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  • 1. Andersson, A. E.
    et al.
    Andersson, D. E.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Location and spatial clustering of artists2014In: Regional Science and Urban Economics, ISSN 0166-0462, E-ISSN 1879-2308, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 128-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveys of artists' location choices show that they disproportionately reside in large cities. This paper introduces a model that attempts to explain this urban preference. The model includes four factors: access to other artists; access to consumer demand; access to service jobs; and housing affordability. These four factors are combined in a spatial equilibrium model. An equilibrium spatial distribution of artists is derived from the model and is correlated with the actual distribution among Swedish municipalities. Subsequently, the model is used for an econometric estimation of factor effects. The results show that access to other artists and local access to service jobs are important localization factors. Educated labor used as a proxy for consumer demand has a significant effect on artists' location choices.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Roland
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Universities, knowledge transfer and regional development: Geography, entrepreneurship and policy2012In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 91, no 2, p. 477-479Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Annadotter, Kerstin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Motiv för inflyttning till Dalen och Östbergahöjden samt inflyttades värdering av områdena: Arbetsrapport nr 5 i projektet Grannskapseffekter på områdesnivå- en fördjupad studie av bostadsrättsombildning i allmännyttan2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med denna studie är att få kunskaper om varför man flyttar till Östbergahöjden och Dalen samt vilka kvaliteter och eventuella problem de nyinflyttade upplever i respektive område.

     

    Metoden för att erhålla svar på frågorna är skriftliga enkäter där inbjudan att delta i en webbaserad enkät sändes ut via brev till personer som flyttat in till Östbergahöjden respektive Dalen under år 2014. Data på inflyttade personer 2014 erhölls från SPAR. Såväl brevet med inbjudan som enkäten var på både svenska och engelska.

     

    Antalet inflyttade år 2014 var 341 personer i Östbergahöjden och 320 personer i Dalen. Svarsfrekvensen efter två påminnelser blev totalt ca 12% i båda områdena, en mycket låg siffra.

    En analys av delgrupper av svarande indikerar att de som svarat kan anses vara representativa för de som har köpt en bostadsrätt eller fått en hyresrätt i respektive område.

     

    Priserna på bostäderna i Dalen och Östbergahöjden uppfattas som billiga och prisvärda. Det är den mest omnämnda orsaken för flytt till båda områdena. Man har kunnat köpa sin bostad eller köpa en större bostad. Man har i båda områdena i viss utsträckning flyttat från hyresrätt till bostadsrätt vilket talar för att områdena till del har fungerat som ett insteg på bostadsrättsmarknaden för de inflyttande.

    De svarande i båda områdena tillsammans bedömer att bostadsområdet de bodde i tidigare var tryggare, hade bättre rykte, att man hade bättre förtroende för grannar, att man tog mer hänsyn till varandra och att man höll mer rent och snyggt. Svaren per område visar att man i Östbergahöjden upplever att trygghet och områdets rykte är de faktorer där skillnaderna är störst och negativa jämfört med det bostadsområde där man bodde innan flytten.

    Att läget är centralt med goda kommunikationer och bra service är det näst mest omnämnda orsaken till varför man flyttat in, både för Dalen och Östbergahöjden. Andra ofta omnämnda orsaker till att flytta till Dalen är: ”nära natur, grönt”; ”trevligt område, fin arkitektur”; ”barnvänligt, bra skola, dagis ”samt att ”vänner, släkt har rekommenderat området”. Andra ofta nämnda orsaker att flytta till Östbergahöjden är att man ”flyttar ihop eller isär”; ”flyttat med släkt och familj” samt ”fick möjligheten; var tvungen”.

    Det bästa med att bo i både Dalen och Östberga är att områdena ligger nära Stockholms centrum. För Dalen omnämns också ”nära natur”; ”trevliga grannar, bra gemenskap”; ”trevligt område, ”fina innergårdar” samt ”bra lägenhet, stor lägenhet, billigt att bo”.

    Det mest omnämnda problemet med att bo i Östbergahöjden är ”anlagd brand”. Därefter kommer ”ungdomsgäng, knark, störande beteende, otryggt”, vilket också är de problem som omnämns mest i Dalen. I Dalen kommer därefter ”nedskräpning, dålig sophantering” samt ”dålig bostadskvalitet, planlösning, ljudisolering”.

    I Dalen upplever man att tex ungdomskriminaliteten minskat och att befolkningen håller på att gentrifieras. I Östbergahöjden fortsätter problemen med kriminalitet och bränder vilket oroar de boende. Östbergahöjden ser ut att lida större brist på socialt förtroende, gemenskap och samarbete än Dalen.

  • 4.
    Aquili, Tommaso
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    The Austerical City.: London at the crush test of austerity2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the UK, the unprecedented cuts to local budgets, implemented by the national governments from 2010 to the present day, have pushed local authorities to reconsider their scope, their role and their action. The ever decreasing budgets have de facto transformed local councils from service providers to territorial entrepreneurs, as the pressing pursuit of revenues has placed the economic profit at the core of the local policy-making. Urban planning plays a central role in this shift in mindset. The British planning system has been remodelled so to facilitate the implementation of development processes, as these grant revenues from planning obligations, uplifts in land values and higher income from taxes. The reform of the planning system has however conceded free rein to developers, especially through the introduction of the Development Viability Appraisal, a document which they use to reduce the provision of affordable housing, in favour of luxury housing tenures. Therefore, in London the mechanisms that rule the territorial transformations exacerbate the existing housing crisis and force local communities to face displacement. Austerity has thus initiated a cascade-effect whose negative externalities are tangible at the very local level. The emerged topics find their concretization in the description of the Heygate Estate regeneration.

  • 5. Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    The geography of innovation and entrepreneurship2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the special issue "The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship" in the Annals of Regional Science surveys a collection of nine papers which consider agglomeration economies and spatial heterogeneity of regions and firms through the lenses of innovation and entrepreneurship. They all make use of extensive and detailed data sources that enable models to provide a richer picture of how firms, industries and regions are affected by innovation and entrepreneurship but also how these entities shape and foster renewal. These factors include spatial concentration, industry composition, labor market characteristics, immigration, firm characteristics, R&D activities and R&D collaboration. The papers add to the understanding of the geography of innovation and entrepreneurship by suggesting alternative ways of identifying spillovers, combing and integrating internal and external knowledge sources, and by estimating the impact on innovation, new firm formation and growth.

