MSW collaboration settings and investigating the interconnections among the elements.

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  • 3.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nordic power road map 2050: Strategic choices towards carbon neutrality. D4.1.R Institutional grid review.2013Report (Other academic)
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  • 4.
    Albrecht, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nilsson, Måns
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nordic power road map 2050:Strategic choices towards carbon neutrality. D4.2.R Policy and Institutional Review Electric Vehicles (EV).2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines policy drivers of electric vehicles (EVs), and what potential role policy can play in enhancing the innovation and market development of EVs. We start with a policy review of key targets in the Nordic countries and the EU, up to 2030, and discuss to what extent they are consistent with industry, government and expert estimates of how the EV innovation systems can grow. On the basis of this, the second part examines what policy drivers might be needed to enable a breakthrough scenario, using a technological innovation systems (TIS) perspective to describe the needed processes, drivers and developments in policy and technology.

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  • 5.
    Aquili, Tommaso
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    The Austerical City.: London at the crush test of austerity2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the UK, the unprecedented cuts to local budgets, implemented by the national governments from 2010 to the present day, have pushed local authorities to reconsider their scope, their role and their action. The ever decreasing budgets have de facto transformed local councils from service providers to territorial entrepreneurs, as the pressing pursuit of revenues has placed the economic profit at the core of the local policy-making. Urban planning plays a central role in this shift in mindset. The British planning system has been remodelled so to facilitate the implementation of development processes, as these grant revenues from planning obligations, uplifts in land values and higher income from taxes. The reform of the planning system has however conceded free rein to developers, especially through the introduction of the Development Viability Appraisal, a document which they use to reduce the provision of affordable housing, in favour of luxury housing tenures. Therefore, in London the mechanisms that rule the territorial transformations exacerbate the existing housing crisis and force local communities to face displacement. Austerity has thus initiated a cascade-effect whose negative externalities are tangible at the very local level. The emerged topics find their concretization in the description of the Heygate Estate regeneration.

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  • 6.
    Axelsson, Birger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Economics and Finance.
    Byggherrekostnadernas utveckling 2015-20202020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till denna rapport är de höga priserna och höga hyrorna i nyproducerade bostäder. Debatten fokuserar ofta på markpriser och de direkta byggkostnaderna, men i denna rapport behandlas (delar av) det som kallas byggherrekostnader.

    Begreppet har ingen enhetlig definition och i denna rapport fokuseras på kommunala planoch bygglovsavgifter som anslutningsavgifter för vatten och avlopp samt el. I byggherrekostnader kan man även räkna in olika skatter och kostnaderna för det egna arbete som byggherren lägger ner, men de behandlas inte här.

    Data har samlats in från kommuner geografiskt spridda över landet och med olika storlek, rörande avgifterna år 2015 och 2020. Det rör avgifter för styckebyggda småhus i en viss antagen storlek, densamma vid båda tidpunkterna (tomtarea 800 kvm och boyta 160 kvm). Därutöver har kompletterande intervjuer med kommunala tjänstemän och en enklare litteraturstudie genomförts i försök att besvara vad som kan förklara byggherrekostnadernas utveckling.

    Att jämföra prisutvecklingen med Konsumentprisindex (KPI) kan vara orättvist eftersom fallande importpriser påverkat den senare. Tjänsteprisindex (TPI) bedömdes därför som lämpligare och TPI steg under den aktuella perioden med 7%.

    I de studerade kommunerna har plan- och bygglovsavgifter ökat med 10% under perioden, från i genomsnitt ca 110 000 kr till ca 120 000 kr. VA-anslutningsavgifter har ökat med 20%, från drygt 140 000 kr till drygt 170 000 kr. Elanslutningsavgifterna har utvecklats på liknande sätt, från knappt 25 000 kr till drygt 35 000 kr. Rapporten visar att byggherrekostnadernas utveckling har varit kraftigt negativ i vissa utvalda kommuner, och på motsatt sätt, kraftigt positiv i andra kommuner. Ett exempel är Sundbybergs kommun, vars plan- och bygglovsavgifter har minskat med 31%. Samtidigt har t.ex. Haninge kommun ökat motsvarande avgifter med 40%. Dessa procentsatser indikerar att avgifterna påverkas av förd politik i den aktuella kommunen.

    Rapporten visar att det finns flera möjliga rationella skäl bakom ökningen, men att det samtidigt inte går att försumma att ökningarna i kommunernas avgifter skulle kunna bero på ineffektivitet och missbruk av dominerande ställning. Det är tydligt att utformningen av kommunala taxor är komplex till sin natur, där en mängd faktorer behöver tas i beaktning för att motivera taxans storlek. Arbetet med de kommunala taxorna har visat sig vara en kontinuerligt pågående process. Till syvende och sist så ska dock taxans storlek utformas utifrån hur kostnaderna ser ut för kommunen. Det är bevisligen så att flera kommuner uppfattar prissättningen som komplex. Aktörer som SKR bär därför ett stort ansvar för att kunna bistå kommuner i att räkna ut rätt taxa. Av denna anledning så påpekas det i rapporten att själva prissättningsprocessen bör utredas närmare.

    Därutöver föreslås det i rapporten att SKR, t.ex. genom webbtjänsten Kolada, bör samla och presentera kommunala PBL-taxor över tid. En av anledningarna till varför SKR bör göra detta är de bevisliga svårigheterna i att hämta information om PBL-taxor från kommuner över tid.

