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  • 1.
    Ackebo, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Cykelplanering ur ett lokalt perspektiv: Hur Danderyds kommun kan arbeta för att underlätta en ökning av andelen cykelresor2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Agebro, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Driver Preferences of Steering Characteristics2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The future of vehicle steering systems lies within by-wire technology. With by-wire technology mechanical or hydraulic systems are replaced by electronic systems. Removal of the steering column and possibly other linkage and gears yields vast potential of further improvement of performance, comfort and safety. Steer-by-wire technology also enables the manufacturer to tailor the steering feel to better suit the individual drivers’ need and preference. Since a driver gains critical information about the vehicle from feedback through the steering wheel, steering feel will play a very important part in consumer acceptance of steer-by-wire systems. It will also be possible to customize steering characteristics to the individual driver.

    This thesis presents a methodology for investigating steering characteristics through analysis of simulator experiments and to find the impact of specific steering characteristics on drivers of varying skill. There are many key aspects to consider when designing simulator experiments. A validated vehicle model is required. Evaluation criteria need to be well defined as well as concise and simple. The utilized scenario has to be able to capture the selected evaluation criteria. Recruitment of test subjects should represent the target population. How to utilize the available time in the simulator most effectively and how to analyze the results are also important. In this work three studies are performed. Paper A investigates how steering gear ratio and steering wheel effort of a passenger car affect preferences of high and low mileage drivers. Paper B is an extended study of Paper A, where the resolution is higher, speed dependence is investigated and performance of the drivers is also evaluated. In Paper C the impact of four important steering system characteristics on driver performance and preference is evaluated.

    The major conclusions drawn from this work are that variation of steering gear ratio has considerable impact on perceived steering feel and manoeuvrability as well as on driver performance. Variation in steering wheel effort affect perceived steering feel and stability, but no significant influence is detected in perceived manoeuvrability or driver performance. There are distinguishable differences in preferences of the investigated evaluation criteria between driver categories of varying skill. However, general trends of the preferences for the categories are fairly similar. Low skilled drivers prefer lower effort and higher ratio than high skilled drivers, especially at the highest investigated speed, 100 km/h.

    The developed methodology for performing simulator experiments to evaluate steering characteristics has proven satisfactory through findings of three different studies. This work also shows that there are several important steering characteristics that need to be considered when designing steering systems, particularly steering systems with by-wire applications and especially considering drivers of varying skill.

  • 3.
    Agebro, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Four Steering Properties' Influence on Drivers' Performance and PreferencesArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Agebro, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Impact of Varying Steering Ratio and Effort on Driver Preferences and Performance with Focus on Driving Skill.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Agebro, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Driver preferences of steering gear ratio and steering wheel effort: A driving simulator study2006In: Proceedings of the FISITA World Automotive Congress, Yokohama, Japan 2006., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When driving an automobile, the driver has to correct the course as a result of road curvature and external disturbances. In order to make the vehicle both controllable and comfortable to drive, it is important that the steering system is designed with different drivers in mind. In this work, driver preferences of steering system characteristics is investigated by comparing standard steering wheel settings with unconventional steering gear ratio and steering wheel effort. The investigation is made using 18 test subjects in a moving base driving simulator. The evaluation includes two scenarios. In the first scenario the driver is overtaking a bus at 110 km/h when meeting traffic in the opposite lane. In the second scenario the driver is doing a manoeuvre by following a cone track at 55 km/h. To investigate if there are differences in preference of drivers with varying experience of driving, the drivers are chosen to either be low or high mileage drivers. People that drive less than 5,000 km/year are considered to be low mileage drivers, and people that drive more than 25,000 km/year are considered to be high mileage drivers.

    The results show that original settings of a typical passenger car, which served as reference, prove to display favourable characteristics compared to the unconventional settings investigated. However, there might be settings within the investigated intervals that can be considered superior. A distinct trend in the results is that increasing effort will lead to increased perceived stability, independent of ratio. High mileage drivers find the setting with low ratio and reference effort to possess better qualities than the reference when evaluating the attributes steering wheel force and response and only slightly less favourable properties than the reference when evaluating the attribute stability. High mileage drivers display a more distinct opinion and a higher sensitivity when evaluating the attributes. Despite the differing setup of the scenarios, many similarities can be observed when studying the results. Even though there are similarities in the results both between the scenarios and the categories of drivers, a study of the individual test subjects´ preferences reveal that several drivers prefer other settings than the reference for the investigated scenarios. Therefore, it is clear that the driver-vehicle system would benefit from tailoring the steering characteristics to the situation and driver.

  • 6.
    Ageng, Pandu SW
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Jeneberang River Basin Management Capacity: Establishing of a Public Corporate in South Sulawesi Province in INDONESIA2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A multi purpose dam called Bili bili have been built in Jeneberang river basin in easternIndonesia in 1999 and providing water available to all customers. In 2004 a landslide occurredand impact to the quality of raw water, especially the amount of turbidity, dramaticallyincreased. Landslide problems started with high sedimentation rates to water infrastructures.Technically the lifetime of Bili bili multi purpose dam and reservoirs will be shorter thanplanned. In contrast, we understand and agreed that sustainable development and ensuring thecurrent use of a water resource as well as a dam should compromise its use by future generation.To reach progress in sustainability we need to establish governance structures and practices thatcan foster, guide and coordinated positive work by a host of actors on a complex of issues.Today, Indonesian Central Government is planning to establish a public corporate participationto comprehensive water resources management in eastern Indonesia. The important significant ofstakeholders in order to develop comprehensive approaches, are water agencies: regional andlocal water institution that will manage catchments areas, water infrastructures and water utilitiesas provider of drinking water to municipalities. They will be acquainted to the water and waterinstitutional capacity problems.

    This research examines both the current impacts on and potential future for water management ineastern Indonesia. One of the objectives of this research will be to described the current of waterresource organization, which is related to establishing of a public corporate, not onlystakeholders involvement; management and organization; but also finances and investments;operation; distribution; regulation and policy. One objective of this research will be measured byconducting interactive interviews and dialogue with the representatives of the stakeholders. Thelast objective is evaluating the Human Resources Development performances of water resourcesmanagement by a series of workshops. Additionally, some recommendations for a future watersupply system will be provided as an input for the government and local authority in order toimprove the capacity and water resources management in eastern Indonesia.

    The results conclude that to meet the Millennium Development Goals, the establishment of apublic corporate for supporting Indonesia’s process of decentralization is necessary where thelocal level include customers can be a much more dynamic interaction between providers ofservices and water users. A participatory method is useful to raise problems, so while the CentralGovernment can mandate a minimum service standard and the achievements of these standardscan be monitored directly at the local level.

    Accountability of water resources development should be considered as a vehicle when aproblem occurs with insufficiency of the existing water facilities and a big demand of waterpurposes.

  • 7.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Developing a weighting set based on monetary damage estimates: Method and case studies2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis tools such as cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and life-cycle assessments (LCA), generic values for impacts on the environment and human health are frequently used. There are several sets of generic values, which are based on different valuation methods, e.g. willingness-to-pay, abatement costs, taxes or non-monetary assessments. This study attempts to derive a consistent set of damage-based values based on estimation of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid damages. Where possible we compile existing damage cost estimates from different sources. Currently, there are no generic damage costs available for eutrophication and acidification. We derive damage values for eutrophying and acidifying substances using WTP estimates from available valuation studies. For eutrophication, we derive benefit transfer functions for eutrophication that allows calculation of site-specific values. We compare the derived ecosystem damage values to existing estimates of the cost for reducing nitrogen and phosphorus emissions to water. The analysis indicates that many abatement measures for nitrogen have a positive net benefit while most measures to reduce phosphorus cost more than the benefit achieved when estimated on a general level and should, instead, be assessed on a case-specific level. Moreover, a comparison of the existing environmental taxes on nitrogen, nitrogen oxides and phosphorus in Sweden show that the current tax rates do not reflect the externalities from these pollutants. Subsequently, we construct a weighting set by combining the derived values with existing generic damage values for human toxicity, photochemical oxidants and global warming. The weighting set - labelled Ecovalue09 - is applied to three case studies and the outcome is compared to the results using other weighting sets.