  • 6.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The city as a driver of new mobility patterns, cycling and gender equality: Travel behaviour trends in Stockholm 1985-2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse changes in individual travel behaviour in Stockholm County over 30 years, using three large cross-sectional travel survey data sets. We show how travel patterns evolve over time by gender, income and age-group, in different areas of the region (centre vs. periphery).  We relate the observed trends in travel behaviour to societal trends (gender equality, ICT adoption, knowledge-based economy) and policy changes (congestion charges), and we compare them to trends in other European capital cities.

  • 7.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Maria, Börjesson
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Peak Car for urban Swedish men?2014In: Proceedings of Symposium of the European Association for Research in Transportation (hEART),September 10, 2014 – September 12, 2014, Leeds, UK, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study long-term trends in regional car travel demand within and across socio-demographic groups in Sweden, using cross-sectional data from National Travel Surveys, spanning the period from 1978 to 2011. We find that the reduction in per-adult driving in Sweden mainly occurs among urban men. Urban men of all income groups reduced their driving for both commuting and non-commuting trips in conjunction with rising gasoline prices, which may have contributed to this development. We find that driving among those socio-demographic groups, who have better opportunities to reduce their driving, and driving for discretionary rather than commute purposes is being reduced over time. Sweden is ranked among the most gender-equal countries in the world; yet we find a substantial remaining gender gap in the share of adults driving a car on an average day, even when controlling for other socio-economic differences.

     

  • 8.
    Batabyal, Amitrajeet A. A.
    et al.
    Rochester Inst Technol, Dept Econ, 92 Lomb Mem Dr, Rochester, NY 14623 USA..
    Nijkamp, Peter
    KTH.
    Creative capital, information and communication technologies, and economic growth in smart cities2019In: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 142-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study aspects of economic growth in a stylized smart city with two distinct features. First, the modeled inhabitants of this city are smart because they possess skills. Using the language of Richard Florida, these inhabitants comprise the city's creative class and hence they possess creative capital. Second, the city is smart because it uses information and communication technologies (ICTs) and we model one specific kind of ICT use. In this setting, we first derive expressions for three growth related metrics. Second, we use these metrics to show that the economy of smart city A converges to a balanced growth path (BGP). Third, we compute the growth rate of output per effective creative capital unit on this BGP. Fourth, we study how heterogeneity in initial conditions affects outcomes on the BGP by introducing a second smart city B into the analysis. At time t = 0 two key savings rates in city A are twice as large as in city B. We compute the ratio of the BGP value of income per effective creative capital unit in city A to its value in city B. Finally, we compute the ratio of the BGP value of skills per effective creative capital unit in city A to its value in city B.

  • 9. Cook, G. A. S.
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Pandit, N. R.
    Johansson, Börje
    The influence of clustering on mne location and innovation in great Britain2012In: Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance: Directions for the Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 53-82Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Damsgaard, Ole
    et al.
    Nordregio.
    Dubois, Alexandre
    Nordregio.
    Glöersen, Erik
    Nordregio.
    Hedin, Sigrid
    Nordregio.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    Nordregio.
    Roto, Johanna
    Nordregio.
    Schmitt, Peter
    Nordregio.
    Moxnes Steinecke, Jon
    Nordregio.
    Nordic Inputs to the EU Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Dargahi, Ali
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Regional Innovation Systems: an application and a framework2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Boosting economic growth and competitiveness in different spatial contexts such as national, regional, metropolitan etc. has always been in the epicenter of both large and small-scale planning efforts pursued at different levels of government from local to extra- regional and their significance is still, and probably will always be, on the rise given the ever increasing competition in today’s, and yet-to-come future world. In order to achieve this, relevant authorities have devised and implemented a vast variety of policies and approaches which are, more often than not, based on abundance of theoretical contributions in the field of economic geography. This thesis explores one of the main theoretical contributions to this field being Innovation Systems theory and tries to adapt the concept, originally intended for application at a larger scale, to the perspective of an individual firm rather than a whole production system while briefly using empirics from the spatial context of Adelaide/South Australia, loosely defined as a region, and the sectoral context of electricity infrastructure. The initial conclusion here is that applying the concept to the more manageable context of an individual firm, may have the potential to enable one to identify the relevant organizational and institutional setup more effectively and present a better explanatory description of their role in the whole Innovation system and in turn, can contribute to a more informed planning and policy- making process for regional economic growth. 

  • 12.
    Dobers, Peter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Industrial Economics and Management.
    Stockholm as a mobile valley: Empty spaces or illusionary images?2004In: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 87-108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Eliasson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Automotive dynamics in the stockholm and southern german regional economies – a comparison2013In: Innovation and Finance, Taylor & Francis, 2013, p. 115-143Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Falck, Simon
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Essays on the Interplay between Multinational Enterprises and Spatial Economies2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis concerns the interplay between multinational enterprises (MNE) and spatial economies, with an orientation towards the location and spillover effects of inward foreign direct investments (FDI). The thesis consists of four essays that are self-contained studies. The first essay relates to the shift away from FDI in manufacturing to services and examines whether service FDI locates differently from manufacturing FDI. The second essay concerns the relationship between FDI and public incentives and whether investment promotion schemes are useful to attract FDI. The third essay examines the link between human capital and FDI and how different types of skilled workers influence FDI location. Taken together, these three essays examine conditions and factors that determine the location decision of foreign MNEs in the contemporary era of globalisation. The forth essay examines whether labour mobility is a potential source for spillovers from FDI in a spatial context. Although the latter essay does not provide any final answer to whether spillovers actually arise through this channel, it shows that the potentials for an effect to arise are larger in some regions than others because there are very few or no such knowledge spillover agents in many parts of the country. The thesis concludes by discussing the link between FDI and the policy work on regional development, and some avenues for future studies.

  • 15.
    Falck, Simon
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Human Capital and FDI Location: The Swedish Experience2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between different types of human capital (HC) and the location of inward foreign direct investment (FDI) in Sweden, over the period 2002-2009. The purpose is to examine how firm-specific, industrial-specific, and occupational-specific HC influence the location of FDI in high technology industries and knowledge based services, among other factors that featured prominently in preceding FDI location work. Conditional logit estimates indicate that all types of HC are important but that occupational-specific HC appears to be key in attracting foreign firms in knowledge intensive production. This result emphasise the importance of highly skilled professionals, whose knowledge is relatively easily transferred across industry and firm settings. Other results largely uphold the basic tenets and empirical results in prior FDI location work.

