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  • 1.
    Almén, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Possibilities for designers to reduce the risk of work injury in the production phase of a building project2010In: On the Road to Vision Zero?: Construction, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (71) Possibilities for designers to reduce the risk of work injury in the production phase of a building project. Lena Almén, Tore J Larsson, (School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden) Work related injuries and diseases are more frequent among construction workers than the labour market in average. Thus, there is a need of more preventive work during the design and planning phase. Two building projects, both productions of new apartment buildings with a design and construct contractor, were studied. Unsafe conditions were identified by workers and managers at the construction sites. The unsafe conditions were presented to the designers and planners. They were asked to describe the correlated decisions during the design and planning phase; when they were taken, why and by whom.

    Influence from outside the company was related to the clients, the town planning department, laws, a trade association and to the design of building products. The managers at the construction sites did not get any information, from the designers and planners, of what occupational risks there were in any of the projects. The routines for how to identify and handle hazards in the designing and planning phase were not sufficient. Furthermore, the designers explained, that they did not have enough competence in construction methods to be able to foresee occupational consequences at the construction sites when they designed rare constructions. The designers and planners did not follow up occupational risks at any of the construction sites. In order to get a safer working environment at construction sites, the top managers in the building companies need to define the acceptable safety level and put the safety issue on the agenda for all employees in the company, along with quality, costs and time schedule. Safety need to be communicated with those outside the company who have an influence on the working environment, and included in contracts with consultants, subcontractors and suppliers.

  • 2.
    Andreasson, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Organizational preconditions and supportive resources for Swedish healthcare managers.: Factors that contribute to or counteract changes2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish Healthcare managers’ organizational preconditions and supportive resources are important for their ability to work with planned change in a sustainable way. This thesis further investigates these factors together with an output measure, healthcare process quality (HPQ).

    The overall aim was to investigate how healthcare managers’ organizational preconditions and support contribute to or counteract managers’ work with planned change in order to implement process development in a sustainable way. Specific aims were: to improve knowledge of managers’ views of and approaches to increasing their employees’ influence on and engagement in models for improving care processes (study I); to investigate relationships among managers’ organizational preconditions, support, and work to improve quality of care and HPQ over time (study II); to investigate whether managers’ coaching style, preconditions, implementation strategy, appraisal of change, and clinical autonomy are associated with HPQ (study III ); and to assess the influence of support from superiors, colleagues, external sources, subordinates, and private life on managers’ own health (study IV ).

    The data for Studies I – III came from five hospitals collected over a three-year period. The data were collected by means of interviews (Study I, qualitative analysis) and annual questionnaires (Studies II and III, quantitative and mixed-method analyses). The data for Study IV were based on questionnaires administered to first- and second-line managers in municipal care, twice during a two-year period.

    The results revealed that the healthcare managers were key actors in implementing planned change, but were dependent on their employees’ engagement in order to succeed. Managers’ appraisal of work with planned change became more positive with strong support from other managers, employees, and the organization as well as with long managerial experience. Support from private life and networks, as well as the managers’ attitudes towards their managerial role, predicted their own health. For new managers or managers with many employees, organizational support predicted their health-related sustainability. Managers practising a more distanced style of coaching (e.g., clearly delegating responsibility for implementation work to employees) were associated with better HPQ outcomes than were managers who were more involved in implementation. In conclusion, implementation of planned change are facilitated by, engaged managers, employees with knowledge of implementation work and of the healthcare system, as well as organizational structures that support the managers. Strong support from various sources as well as managerial experience are important for managers’ appraisal of work with planned change. Strong managerial support and a more delegated leadership style are both important factors related to higher estimated HPQ.

  • 3.
    Andreasson, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Ljungar, Erik
    Ahlstrom, Linda
    Hermansson, Jonas
    Dellve, Lotta
    Professional Bureaucracy and Health Care Managers’Planned Change Strategies: Governance in SwedishHealth Care2018In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 23-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase efficiency and quality, process development has been implemented in many Swedish

    hospitals. These hospitals are usually organized as professional bureaucracies in which

    health care managers have limited decision control. The new governance principles has been

    implemented without removing bureaucratic elements. This study analyzes how managers implement

    planned change in these professional bureaucracies, considering if managers coaching

    style, organizational preconditions, implementation strategy, appraisal of change and clinic autonomy,

    is associated with health care process quality (HPQ). The study is based on interviews

    with health care managers and longitudinal assessments of HPQ. The results revealed significant

    differences between coaching style, organizational preconditions, and HPQ over time. The

    conclusion is that leadership and preconditions is of importance for the health care manager’s

    ability to work with planned change, as that the health care managers understand how management

    methods, governance principles, and professional bureaucracies work in practice.