  • 8.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Understanding Individuals' Learning and Decision Processes in a Changing Environment by Using Panel Data2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When a new transport service is introduced, people have to learn and familiarize themselves with the new service before they decide to adopt it. These processes are developed over time, thus produce dynamics in individuals’ behavioural responses towards the service. This affects the demand of the new service, thus affect revenues. Available studies have examined the factors influencing these responses from microeconomic perspectives. The influence of the theory-based subjective factors has not been examined empirically. Understanding these would assist transport and urban planners to design a better marketing strategy to increase the market share of the new service. A change in seasons affect individuals’ activity-travel decisions, thus produce dynamics in activitytravel patterns in different seasons. Individuals’ constraints, in a form of mandatory activities (working/studying), are influencing individuals’ decisions to participate in day-to-day nonmandatory activities (leisure and routine activities). The interdependency between travel demand, time allocation and mode choice that considers interactions between mandatory and non-mandatory activities, in different seasons is less explored. Understanding these would assist transport planners and operators to manage travel demand strategies across different seasons of the year and provide better transportation systems for all individuals. This thesis includes five papers. Paper I explores individuals’ characteristics of the quick-response and the adopters of the new public transport (PT) service and examines the temporal effects. Paper II investigates the subjective factors influencing a quick-response to the new PT service by proposing a modified attitude-behaviour framework. Paper III and IV analyse the effects of seasonal variations and individuals’ constraints on their day-to-day activity-travel decisions and patterns. Paper V analyses the attrition and fatigue in the two-week travel diary panel survey instrument.

  • 9.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Attrition and Fatigue in a Four Waves of Two-Week Travel Diary: A Case Study in Stockholm, SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a four-wave panel survey design and implementation collected on individual level, consisting of three survey’s instrument namely, self-reported two-week travel diary, on-line psychological questionnaire, and self-reported mental map-related questions. The panel survey is built with the aim to examine individuals’ behavioural changes when a new tram extension line in western sub-urban areas of Stockholm, Sweden, was introduced in October 2013. The survey duration took approximately seven months’ period and the data collected covers all four different seasons of the year, which make it wealth of information. The analysis of attrition and fatigue was done on the two-week travel diary survey instrument only. It is found that the overall attrition rate is 34.3% of the total participants (102 individuals) in the Wave 1 survey, which is considered large. The attrition rate between consecutive waves, however, is considered low which is within the range of 7% to 10%. Based on the binary logit models, there are no systematic tendencies of the dropouts’ characteristics from wave to wave to be found, indicating attrition is purely random. There is no correlation between immobile days and missing trips per day are to be found between-waves. The results of the binary logit model on missing trip show that personal attributes, temporal factors (e.g. weekdays and waves) and travel characteristics (e.g. home-based trip, trip purpose, travel distance and number of inter-modal transfers) significantly affect the missing trip but no indication of fatigue appears.

  • 10.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Subjective Factors Influencing Individual's Response to a New Public Transport ServiceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The timing and nature of people’s responses can be expected to vary when a new element enter their environment. For example, when an individual is provided with a new or modified transport service. This time-scale of behavioural responses will affect the patronage of, and short- and long-term demands on the new service over time. Understanding the underlying factors that influence an individual’s response over time to a new or modified transport service would enable us to identify trigger factors that make the new service attractive from an individual’s point of view. Chatterjee (2001) and Douglas (2003) argued that motives other than instrumental factors related to public transport use, such as attitudes, awareness, travel habits and learning processes, can influence individual responses over time to changes in the travel environment. Unfortunately, despite their importance, there have been few studies that examined this argument empirically. To address this research gap, this paper aims to investigate the influences of subjective factors on individuals’ responses to the introduction of a modified public transport (PT) service over time by proposing and testing an alternative model that modifies the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model framework. This paper also aims to investigate the behavioural change in terms of attitudes and perceptions on individuals’ resources and constraints in using a modified PT service over time after its introduction. The case study involves the new extension of a tram line connecting the suburbs of Alvik and Solna Centrum in Stockholm, Sweden. Four waves of a panel survey were conducted with 96 individuals who lived along the new service, from just before the new service was introduced and until seven months after its introduction. A structural equation modelling technique was used to estimate the relationships between behavioural constructs and panel data, then incorporate them into a discrete choice model. The results show that intention influences individual’s quick-response choice. The panel analysis shows that past behaviour in using the new service influenced current behaviour, and that perceived walking distance in using the service consistently influenced the frequency of using the new service over time.

  • 11.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. VTI.
    Understanding Seasonal Variation in Individual's Activity Participation and Trip Generation by Using Four Consecutive Two-Week Travel DiaryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the interactions between travel demand, time allocation and mode choice in different seasons by jointly modeling the work and/or study, routine and leisure activity-travel engagements of 67 individuals in Stockholm, Sweden. A longitudinal panel two-week travel diary data collected in four consecutive waves over a span of seven months period that covers all four different seasons; autumn, winter, spring and summer, were analysed by using simultaneous Tobit models. The model was applied to explore the interactions among each activity-travel indicator, and individuals’ unique characteristics and endogeneity in activity-travel engagements between different seasons were also considered in the model system. The results of models reveal clear trade-offs between mandatory activities (work and/or study) and non-mandatory activities (routine and leisure), regardless of any seasons, although the magnitudes vary between seasons. There is also a positive mutual endogeneity relationship between number of trips and activity duration within the same activity type. The trade-offs between work and/or study trips towards routine and leisure trips are larger in winter and spring respectively, than in other seasons. It is also found that mode effects on travel time for conducting mandatory activity are much larger in spring than in other seasons. However, the effects of public transport and slow modes on travel time for leisure activities are much larger in summer than in other seasons.