  • 16.
    Falck, Simon
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Knowledge structures and Location choice of Multinationals in Business Services: Some initial results from Sweden2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how human capital influences the regional distribution of Greenfield investments. The research strategy is to classify employees into different occupational groups based on their knowledge and skills, and examine how the regional distribution of human capital influences the probability of a region receiving new foreign start-ups. The relationship between multinationals´ location choice and human capital is studied on a population of new foreign start-ups in business services that established in Sweden between 2001 and 2008.

  • 17.
    Falck, Simon
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Location choice of Foreign Companies: The Case of Sweden2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at analyzing location choice among foreign companies in Sweden. Using an empirical approach on micro data, their location choices are explored at the regional level and analyzed in a typology setting. Controls are made for industrial sectors and the role played by agglomeration economies. The results are consistent with the hypothesis on a strong relationship between location choice and agglomeration economies and also that industrial agglomeration play a role in location decisions.

  • 18.
    Falck, Simon
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Location Determinants of Multinational Enterprises in Tertiary industries2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how different host-economic attributes are associated with the location patterns of new foreign establishments in the tertiary sector. It investigates Greenfield investments made in Sweden between 2001 and 2007 and how these are related to different host-economic attributes. The aim is to analyze how regional characteristics are associated to differences in how regions succeed to attract foreign investors. Three groups of factors, i.e. agglomeration economies, market potentials and factor endowment are tested empirically in a negative binomial regression model. The principal contributions are insights in the application of regional determinants on foreign start-ups in tertiary industries and how different professionals play a role in firms´ location decisions. The results indicate that non-price benefits from urban economies, accessibility to specialized professionals and local market size play an important role in firms´ location decision. Professionals with technical knowledge are the most required type of personnel. The relevance of the applied model varies between different industries within the tertiary sector. It seems to be most relevant for market knowledge intensive services and least relevant for firms in energy.

  • 19.
    Falck, Simon
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Location of Foreign Direct Investment in Services: Some Cross-industrial Evidence from SwedenArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the location of foreign direct investments in Sweden over the period 2002-2009. FDI are measured through the frequency of foreign ventures, i.e. new operating facilities established through Greenfield investments, per region and industrial sector. The aim is to provide cross-industrial evidence to bear on the question whether there is a need to reconsider factors traditionally used to explain FDI location: market potentials, agglomeration economies, transport infrastructure, and factor costs. Negative binomial regression results indicate significant differences across industries in what determines FDI location. The overall model result is that regions with a relatively diverse economy, good access to international airport and a qualified labour force appear to be the most attractive destinations. Diversity, which relates to Jacobs externalities and may stem from urbanisation economies, seems to be the only factor efficient to explain FDI in both manufacturing and service industries. This emphasises the crucial importance of information and knowledge spillovers in the current era of globalisation.

  • 20.
    Falck, Simon
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Multinationals' Location Choices: A Demand Factor analysis2010In: 57th Annual North American Meetings of the Regional Science Association International, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this exploratory paper is to investigate regional location determinants ofmultinationals in the tertiary sector. It develops an empirical framework that is tested with a conditional logit model. Using Sweden as a case in point, the paper investigates how different host-economic attributes influence foreign companies´ investments behavior. The results indicate that the framework has a relatively high explanatory power on location choices made by firms in location boundservices; business related activities and pubic related activities, especially in the situation of Greenfield investments.

  • 21.
    Falck, Simon
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    National Regional Families on the European Area2009In: 49th European Congress of the Regional Science Association International, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis of regional economic performance on the European area is from a national point of view a comparative decision making process. Heterogeneity between regions interferes with the reliability and validity of such studies. Therefore, a comparative framework for European regional studies related to regional disparities in a country is of critical importance. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to establish a typology which aims at making analysis of European regions more meaningful from a Swedish point of view. The established typology is founded on two continuous variables and one nominal variable and has been elaborated with a statistical clustering and classification process. The new typology comprises 39 European regions organized in six relatively homogenous regional families that can be used for analytical purposes.

  • 22.
    Falck, Simon
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Spillovers from FDI through Labour Mobility: An Empirical note from Sweden2016In: Regional Science Policy & Practice, E-ISSN 1757-7802, ISSN 1757-7802, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 111-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates labour mobility flows between foreign firms and domestic employers in Sweden, which is done from the perspective that inter-firm mobility is a potential source of spillovers from FDI. After reviewing related literature, the study identifies potential knowledge spillover agents and examines the spatial extent of labour mobility patterns within and between 72 functional local labour market regions, including the effect of distance. Empirical results are provided on the frequency and relative importance of spillover agents across Sweden. Although the study neither provides any final answer for the underlying reasons for these flows nor their effect on domestic firms or local economies, which are questions left for future studies, it argues that the spatial dimension may have important implications for spillover effects to arise.

  • 23.
    Falck, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Snickars, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    EISCAT in Space: Spatial aspects of the economic and societal importance of the European incoherent scatter radar system and an ionospheric heater in Fenno-Scandinavia and on Svalbard2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last three decades, the European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association (EISCAT) has provided the scientific community with outstanding high-latitude data for research on the lower, middle and upper atmosphere and ionosphere using the incoherent scatter radar technique. The research facilities are located north of the Arctic Circle in Finland, Norway, Sweden and on Svalbard, and have since they first were taken into operation in August 1981 contributed a remarkable scientific output. This research has contributed to the understanding of different space and atmospheric phenomena and opened up and to several new fields of research. EISCAT is currently planning the next generation research facility, EISCAT_3D, which is an projected investment of more than 1,1 billion SEK (135 million €) with planned start of construction in 2015, first operations in 2018, and to be in full operation 2021. EISCAT_3D is anticipated to provide researchers with opportunities to conduct novel scientific experiments that may shift the frontiers in several scientific disciplines, but may also be utilized to develop services with specific societal values, see Kero et al. (2013). 

    This study examines the economic and societal importance of EISCAT in a spatial context. The results indicate that EISCAT generates minor purely economic effects but contributes to strengthening the regional competitiveness and attractiveness, mainly though a remarkable scientific output and extra-regional linkages which enable continual renewal and dynamism of local knowledge. EISCAT has also implied a large injection of research funding to the region. It is argued ESICAT should not only be considered as a research facility with great scientific value but also as an interconnecting infrastructure and organisation in value creating knowledge networks with global reach. The study suggests that EISCAT_3D is an investment with many important potential implications but that the related development work needs to carefully consider how to promote a high level of absorptive capacity among organisations with related activities. It is obvious that a proactive work and cooperation with national, regional and local actors will impact a full range of benefits from EISCAT_3D.