  • 4.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Företagshälsovård2014In: Människan i arbetslivet: Teori och praktik / [ed] Eva Holmström, Kerstina Olsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB , 2014, 2:1, p. 199-223Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Arvidsson, Niklas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Dynamics.
    Tidens inverkan på organisering och organisationer2006In: Den nya arbetsdelningen: arbets- och näringslivets organisatoriska omvandling i tid, rum och tal / [ed] Eskil Ekstedt, Elisabeth Sundin, Stockholm: Arbetslivsinstiutet , 2006, no 11, p. 29-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Barinaga, Ester
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.). Stanford University, United States .
    'Cultural diversity' at work: 'National culture' as a discourse organizing an international project group2007In: Human Relations, ISSN 0018-7267, E-ISSN 1741-282X, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 315-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research to date concurs in maintaining that performance of nationally homogeneous workgroups differs if compared to heterogeneous ones. Yet, results are mixed on the relationship between cultural diversity and workgroup outcomes. The article argues that cultural differences are given explanatory authority, cultural diversity acquiring a positivist status, and group members being treated as 'dopes of their culture'. An alternative approach is to conceive 'cultural diversity' and 'national culture' as discursive resources used by group members in everyday group life. The author followed an international project group for over 17 months,observing how group members discussed and made sense of what went on. Findings suggest that the way members in international project groups use the 'national/cultural' discourse plays a crucial role in the organization of the project. More specifically, results demonstrate that group members shaped and developed their international project in important ways by using the discourses on 'national culture' and 'cultural diversity' to excuse confusion and misunderstanding, to position themselves vis-à-vis the group, to justify decisions and to give the group a raison d'être. Implications are drawn concerning the need for researchers to acknowledge actors' space for choice in group-life.

  • 7.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. HELIX Competence Centre and Division of Logistics and Quality Management, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Arman, Oscar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    From Safety I to Safety II: Applying an HTO Perspective on Supervisory Work Within Aviation2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 821, p. 558-565Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In aviation, there is a strong focus on safety to prevent accidents. This paper deals with how supervisory authorities in aviation can apply a Safety II perspective. In particular, the aim is to analyze how the concept of HTO (Humans, Technology, Organization) is related to a possible shift from Safety I to Safety II within supervisory work within aviation. Data for this case study research was collected through semi-structured interviews with inspectors at the civil aviation authority in Sweden. The study showed that the important building stone of proactivity in Safety II could be promoted by the Safety Management System (SMS), the Safety Performance Indicator, and systems for reporting incidents and near-accidents. These systems constituted examples of Technology. Similarly, the Humans consisted of the inspectors, and the Organization included international and national regulations that the inspectors needed to follow during inspections. In the analysis, it was clear that an internal HTO-perspective could be taken. The study indicated that the shift towards Safety II should first be done within the supervisory authority by applying an internal HTO-perspective. This could later be developed to an external HTO-perspective also including the operator organizations.

  • 8. Brulin, Göran
    Räddas välfärdsstaten med klasskamp?2004In: Sociologisk Forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 11-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Brännmark, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Implementering av Lean i medelstora företag: En lärande utvärdering om hållbarutveckling2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är ett av delresultaten från det interaktiva forskningsprojektet Produktionslyftet, inom HELIX VINN Excellence Centre. Projektet genomförs i samarbete med Produktionslyftet, ett nationellt program för spridande av managementkonceptet Lean produktion. Syftet med forskningsprojektet är att öka kunskapen om hur hållbart utvecklingsarbete kan bedrivas, både utifrån ett program- och företagsperspektiv.