  • 12.
    Ahmad, Toqeer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Environmental Management in a Pakistani Textile Company with Focus on Trade2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion on the relationship between trade and environment has always been aheated one particularly in the context of varying economic and environmental conditionsbetween developed and developing countries. The economies of developing countriesdepend on their export to the Western countries and they are sensitive about anydevelopment, which is likely to affect their export capacity.A study has been conducted to assess the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threatsof a textile company in Pakistan exporting textile products to E.U countries with specificfocus on the issue of current and emerging environmental trade barriers.The study is divided into four major sections. Chapter 1 opens the debate on the issue oftrade and environment, recent developments and perspectives of major actors involvedi.e. business, environmentalists and the third world countries. Chapter 2 defines thepremises, aim, objectives and methodology. Chapter 3 outlines the detailed companyprofile. Chapter 4 deals with identification of current and emerging environmental tradebarriers that the company is facing or will face in the future. They are five namely, theNational Environmental Laws of the country, International Environmental Standards,Eco-Labeling Schemes, Intellectual Property Rights and Environmental Tariff. Chapter 5discusses the availability of resources in the company in term of information, humancapital and technology. Chapter 6 analyses the relationship between the company and itsinternational buyers in term of demand from the Western world and the supply from thethird world.This study is an example of how a Pakistani company is underpinned with the lack offinancial, technical and human resources. It also presents a case that demandingenvironmental obligations from this company for trade purposes, may create adversetrade barriers. There might be some standards, which this company may not be able tomeet in a given situation, but it does not rule out the possible improvements in theenvironmental management that can be worked upon within the given financial, technicaland human resources of the company.The study shows that the textile products in Pakistan are not cheap but have deliberatelybeen made cheaper by the policy makers at the expense of people’s health and thephysical environment. The installation and operation of primary and secondary treatmentplant, which is considered the most costly option to improve environmental condition ofthe factory, increases the cost merely up to approximately USD 0.01per square meter ofprocessing fabric. Similarly, the presence of other measures such as emission controldevices, use of environment-friendly chemicals, the recycling of waste water, exercisingfresh water consumption etc as discussed in this study would have minimal effect on theprice of the product. Considering the affluence of the European society, even the increasein product price cannot be regarded too much when converted into European currencies.This company fears that due consideration of the environmental issues will affect theprice of products which is true to some extent. But this fear is often exaggerated. The lackof environmental provisions in the company is a result of the poor environmentalbehaviour, which is due to the absence of effective communication and co-ordinationbetween the parties concerned. If this study is projected on a major scale, covering anumber of textile companies in the third world, there is a possibility of similar nature of4findings and results. If trade is part of the problem causing environmental damages, it canalso be used as a part of the solution.

  • 13.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Enabling socio-technical transitions – electric vehicles and high voltage electricity grids as focal points of low emission futures2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today humankind is facing numerous sustainability challenges that require us to question CO2 intensive practices like those present in the transport and energy sector. To meet those challenges, many countries have adopted ambitious climate targets. Achieving such targets requires an understanding of the wider socio-technical context of transitions. The aim of this licentiate thesis is therefore to analyse such socio-technical transitions towards low-emission futures enabled by the electrification of passenger cars and high voltage grid development.

    A combination of different transitions theories (for ex. Multi-level perspective and Technological innovation systems) and institutional theory has been used. To reach the aim paper I analyses the climate impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and policy measures to achieve a breakthrough scenario for EVs. The results show that a mixture of short and long term policies are needed that take into account the technology development stage and behavioural aspects of EV adopters. Paper II addresses the need to include the high voltage transmission grid and its planning procedures as a central part of debates on transitions. Therefore the opportunities, challenges and reasons for conflict in the established regime are studied. The results show that in order to achieve a sustainable grid development regime, it is necessary to spend time on achieving legitimacy and social sustainability. The third paper uses semi-structured expert interviews and focuses on innovation dynamics for EV adoption. By focusing on dynamics instead of single policy measures, it is possible to grasp interactions within a niche, but also in between a niche, regime and landscape. The results show that strong initial technology legitimacy was needed to start substantial innovation dynamics. This could be further strengthened with a strong and broad coalition of actors. Both those factors led, if present, to an improved variety and match of policy instruments.

    As such this thesis has shown that transitions are not just about technology or policy instruments as such but about the dynamics and processes needed to enable them. This can be relevant in other transitions that otherwise may underestimate the importance of these components.

  • 14.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nordic power road map 2050: Strategic choices towards carbon neutrality. D4.1.R Institutional grid review.2013Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    System innovation dynamics around electric vehicles. The cases of Norway, Denmark and Sweden.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the comparison of electric car innovation patterns in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Doing so, it takes a closer look at what the most essential dynamics in the systems were over time and what enabled those dynamics. The main research aim is to contribute to a wider understanding of why Norway is so much ahead of Sweden and Denmark in electric car adoption. The purpose is also to adopt a perspective that goes beyond a mere focus on economic policy instruments. In order to do so different theory elements are combined in a framework. These elements stem from the transition theory literature field, especially the technological innovation system (TIS) and the multi-level perspective (MLP). This combination allows analysing the development behind a dynamic, not just when it comes to an innovation itself but also with regards to the established regime. The data is gathered through analysis of existing documents and data as well as a series of 27 expert interviews conducted in the three case countries. The findings suggest that there are important differences in transition patterns that can account for the electric vehicle (EV) diffusion situation we can find nowadays in the three Nordic countries. An important stepping stone was the need for a very strong legitimacy of the original EV vision that is also anchored in a coordinated, sector overarching coalition of actors that thinks strategically and long term. Moreover some general beneficial dynamics could be identified across the countries in question. In Norway these beneficial dynamics can be summarised as a systems motor, in Denmark as a failed entrepreneurial motor that shifted towards a constrained municipal motor and in Sweden as a loosely, coordinated and weaker version of a systems motor.

  • 16.
    Albrecht, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nilsson, Måns
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nordic power road map 2050:Strategic choices towards carbon neutrality. D4.2.R Policy and Institutional Review Electric Vehicles (EV).2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines policy drivers of electric vehicles (EVs), and what potential role policy can play in enhancing the innovation and market development of EVs. We start with a policy review of key targets in the Nordic countries and the EU, up to 2030, and discuss to what extent they are consistent with industry, government and expert estimates of how the EV innovation systems can grow. On the basis of this, the second part examines what policy drivers might be needed to enable a breakthrough scenario, using a technological innovation systems (TIS) perspective to describe the needed processes, drivers and developments in policy and technology.

  • 17.
    Alexandersson, Gabriella
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Treatment of Waste Water from Coke Production Feasibility Study of Huaxi Jiohua Ltd, Wuhai,2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China is the most populous country in the world and has an increasing economy. A growingeconomy enhances the electricity requirement, product demands and so on, which affects both the surrounding environment but also the global environment.Wuhai is an industrial city and the most polluted city in Inner Mongolia, China. Numerous amounts of the industries are lacking in the emission treatment and the PM10 is more then 10 times the allowed amount of European Union.This master thesis is a part of a bigger project, a corporation between IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd and Environmental Protection Bureau in Wuhai.The Coke Company Huaxi Jiohua Ltd. was founded 1992, and has a producing capability of300.000 tons coke per year. The treatment station is a model of an ASP, without a sludge recycling and a sludge thickener instead of sedimentation basin. The treatment efficiency is failing in phenol removal.The aim of this thesis is to perform a feasible study of the wastewater treatment methods foran improvement of the separation of pollutions in coke wastewater and to give a proposal forimprovement of energy efficiency from wastewater treatment.Treatment efficiency of methods such as A2/O, A/O, SBR, and ASP was taken inconsideration.Due to the lack of basic treatment, a first suggestion is to optimize the biological parameters,and introduce sludge recycling to the system together with either a following sedimentationpool or a MBBR as a pre-treatment step.To gain energy from the wastewater treatment station, a replacing of the current aerator system in the aeration unit to fine bubble diffusers and introduce a heat exchanger in the cooling of gas step could be done.