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  • 7.
    Azar, Christian
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    Gothenburg University.
    Johansson-Stenman, Olof
    Gothenburg University.
    Ledin, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Munthe, John
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    Smith, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Turesson, Anders
    Swedish Ministry of Environment and Energy.
    Vahter, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Miljöpolitikens spelplan: Rapport från Miljöforskningsberedningen2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 8.
    Azar, Christian
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    Gothenburg University.
    JohanssonStenman, Olof
    Gothenburg University.
    Ledin, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Munthe, John
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    Smith, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Vahter, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Inrätta ett miljöpolitiskt råd direkt under statsministern2014In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2014-10-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9. Barufi, A. M. B.
    et al.
    Kourtit, Karima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Agglomeration economies and smart cities2015In: The Rise of the City: Spatial Dynamics in the Urban Century, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 33-54Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Belin, Matts-Åke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History. matts-ake.belin@trafikverket.se.
    The Swedish Vision Zero: A Policy Innovation2021In: International Encyclopedia of Transportation / [ed] Roger Vickerman, Elsevier, 2021Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Road traffic injuries are a global public health problem, which is recognized as one of the many important sustainable challenges in the United Nation's 2030 agenda. Sweden has one of the safest road transport systems in the world and this is a result of an ongoing development of the Swedish society and its safety culture. In October 1997, Sweden reached an important milestone when the Swedish Parliament adopted Vision Zero as their new long-term goal and strategy for road safety. It is now more than 20 years since the Swedish national adoption of the Vision Zero and this approach to safety has since spread around the world and to other sectors of the society. In this paper, the Swedish Vision Zero and its basic characteristics, implementation, and results are described and discussed.

  • 11.
    Bjare, Ulrika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Vetenskapens självstyre - styrning, organisation och genomförande av universitetsforskning2023Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis deals with a tension in university governance concerning research policy actors’ mandate to decide on the academic organization and direction of research, vis-à-vis researchers’ perceptions of governance in research. This tension is addressed through an analysis of the ideas and attitudes towards universities as institutions, and research as a practice, expressed at the policy level in connection with major reforms. Additionally, it is studied how individual researchers perceive and relate to governance in research in relation to the governance system as a whole and to the university management. The study makes use of different theories and methods, including the idea of the social contract for science and perspectives from implementation and policy studies as well as enactment-perspectives and theories of metagovernance. Using a document analysis of policy documents the study demonstrates that significance has been attributed to the internal university organization by policy makers. The analysis demonstrates that policy perspectives on the internal organization of universities have been shaped by ambivalent attitudes aimed at controlling academic activities, while simultaneously adhering to norms of scientific autonomy. Through quantitative analysis the study further demonstrates a correlation between researchers' perceptions of steering in research and the internal management model of universities. Researchers at universities with a high degree of line-management perceive a higher degree of influence in research from the internal university management compared with researchers at universities with low degree of line-management. One explanation suggested is that an organization with line-management and few collegial bodies makes universities less resilient to external influence. Also, line-managed universities have a more instrumental character where external factors could have a greater impact on the internal leadership. The quantitative study also shows that researchers perceive a high degree of influence in their research through external funding. This result is consistent with previous research that has demonstrated the impact of external funding on the direction of research. Similar to the survey, the thesis’s interview study shows that governance through external funding is perceived as the most potent. Consequently, the most distinct adaptation to governance is through adjustments in research applications. These adjustments involve innovative processes and the ability to transform external funders' priorities into research proposals. In this process, prospective scenarios are created, where research aligns with both the scientific field's development and society's utility paradigm. The design of the research system means that a large part of the mandate to plan, administer, develop and negotiate forms for conducting research rests with individual researchers.

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  • 12.
    Borgström, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Kommunens nya roll som långsiktig brobyggare2019In: Innovation och stadsutveckling: En forskningsantologi om organisationsutmaningar för stad och kommun / [ed] Algehed, J.,Eneqvist, E., Jensen, C.,Lööf, J., Göteborg: Mistra Urban Futures, RISE, Vinnova , 2019, 1, p. 27-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Brokking, Pieter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Liedholm Johnson, Eva
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Hållbarhet, regelverk och roller från detaljplan till bygglov2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att främja en omställning mot hållbar stadsutveckling har de flesta kommuner formulerat mål för att minska miljöpåverkan, säkerställa en hållbar hushållning med naturresurser och främja social hållbarhet inom kommunen. Det har resulterat i att hållbarhetsfrågor får en allt mer framträdande plats även i detaljplaner. I dagens planeringspraktik förekommer det dock att flera av de ambitioner och åtgärder som diskuterades i planprocessen inte genomförs och att projektet därmed inte bidrar i samma utsträckning till hållbar stadsutveckling som planerat. Det finns flera möjliga förklaringar till detta som bl.a. kan kopplas till regelverket samt till hur arbetet med plan- och bygglovsdokument organiseras inom kommunen och de olika roller och kompetenser som finns inom organisationen. Det övergripande syftet med forskningsprojektet har varit att undersöka möjligheter och hinder i planerings- och markexploateringsprocessen från detaljplan till bygglov för att främja hållbar stadsutveckling, där vi bland annat har studerat hantering och implementering av sociala, ekonomiska och miljömässiga hållbarhetsambitioner i processen, kontinuiteten mellan de olika skedena och hur kompetensbehovet tillgodoses. För att undersöka detta har vi använt en kombination av metoder föratt samla in information och analysera dagens praxis, såsom litteraturstudier med koppling till regelverket och dokumentstudier av t.ex. planbeskrivningar och kvalitetsprogram, samt fallstudier av några aktuella detaljplaner i fyra kommuner med uttalade hållbarhetsambitioner, inklusive intervjuer med representanter från de aktörer som är involverade i projekten. Fallstudierna visar att kommuner på olika sätt arbetar med att stärka hållbarhetsfrågor i planeringen av nya stadsutvecklingsprojekt. Resultaten visar att kommunerna har tagit upp hållbarhet i olika policydokument, även om det finns skillnader i vilka hållbarhetsfrågor som tas upp och i vilken detaljeringsgrad de behandlas. Dessa policydokument är kommunernas agenda för hållbar stads-utveckling, där en del frågor hanteras i detaljplanen, medan andra frågor hanteras i markanvisnings-tävlingar och -avtal där byggaktörer åtar sig att genomföra åtgärder utifrån kommunernas tävlings-kriterier. Gemensamma seminarier eller byggherredialoger främjar innovation och kompetens-utveckling. Processen visar ett intimt samband mellan målsättning, detaljplanering och förhandlingar mellan kommunen och byggaktörerna. Det är dock viktigt att skapa en löpande dialog om genomförandet av hållbarhetsfrågor eftersom projekten ändras och nya personer kommer in som behöver informeras om tidigare diskussioner. När det gäller kompetensbehovet kan vi konstatera att det upplevts som positivt med arbets- och styrgrupper med blandade yrken och utbildningsbakgrund, liksom kontinuitet och en fortsatt process mellan olika skeden. Vi har även noterat att det finns en bredd av olika diskussions- och mötesformer representerade i de undersökta kommunerna, såsom dialog via workshoppar, seminarieserier, tävling och byggherredialog. Kommunerna försöker inkludera många aktörer redan från början av processen när de äger marken för att skapa ett kollektivt lärande. Studien visar på vikten av kommunalt markägande, vilket gör det möjligt för kommuner att ställa krav genom markanvisning. En aktiv markpolitik kan således vara en bra strategi för kommuner med begränsat markägande, liksom en proaktiv kommunal agenda för hållbar stadsutveckling som ger en grund för kravställning i kommande projekt. Slutligen bidrar en tidig dialog mellan kommuner och byggbolag till en diskussion om möjliga innovationer inom hållbar stadsutveckling och engagemang bland partner. Våra studier har visat att hållbarhetsambitioner spelar en viktig roll i detaljplanering i Sverige och hanteras i gränssnittet mellan kommuner och byggaktörer i seminarier, tävlingar och dialoger samt formaliseras i detaljplaner och genomförandeavtal. För att bredda kunskapen bör framtida forskning fokusera på hur hållbarhetshänsyn kan stärkas ytterligare i detaljplanering.