    Rapporten beskriver två delstudier, en kvalitativ och en kvantitativ, som genomförts i samarbete med elva av företagen i Produktionslyftet, tio av dem pilotföretag för programmet. Den första delstudien genomfördes under sommaren 2008, genom en intervjustudie med programmets pilotföretag, medan den andra genomfördes under våren 2009, i formen av en enkätstudie med sju av företagen i programmet. Då en interaktiv forskningsansats har använts, så har i båda fallen den insamlade empirin från de båda delstudierna återkopplats till representanter från Produktionslyftet, samt programmets finansiärer, och en gemensam tolkning och analys av empirin har gjorts. Denna gemensamma tolkning har sedan analyserats utifrån modeller kring hållbart utvecklingsarbete och resultatet från detta arbete har sedan sammanfattats i två arbetsrapporter, som har återkopplats till programmet och dess finansiärer.

    Resultaten i delstudierna, samt den gemensamma tolkningen och analysen av empirin, fokuserar Produktionslyftets coacher, samt deras arbete med företagen. Dels spelar coacherna uppenbarligen en central roll i programmets arbete med företagen, och dels är coacherna mycket uppskattade av företagen. Coachernas arbetssätt, samt hur deras arbete påverkar möjligheten för företagen att skapa en hållbar utveckling, upptar också en central del i rapporten. Detta kan sammanfattas, som att om coacherna driver på arbetet för hårt, få finns det risk att det uppstår problem för företagen, men om coacherna inte är pådrivande så finns risken att åtminstone vissa av företagen inte tar sitt ansvar för Lean-arbetet. Med andra ord, coachernas arbete med företagen utgör en svår balansgång mellan att uppfylla företagens målsättningar med Lean-arbetet, i vägning mot Produktionslyftets mål och syfte. Men resultaten pekar också på vikten av att företagen har ett tydligt ägarskap och driv i utvecklingsarbetet.

    Slutsatsen i denna rapport blir därför att om programmets utvecklingsarbete skall bli hållbart, så hänger det troligen på dels att man har duktiga och kompetenta coacher, men också att man har en väl fungerande företagsrekryteringsprocess, där företag med ett internt driv för Lean-arbetet väljs till programmet.

  • 10.
    Brännmark, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Interaktiv forskning: Gemensamt kunskapande för allas nytta2010In: FALF2010: Arbetsliv i förändring, Malmö: FALF , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvärdering är ett mycket vanligt redskap för kontroll och uppföljning inom olika verksamheter, exempelvis projekt och program. Den traditionella ”summativa” utvärderingen har dock ett flertal brister, som gjort att intresset för formativa utvärderingar ökat. Ett exempel på dessa är de s.k. lärande utvärderingarna, men också forskning i olika former kan användas för att utvärdera projekt och program. I det offentliga programmet Produktionslyftet har det förekommit ett flertal utvärderingsformer, bl.a. två summativa måluppföljelseutvärderingar och ett interaktivt forskningsprojekt. I detta paper presenteras en fallstudie kring dessa utvärderingsformer, samt vilka interna respektive externa spridningseffekter (av programmets erfarenheter), samt också vilken form av utvecklingsstöd, som dessa har möjliggjort för Produktionslyftet. Resultaten pekar på att ett summativa utvärderingsprojekt kan användas för både intern spridning av erfarenheter och för att skapa utvecklingsstöd, förutsatt att halvtidsutvärderingar används. Detta kan också ett interaktivt forskningsprojekt bidra med, samt en lärande utvärdering, men det interaktiva forskningsprojektet tycks vara överlägset när det gäller extern spridning av resultaten från programmet – även om det också är den mest resurskrävande formen av utvärdering. Uttryckt på ett annat sätt, så skapar det interaktiva forskningsprojektet underlag för gemensam diskussion, reflektion och analys för programmet, samt gör också programmet/projektet mer transparent, genom extern spridning av gjorda erfarenheter.