  • 18.
    Allobergenova, Inobat
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Anaerobic fermentation of organic waste from juice plant in Uzbekistan2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master Thesis work was done at the Master’s Programme in SustainableTechnology at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in study period 2005-2006.The aim of this Thesis work was to analyze if fermentation process is a proper methodfor processing organic waste from juice production process and if so to design a fermentationprocess of organic waste from juice plants in Uzbekistan taking into account the economical,environmental and technical aspects.In this report apple juice producing process and organic waste from juice productionin Uzbekistan were overviewed. Two juice processing plants of Uzbekistan “Bagat-Sharbat”and “Meva” and their generated organic waste were overviewed.Also different treatment methods of organic waste and their advantages anddisadvantages were analyzed and compared with anaerobic fermentation process. The studiedorganic waste management methods are animal feeding, incineration, direct land spreading,land filling, composting and anaerobic fermentation. Anaerobic fermentation of organic wastegenerated from fruit juice production was studied.Suggestions and recommendations were done to implement organic wastemanagement for fruit juice industry in Uzbekistan according to studies and calculations.Advantages and disadvantages of different waste management methods are discussedand compared with anaerobic fermentation. Economical and environmental calculations ofanaerobic fermentation process were done. Different biogas plant types all over the world andtheir construction costs were studied and compared. According to studies and calculationsseveral suggestions and recommendations are made.By studying and comparing different waste treatment methods with anaerobic digestion oforganic waste from juice plants following conclusions are made:

    The benefits of the biogas plant on the fruit juice plant:

    • Solution of the organic waste-disposal problems

    • Reduction of obnoxious smells from the organic wastes

    • Own, stable, self-sufficient energy production (heat, steam and electricity)

    • Cheap energy, which yields financial savings in the longer term.

    • Possibility of selling energy or biogas surplus - a source of extra income forthe plant.

    • Production of high-volume fertiliser that carries a higher content of nitrogen(15% or more) than artificial fertilisers, and that does not burn the crops, asuntreated slurry can do. This reduces the need for expensive artificialfertilisers. By selling this natural fertiliser additional income for the plant canbe obtained.

    Local benefits:

    • Better control of the waste from fruit juice processing organic waste meansless pollution of local environment and water sources.

    • Removal of chemical fertilisers from the fields and recirculation of nutrients.

    • Local power plants contribute to creating permanent local jobs in the area.

    On a global additional, replacing fossil fuels to biogas reduces emissions of CO2. Atthe same time, the emission of methane, a greenhouse gas that is 20 times more aggressivethan CO2 is reduced due to controlled anaerobic digestion.

     

  • 19.
    Ambell, Christine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Xu, Yixuan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Waste of Opportunities - A Holistic Study of the Current Situation of Municipal Waste Management in Shandong Province, China2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China’s growth and development have opened the door to a new world. Shandong province’s 90 million inhabitants are entering into a consumption society and the waste stream from households, restaurants and commercials has become a challenge. So far, the waste has mostly been burned in backyards, thrown into rivers, put on open dumps or taken to landfills. The environmental consequence is strong. This study was carried out in Shandong province and presents the current situation of the municipal waste management. The result of the study is organised into social, economical, technical and environmental parameters. It mostly covers the years 2006 to 2010. In the discussion, the strength, weakness, opportunities, and threats to the management are analysed, which gives an overview of the complex situation.

    The final conclusion is that there are a lot of opportunities in developing municipal solid waste management in Shandong province since the work and planning is new and economy is good. Threats are for example a larger waste stream. The municipal waste management has some strengths, such as a lot of projects going on, but also a lot of weakness for instance implementation of the regulations and laws.

  • 20.
    Anbratt, Sara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Miljörevisionsmanual för byggprojekt2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The public awareness concerning environmental issues is increasing, which in turnleads to an increased pressure on the companies to carry out environmentalimprovements. Although there are laws that regulate the activity within the buildingindustry, there is still a need also for the public to make environmental demands, forchanges to take place. It is not enough for companies to fulfil the existingenvironmental regulations. New knowledge within the environmental area increases ina faster rate than any changes in the law. This can be applied to the future proprietorand the entrepreneur. In order for changes to take place and to get a prosperous result,the future proprietor has to make the proper environmental demands and also do thefollow up on the demands.In this paper the environmental work in the building industry have been investigated.Mainly concerning their environmental management system, environmental demands,value systems for tenders, the follow up on the environmental demands and also theexistence of any internal environmental glossary.The purpose with the investigation is to get a description of the environmental situationin the companies. And with this as a background come up with a manual forenvironmental audits. The manual for environmental audits is supposed to be used atenvironmental audits in construction projects, and in order to ask the proper questions,it is necessary to know how far the companies have come with their environmentalwork.By investigating whether the companies have an internal glossary for environmentalwords, and the possibility to get copies of them, have made it possible to put togetherthe different definitions of the environmental words. This in turn makes it possible tocome up with a common environmental glossary for the building industry in the nearfuture. Although this was the intention to do with this thesis there was not enough timeto finish it.To summarise what emerged from the investigation of the environmental situation onbuilding construction companies. Environmental management system, all of theinterviewed companies had a, or was about to bring about an environmentalmanagement system. Few of the companies where certified according to the ISO 14001standard. However a number of the companies have the intention to be certified withinthe near future. Reasons not to be certified, were that the companies regards it to beenough to work according to the ISO 14000 standard. There are so far noenvironmental demands including certification of environmental management systems.Such an environmental demand is difficult to make since there are so far only a fewcertified companies. Most of the companies show their environmental work publicly intheir annual report.What emerged regarding the environmental demands was that most of the companiesstated that they made environmental demands. A number of them take theenvironmental demands into consideration when valuing the tenders. A majorityMiljörevisionsmanual för byggprojekt Sara Anbratt6replied however that the prise still carries most weight when valuing the tenders.Generally speaking the big companies have come furthest, although there areexceptions, concerning incorporation of environmental aspects in tender value systems.The tender value systems are in other respects the area where most resources areneeded in the future. Many of the companies regard it difficult to follow up on theenvironmental demands, they say they haven’t got enough resources to do it. Most ofthe companies nevertheless state that they have some form of follow up. Some of themuses environmental audits and other companies have a final inspection. Some haveboth. Most of the companies that use environmental audits have not yet done it in anylarger extent. There are also en differences between large and small projects. Thefollow up seems to be better in the larger projects. To apply sanctions when theenvironmental demands are not fulfilled seems to be difficult since only half of themhave some form of sanctions, and few of them have applied the sanctions at any time.The investigation of the environmental situation in the companies was necessary inorder to come up with the manual for environmental audits for construction projects.The manual consists of two parts, where the first part contains instructions of how toperform the actual audit. It also contains instructions of how to prepare for the auditand what to do after the visit to the construction plant. The second part consists of thequestions to ask on the actual audit. The questions are arranged in to 13 areas:

    • The construction plant• Building materials• Machines and vehicles

    • Transportation

    • Emissions into air, noise and vibration

    • Chemical products

    • Waste• Water

    • Emergency

    • Personnel

    • Report

    • Supplier

    • Sub-supplier

  • 21.
    Andersson, Emilia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    GIS as a method for handling environmental data from Antarctica2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Polar Research Secretariat wants to compile all data from the Swedishenvironmental monitoring programme in Antarctica and present it using a Geographical Information System, GIS, in order to get a better follow-up on performed activities. The assignment of this master’s thesis has been to build a database containing geographic information for the areas around the Swedish research stations Wasa and Svea in Dronning Maud Land. The geodatabase will serve as a platform for future GIS-applications used by theSwedish Polar Research Secretariat.The work is divided into three parts, project planning, project development and an analysis. Apart of the project planning consisted of a survey of the environmental monitoring programmeand the existing data. A number of shortcomings in the existing data were discovered duringthe survey, it was therefore decided to amend the environmental monitoring programme andupdate the data handling methods in order to get better-suited data to use in a GIS.The choice of GIS-software fell on ArcGIS ArcView 9.2 from ESRI and data from theAntarctic Digital Database was used as a basemap. Additional data from the Antarctic DigitalDatabase was used in order to build the database. A file geodatabase structure was chosen which consists of a number of feature datasets containing all the geographical information.An analysis and a discussion about the existing monitoring programme have been performed and proposals on how to improve the monitoring programme have been presented.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Perception of Own Death Risk: A Reassessment of Road-Traffic Mortality Risk2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines individuals' perception of their own road-mortality risk. Swedish data on respondents' subjective risk beliefs is used and compared with objective risk estimates. The objective risk is defined as the risk of the respondent's own age and gender group, and it is found that low and high risk groups over- and underassess their risk levels, respectively. This study replicates the analysis used by Andersson and Lundborg (2007) and the pattern of over- and underassessment found confirms their findings. As in their study, risk beliefs are updated in line with the Bayesian learning model, a relationship not statistically significant in this study, though. Regarding results of individual characteristics and risk beliefs in both studies, whereas, e.g., gender effects are robust, other results suggest a weak relationship between the perception of own road-mortality risk and individual characteristics.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Private and Public WTP for Safety: A Validity Test2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To elicit an affected population's preferences for, e.g., better health or environment stated preference (SP) methods are often used. SP methods are based on hypothetical market settings which necessitates validity tests of the results. This study describes a validity test on the basis of theoretical predictions and empirical findings for private and public safety measures. According to the test, public willingness to pay (WTP) should exceed private WTP.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Jonas E
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Design.
    Kulturmiljövärden i besluts- och planeringsprocesser: Röster om kompensation som styrmedel mellan bevarande och förändring2014Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommunala besluts- och planeringsprocesser omfattar till olika grad särskilda åtgärder (kompensation), som syftar till att moderera konsekvenserna av en föreslagen förändring på befintliga värden i kultur- eller naturmiljö. Förutom det etablerade samrådsförfarandet, som beskrivs i Plan- och Bygglagen, PBL (SFS 2010:900), aktiveras två andra lagrum, dels Kulturmiljölagen, KML (SFS1988:950), som värnar värden i kulturmiljöer, dels Miljöbalken, MB (SFS1998:808), som skyddar värden i naturmiljöer. Medan PBL och KML hanterar kulturmiljövärden under allmänna skrivningar om hänsyn och varsamhet i förhållande till omgivande bebyggelse, innehåller MB tydliga föreskrifter att påtagliga skador på riksintressanta kultur- och naturmiljövärden ska balanseras genom kompensatoriska strategier. Denna obalans skapar en otydlighet i hanteringen av kulturmiljövärden i kommunala besluts- och planeringsprocesser.

         Inom ramen för ett forskningsprojekt kring begreppen kompensation och styrmedel, finansierat under 2014 av Riksantikvarieämbetet, RÄA, inbjöds sju planerare med erfarenhet av kommunal planering till en workshop för att diskutera begreppens innebörd närmare. Workshoppen genomfördes på Arkitekturskolan, KTH, och i diskussionen deltog även åtta deltagare, knutna till forskningsprojektet. Deltagarnas professionella bakgrund var en form av en arkitektkompetens: 4 deltagare var utbildade till arkitekt med specialisering på hus- eller stadsbyggnad, 2 landskapsarkitekter, 1ingenjör, 2 deltagare var arkeologer samt 1 bebyggelseantikvarie. Fem deltagare hade forskarkompetens inom arkeologi, arkitektur och samhällsplanering. Syftet med workshoppen var att diskutera praktikens förståelse av begreppen i olika kommunal besluts- och planeringsprocesser. Som ett pedagogiskt exempel användes besluts- och planeringsprocessen för åren 2009-2013 kring Ångfärjestationen i Helsingborg, belägen i Stortorgets förlängning och med utsikt över sundet. Kompensation och styrmedel diskuterades under 5 timmar i två olika sammanhang, dels deltagarnas egna tidigare erfarenheter av sådana kompensatoriska åtgärder, dels speglat genom den utvalda skånska fallstudien.

         Workshoppen ger underlag för fem huvudsakliga slutsatser kring kompensation och styrmedel i samband med kulturmiljövärde i kommunala besluts- och planeringsprocesser: (1) Begreppen är beroende av ett sammanhang, en kontext, för att bli användbara och operationella. (2) Kompensation och styrmedel är mindre kända i förhållande till besluts- och planeringsprocesser, som handlar om ingrepp i bebyggelsemiljöer med kulturmiljövärden. (3) Kompensation och styrmedel avseende kulturmiljö behöver skräddarsys genom ett scenariotänkande, som lyfter fram konsekvenser av att anpassa eller bevara kulturmiljövärden i en förändringssituation. (4) Kompensation och styrmedel hänger samman med en problematik som måste bearbetas från de tidigaste skedena av en kommunal besluts- och planeringsprocess. (5) Kompensation sträcker sig från att vara rena ekonomiska transaktioner för förlust av värden till sin enklaste form, till att bli kompensatoriska styrmedel, som detaljerar användning och utformning av bebyggelse inom en intressant kulturmiljö på en övergripande nivå. 

  • 25.
    Andersson, Jonas E
    et al.
    Myndigheten för delaktighet/ Swedish Agency for Participation.
    Axelson, von, Hans
    Lindén, Arvid
    Skehan, Terry
    Equalization and Participation for All: Swedish Disability Policy at a Crossroads2016In: Universal Design 2016:: +Learning from the Past, Designing for the Future / [ed] Helen Petrie, Jenny Darzentas, Tanja Walsh, David Swallow, Leonardo Sandoval, Andrew Lewis, Christopher Power, IOS Press, 2016, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The political line in Swedish disability policy advocates the use of generalized solutions in order to fit potential needs of the largest possible group of people and, where needed, special solutions to bridge the remaining gap between the generalized level of accessibility and additional individual needs. This is referred to as the disability perspective (DP). The DP has embraced two tracks: one that pertains to generalized solutions that promote an overall high level of accessibility and usability, and another one that pertains to different types of individual support for people with disabilities. The present study is a self-reflective inquiry on key issues for the development of future disability policies. Five experts entered a discussion about the pros and cons concerning the DP. This confirmed or refuted assumptions, dilemmas, themes as well as reoccurring patterns in the political viva voce procedure that has formed the contemporary disability policy. Over the course of time, the experts believed that the DP had nurtured a belief that there is a dichotomy. This may have created an imbalance in the relation between the DP and policies such as those concerning healthcare and social care. With a clearer focus on interdependence, the experts saw synergies between needs for assistive technology, assistive products and the requirements for the built environment.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Jonas E
    et al.
    Myndigheten for delaktighet/ Swedish Agency for Participation (MFD) .
    Skehan, Terry
    Balke, Ola
    Dissecting strategies for creating inclusive societies in twelve western countries: Going beyond accessibility concepts and achieving universal usability2016In: Inclusion, Participation and Human Rights in Disability Research - comparisons and exchanges: Inclusion, Participation and Human Rights in Disability Research - comparisons and exchanges, ALTER European Society for Disability Research , 2016, Vol. 1, 7- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the mid-1960s, the concept of accessibility has evolved into a key notion for making modern welfare society inclusive for large groups of people regardless of their potential cognitive and functional abilities. In the beginning, the concept primarily targeted physical requirements for the built environment (e.g. floor level, spatial configuration, illumination, and signage). In the evolution of the concept in Sweden, accessibility has achieved both secondary and tertiary complementary meanings that refer to strategies for dismantling obsolete attitudes about people with disabilities and for ensuring that artefacts and media are useable by users with a diverse range of abilities, limitations and characteristics. By the end of the 20th century, many countries used accessibility or similar concepts (e.g. access, barrier-free design, design for all, inclusive design, accessible design) in creating inclusive welfare societies. In 2006, the UN Convention Rights for People with Disabilities (CRPD) associated universal design thinking (UD) to this quest. This paper presents findings from a study on the implementation of accessibility and universal design and similar concepts in twelve countries in three geo-economical spheres. The research material was assembled by key word searches, interviews and questionnaires. Swedish conditions were used as a matrix for creating comparative analyses. The result suggested that national strategies for promoting accessibility and universal design depended upon the chronical debut and the cultural context. From a Swedish perspective, at least three possible avenues for further development of the concept of accessibility for the 21st century are identified: definition of conceptual theorems, collection of exemplary models and practices, as well as increased use of ICT. We propose to host a session in which 2-3 experts from the countries studied discuss and analyse the conclusions of the study, and give further insights into the realisation of an inclusive welfare state with full potential for participation regardless of age and disabilities.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Jonas E
    et al.
    Myndigheten för Delaktighet/ Swedish Agency for Participation.
    Skehan, Terry
    Rydén, Monica
    Lagerkrans, Elisabeth
    Shopping with Acquired Brain Injuries: Coping Strategies and Maslowian Principles2016In: Universal Design 2016:: Learning from the Past, Designing for the Future / [ed] Helen Petrie, Jenny Darzentas, Tanja Walsh, David Swallow, Leonardo Sandoval, Andrew Lewis, Christopher Power, IOS Press, 2016, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A positive outcome of the modern welfare state is prolonged life expectancy. In Sweden, the expected life span has increased with approximatively 25 years during the 20th century [Statistics Sweden]. However, ageing is associated with an increased risk for acquiring cognitive and physical disabilities. This study is based on anonymized interviews with groups of older persons who experience cognitive problems and relatives. The interviewees were asked about everyday activities like shopping groceries, clothes or other necessities. The interviewees identified problems and described a series of strategies for coping. This paper uses fictionalized characters to present problems and coping strategies that the interviewees use to overcome cognitive challenges when shopping groceries. The strategies range from complete withdrawal, an increased dependency on proxies to the development of elaborate techniques to mask their problem and obtain assistance. Following the current trend in the design of the Swedish sales environment – large scale, abundance of goods and Maslowian strategies for making people stay longer (and spend more money) – accessibility in the built environment is often an absent friend.