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  • 14.
    Brännmark, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Lean i kommuner och myndigheter: En översikt över existerande empirisk forskningslitteratur2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna litteraturgenomgång avser att studera det empiriska underlaget om lean i kommuner och myndigheter (exklusive sjukvård) utifrån den forskningslitteratur som finns. Sökningar har gjorts i sex forskningsdatabaser under oktober 2011. Relevanta frågor för studien är hur lean används i kommuner och myndigheter, varför organisationerna väljer att arbeta med lean och vilka resultat man har uppnått.

    Totalt hittades 48 publikationer, men efter sortering återstod endast 17 empiriska artiklar av relevans för den här rapporten. De studier som valdes bort var antingen för diskuterande eller redogjorde inte tydligt för hur man har samlat in sin empiri. De 17 studierna som används är av skiftande kvalitet och utformning och det empiriska underlaget är varierat. En majoritet av de inkluderade publikationerna är publicerade efter 2005. Tio av de 17 publikationerna innehåller totalt 18 fallstudier. Utifrån detta, är det rimligt att hävda att den empiriska forskningen om lean i kommuner och myndigheter är ett relativt nytt fenomen. Fallstudierna föranleder flera slutsatser, även om det bör betonas att det empiriska underlaget är tunt och studierna är av starkt varierande kvalitet och utformning. Därför bör slutsatserna endast ses som tentativa, men det innebär samtidigt att det finns flera frågor som kan vara av stort intresse för fortsatt forskning.

    För det första, när det gäller vilka former lean-arbetet tar, så tycks värdeflödeskartläggning och slöserireducering utgöra centrala inslag i kommuner och myndigheters arbete med lean. Ofta verkar det handla om punktinsatser. Lean-program som omfattar hela organisationen är relativt ovanliga. Andra lean-verktyg förekommer också, men det är mindre vanligt. För det andra, när det gäller målen med lean-arbetet, verkar det i hög grad initieras med syfte att öka produktiviteten, även om andra skäl också förekommer, som exempelvis behov av kostnadssänkningar. För det tredje, när det gäller resultat av lean-arbetet, framför allt då värdeflödeskartläggningarna, verkar ökad produktivitet vara det vanligaste resultatet. Samtidigt leder arbetet också ofta till minskade problem och störningar för de anställda, vilket ofta uppskattas. Däremot tycks effekterna för personalen vara mer varierade än verksamhetseffekterna. De lean-verktyg som emellanåt verkar ge negativa konsekvenser är bland annat standardisering, visualisering och kundkontakt. Kundeffekterna är dock svårare att uttala sig om eftersom det ofta saknas empiri om detta i studierna.

    Slutligen bör det betonas att utifrån de inkluderade studiernas utformning och metodik är det mycket svårt att uttala sig om de långsiktiga effekterna av arbetet med lean, eftersom det finns empiri i publikationerna som väcker frågetecken om hur hållbart lean-arbetet är, till exempel deltagarnas känsla av att arbetet är avklarat efter genomförda förbättringsworkshops.

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  • 15.
    Cars, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Witzell, Jacob
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Malmsten, Bo
    Infrastruktur med finansiering2011Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Ceccato, Vania
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Rural crime and community safety2015In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 39, p. 157-159Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Corvellec, Hervé
    et al.
    Institutionen för service management och tjänstevetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Ek, Richard
    Institutionen för service management och tjänstevetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Svingstedt, Anette
    Institutionen för service management och tjänstevetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Zapata, Patrik
    Förvaltningshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Zapata-Campos, María-José
    Management och Organisation, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Avfallsförebyggande handlar om effektiv produktion och genomtänkt konsumtion –inte om avfall.: sju lärdomar från forskningsprojektet från avfallshantering till avfallsförebyggande2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 18.
    Dovlén, Sylvia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Hilding-Rydevik, T.
    Sustainable development in regional development practice: a socio-cultural view of evaluation2016In: New Principles in Planning Evaluation, Taylor and Francis , 2016, p. 77-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1997, the Swedish government proclaimed that sustainable development (SD) should be the lodestar for all public activities (SOU 1997, 105). The following year sustainable development was explicitly introduced as an overarching aim in Swedish regional development politics (Regeringens proposition 1998). The 21 Swedish regions were thus requested to implement and integrate a new goal and perspective, namely SD, as part of their traditional responsibilities to coordinate and promote regional economic growth and employment. 