  • 11.
    Brännmark, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Is Lean No Longer Mean?: A Study of the Consequences for Working Conditions in Companies Implementing Lean2010In: FALF2010: Arbetsliv i förändring, Malmö: FALF , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean is today becoming increasingly popular in Swedish manufacturing industry, and the concept has also started to spread to other sectors, such as administration, healthcare and the municipal sector. However, previous studies have suggested that Lean can become “mean”, creating working conditions that are bad for the employees. Conversely, other studies instead suggest that this has less to do with Lean, than with the implementation of Lean. Thus, this paper aims at studying the implementation of Lean in eight medium sized companies over a two year period, using qualitative and quantitative data. First, the results from the qualitative data suggest that these companies implementation of Lean is characterized by Lean coordinators, pilot projects and improvements groups, while the Lean tools mostly used are 5S, SMED, standardization and means to improve the production flow. Second, the perceived effects on working conditions, based on the quantitative data, suggest an improvement in the working environment, an increase in the work with safety and some degree of increase in stress for the workers. Consequently, the implementation structure of these companies does not indicate a “mean” production system, although the long term effects on working conditions cannot be determined, based on these data.

  • 12.
    Brännmark, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Lean administration: En litteraturgenomgång av lean när konceptet implementeras i kommuner2011In: FALF2011: Det nya arbetslivet, Luleå: FALF , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lean blir allt vanligare i svensk offentlig förvaltning. Litteraturstudier har tidigare genomförts inom sjukvård och service. Denna litteraturgenomgång fokuserar istället på kommuner. Fokus ligger på vilka former som lean-konceptet tar, hur det implementeras, vilka effekter som uppnås, samt vilka svårigheter som man stött på. Sökningar gjordes i två omgångar i fyra olika databaser under i maj 2010. Endast empiriska artiklar i peer-reviewadetidsskrifter inkluderades; studier som inom vård- eller industriliknande kontexterexkluderades. Totalt resulterade sökningen och urvalsprocessen i fem publikationer, som beskriver lean i elva verksamheter. Slutsatserna från genomgången av dessa är de studerade lean-implementeringar i hög grad utgår från en ansats som påminner om värdeflödeskartläggningar. Fokus för lean-arbetet ligger på verktyg och system för förbättringsarbete. De upplevda problemen i lean-arbetet är framför allt associerade med implementeringsansatsen, snarare än konceptet eller kontexten. Verksamheternas arbete med lean har gett mestadels positiva verksamhetseffekter, framför allt rörande effektivitet och produktivitet. Hur kunderna, och framför allt personalen, påverkats är dock osäkrare.

  • 13.
    Brännmark, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Lean i kommuner och myndigheter: En översikt över existerande empirisk forskningslitteratur2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna litteraturgenomgång avser att studera det empiriska underlaget om lean i kommuner och myndigheter (exklusive sjukvård) utifrån den forskningslitteratur som finns. Sökningar har gjorts i sex forskningsdatabaser under oktober 2011. Relevanta frågor för studien är hur lean används i kommuner och myndigheter, varför organisationerna väljer att arbeta med lean och vilka resultat man har uppnått.

    Totalt hittades 48 publikationer, men efter sortering återstod endast 17 empiriska artiklar av relevans för den här rapporten. De studier som valdes bort var antingen för diskuterande eller redogjorde inte tydligt för hur man har samlat in sin empiri. De 17 studierna som används är av skiftande kvalitet och utformning och det empiriska underlaget är varierat. En majoritet av de inkluderade publikationerna är publicerade efter 2005. Tio av de 17 publikationerna innehåller totalt 18 fallstudier. Utifrån detta, är det rimligt att hävda att den empiriska forskningen om lean i kommuner och myndigheter är ett relativt nytt fenomen. Fallstudierna föranleder flera slutsatser, även om det bör betonas att det empiriska underlaget är tunt och studierna är av starkt varierande kvalitet och utformning. Därför bör slutsatserna endast ses som tentativa, men det innebär samtidigt att det finns flera frågor som kan vara av stort intresse för fortsatt forskning.