  • 24.
    Falck, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Snickars, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    En liten politik i en stor värld: En studie om utländska företag och regionalt utvecklingsarbete2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Falck, Simon
    et al.
    KTH.
    Snickars, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Högskolan i Borås: Om högskolans betydelse för kompetensförsörjning, forskning och samverkan i Västra Götaland2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om framtiden för Borås. Den gör det för att dess tema gäller högskolans roll som en central komponent i en kunskapsproducerande ekonomi med global räckvidd. I studien analyseras hur kunskap sprids från utbildnings- och forskningsverksamheten vid Högskolan i Borås till det omgivande samhället samt betydelsen av olika kunskapsspridningsmekaismer. Syftet är att öka förståelsen av högskolans roll för kompetensförsörjning, forskning och samverkan i en regional kontext. Studiens bakgrund är ett tilltagande behov att förstå och förklara hur kunskap sprids och spiller över från universitet och högskolor samt den långsiktiga betydelsen av högre lärosäten för kompetensförsörjning och regional utveckling. För planerare och beslutsfattare kan studien ligga till grund för diskussioner och planeringsarbete om hur främja högskolans roll som motor i en kunskapsdriven ekonomi.En slutsats av den förhållandevis omfattande genomgång som studien görs av utbildning, forskning och samverkan vid Högskolan i Borås är att högskolan uppvisar förhållanden som liknar de som gäller vid andra regionala högskolor i landet. Studenterna sätter sin prägel på stads- och kulturliv. Högskolan framstår som väl etablerad på sin ort. Detta lägger en grund för ekonomisk tillväxt och utveckling. Man behöver dock förbättra det strategiska arbetet med att få fler att stanna kvar, inte minst bland dem med utbildning och kunskap utanför välfärdsrelaterade yrken. Bland dem med utbildning och kunskap typisk inom innovationsrelaterat arbete samt teknisk forskning och utveckling är det relativt få som stannar kvar. För att få studenterna att stanna kvar efter avslutad måste förutsättningarna stärkas för karriärer inom yrken med krav på (fördjupad) högskolekompetens.För att detta ska vara möjligt krävs ett långsiktigt och gränsöverskridande arbete som involverar högskolan, företag, entreprenörer och offentliga arbetsgivare samt planerare och beslutsfattare på lokal, regional och nationell nivå. Ett lyckosamt ett exempel på ett sådant arbete är satsningen Smart Textiles. Man behöver dock ett bredare och mer omfattande engagemang. En central fråga i ett sådant arbete är hur långt man kommit i att främja ett närings- och arbetsliv som skapar en kompetensmultiplikator till nytta för den ekonomiska utvecklingen på längre sikt. En annan fråga är hur kunskapsnyttor från forskningsverksamheten vid Högskolan i Borås kan få ännu större spridning och förankring i regionen.För att komma vidare på det spåret behövs en kritisk granskning från universitetsledningen av hur man ska förhålla sig till frågan om konkurrens eller samverkan mellan universiteten i Västra Götaland. Vid strategivalet kring Högskolan i Jönköping eller som lärosätet nu heter Jönköping University har frågan om lokal förankring eller internationell positionering varit av central betydelse. Det ambitiösa valet att satsa på det internationella spåret och göra hela Jönköping University internationellt har inte skett utan motsättningar och svårigheter.

  • 26.
    Falck, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Regional Grants and FDI Location: Evidence from Swedish Regional Policy Programs 2002-20092013In: Romanian Journal of Regional Science, ISSN 1843-8520, E-ISSN 1843-8520, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 36-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates factors determining the location of foreign direct investments (FDI) in Sweden. The main purpose is to examine the link between FDI and public incentives, in the form of regional grants, which make up a central part of the Swedish regional policy and state expenditures that explicitly addresses regional development. Our main finding is that there is no evidence of a robust relationship between grants and the location of FDI. However, a statistically significant effect is found for investment support and transport allowance, which are grants that aims at promoting development in designated areas. This by supporting investments in machines, buildings, and so on, and offset costs disadvantages in the northern parts of the country. We conclude that a better integration between the work on FDI and regional development may be a plausible route to promote economic development in Sweden, particularly in deprived regions.

  • 27.
    Farrell, Kyle
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    A Reluctant Urban Transition: Should India pursue an accelerated urbanization strategy?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite adding 292 million inhabitants to its urban population between 1960 and 2010, the level of urbanization in India has remained considerably low. Recent efforts on behalf of the government, however, illustrate a shift from a previously passive approach to urban development to a more active one, signifying a concerted effort to accelerate urbanization. In an attempt to better understand India’s contemporary urban narrative, this paper sets out to examine its urban transition between 1960 and 2010, and to speculate on its future growth trajectory. In doing so, it seeks to explore the questions, why has India’s urbanization failed to take-off? And, should India be pursuing an accelerated urbanization strategy? Findings suggest that India’s urban transition has been underpinned by processes of demographic change, leading to dramatic increases in both urban and rural populations; a dynamic that has slowed urbanization. It also finds that, despite there being a strong relationship between the level of urbanization and the level of economic growth, no compelling relationship between the speed of urbanization and the speed of economic growth was found. This suggests that pursuing an accelerated urbanization strategy may not lead to the intended economic outcomes. This goes to show that the relationship between urbanization and economic growth is complex, and that urbanization on its own is not a panacea for development. Urbanization strategies thus need to be complimented and reinforced by a range of other development policies.

  • 28.
    Farrell, Kyle
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies. Department of Economics, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.
    An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of Nigeria’s Rapid Urban Transition2018In: Urban Forum, ISSN 1015-3802, E-ISSN 1874-6330, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 277-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Owing to the dramatic pace and scale of its transformation, Nigeria is considered Africa’s next urban giant. Between 1960 and 2010, Nigeria added approximately 62.5 million inhabitants to its urban population, with forecasts to 2050 projecting an additional 226 million. As Nigeria forges ahead into the next chapter of its urban transition, there is an unmet need to take stock of past experiences, identify trends, and speculate on future growth trajectories. Taking advantage of recently available datasets from the United Nations and the Africapolis Project, this paper launches an inquiry into the nature and causes of Nigeria’s rapid urban transition between 1960 and 2010. It disaggregates urbanization into its individual components of urban growth and calculates their contributions to the overall urban increment. Several notable findings are highlighted. Nigeria, which is considered a late urbanizer, is currently in the accelerated stage of its urban transition and is projected to enter the terminal stage by 2030. Urban natural population increase has been the dominant component of urban growth in the post-colonial period and will likely continue to be so in the immediate future. Despite this, policies aimed at stemming rural to urban migration appear to have been the preferred mechanism for lessening the pressures posed by the contemporary urban transition, suggesting a potential policy mismatch.