  • 19. Dragutescu, Ana
    et al.
    Jones, Peter
    Smeds, Emilia
    Horvat, Marko
    Meskovic, Elma
    European City Typology for context-sensitive framework and tools development: Deliverable D1.32020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to better understand the factors that hinder SUMP development and address urban mobility challenges, CIVITAS SUMP-PLUS is working within six co-creation laboratories in six cities. Yet due to the varying circumstances and mobility contexts in the project’s partner and (more generally) European cities, SUMP-PLUS determined the need for a city typology that enables the comparison of and the identification of differences between these varied city contexts. This report delivers an overview of the sources and methods used by different organisations, projects and other institutions when creating city typologies. Finally, this report sets out SUMP-PLUS’s own mobility-focused city typology, whose development has drawn on the aforementioned city typologies.

  • 20.
    Eckersten, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Exploring practices for facilitating integrated strategic land use and transport planning in the Nordic countries2023In: Journal of Transport and Land Use, E-ISSN 1938-7849, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 409-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on examples from the Nordic countries, this article aims to explore the practical application of strategic policy and planning instruments and approaches that facilitate the integration of land use and transport planning and promote sustainable policy measures through collaboration among stakeholders across various governance levels. This research applies a qualitative research design including literature research, interviews, and workshops involving practitioners from the five Nordic countries. In this paper, we present an overview of the planning structure in the Nordic countries, including institutions that govern land use and transport planning. We identify different approaches to bridge the gap between land use and transport planning, such as the Finger Plan in Denmark, MAL in Finland, Concept Studies in Norway, and Strategic Choice of Measures in Sweden. Many of the examples employ informal collaborative approaches among authorities to form a shared vision and seek consensus on a combination of policy measures and actions. The paper examines collaborative approaches in relation to regulatory planning and discusses the role of these processes in advancing integrated land use and transport planning and fostering sustainable urban development.

  • 21.
    Edström, Kristina
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Granskning av en tjänsteförslagsnämnds prövning av behörighetskravet för lektor avseende högskolepedagogisk utbildning: ett stickprov2008Report (Other academic)
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  • 22.
    Ekane, Nelson
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Kjellen, Marianne
    United Nations Dev Programme UNDP, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Ntakarutimana, Amans
    Univ Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda..
    Mwesige, Daniel
    Network Water & Sanitat NETWAS, Kampala, Uganda..
    Linking sanitation policy to service delivery in Rwanda and Uganda: From words to action2020In: Development Policy Review, ISSN 0950-6764, E-ISSN 1467-7679, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 344-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation The gap between policy, implementation and outcome is neither new nor specific to the sphere of sanitation. This article attempts to apply policy implementation literature in the context of developing countries, when much of the scholarly work on implementation and policy process and empirical research has been in the context of developed countries. Purpose This article explores the gap between sanitation policy intentions and outcomes in a comparative study in Rwanda and Uganda with "good" and "limited or no" reported progress respectively towards the former Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Approach and methods From a multi-level governance perspective, the gap between strong political will and insufficient resources, implementation and outcome, is examined by drawing on policy and implementation theories and empirical research. The selection of variables for comparison is based on a range of factors theorized as affecting outcome in contemporary governance. Findings Whereas the policy climate and prioritization of sanitation has been favourable in much of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), resources and capacity constraints, especially at the local level, negatively affect sector performance in an increasingly decentralized governance landscape. Progress in Rwanda is explained by stronger political leadership and support for sanitation, stringent performance monitoring and oversight, an institutionalized community-based approach, and investment in rural sanitation. Policy implications This article shows that the management of sanitation depends on a changing governance landscape; leadership is important for overall sector improvement; networks present co-ordination challenges; approaching sanitation as a public concern requires strong government intervention; the move towards markets necessitates government oversight; approaches that foster inclusion and legitimacy at the local level need to be considered.

  • 23.
    Eneqvist, Erica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Experimental Governance: Capacity and legitimacy in local governments2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary planning and governance of cities involves practices of experiments and trials in urban experiments, collaborative platforms, and urban development projects with high ambitions for sustainability and innovative solutions. These practices of experimental governance can be seen as new policy instruments that include actors from all sectors of society in collective problem-solving. The introduction of experimental governance establishes a new logic of public administration that results in multiple opportunities and challenges. Previous research has emphasised the importance of organisational development beyond a focus on single experimental projects and institutional designs to support experimentation. This thesis aims to examine the municipalities’ organisational capacity for experimental governance and the opportunities to ensure legitimacy.

    The thesis involves a case study of the City of Stockholm and its innovative practices in general and experimental governance practices in particular. The focus is on the municipal organisation and how it has developed over the past decade, rather than single experiments, collaborations, and projects. Using a qualitative research approach, empirical data was collected by shadowing City of Stockholm staff members, while also conducting semi-structured interviews, participatory observations, and document studies. The thesis comprises four research articles: three using the City of Stockholm as an empirical case of a municipality engaged in experimental governance, and one that develops theoretical insights using examples from Stockholm. The first article provides a discussion of municipal innovation approaches and their influence of institutional logics. The second article is about municipal functions related to experiments, and how these functions challenge the local government. The third article examines the work of experiments and partnerships in policy and practice from a legitimacy perspective. The fourth article explores the institutional capacity for translating innovation actions from high-profile urban development projects into regular processes of the municipality.

    The results provide new knowledge about public actors and urban experimentation, while also providing practical insights that are relevant to stakeholders who engage in urban experiments. Specifically, the thesis reveals the challenges that municipalities face in embracing experiments while also ensuring and developing procedures for legitimacy. It also highlights the tensions of introducing new logics and roles for public authorities in a changing governance environment. The findings point towards the need for a more nuanced understanding of practices of experimental governance, and the development of permanent organisational structures and cultures to support and steer these practices. There is also a need for organisational procedures to ensure legitimacy, related to both input in terms of transparency, accountability and equality, and output in terms of results and effectiveness, with a capacity to implement the results. By meeting these needs, municipalities can harness the opportunities of experimental governance to serve the public good.