    För det första, när det gäller vilka former lean-arbetet tar, så tycks värdeflödeskartläggning och slöserireducering utgöra centrala inslag i kommuner och myndigheters arbete med lean. Ofta verkar det handla om punktinsatser. Lean-program som omfattar hela organisationen är relativt ovanliga. Andra lean-verktyg förekommer också, men det är mindre vanligt. För det andra, när det gäller målen med lean-arbetet, verkar det i hög grad initieras med syfte att öka produktiviteten, även om andra skäl också förekommer, som exempelvis behov av kostnadssänkningar. För det tredje, när det gäller resultat av lean-arbetet, framför allt då värdeflödeskartläggningarna, verkar ökad produktivitet vara det vanligaste resultatet. Samtidigt leder arbetet också ofta till minskade problem och störningar för de anställda, vilket ofta uppskattas. Däremot tycks effekterna för personalen vara mer varierade än verksamhetseffekterna. De lean-verktyg som emellanåt verkar ge negativa konsekvenser är bland annat standardisering, visualisering och kundkontakt. Kundeffekterna är dock svårare att uttala sig om eftersom det ofta saknas empiri om detta i studierna.

    Slutligen bör det betonas att utifrån de inkluderade studiernas utformning och metodik är det mycket svårt att uttala sig om de långsiktiga effekterna av arbetet med lean, eftersom det finns empiri i publikationerna som väcker frågetecken om hur hållbart lean-arbetet är, till exempel deltagarnas känsla av att arbetet är avklarat efter genomförda förbättringsworkshops.

  • 14.
    Brännmark, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Ökad delaktighet i programutvärdering: En metodik för ökad resultatspridning?2009In: HSS2009: Vi bygger morgondagens samhälle, Luleå, 2009, p. 1-26Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Brännmark, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Benn, Suzanne
    University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.
    A Proposed Model for Evaluating the Sustainability of Continuous Change Programmes2012In: Journal of Change Management, ISSN 1469-7017, E-ISSN 1479-1811, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 231-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies report that it is difficult to sustain change. This article focuses on how an organization can initiate and sustain a continuous change process. A theoretical model is proposed as a fusion of two previous models for evaluating the sustainability of a change programme; the first is based on analysing stakeholder interest balance as a prerequisite for organizational sustainability, the second on analysing the design of the implementation, indicating whether long-term effects will be achieved. It is argued that the combination of these factors provides a more comprehensive perspective, since it allows us to evaluate both the ‘form’ and the ‘direction’ of the programme. To assess stakeholder interest balance, the goal for the change programme is analysed, utilizing the broad stakeholder interest balance perspective. To assess the design of the implementation, four preconditions for long-term effects should be analysed: management's ownership of the change initiative, professional steering, competent leadership and participation. Reference is given to the management concept Lean Production, which is claimed to engage the organization in continuous change. Application of the model highlights the mismatch between narrowly focused change programmes such as Lean Production and sustainable change.

  • 16.
    Brännmark, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Halvarsson, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX VINN Excellence Centre.
    Analysseminarier som samverkansform: Följeforskning för hållbart utvecklingsarbete?2011In: HSS2011: Vi bygger tillsammans, Karlstad: HSS , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Brännmark, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Halvarsson, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX VINN Excellence Centre.
    Lindskog, Pernilla
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Implementing Lean in Swedish Municipalities and Hospitals: Initial effects on the work system2011In: FALF2011:Det nya arbetslivet, Luleå: FALF , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is the first preliminary product of a three year interactive research project, studying the effects of Lean when introduced in Swedish municipalities and hospitals. Focus of the paper is the implementation process (more specifically, employee participationand facilitated learning) and changes in the work system (focusing on work content, organization and work environment). The empirical data has been collected through interviews and group interviews in three municipalities and one hospital. These results, together with the discussion and analysis, shows firstly that the implementation processes of the studied units are characterized by a medium or high level of opportunities for employee participation and learning, although this is produced in different ways. Second, the changes in the work systems mostly affect the organization of the work, through reorganization and redistribution of the work tasks, rather than changes in how the work tasks are performed.This has lead to more orderly and structured work processes. Lastly, the employees’ reactions to these changes have been mostly positive, although not exclusively so. However, it is important to stress that the employee reactions are most likely as much a result of the implementation process, as of the changes in the work systems. Longitudinal studies are therefore needed to study the long term changes in the work system and the effects on employee health, which will be the next step of this research project.