  • 29.
    Farrell, Kyle
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Rapid Urbanization: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Urban Transition in Developing Countries2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with the challenges posed by the contemporary urban narrative in developing countries. It is premised on the notion of the urban transition, which posits that as a country develops it undergoes a transformation from a predominantly rural society to a predominantly urban one. Throughout most of history, the urban transition was largely a phenomenon confined to what are considered todays developed countries; however, sometime around the middle of the 20th century, this began to change and the urban transition began to takeoff in developing countries. The contemporary urban narrative differentiates itself from historical accounts in that it is unfolding at an unprecedented pace and scale, placing significant pressure on urban areas. With the pressures of rapid urbanization and rapid urban growth already outstripping the capacities of local governments, planning and managing the urban transition is arguably one of the most important topics of the 21st century. In an attempt to identify approaches for managing the unprecedented pace and scale of the contemporary urban narrative, this thesis sets out to investigate the forces underpinning it. It has been organized into two parts: the first part comprises a comprehensive cover essay setting out the overarching research agenda and the second part comprises a series of five articles that make up the empirical analysis. Both sections can be read independently or constitute a single entity.

    The main contribution of this thesis is the introduction of a multidisciplinary framework for conceptualizing the urban transition in developing countries and its application to several case studies. The so-called ‘Rapid Urban Growth Triad’ situates the components of urban growth (rural to urban migration, urban natural population increase and reclassification of rural areas as urban) within their dominant theoretical discourses. As such, it views urban natural population increase as a demographic factor effected by changes in fertility and mortality patterns, rural to urban migration as an economic factor resulting from rural push and urban pull dynamics, and reclassification of rural areas as urban as a political/ administrative factor which occurs through the annexation of neighboring settlements, rural areas upgraded as urban, settlements crossing defined population thresholds and changes in urban definition. The framework offers explanatory power to the previously neglected components of urban growth and serves as a diagnostic for examining the urban transition under a range of circumstances.

    Utilizing the new conceptual framework as the primary mode of analysis, this thesis employs several demographic accounting techniques to disaggregate urbanization into its individual components of urban growth and computes their individual contributions to the overall urban increment. China, Nigeria and India have been selected as notable case studies, as these three countries are expected to account for the largest increase in urban population over the coming decades. The findings indicate that rural to urban migration has been the dominant component of urban growth in China, while urban natural population increase has been the dominant component in Nigeria and India; furthermore, in all three case studies, reclassification has made a more sizable contribution than initially understood. Moreover, it was found that in some instances the policies being prescribed to manage the urban transition did not match the identified sources of growth, suggesting a potential policy mismatch. This thesis also reveals several dynamics pertaining to the unprecedented pace and scale of the urban transition and the relationship between urbanization and economic growth. Collectively, these findings offer a more nuanced account of the urban transition in developing countries.

    Despite the urban transition being a universal event that unfolds in nearly all countries of the world, this thesis finds that it does not necessarily unfold in a uniform manner, suggesting the notion of multiple urbanization trajectories. These findings have implications for existing policies, which tend to be based on a rather outmoded understanding of the urban transition. Ultimately, this thesis calls for more informed (evidenced-based) approaches for understanding and managing the urban transition in developing countries.

  • 30.
    Farrell, Kyle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Nijkamp, Peter
    Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.
    The Evolution of National Urban Systems in China, Nigeria and IndiaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a country transitions from a lower order of development to a higher order of development, it undergoes a structural transformation. Accordingly, the spatial economy transforms from a system organized around smaller economic units distributed throughout the countryside, to one comprising larger economic units concentrated in dense urban areas. While historically this process unfolded at a rather gradual pace, it is now being redefined by the unprecedented pace and scale of the contemporary urban narrative. This has presented new patterns of urbanization. Utilizing comparable datasets for China, Nigeria and India this paper examines the evolution of national urban systems under conditions of rapid urban transformation. In doing so, it scrutinizes three key dynamics: the spatial distribution of cities, the rate of growth by city size class and the size hierarchy of cities. The results are compared to see if uniform patterns emerge. The findings of this paper suggest a certain degree of heterogeneity among national urban systems; and in some instances contrasting patterns can be observed. We thus caution against a ‘one size fits all’ approach to interpreting the urban transition in developing countries. The findings of this paper have implications for both theory and policy.

  • 31.
    Farrell, Kyle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Nijkamp, Peter
    Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.
    The Evolution of National Urban Systems in China, Nigeria and IndiaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a country transitions from a lower order of development to a higher order of development, it undergoes a structural transformation. Accordingly, the spatial economy transforms from a system organized around smaller economic units distributed throughout the countryside, to one comprising larger economic units concentrated in dense urban areas. While historically this process unfolded at a rather gradual pace, it is now being redefined by the unprecedented pace and scale of the contemporary urban narrative. This has presented new patterns of urbanization. Utilizing comparable datasets for China, Nigeria and India this paper examines the evolution of national urban systems under conditions of rapid urban transformation. In doing so, it scrutinizes three key dynamics: the spatial distribution of cities, the rate of growth by city size class and the size hierarchy of cities. The results are compared to see if uniform patterns emerge. The findings of this paper suggest a certain degree of heterogeneity among national urban systems; and in some instances contrasting patterns can be observed. We thus caution against a ‘one size fits all’ approach to interpreting the urban transition in developing countries. The findings of this paper have implications for both theory and policy.