  • 28.
    Annadotter, Kerstin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Blomé, Gunnar
    Malmö Högskola, Urbana studier.
    Uthyrningspolicys och förmedlingsstrategier i kommuner och bostadsföretag2015In: Social hållbarhet med fokus på bostadsrenovering. En antologi: Uthyrningspolicys och förmedlingsstrategier i kommuner och bostadsföretag / [ed] Hans Lind och Kristina Mjörnell, Sustainable Integrated Renovation, Rapport 2015:4 , 2015, 1, 151-168 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Antologin om social hållbarhet har skrivits inom ramen för den starka forskningsmiljön om hållbar integrerad renovering, SIRen. De som bidragit till antologin kommer både från akademi, institut och näringsliv och representerar olika discipliner och aktörer. Vi vill främst tacka alla författare som har varit med och bidragit med sin värdefulla kunskap och sina perspektiv på vad social hållbarhet kan innebära. Vi vill också passa på att tacka de deltagande företagen och organisationerna som aktivt deltar med sin kompetens, erfarenhet och egen tid. Sist men inte minst vill vi tacka Forskningsrådet Formas för värdefullt stöd som gjorde det möjligt att författa bidragen, redigera texter och trycka antologin. Hans Lind, professor på KTH och Kristina Mjörnell, senior forskare på SP och adjungerad professor på LTH har ansvarat för redigering och sammanställning av antologin. Margareta Widegren har lagt in texterna i en gemensam form och Louise Quistgaard och Jenny Lööf på SP har gjort framsidan så att antologin har fått en fin layout.

  • 29.
    Annosi, Maria Carmela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    FOSS, Nicolai J
    Martini, Antonella
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    A Multilevel Framework for Organizational Learning in Self-Managed Team Organizations: an abductive micro-foundations studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the social cognitive learning perspective, this study advances a multilevel theory of organizational learning for team-based organizations, which integrates principles of cognition and motivation through team-level self-regulation mechanisms. We highlight and unpack these mechanisms, which have long been treated as black boxes in organizational learning research. We describe them using an empirical case from a multinational company, and we reveal their potential to affect motivation and socio-cognitive functions in self-managing teams. We also clarify the complexity of their relationships through a set of propositions and provide a definition of the team-level self-regulation mechanisms constructs.

  • 30.
    Annosi, Maria Carmela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Hemphälä, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Martini, Antonella
    Peonia, Laura
    The dual control systems of agile teams: exploring knowledge management issues2014In: IFKAD 2014: 9th International Forum on Knowledge Asset Dynamics, 2014, 1907-1931 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to contribute to the exploration of micro-foundations for innovation in autonomous team-based firms. It describes how different types of management control systems influence the innovation performance of teams through an extensive field study of a large scale agile implementation. It reveals the moderating role played by different kinds of managerial control systems and by perceived time pressure on teams in the relationship between a team's absorptive capacity and its innovation performance. Design/methodology/approach - A total of 44 individual semi-structured interviews were used to collect data over three separate data collection stages conducted from August to November 2013. All data were triangulated with the qualitative content analysis results of free comments from 121 people, covering different agile roles in the same organizations as above, and embedded in a survey performed in August 2013. Due to the complexity of the topic and the lack of prior studies investigating the effect of agile implementation on team learning and innovation capabilities, an abductive research approach (Peirce, 1931) was selected as a suitable method. Originality/value - The empirical results indicate that a team's beliefs on the importance of learning strongly influence its self-regulated learning behaviours. They represent the configuration of AC meta-routines underlying the concept of absorptive capacity (Lewin et al., 2011) at the team-level, conducive to teams' exploration activities. Moreover, the antecedents for a team's exploitative and exploratory innovation activities are presented and two types of managerial controls for driving exploitative innovation activities are identified. Additionally, team-level absorptive capacity was analysed, since it is a less explored, but important construct, leading to a team's exploitative product innovation. Practical implications - This study's findings have a number of implications for practice. The results imply that autonomous team-based organizations may be better off not using one single standard control system to manage all their teams. In fact, beyond securing a team's access to knowledge, management needs to provide teams with differentiated means to develop necessary competencies and capacities for understanding, assimilating and using the knowledge they retrieve. In addition, management should influence a team's beliefs by valuing the tasks requiring innovation and transmitting sustainable values to teams through their mission and vision statements.

  • 31.
    Armyr, Linda Augusta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Certifiering och marknadsföring av hållbar stadsutveckling: så hanteras vattenkontakt och delaktighet när Stockholm och Minneapolis bygger hållbart2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about sustainable neighborhoods and communities. To define and strengthen the sustainability of neighborhoods, checklists, certification and marketing are used. Certifications and checklists are used as tools in the planning process and specify the grounds upon which a community is called “sustainable”. A certification is also a public signal to convey a credible environmental and sustainability labeling. Today there are few certified neighborhoods, but several urban developments that market themselves as sustainable or with elements of sustainability. Marketing captures, develops and communicates positive values. The marketing and communication of “sustainable” urban development projects indicate a desirable image of the city of tomorrow, and can therefore be regarded as a normative scenario of the future. But what does this scenario look like, and what is its resemblance to the urban development as defined by the criteria for certifying a city as sustainable?