  • 18.
    Bäcklander, Gisela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Rosengren, Calle
    Kaulio, Matti
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Managing Intensity in Knowledge Work: Self-Leadership Practices among Danish Management ConsultantsIn: Journal of Management and Organization, ISSN 1833-3672, E-ISSN 1839-3527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the sources of knowledge workers’ work intensity and the self-leading strategies they apply to deal with it. The paper is based on focus group interviews with management consultants in a Danish management consultancy firm. Work intensity was identified as resulting from a combination of: (1) a results-only focus, (2) vagueness, (3) boundaryless work, and (4) low control of the quantitative load. A framework for self-leading strategies is developed based on the dimensions of reactive/proactive and self-focused/externally-focused strategies in different combinations. The results indicate that while consultants expressed a belief in internal self-discipline strategies of a more reactive nature, in fact, external and proactive strategies were the most effective in practice. In conclusion, the paper contributes to an extension of self-leadership theory to better account for current research on self-control.

  • 19.
    Bäcklander, Gisela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Rosengren, Calle
    Kaulio, Matti
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Managing Intensity in Knowledge Work: Self-Leadership Practices among Danish Management ConsultantsIn: Journal of Management and Organization, ISSN 1833-3672, E-ISSN 1839-3527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the sources of knowledge workers’ work intensity and the self-leading strategies they apply to deal with it. The paper is based on focus group interviews with management consultants in a Danish management consultancy firm. Work intensity was identified as resulting from a combination of: (1) a results-only focus, (2) vagueness, (3) boundaryless work, and (4) low control of the quantitative load. A framework for self-leading strategies is developed based on the dimensions of reactive/proactive and self-focused/externally-focused strategies in different combinations. The results indicate that while consultants expressed a belief in internal self-discipline strategies of a more reactive nature, in fact, external and proactive strategies were the most effective in practice. In conclusion, the paper contributes to an extension of self-leadership theory to better account for current research on self-control.

  • 20.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Cupitt, Rebekah
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Meetings, practice and beyond: Environmental sustainability in meeting practices at work2013In: Nachhaltigkeit in der Wirtschaftskommunikation / [ed] Martin Nielsen, Iris Rittenhofer, Marianne Grove Ditlevsen, Sophie Esmann Andersen, Irene Pollach, Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden , 2013, p. 159-190Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study shows how the employees at a large transnational telecom company understand and accommodate the implemented travel and meeting policies that regulate business communication. This involves looking at employee decisions on when, how and why to hold meetings. The subsequent understandings of meetings and their practice is formed through negotiation and the formation of a ‘social matrix of workplace communication (meetings)’(Bateson & Reusch 2009). This social matrix and its contexts are analysed from the perspective of environmental sustainability of office work practice. The basis for this is the recent implementation of company-wide restrictions on travel aiming to encourage the use of mediated meetings instead of travel for face-to-face meetings. Some issues that emerge are shared meanings of meetings, more specifically the perceived importance of the physical meeting in a workplace where telephone meetings were the norm. This shows that even if the technological possibilities for mediated meetings and by extension a more flexible work practice exist, they are not regarded as default but seen as complementary to conventional work practices. The need to find a balance in between mediated and physical meetings comes across as a recurring theme in both interviews and policy documents.  As a result the ongoing negotiation of which meetings are deemed necessary to be held in person and thereby requiring travel, is embedded within TeliaSonera employees' notions that face-to-face meetings are better and more efficient than mediated meetings. Subsequently the collective view that mediated meetings are not as successful as face-to-face meetings becomes a central to the character of workplace communication. This negotiation is carried out on an individual level as well as on a more organisational level. When carried out on an organisational level these negotiations occur in policy documents which can sometimes contradict employee perspectives and are equally subject to contextual factors (cf. Kogg 2002). Other related issues present in the empirical data are the blurring of the divide between work and home in relation to the changes in work practices and information and communication technology (ICT).

  • 21. Castro, Maria Pia
    et al.
    Fragapane, Stefania
    Rinaldi, Francesco Mazzeo
    KTH. University of Catania, Italy.
    Professionalization and evaluation: A European analysis in the digital era2016In: Evaluation, ISSN 1356-3890, E-ISSN 1461-7153, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 489-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is expected that the number of evaluators will continue to grow in the near future. However, the heterogeneity of different national contexts makes the consolidation of a consistent jurisdiction' for the professional evaluator rather problematic. This article contributes to the debate on the professionalization of evaluators by looking at practices attributed, competences and skills required by employers, and the main topics addressed by the community of evaluators. The authors draw on various sources - ISCO08 (International Standard Classification of Occupation); ESCO (European Skills, Competences, Qualifications and Occupations); job offers posted on the EES (European Evaluation Society) website; EES LinkedIn group - to argue that the practice of evaluation has achieved a supranational dimension, with potential consequences both on evaluators' educational profile and on the ways in which evaluations are commissioned and conducted.