     

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  • 24.
    Eneqvist, Erica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    From extraordinary to ordinary: Institutional capacity and the challenges of embedding experimental findings in municipalitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban experiments are increasingly popular for municipalities to demonstrate possible futures and sustainable transformations. High profile urban development projects typically include multiple experiments that produce learnings to be embedded broadly across the municipality. However, these embedding processes are hindered by a lack of planning and organisational structures, obdurate institutional norms and standards, and assumptions that positive experimental results will automatically be implemented. This paper uses an institutional capacity framework to analyse the embedding of experimental learnings from the Royal Seaport project to the City of Stockholm. The study focuses on knowledge resources, relational resources, and mobilisation capacity as elements of institutional capacity that are needed to translate the extraordinary activities and insights of individual experiments into long-term ordinary governance processes of municipalities. The results highlight the challenges of translating experimental findings into broader institutional changes and the need for capacity building that involves organisations of learning to facilitate these processes. 

  • 25.
    Eneqvist, Erica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    When innovation comes to town: The institutional logics driving change in municipalitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is an increasingly influential agenda for municipalities to apply to multiple activities and objectives. This paper presents an institutional logics framework to clarify the ways that municipalities use innovation to achieve their long-term ambitions. The framework consists of four approaches that co-exist within a single municipality: the Business-Enabling approach supports local economic growth, the Organizational Change approach focuses on improving internal processes and services, the Attractiveness approach promotes the territory for investment, and the Transformative approach engages with broader societal challenges. The framework clarifies how innovation is interpreted and practiced by municipalities and reveals opportunities to enhance these activities.

  • 26.
    Eneqvist, Erica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies. Division of Built Environment, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden;Department of Urban Planning and Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Algehed, Jessica
    Municipal Research in West Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jensen, Christian
    Department of Business Administration, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Legitimacy in municipal experimental governance: questioning the public good in urban innovation practices2022In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 1596-1614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban experiments, living labs and testbeds have emerged as influential approaches to governing cities around the world. Experimental governance allows stakeholders to trial possible futures and to embrace creativity and innovation in the pursuit of sustainability goals. Experiments are often conducted through triple helix partnerships that favour informal and distributed actions. This is a significant departure from traditional urban development processes that are informed by well-defined processes executed by public authorities to ensure the public good and are legitimated by citizens. In this paper, we investigate this tension between experimental governance and public sector legitimacy by focusing on experimental practices in two Swedish municipalities, Stockholm and Gothenburg. We gathered data through a desk-based study, participant observations and semi-structured interviews with municipal actors to investigate the input, throughput and output legitimacy of municipalities in experimental governance. The findings indicate that municipalities emphasise actions and results from experiments, while de-emphasising reflection and attention to democratic procedures and protection of the public good. The focus on legitimacy reveals the fragmented and instrumental practices of experimental governance and a deficit in organizational capacity with potential detrimental impacts on legitimacy.

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  • 27.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Lawhon, Mary
    University of Edinburgh.
    Anesu, Makin
    Millington, Nate
    The University of Manchester .
    Stokes, Kathleen
    Trinity College.
    Swyngedouw, Erik
    The University of Manchester.
    Turning Livelihood to Rubbish?: The Politics of Value and Valuation in South Africa’s Urban Waste Sector2021In: African Cities and Collaborative Futures: Urban Platforms and Metropolitan Logistics / [ed] Keith, Michael de Souza Santos and Andreza Aruska, Manchester: Manchester University Press , 2021, p. 97-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We will discuss our experience of researching solid waste management politics in South African cities, in particular Cape Town, Johannesburg, and Ekurhuleni. The title of our project – Turning Livelihoods to Waste? – was designed to raise a serious of questions about ongoing trends in the waste sector and the implications. South African household waste management operates under a paradigm of cooperative governance where authority is distributed across various scales of government, business, and society. Recent efforts to expand, improve, and formalize solid household waste management and recycling initiatives have implications for those who currently work with waste - particularly for informal waste pickers or reclaimers, who do much of the primary work with waste in the global south. Despite promises of green economic development and job creation, many people working with waste in South Africa work are subjected to precarious and difficult work conditions or experience new uncertainties and vulnerabilities which threaten existing livelihood strategies. In turn, there are serious questions about whether waste workers should be expected to work in dangerous conditions, and what sorts of alternate arrangements may be more just and more ecologically sustainable.

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  • 28.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Demokratins triumf eller fiasko?: Folkomröstningen om kärnkraft i retroperspektiv2008In: Dædalus, Tekniska museets årsbok., ISSN 0070-2528, Vol. 76, p. 64-75Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Winds of time: Lessons from Utö in the Stockholm Archipelago, 1990-20012013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 62, p. 124-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When investigating the success or failure of different wind power projects, it is essential to take into account how they were historically situated. This study focuses on attempts to develop wind power in an archipelago setting, at Utö in Sweden. It has been argued that the development of Swedish wind power slowed during the 1990s; by revisiting the early days of wind power, looking at resistance and support, and connecting success factors, this can be further investigated.

    Whereas earlier research pointed out institutional conditions and site-specific conditions as crucial for successful wind power development and acceptance, the picture can be made more complete by discussing how wind power projects are affected by time-specific historical conditions. In the case of Utö, these can partly be associated with a newly launched political support program that gave the project political legitimacy and added a “pioneering spirit” to the endeavor. Conversely, when wind power is not seen as “pioneering” or “experimental” any more, but as a mere industrial activity, other incentives may need to be offered to municipalities.