  • 32.
    Farrell, Kyle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    China’s Rapid Urban Ascent: An Examination into the Components of Urban Growth2018In: Asian Geographer, ISSN 1022-5706, E-ISSN 2158-1762, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 85-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Having gone from 11.8% of its population inhabiting urban areas in 1950 to 49.2% by 2010, China represents the most dramatic urban transformation the world has seen. With the contemporary urban narrative presenting new challenges, particularly in terms of its unprecedented pace and scale, this paper conducts an inquiry into the nature and causes of China’s rapid urban ascent. Making use of a new analytical framework, this paper maps out the changing stages of China’s urban transition and examines the components of urban growth underpinning it. It arrives at several notable findings. Rural to urban migration has been the dominant component of urban growth, followed by urban natural population increase and reclassification. Although China’s urban growth rates were high, it is the reduction in rural growth rates that underpinned China’s particularly rapid urbanization rates. China is currently in the latter part of the accelerated stage of its urban transition, and is expected to enter the terminal stage by 2030. In light of China’s ongoing urban transition, this paper concludes with reflections on China’s New-Type Urbanization Plan 2014–2020.

  • 33.
    Gaspar, J.
    et al.
    Centre for Geographical Studies, University of Lisbon.
    Marques da Costa, N.
    Centre for Geographical Studies, University of Lisbon.
    d'Abreu, D.
    Centre for Geographical Studies, University of Lisbon.
    Marques da Costa, E.
    Centre for Geographical Studies, University of Lisbon.
    Barroqueiro, M.
    Centre for Geographical Studies, University of Lisbon.
    Esteves, A.
    Centre of Geographical Studies, University of Lisbon.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Ageing, Labour Shortage and ‘Replacement Migration’2005Book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Goldwein, Yoav
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Sleeping / Awakening Suburbs2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 35.
    Hedin, Sigrid
    et al.
    Nordregio.
    Dubois, Alexander
    Nordregio.
    Ikonen, Riikka
    Nordregio.
    Lähteenmäki-Smith, Kaisa
    Nordregio.
    Neubauer, Jörg
    Nordregio.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Nordregio.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    Nordregio.
    Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka
    Nordregio.
    Regionally Differentiated Innovation Policies in the Nordic Countries: Applying the Lisbon Agenda2008Book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Heyman, Axel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    The willingness to pay for urban sustainability2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Quite recently certification systems for sustainable development of neighborhoods and communities came to the market. These systems try to define urban sustainability through sets of criteria that in a variety of ways measure aspects in developments that have an influence on environmental, social and economical issues. The idea in this thesis is to investigate the monetary values on these criteria, derived from property prices from apartments and single family houses in Copenhagen. In order to make proper estimates on the monetary values for certification criteria a hedonic price model is used. The model holds property prices from about 20 000 sales as dependent variable which is then correlated, through multiple regressions, with variables made out of the criteria. Translation from certification criteria into measurable variables is done with great consideration to contemporary urban theory. It turns out that 19 of all measured criteria are statistically significant. From this result the conclusion would be that people are not very willing to pay for urban sustainability, but going back to theory and earlier studies it seems more likely that it is a question of scale. Since previous studies implies that many of the key factors in urban sustainability are positively valued on a city scale, the result from this thesis could be viewed as complementing in the sense that it shows that people are not willing to pay for urban sustainability within their neighborhood but on the city scale they might be.

  • 37.
    Jonsson, Daniel K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Johansson, B.
    Månsson, A.
    Nilsson, L. J.
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Sweden.
    Sonnsjö, H.
    Energy security matters in the EU Energy Roadmap2015In: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 6, p. 48-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy security has gained increasing prominence on the EU political agenda, but is often framed narrowly, in terms of import dependency or security of supply. In this paper we screen and scope out a more comprehensive suite of energy security aspects to be considered when assessing low-carbon energy scenarios and apply it using the EU Energy Roadmap as an example. Availability and affordability issues as well as security of demand matters and geopolitical security aspects are identified and discussed. External factors, e.g., future international climate treaties and international relations, are important for some energy security outcomes. A broader framing of energy security together with structured assessments on the security implications of energy transitions would benefit future EU energy policy.

  • 38.
    Karakaya, Emrah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Why general purpose technologies matter in innovation systems: The case of artificial intelligence in the mining and metal producing industry of Sweden2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many signs indicating that artificial intelligence – reproduction of the cognitive functions that humans have such as learning and problem solving by machines– has been spreading among various industries. The rise of artificial intelligence – as this article conceptualize as a general purpose technology –   is affecting not only the cognitive dimension of technological innovation systems but also the organizational, institutional and economic dimensions. However, from a technological point of view, studies in technological innovation systems often focus on specific purpose technologies. What about general purpose technologies – which open up new opportunities rather than offering complete final solutions? In this paper, we aim to explore how a general purpose technology affects the innovation systems. In order to do so, we conduct a qualitative case study on artificial intelligence in mining and metal producing industry of Sweden. Our contribution is twofold. Firstly, we clarify how artificial intelligence can be conceptualized as a general purpose technology in innovation systems perspective. Secondly, we find out how a general purpose technology affects the dynamics of innovation systems.

  • 39.
    Karakaya, Emrah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Assbring, Linda
    KK-stiftelsen.
    Nuur, Cali
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Exploring sustainability transitions in the iron and steel industry: A case study from Sweden2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The iron and steel industry accounts for one third of global industrial CO2 emissions (IEA, 2015a), putting transformative pressures on the industry to shift towards more sustainable modes of production.  Steel is widely used in every country and almost all industries, with a growing trend around the globe. There is a common agreement that the industry needs to improve the energy efficiency, recycle more and switch to low-carbon production processes (IEA, 2015a; Rynikiewicz, 2008; Sridhar and Li, 2016; WSA, 2016). However, this transitions requires a lengthy and complex process at which radical innovations are required to reduce the emissions and ,thus, facilitate the sustainability transitions (Wesseling et al., 2016).

    In this study, we focus on the iron and steel industry in Sweden – a rarely studied context in the field of sustainability transitions. The country is the host of SSAB AB, known to be a promising steel company to lead the sustainability transitions of the industry worldwide (Fryer et al., 2016), as well as the LKAB, which is the EU´s largest iron ore producer with 78% market share (LKAB, 2016). The SSAB and LKAB, together with the Swedish policy makers and Vattenfall – as electricity supplier –, committed themselves making Sweden to be the first place to reach zero-carbon steel production (PC, 2016). However, despite the ambitious goals, a few decades might be needed. For example, much is expected from the radical innovations, such as the hydrogen based reduction technology (HYBRIT, 2016), which are still at the experimental stage. Thus, we raise the following research question: What are the possible pathways for sustainability transitions in the iron and steel industry in Sweden? The case in Sweden is highly relevant for the field of sustainability transitions because there is a collective guidance and governance towards carbon free steel production (PR, 2017). As a method, we choose an explorative case study approach (Yin, 2003). We combine primary qualitative data, such as semi structured interviews, with secondary data, such as reports, papers and press materials. This data is used to discuss the possible transition pathways for the industry.