    To answer the main question, the thesis uses theories about the concept of sustainability, future studies, marketing, public participation and the use of knowledge in the planning process. Subsequently, the thesis presents a comparison between the content of the certification system BREEAM Communities, a checklist for sustainable urban development from the consultancy firm WSP and marketing material from case studies in Stockholm. Since the certification checklist and marketing have many aspects of sustainability, delimitation is done to sustainability aspects concerning water contact and participation. Water contact includes both ecological values and accessibility issues related to waterfront development. Participation refers to public participation and the knowledge and connected norms that are heard in the urban development process. To provide additional perspectives to the discussion, a comparison was also done with how Minneapolis works with water contact and participation. Interviews were conducted in both Stockholm and Minneapolis on the difficulties of measuring the sustainability and benefits of certification.

    The comparison gives that most of the aspects that are marketed in the case studies, within the delimitation participation and water contact, can be found in BREEAM Communities and the WSP checklist. The exceptions being marketed but not listed in the tools are education and new development of external partnerships and transport infrastructure. The certification system and checklist also contain some additional points regarding land use and ecological aspects which have not been found in the marketing material. The feasibility of the main question is discussed, as are the difficulties in certifying linked to measurables and how a certification can contribute to sustainable urban development.

  • 32.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Opportunities for Industrial Symbiosis BetweenCHP and Waste Treatment Facilities: (Case Study of Fortum and Ragn Sells, Brista)2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pursuing the possibilities of increasing efficiency, saving costs and improving environmental performance more and more companies today are looking into the possibilities of industrial synergies between companies andprocesses.

    This study is considering the possibilities of industrial symbiosis between combined heat and power plant (Fortum) and a waste sorting facility (Ragn Sells). The paper shows possible scenarios of utilization heat fromCHP for the various processes within the waste treatment facility. The work includes the overview of previous research done in this area as well as theoretical analysisand estimation of the probable economic and environmental effects from the application of industrial symbiosis.

    The study covers several possibilities for the industrial symbiosis between CHP and waste treatment facility in form of heat application for the waste streams upgrading.The study proposes the heat application for the following processes: composting speed-up, anaerobic digestion, sludge drying, waste oil treatment and concrete upgrading.

    In the result of the work the conclusions are made concerning the possibility and feasibility of application of the proposed scenarios and their environmentaland economic effects.

  • 33.
    Asplund, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Institutionen för stad och land, SLU.
    Håkansson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Skantze, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Vårt uppdrag är utveckling: hållbar utveckling och regional tillväxt2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken handlar om erfarenheterna från några svenska regioners ansträngningar att omsätta hållbar utveckling inom ramen för regionalt tillväxtarbete, och behandlar bland annat lärandeprocesser och integration av miljöfrågor i en organisations arbete.

    Syftet är att inspirera till kritisk reflektion och diskussion vilket utgör en avgörande grund för förändring och lärande. I grunden handlar boken om vad arbetet med regional utveckling och tillväxt är och kan vara samt vilken roll hållbar utveckling spelar i arbetet.

  • 34.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Environmental Systems Analysis of Waste Management: Prospects of Hydrogen Production from Waste for use in FCVs2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ORWARE, an evolving systems analysis based computer model is used to assess the performance of different waste management options from a life cycle perspective. The present version of the model consists of different submodels for transport, treatment, and disposal of different types of liquid and solid wastes and recycling of materials. Flows between submodels are described by a vector of several substances of different relevance to the system. The model calculates emissions to water and air, amount of residues returned to arable land and energy flows using the tools of life cycle analysis (LCA) and substance flow analysis (SFA). In going in the direction of stringent environmental standards and policies, there is a need for maximizing energy recovery from waste for both environmental and economic benefits. Sweden has already experience of recovering energy from waste for district heating. Recovering energy not only of high value but also of higher quality from waste would be of interest. Hydrogen is one carrier of such energy. The possibility of using hydrogen from waste as a fuel in the transport sector would contribute in heading for creating a clean environment. In this thesis a new submodel for steam reforming of biogas recovered from an anaerobic digester is developed and used with other submodels within the ORWARE framework. Four scenarios representing alternative ways of energy recovery from the organic waste in Stockholm have been simulated to compare the associated energy turnover and different environmental impacts. Digestion of the organic waste and using the biogas to fuel cars is compared against steam reforming of biogas to hydrogen or thermal gasification of the waste and processing the product gases to hydrogen. In the latter two cases hydrogen produced is used in fuel cell cars. Avoided impacts of using the biogas and hydrogen are analyzed using the fourth scenario where the waste is incinerated to generate heat and electricity. Functional equivalence between scenarios is achieved by external supply of heat, electricity and petrol. While recognizing the uncertainties during modelling and simulation, it is possible to conclude that the results indicate that there is advantage of reduced environmental impact and high energy turnover in introducing the technologies of producing hydrogen from waste into the waste management system. Further and thorough investigation is recommended to come up with a sound and firm conclusion. Key words: Systems analysis, Life cycle analysis, Substance flow analysis, Waste management, Environmental impact, Steam reforming, Thermal gasification, Fuel cell vehicles, Hydrogen

  • 35.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Global Industrial Ecology - the North-South Link: lessons from research and education2007In:  , 2007, (abstract)- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    On Sustainability Assessment of Technical Systems: Experience from Systems Analysis with the ORWARE and EcoEffect Tools2006In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainability Measurement and Modelling: ICSMM 2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Some Reflections on Six Graduate Programs from the Perspective of Education for Sustainability.2006In: Proceedings of the Fourth African Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production (ARSCP). May 29-31, 2006, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia., 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Systems Analysis of Waste Management: The Swedish Experience Something for Waste Management Studies in Africa?2006In: Proceedings of the Fourth African Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production (ARSCP). May 29-31, 2006, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia., 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Social Impact Assessment within Life Cycle Technology Assessment2004In: 4th SETAC World Congress, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle technology assessment provides a conceptual structure for different ecological, economic and social impact assessment (SIA) tools for acting together in determining the importance, size, or value of ecological, economic and social impacts of technology - doing and making things with materials and energy. In compatibly incorporating SIA with Material /Substance Flow Analysis, Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing, different views of SIA are studied. An important difference between this exercise and conventional SIAs is that in the former case, there is no official plan or intention of implementing the technology in a specific time and place. This poses operational difficulty due to the poor knowledge about the community that will be affected by the technology in question. Besides, compatibility with LCA adds complexity associated with a requirement for the SIA to account for a number of communities associated with each portion of the life cycle. Thorough analysis of the opportunities and challenges involved led to the use of zooming analogy. Based on this analogy, in the absence of knowledge of detailed spatial and temporal coordinates of a specific community that will be affected by the technology, a reasonable level of zooming out is done. This enables identification and characterization of the most important social impact variables for the given technology in the zoomed out area ( e.g. say a country or region of a country). As an illustration, one variable from each of five categories of SIA variables will be used to characterize the social impacts of energy technologies in small municipalities in Sweden. These categories are population impacts; community and institutional arrangements; communities in transition; individual and family impacts; and community infrastructure needs. The knowledge from damage-based weighting of environmental impact categories using concepts such as Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) will be tested in characterizing the variables.