  • 30.
    Friborg, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Value-creating digitization of the planning and building permit process: insights from an innovation ecosystem perspective2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden should be internationally leading in taking advantage of the opportunities offered by digitalization. Though several industries report successes, the community-building sector is far behind. The Swedish government has initiated several assignments to enable and push the digitalization of the community-building process forward. The process that has been analogous, time-consuming, fragmented and resulted in a loss of valuable information, shall become digital, uniform, and cohesive, as well as facilitate decision-making, collaboration, information- and knowledge flows. This thesis has been limited to studying the planning and building permit process, a central part of the community-building process, from an innovation ecosystem perspective. The purpose has been to understand how actors collaborate to realize the goal of a digital community-building process. It includes understanding also how actors work and relate to digitalization internally in their organization, how they interact with others, what roles they take, as well as what values, challenges, and success factors they identify. Literature- and document studies have been completed to understand innovation ecosystems, digitalization in the sector and how the innovation ecosystem perspective can be used to understand the digitization of the planning and building permit process. Interviews have been held with eight different actors who in various ways are significant for the digitization of the process. The result clarifies that the actors have reached different digital maturity. While some have taken on a leadership role, are innovative and explore opportunities, others are waiting to see which direction the sector takes and are open to adapting to the results of other actors' exploring and innovations. Moreover, the history of a long collaboration has served as a foundation for the actors' work with digitalization and proved crucial for achieving the goal of a cohesive digital process. The results have also clarified that actors have different knowledge and specializations that consequently established dependence on other actors and affect each actor's capacity for action. Furthermore, several identified challenges of legal, economic, and political character, need to be solved for the process to be digitized. Challenges also relate to some of the digital technology that is implemented neither meets legal requirements nor the requirements of the actors. Simultaneously digitalization requires new working methods and new knowledge among employees. The central identified values are efficiency, and the increased collective understanding and knowledge visual models enable. It can also result in higher quality and consensus on decisions and detailed plans, as well as new opportunities for evaluation, analysis, and optimization, and hopefully enable more sustainable development.

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  • 31.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    et al.
    Uppsala University .
    Salö, Linus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment. Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boundary-work and social closure in academic recruitment: Insights from the transdisciplinary subject area Swedish as a Second Language2023In: Research Evaluation, ISSN 0958-2029, E-ISSN 1471-5449, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 515-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores practices of evaluation in academic recruitment in Swedish as a Second Language (SSL), an expanding and transdisciplinary subject area. As is common elsewhere, Swedish academia relies on a tradition of external expert review intended to ensure a meritocratic process. Here, we present an analysis of 109 written expert reports concerning recruitment to 57 positions in SSL during 2000–20. Because SSL lacks institutional autonomy, and is spread across several sub-disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, the material encompasses experts with diverse academic backgrounds. The SSL reports are broadly characterized by qualitative assessment. In contrast to other fields, the SSL experts seldom use quantitative proxy measures. Instead, they mainly rely on received conceptions of the boundaries of SSL as a means of justifying their inclusion and exclusion of candidates. This dominant regularity consists of attempts to define and delimit SSL and its core research areas, to locate the candidates in a core-to-periphery scheme with respect to these boundaries, and to rank them accordingly. This mechanism of social closure serves to restrict access to SSL to candidates with qualifications that conform to the experts’ own conceptions of SSL. As we show, the experts’ internally ambiguous conceptions of SSL tend to be constructed in relation to their own scientific habitus and investments. Beyond evaluating applicants’ possession of scientific capital, their distinctive style of reasoning around research qualifications and skills thus involves power-laden boundary-work, which leaves ample room for individual, yet habitus-specific arbitrariness.

  • 32.
    Granath Hansson, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    The Planning Process in Sweden: current debate and reform proposals2015In: Kart og Plan, ISSN 0047-3278, Vol. 75, p. 249-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The housing shortage in the Swedish growth regions, generally believed to originate from limited construction of new housing and the rent regulation, is deemed to be the largest threat to continued economic growth in Sweden, and leads to an unsatisfactory welfare level of many citizens. The center-right government of 2010–2014 emphasized reform of the town planning process as the major means to overcome the housing shortage. The new red-green government has continued reform on their agenda, but to date no concrete reform proposals have been put forward. The article outlines the problems related to municipal housing strategies, the town planning process and municipal land allocation and the reforms that have been implemented or are being investigated. Lastly, possible future town planning reform is discussed in light of recent political development.

  • 33.
    Gullberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Konkurrens och samverkan i storstaden: Bostadsmarknaden som nyckel1991In: Fragment 80-tal / [ed] Anders Gullberg, Stockholm: Nordiska institutet för samhällsplanering , 1991, p. 146-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med fördelningen av bostäder till hushåll följer inte bara de variationer i boende­kostnader och förmögenhetsbildning som blivit mycket uppmärksammade i massmedia under senare år. Med fördelningen av bostäder följer också fördelningen av mycket annat av detta livets goda. Bostadsmarknaden beskrivs som ett knippe sorteringsmekanismer där en matchning sker mellan bostäder och hushåll. Det stora beroendet mellan människor i en storstad påtalas och frågan om hur bostadskrisen ska kunna lösas ges en uppfordrande formulering. 

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  • 34.
    Haglund, Gabriella
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Samverkan för en åldrande befolkning: Metoder för en äldrevänlig planering inom Stockholms stad2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Samverkan för en åldrande befolkning
  • 35.
    Higa, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Campinas, Brazil.
    Cunha, Marcelo
    University of Campinas, Brazil.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Coalitions towards the Carbon Tax in the Swedish Heating Sector2020In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 20, article id 8530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The carbon tax is a cornerstone of the climate policy in Sweden. Historically, it has played a central role in the replacement of fossil fuels in the heating sector. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the policy-making process that led to the formulation and adoption of the carbon tax in the Swedish heating sector, from 1980 to 1991. We used the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), according to which policy actors form coalitions based on shared beliefs. Drawing from both literature and empirical experiences gathered through in-depth interviews, we identified supporting and opposing coalitions that diverged in their views concerning bioenergy development and the potential impact of the carbon tax. This study illustrates the complex conditions for introduction of environmental taxes and expansion of new industries, particularly when established businesses perceive the new activities as a threat. The Swedish experience shows that countries can progress by exploring internal synergies and innovative policy designs, despite potential resistance of established constituencies. The successful adoption of the carbon tax in the Swedish heating sector serves as inspiration for policymakers in other sectors and countries, as they contemplate policies to promote the decarbonization of the energy system.