    Our case study relates to the ongoing research in sustainability transitions studies, especially in regards to the literature on technological innovation systems (Bergek et al., 2015; Hekkert et al., 2007; Walrave and Raven, 2016) and transitions pathways (Geels and Schot, 2007; Geels et al., 2016). On the one hand, the case of hydrogen based reduction technology demonstrates a combination of strengths and weaknesses of the functions in the innovation system. For instance, the knowledge exchange and guidance for research are significantly high, while the market formation is still at its very early stage. On the other hand, incumbent actors try to reorient themselves towards a new radical technology (i.e., hydrogen based reduction technology) which may lead to both a technical substitution and a reconfiguration of the system components. Thus, this case (initially) shows some characteristics from two distinct transition pathways: transformation and reconfiguration. Although the shifts between the pathways are recently discussed in the literature (Geels et al., 2016), an overlap between them is a relatively new phenomenon which needs further investigation. 

  • 40.
    Karakaya, Emrah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Nuur, Cali
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Breitschopf, Barbara
    Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Germany.
    Hidalgo, Antonio
    Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Sub-national lead markets: The diffusion of photovoltaic systems among households in Germany2017In: Academy of Management Proceedings, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on lead markets has long argued that the global diffusion of innovations is often driven by the country-specific attributes of a lead country. However, less attention has been paid to the sub-national level. Can region-specific attributes of a lead region drive national diffusion? This paper takes the lead market model and applies it to the diffusion of photovoltaic systems among households in Germany. Based on an indicator-based approach, our paper identifies the presence of both lead and lag markets at the sub-national level. Our findings show the importance of the lead market characteristics (i.e., demand, cost, export, transfer and market advantages) of early adopter sub-national regions as critical drivers of the national diffusion of innovations. This is particularly important for policymakers seeking to influence the diffusion of environmental innovations through institutional support. If a national policy can drive the diffusion of an innovation in a specific sub-national region that has lead market attributes, the diffusion in other regions is likely to follow the lead region subsequently. 

  • 41. Karlsson, C.
    et al.
    Johansson, BörjeKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).Stough, R.
    Entrepreneurship, social capital and governance: Directions for the sustainable development and competitiveness of regions2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book highlights the role of entrepreneurship, social capital and governance for regional economic development. In recent decades, many researchers have claimed that entrepreneurship is the most critical factor in sustaining regional economic growth. However, most entrepreneurship research is undertaken without considering the fundamental importance of the regional context. Other research has emphasized the role of social capital but there are substantial problems in empirically relating measures of social capital to regional economic development.

  • 42. Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. University West, Sweden .
    Entrepreneurial knowledge, technology and the transformation of regions: An introduction2013In: Entrepreneurial Knowledge Technology and the Transformation of Regions, Taylor & Francis, 2013, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Kourtit, Karima
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Royuela, Vicente
    Ponce-Dentinho, Tomaz
    Nijkamp, Peter
    Envisioning Experiments on Regional Science Frontiers2016In: INVESTIGACIONES REGIONALES, ISSN 1695-7253, no 36, p. 35-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Science dynamics has become an established part of scientific research. Over the past years, a broad variety of experimental approaches has been developed to explore the frontiers of the current state of the art -and their shifts- in either separate disciplines or scientific domains, such as expert-opinion consultations, multi-level approaches, living labs, joint decision rooms, scenario methods, imagineering experiments, or interactive envisioning methods. The present chapter will contribute to science dynamics in regional science research by offering findings from an envisioning experiment among some 60 well-known regional scientists, with a view to a critical assessment of past and current performance, so as to initiate an open exploration of promising and challenging research endeavours for the next decades of regional science research. This may range from innovative concept formulation to joint use of open access and big data. This experimental approach serves to pave the road towards proactive strategies and conceptualisations in regional science research and regional policy. The main future concern implicit in the brainstorming experiment appears to be related to spatial justice, next to good governance, and consistency between techniques, methods and theories, as well as an effective interaction with students/scholars and society. This exercise shows that important lessons can also be learned from past scientific mistakes, especially those that were associated with policy failures. New scientific ideas are, of course, pushed by the rise of novel techniques and methods, but also and predominately from evolving new realities, either social or technological. Nevertheless, there are still various doubts concerning the future direction of regional science agenda: Which new thoughts and methods are requested? Which policies must be created and improved? What are the scientific possibilities created by new data? The regional science agenda is full of challenges and promises, but how can it be effective? This scoping study does not provide definite answers, but serves to explore uncertain future frontiers.

  • 44.
    Long, Vicky
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Laestadius, Staffan
    An Indigenous Innovation: An Example from Mobile Communication Technology2016In: Oxford Development Studies, ISSN 1360-0818, E-ISSN 1469-9966, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 113-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the processes of indigenous (global South) innovation, particularly of the “high-tech” and “radical” kind, which have spurred technological catch-up, using the example of a third-generation (3G) Chinese mobile communications technology standard. Three hypotheses were generated from this study: (a) modularity-in-design opens new windows of opportunity for technological catching-up; (b) the lack of essential intellectual property rights acts as a key inducement, or a factor-saving bias, that influences the rate and direction of indigenous innovation in the global South; and (c) the long tail of an old technology affects the take-off of a new indigenous innovation, essentially by shortening the technological distance to be covered.

  • 45. Mantysalo, Raine
    et al.
    Saglie, Inger-Lise
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Between Input Legitimacy and Output Efficiency: Defensive Routines and Agonistic Reflectivity in Nordic Land-Use Planning2011In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 19, no 12, p. 2109-2126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article describes tensions generated in land-use planning practices in Norway, Finland and Sweden, due to the shift towards New Public Management in actual governance practices, while the ideals of deliberative democracy in planning discourses and legislation have been retained. These tensions are studied empirically by making comparative observations of planning systems and practices in each country. The theoretical approach is developed by combining democracy and legitimacy theories with double bind theory and organizational learning theory. Based on this theoretical work, the article offers insights for reflectivity on the tensions. The Nordic ideal of deliberative democracy, expressed in the primary aims of our planning laws, may prohibit open acknowledgement of the uneasiness which follows from the fact that liberal democratic values (rights of landownership, free enterprise, etc.) are also secured. Thereby planners act and speak in terms of mixed messages, potentially habituated into defensive routines that may prohibit metacommunication on the basic tensions. The idea of agonistic reflectivity is offered as an approach to planning, which would acknowledge the tension between input legitimacy and output efficiency as a legitimate condition in itself, requiring ongoing political debate where the tension has to be continually discussed without actually ever being resolved.