  • 40.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Technology Assessment: A framework for combination of tool2004In: 24th International Conference of IAIA - Impact Assessment for Industrial Development: Whose Business is it?, Vancouver, Canada: International Association of Impact Assessment , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Technology Assessment in the Journey to Sustainable Development2005In: Handbook of Sustainable Development Policy and Administration / [ed] Gedeon, M., Desta, M., Shamsul, M. H., Bosa Roca, USA: CRC Press Inc , 2005, illustrated edChapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Towards a Sustainability Assessment of Technologies: Integrating Tools and Concepts of Industrial Ecology2005In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Industrial Ecology, Stockholm, Sweden: Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    Development of a Damage-based System for Weighting Environmental Impacts from Buildings2008In: Proceedings of the World Sustainable Building Conference:  , 2008, 1719-1724 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Strandberg, Larsgöran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Industrial Ecology as a Working Concept in a Spatial and Temporal "NIMBY" Situation2005In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Industrial Ecology, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    The Impact of Flows of Resources and Products ( imports, exports, and aid) between north and south: Case study: the flow between EU and East Africa2004In: Proceedings of the African Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46. Bagdonavičiūtė, I.
    et al.
    Blažauskas, N.
    Brezezinska, A.
    Chubarenko, B.
    Cieslak, A.
    Dailidiene, I.
    Domnin, D.
    Gajewski, J.
    Gajewski, L.
    Szefler, K.
    Visakavičius, Erikas
    CORPI.
    Gulbinskas, Saulius Gulbinskas
    CORPI.
    Kalas, M.
    Matczak, M.
    Mikelenaitė, J.
    Mileriene, Rosita
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Rybka, K.
    Staskiewicz, A.
    Stawicka, I
    State of the Coast of the South East Baltic: an indicators-based approach to evaluating sustainable development in the coastal zone of the South East Baltic Sea2008Book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Bajpai, Atish
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    An Environmental Risk Management Framework for a Nordic Construction Firm2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Construction is one of the oldest of industries in the world, with the first establishedconstruction company being established around 230 BC. One of the biggest industries inEurope, at an estimated €900 billion a year, it also accounts for 40% of total energy consumption and 40% of total waste generation in the EU1 . Although the majority ofthese are from the use phase of the built environment, there is a lack of a comprehensiveenvironmental risk management system for the construction phase. This study proposesan environmental risk management framework based on the Beer-Ziolkowski model of risk management for both site specific and non-site specific construction operations witha stakeholder centric approach. It proposes stakeholder involvement to identify the risksaided with trend analysis of strategic regulatory implications from the concernedauthority - Norwegian Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development and thecurrent orgnisational practice of objective environmental risk identification from ISO14001 guidance. Scope of site specific and non-site specific risks are narrowed down tosite operational setup and construction materials respectively, consistent with theorganisations view of the most important risks from those two classes of risks. Riskassessment is suggested through Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) method for site specific risksand European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances (EUSES) for non-sitespecific risks. Total Cost Accounting (TCA) of project alternative evaluation isrecommended with a view to internalise the external costs. A two tiered integration ofrisk information in the buisess process is suggested – categorised risk reduction processat the level of projects and general good practice aided with risk information at the policylevel. Being a framework for management of environmental risk as opposed to a methodfor a specific environmental risk, the principles and suggestions are broadly scoped withcase studies for identification and analysis of risks.Through the practice of prudent engagement of stakeholders and scientific risk assessments, this framework would help the organisation enable safer operational practices in the context of environmental effects. In foresight this in turn will have rendered the host firm more competent in terms of making sustainable business decisions.

  • 48.
    Balode, Agnese
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Implementation of an Integrated Environmental Management System in a Latvian Construction Company2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agnese Balode, “Implementation of an Integrated Environmental Management System in a Latvian Construction Company” MSc Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, 2007, pp. 70, April 2007.

    This thesis essayed to find an approach to environmental aspect and indicator identification in order to establish a valid base for implementation of an integrated environmental management system in a Latvian construction company. The construction industry has been selected as the area of interest because its “product” is affecting humans, the environment and other industries in the most direct and significant way. A management system is required for achieving a balance between development driving forces. By examining existing environmental management systems - their weaknesses and strengths - opportunities for improvement were determined and used during development of the approach. The thesis includes a review of legislation, international standards, and research. The result of the thesis is a 2-Level Matrix, which serves as an environmental aspect identification and relevant indicator selection tool. Within the theoretical framework, the established approach was tested at construction sites and discussed amongst construction experts. The matrix allows performance of environmental aspect ranking and provides support for the decision-making process, while establishing an Integrated Environmental Management System.

  • 49.
    Batumbya Nalukowe, Barbara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sustainable Industrial Development in Uganda through Cleaner Production: Case Study of Sugar Corporation of Uganda Ltd (SCOUL)2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis provides an assessment of Cleaner Production (CP) implementation in Ugandan industries, using Sugar Corporation Of Uganda Limited (SCOUL) as a case study. The thesis covers the time the CP programme was implemented in 2004 to date. The study is primarily concerned with the sustainability of CP in Ugandan industries. Using the local Uganda Cleaner Production Centre (UCPC) Assessment Approach, both qualitative and quantitative research methods are used to explore the trend (progress) of environmental and economic performance of CP in SCOUL. Several indicators are used to gain better understanding of the raw materials, products and waste in SCOUL.

    The thesis sets out to assess the environmental and economic performance of CP in Uganda, identify barriers to CP and make recommendations for Sustainable CP in Uganda.

    The findings show that both the environmental and economic performance of SCOUL continues to improve, in line with raw material, products and wastereduction. This improvement can be attributed to the different CP optionswhich were implemented. These options include reduction, reuse and recycling.

    From the findings, it can also be argued that CP is a practical way towards sustainable industrial development as demonstrated in the progress made by SCOUL and that CP has good potential for application in other industries in Uganda. This is because CP is simple to implement and yet it has both economical and environmental performance benefits. As such, it can be argued that CP will lead to sustainable industrial development in Uganda.

    The long term aim of this study is to contribute towards promotion of sustainable industrial development in Uganda by showing that the implementation of Cleaner Production is simple and yet it has both financial and environmental benefits.

  • 50.
    Bergendahl, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Collaboration and competition in firm-internal ideation management: Two alternatives – and a third way out2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The passive reliance on ideas to spontaneously emerge within companies is today replaced with more active and continuous ideation management that embraces employees from different functions and knowledge-domains within the company to create and develop ideas. A frequently observed feature in the active management of ideation is the reliance on collaboration and competition mechanisms. These mechanisms use the strength of enabling people to working together towards a shared interest (collaboration) and the power of enabling people to outperform each other in submitting the best idea (competition). The existing research on collaboration and competition in ideation is found inconclusive about their effects as collaboration is stated to both enhance and hamper performance, and as competition is claimed to both drive and reduce performance in ideation. This constitutes a limitation to the management of ideation as it reduces the ability to actively and purposefully guide ideation through a deliberate use of the two mechanisms.

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate collaboration and competition mechanisms in firm-internal ideation.

    A multi-methodological approach has been deployed using three different studies: a multiple case study, a survey, and an experiment. This has allowed for the phenomenon of ideation to be studied using different perspectives and for the individual results to be triangulated. The empirical data has been acquired from both industry and experiments with university students.

    The conducted research has revealed that the inconsistencies on the effects from the two mechanisms are possible to understand and resolve by applying a more detailed level of analysis. When competition is decomposed into components of individual- and group competition, it is found that individual competition drives idea quantity and that it hampers collaboration, whereas group competition instead is found to induce collaboration and to nurture idea quality. This indicates that competition can be used to manage levels of collaboration in ideation, thereby bridging the two mechanisms.

    This thesis further presents that the individual effects from each of the mechanisms are complementary to each other. This implies that the effect from each mechanism is retained when combined with the other mechanisms, and that the combined effect is equal to, or even greater than, the sum of the individual effects. This combined use is found to drive both ideation efficiency and motivation, and is offering management an interesting third alternative, out of the two mechanisms, of how firm-internal ideation can be managed in a more effective and efficient manner.

    An analytical framework is included, presenting the interrelationships between the mechanisms, motivation, ideation behavior and the ideation performance. 

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