  • 36.
    Hult, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Bradley, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Planning for Sharing: Providing Infrastructure for Citizens to be Makers and Sharers2017In: Planning Theory & Practice, ISSN 1464-9357, E-ISSN 1470-000X, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 597-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how local authorities can develop infrastructure for collaborative consumption, i.e. sharing amongst citizens of tools, spaces and practical skills.The City of Malmo, Sweden, is used as a case study to illustrate the work with such "sharing infrastructure". Existing planning research and planning practice for sustainability generally focus on facilitating citizens to live in a more eco-friendly way in terms of housing, modes of transport, waste flows and use of green space, but do not address citizens' consumption of other material goods. This paper points to a potential role for local public planning in relation to collaborative consumption through creating sharing infrastructure, i.e. providing access to shared tools and spaces for making and repairing, thus enabling citizens to act in the city not only as consumers, but also as makers and sharers.

  • 37.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Cirkulära Avtal: Ett verktyg för en cirkulär ekonomi2020In: Avfall och Miljö, ISSN 1654-5087, no 5, p. 34-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 38.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings Universitet .
    Cirkulära Avtal: Hur kan avtal och certifikat öka användningen av sekundära resurser?2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Cirkulära avtal är överenskommelser mellan aktörer i syfte att öka cirkulationen av avfallsbaserade resurser, som specificerar under vilka förutsättningar resursen får cirkuleras.

    Denna rapport undersöker för- och nackdelar med olika typer av cirkulära avtal för återvinning i Europa, för att sedan analysera vilka problem avtalen löser och inte löser på marknader för avfall, och vilka problem de skulle kunna lösa i en svensk kontext.

    För att studera cirkulära avtal har tre olika europeiska fall studerats; Gröna avtal i Nederländerna, Kvalitetsprotokoll i Storbritannien och Differentierade krav i Danmark. Dessa avtal skiljer sig åt till exempel genom att reglera olika delar av ett materials livscykel, till exempel dess ursprung eller tilltänkta användning.

    Gemensamt är att avtalen tar särskild hänsyn till avfallets speciella komplexitet med avseende på till exempel förekomsten av farliga ämnen. Dessutom kan cirkulära avtal användas för att fördela de kostnader och nyttor som uppstår i handeln med avfallsbaserade resurser på ett sätt som bättre passar den cirkulära ekonomin. Den funktionen i avtalen verkar särskilt viktig för att marknaden ska acceptera och intressera sig för cirkulation av komplexa avfallsströmmar som mineraliska restavfall. Både avtalen i sig och arbetet med att ta fram dem stärker och formaliserar relationer mellan aktörer, och bidrar till att göra cirkulära marknader mer förutsägbara. Därigenom kan cirkulära avtal skapa tillit och värde på marknaden för avfallsbaserade resurser, vilket är avgörande för omställningen till en cirkulär ekonomi.

    Cirkulära avtal är ett verktyg som löser vissa problem i omställningen mot en cirkulär ekonomi, men inte alla.  Till exempel kan avtal som sträcker sig under en lång tid minska incitamenten för teknisk utveckling. Vid utformning av avtal måste stor hänsyn tas till de lokala och nationella institutionella förutsättningarna, och till det specifika avfallets komplexitet.

     

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  • 39.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Förbjud handeln att slänga nya varor2021In: Expressen, ISSN 1103-923X, article id 6 SeptemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 40.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Geologer och andra resursexperter tycks ha fastnat med näsan i underjorden2021In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 41.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Gruvdrift eller återvinning av metaller? En politisk fråga2018In: Svensk gruvpolitik i omvandling: Aktörer, kontroverser, möjliga världar / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Simon Haikola, Björn Wallsten, Halmstad: Gidlunds förlag, 2018, p. 201-214Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 42.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Handling hazardous substances in a circular economy2022Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 43.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    How can conflicts, complexities and uncertainties in a circular economy be handled?: A cross European study of the institutional conditions for sewage sludge and bottom ash utilization2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The circulation of waste, where waste is given a new chance as a resource, can potentially replace the environmentally harmful extraction of virgin resources from the Earth crust. But at the same time, waste often contains higher levels of contamination than the corresponding material from the bedrock. Increased use of waste brings thus benefits at the global level, for example by reducing mining and carbon dioxide emissions, but at the same time, the disadvantages of increased levels of contamination affects primary locally.

    This conflict has been exemplified in this study by looking closely at two different waste residues: bottom ash and sewage sludge, which contain both resources and hazards. In Sweden, the utilization of these residues is limited. In central Europe, on the other hand, several countries demonstrate a high utilization of waste.

    The purpose of this study is to map the institutional conditions in Europe that may facilitate the use of waste, without increasing the risk. How can waste in terms of both its resources and hazards be handled in the best way? First, the challenges facing the use of bottom ash and sewage sludge are identified in Sweden. After that, the challenges are brought to Central Europe to see how they have handled the challenges in achieving a higher use of waste. Finally, the lessons learned from Europe are brought back to Sweden to discuss how the use of waste can increase through different political trajectories. The study is based on interviews with three different actors: waste producers, waste recipients and the authorities, mainly in three different countries: Sweden, Denmark and Germany.

    CHALLANGES

    • Trust in the regulation is missing. All stakeholders express that current policy for using waste in Sweden is insufficient. The policy for using bottom ashes are too strict, and for the use of sewage sludge too liberal.
    • Uncertainty about future policies. There are uncertainties about how future polices for bottom ashes and sewage sludge will be reformulated. Therefore, actors await costly investments.
    • Lack of institutional capacity. The capacity to handle resources is low, as municipalities apply the policies differently.
    • Unbalanced resources policy. Waste-based materials face much tougher requirements than conventional materials from the Earth's crust.
    • Lack of interest from the customer. Potential customers see few reasons to use waste-based material instead of conventional virgin material.
    • Available alternatives. There are other waste-based alternatives more interesting to customers than sewage sludge and bottom ash.