  • 46. Nyström, Louise
    et al.
    Lundström, Mats Johan
    Sweden: The life and death and life of great neighbourhood centres2006In: Built Environment, ISSN 0263-7960, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 32-52Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish planning after World War II had many similarities with The Netherlands. In the 1950s planning in general resulted in human scale neighbourhoods and centres. They were planned with the intention of creating pleasant environments that would foster democracy and culture. But during the ten years around 1970, these ideas faded, and the prime objective was to produce one million dwellings in ever larger neighbourhood units, as the retail lobbyists required larger and larger catchment areas.Today, the neighbourhood centres face problems of survival. Many small centres have ceased to be centres for the neighbourhood as the former grocery stores have been replaced by pet shops, dry cleaners etc, with a regional scope. Some large centres, like Vllingby in Stockholm, are subject to massive investment, to enable them to compete on a regional scale; a few, like Rinkeby also in Stockholm, are trying to adjust to the local population needs, in this case with a large proportion of non-native Swedes.

  • 47.
    Petersen, Tom
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Accessibility and productivity: A cost function microdata panel approachManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A microlevel panel dataset is used to investigate the "public capital hypothesis" for the Swedish part of the Öresund region, the county of Scania. Microlevel data could reduce problems with endogeneity of infrastructure provision and the direction of causation, provide more exact prices on labour and private capital, and introduce the possibility to analyse the sources of macro productivity. In earlier studies, it has been found that the elasticity ofpublic capital on output has decreased with the level of disaggregation, and the question is what happens at the most disaggregate level of the economy. As a proxy for infrastructure services we use an accessibility measure, whichbetter describes the service derived from the transport system than the traditional measures of public capital stock or highway density. A translog cost function, augmented with accessibility, is estimated for 24 industry aggregates. Tests for autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity reject the nullhypotheses of no such effects. Using a Within variation (fi…xed effects) approach, we …nd some indications of cost reductions in the Construction and Transportation sectors, and for the aggregated Manufacturing or Service sectors in areas with low accessibility; but not on the pooled dataset. The results are very sensitive to specifi…cation. The microlevel approach provides an interesting alternative to the aggregate production function, and many new models emerging from research could be adapted for infrastructure analysis. However, it also introduces new problems, like selection bias of entry and exit, large dispersion, measurement errors, and the location of the activity.

  • 48.
    Petersen, Tom
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Estimating the link between accessibility and productivity with propensity score matchingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A nonparametric approach to the link between accessibility and productivity is presented, using propensity score matching. The firms located in places with “high accessibility” are regarded as the “treatment group”, and the hypothesis tested is whether there is any significant treatment effect. The accessibility is a cross-section for the year 1997. We use a “short and wide” panel dataset, consisting of almost 25,000 individual firms/workplaces during 1990—98, subdivided into 24 industry aggregates. Each firm is geocoded with a 250 m resolution. The study region is the Swedish part of the Öresund region, the county of Scania (Skåne). The results present no effect of the high accessibility-treatment; neither on any branch level, nor on the pooled dataset. Alternative dependent variables are tested: individual efficiency based on the estimated “fixed effects”, and a Törnqvist index of productivity change, with the same result.

  • 49.
    Petersen, Tom
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Estimation of accessibility elasticities in connection with the Öresund fixed link using a panel of micro-dataIn: Regional Science and Urban Economics, ISSN 0166-0462, E-ISSN 1879-2308Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The productivity of public infrastructure has been the subject of numerous studies during the last two decades, often with vastly differing results. Matters of concern for these estimates have been the level of aggregation of the data, the measurement of the infrastructure stock, and endogeneitybias. In an attempt to estimate the wider economic impacts of the Öresund fi…xed link, these issues are addressed by estimating production functions from fi…rm data in Scania——the Swedish part of the Öresund region——using a novel method due to Olley and Pakes (1996), that takes endogenous inputchoices and self-selection into account. As a measure of the service provided by the infrastructure, accessibility to the workforce is used on a fi…ne-grained geographic level. The sign and signi…ficance of the two sources of bias are tested, as well as the robustness of the accessibility parameter with respect to the speci…cation of the barrier of trips across Öresund.

  • 50.
    Petersen, Tom
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Production econometrics and transport demand modelling in Southern and Northern Sweden2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three main parts. The first and most important part, in terms of effort and time spent, is devoted to the estimation of the importance of accessibility for production at the firm or plant level using three different econometric estimation approaches. The results could have implications for the calculation of "wider" economic benefits of transport infrastructure, stemming from agglomeration externalities (e.g., scale economies). There are both methodological and result-wise conclusions that can be drawn from this research: methodologically, first, using unbalanced firm-level data requires the use of proxy variables to account for (initial) firm-specific unobserved productivity effects, and non-random exit from the dataset. Second, there are unsolved theoretical problems when applying an essentially aggregate approach to productivity analysis on disaggregate data, viz., relating to the existence of aggregate production functions, and to the aggregation of productivity from a disaggregate level to a more aggregate level in a spatial framework.

    Result-wise, clear productivity differences are presented, when comparing firms in the same time period but in different locations with different accessibility. However, it is not possible in this dataset to detect increased productivity for representative firms stemming from the opening of the Öresund link. It is therefore discussed whether the reason for this result could be the inappropriateness of output measures in a competitive business environment, where a large portion of the benefits are gradually transferred to consumers and thus remain unmeasured. Other, more comprehensive structural approaches to econometrics, including the demand side of the economy, are also recommended.

    The second part of the thesis treats an unjustly neglected area of transport research: the validation of transport demand models. These transport models are for example used to calculate the new traffic patterns and changes in accessibility from a transport infrastructure investment like the Öresund fixed link, around which most of this thesis orbits. The third and last part, written with two co-authors, deals with the "vulnerability" of the road network, in terms of effects on the travel time delays of the users when a link is disrupted. The calculated indices of importance and exposure could also be seen as extreme forms of accessibility, especially when there is no alternative route besides the one that is cut-off.

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