     

    FAVORABLE INSTITUIONAL CONDITIONS  

    • Liberal guidelines. Liberal requirements for using waste may potentially increase its use, since a larger proportion of the generated waste will fall within the regulatory requirements.
    • Strict guidelines. Strict requirements can potentially lead to increased use of waste, as reliability in the quality of the waste may increase among costumers.
    • Differentiated guidelines. The use of waste can potentially increase with a flexible regulatory framework with requirements depending on the risk and level of pollution.
    • Political will and objectives. An outspoken political vision can create the necessary predictability for involved actors to meet, invest in learning and technology.
    • Neutral and coherent resource policy. A neutral resource policy that does not differ geographically and geologically creates better market conditions for waste.
    • Cooperation between government and business. Cooperation between government and business can increase the use of waste, if the authorities support the market, while business invest in learning and technology.
    • Acceptance and customer interest. Economically favorable conditions and technical qualifications can increase costumers’ acceptance and interest in waste. 

     

    POLICY TRAJECTORIES

    How can trust in the regulation increase?

    -         Hazards in relation to masses or resources. The limit values of contaminations for using waste can either be expressed according to masses (mg/kg) or according to resources (mg/ kg P).

    -         Leaching concentrations or total concentrations. The limit values of contamination can either be measured in terms of leaching concentrations and/or total concentrations.

    -         Differentiated conditions based on the material or context. Differentiated requirements for waste can be based on the context of the use and/or on the properties of the waste.

    -         Limit values based on the risk or the waste. The limit values can be constructed based on either a risk assessment or the characteristics of the waste.

     

    How can the security increase for future policies?

    -         Bottom-up or top-down formulated policies. Policies for using waste can either be formulated between involved actors or formulated top down by authorities.

    -         End of pipe or preventive solutions. Solutions to increase the use of waste are typically either end of pipe, directing pollution away, or preventive, focusing on avoiding the generation of pollution at the source.

    -         Incremental changes or social transitions. The relationship of the solutions to the existing system can either be incremental or require a radical transformation of the system.

    -         Requirements according to capacity or risk. The requirements for using waste may be the same for all stakeholders (based on risk), or based on the capacity for investment.

     

    How can the institutional capacity for waste as a resource increase?

    -         Centralized or decentralized authority. Criteria for using waste can either be decentralized where each region sets their own criteria or be centralized, where the same rules apply across the country.

    -         Differentiated or similar policies for primary and secondary resources. The requirements for primary and secondary resources can be shared or different.

    -         Institutional fragmentation or coherence. The responsibility of primary and secondary resources are typically divided between two different ministries (industry and environment), but can be shared under the same institutional structure.

    -         Resource or waste oriented organizations. There could be tradeoffs between cleaning the flows as effective as possible and acquire residues of good quality.

    -         National or multilateral policy. Waste polices are normally a national issue, but waste is traded in the international market. Waste polices in one country might thus affect the situation in another country.

     

    How can costumers’ willingness increase?

    -         Financial compensation or investment. Compensation is often required for costumers to accept waste, but the money could also be invested upstream in preventive work, to increase the quality.

    -         Direct or indirect political governance. The authorities normally interfere in the waste market by enforcing rules, but might also become an active part on the waste market as a costumer or through public procurement.

    -         Waste as a hot topic or asleep. Despite the same scientific understanding, the use of waste seems in some region to be politically debated while in other regions the debate is missing, which could affect the acceptance of using waste.

     

    How can access to alternatives be handled?

    -         A material or social challenge. The transition to circular economy can be driven by uncertain resource availability or be a political decision.

    -         Alternatives: primary material or secondary material. Primary material with a high environmental impact can be substituted with either another primary material or by secondary material.

    -         Same or different requirements for secondary material. The requirements for using waste based resources can either be the same, like for waste used in constructions, or differ like between sewage sludge, manure and digestate.

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  • 44.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Hårdare regler för avfall driver på kriminalitet2022In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, p. 4-4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 45.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Målkonflikten mellan cirkulär ekonomi och giftfri miljö: Problem, perspektiv och strategier2022Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 46.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Recycling warning! Reconfiguring the toxic politics of a circular economy2022In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambition to retain products and materials for as long as possible in a circular economy may dilute, disperse and accumulate hazardous substances. However, in addition to exemptions for circulated products, the regulatory regime targets only a small percentage of all hazardous substances. This emerging problem is just one of many examples why the focus needs to shift from the win–win potential of a circular economy towards a reflexive consideration of tensions, trade-offs and policy conflicts between increased circulation and other topical issues, such as, in this case, reduced dispersion of hazardous substances.

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  • 47.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    The policy conflict between circularity and toxicity2022In: WMW Waste Management World, ISSN 2707-5818Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 48.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    The policy conflict between circularity and toxicity: Problems, perspectives and strategies2022Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 49.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Vi missar klimatmålen – inför budget och förbud2022In: Aftonbladet, ISSN 1103-9000, article id 2 JanuaryArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Why is biogas production and not food donation the Swedish political priority for food waste management?2021In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The management of food waste is high on the political agenda. This study will analyze and discuss why biogas production has become the politically prioritized management method for food waste in Sweden, ahead of other alternatives such as donation to people in need. This study shows that biogas is the preferred alternative because food losses are framed as a waste issue, evaluated from an environmental and economic perspective. However, if food losses had been evaluated from a social perspective, and consideration given to the potential of food waste to address food insecurity, the evaluations could well have resulted in other priorities. In practice, there is no conflict between donation and anaerobic digestion of food waste. The edible food waste can be donated, while the inedible waste can be recycled. However, such an approach would require different ambitions and policies, which would bring actors together and ultimately improve the conditions for food donations and people living in food insecurity.

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