  • 22.
    Dabirian, Amir
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Kietzmann, Jan
    Diba, Hoda
    A great place to work!?: Understanding crowdsourced employer branding2017In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 197-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits provided by employment and identified with a specific employing company are referred to as employer branding. We argue that when employees use IT to share and access work-related experiences openly across organizations, their expectations and assessments of workplaces change. We collected 38,000 reviews of the highest and lowest ranked employers on Glassdoor, an online crowdsourced employer branding platform. Using IBM Watson to analyze the data, we identify seven employer branding value propositions that current, former, and potential employees care about when they collectively evaluate employers. These propositions include (1) social elements of work, (2) interesting and challenging work tasks, (3) the extent to which skills can be applied in meaningful ways, (4) opportunities for professional development, (5) economic issues tied to compensation, (6) the role of management, and (7) work/life balance. We clarify that these value propositions do not all matter to the same extent and demonstrate how their relative valences and weights differ across organizations, especially if institutions are considered particularly good or bad places to work. Based on these findings, we show how employers can use crowdsourced employer branding intelligence to become great places to work that attract highly qualified employees.

  • 23.
    de Alwis, Manudul Pahansen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Lo Martire, Riccardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ang, Bjorn O.
    Garme, Karl
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Development and validation of a web-based questionnaire for surveying the health and working conditions of high-performance marine craft populations2016In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, no 6, article id e011681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background High-performance marine craft crews are susceptible to various adverse health conditions caused by multiple interactive factors. However, there are limited epidemiological data available for assessment of working conditions at sea. Although questionnaire surveys are widely used for identifying exposures, outcomes and associated risks with high accuracy levels, until now, no validated epidemiological tool exists for surveying occupational health and performance in these populations. Aim To develop and validate a web-based questionnaire for epidemiological assessment of occupational and individual risk exposure pertinent to the musculoskeletal health conditions and performance in high-performance marine craft populations. Method A questionnaire for investigating the association between work-related exposure, performance and health was initially developed by a consensus panel under four subdomains, viz. demography, lifestyle, work exposure and health and systematically validated by expert raters for content relevance and simplicity in three consecutive stages, each iteratively followed by a consensus panel revision. The item content validity index (I-CVI) was determined as the proportion of experts giving a rating of 3 or 4. The scale content validity index (S-CVI/Ave) was computed by averaging the I-CVIs for the assessment of the questionnaire as a tool. Finally, the questionnaire was pilot tested. Results The S-CVI/Ave increased from 0.89 to 0.96 for relevance and from 0.76 to 0.94 for simplicity, resulting in 36 items in the final questionnaire. The pilot test confirmed the feasibility of the questionnaire. Conclusions The present study shows that the web-based questionnaire fulfils previously published validity acceptance criteria and is therefore considered valid and feasible for the empirical surveying of epidemiological aspects among high-performance marine craft crews and similar populations.

  • 24.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Arbetsmiljö och lärande i Lean och kvalitetsutveckling2014In: Lärande i arbetslivet möjligheter och utmaningar: en vänbok till Per-Erik Ellström / [ed] Henrik Kock, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om vilka konsekvenser lean och kvalitetsutveckling får för arbetsmiljö och lärande är avgörande för de anställdas acceptans av dessa koncept, men också avgörande för konceptens systemeffektivitet. Hur dessa samband ser ut har behandlats i ett flertal artiklar (Landsbergis, 1999; Westgaard och Winkel, 2007; Hasle et al., 2012; Adler and Borys, 1994; Adler and Cole, 1995; Appelbaum, 1996). Inriktningen på förändringarna och den kultur som finns i organisationerna synes spela avgörande roll för utfallet. Samtidigt finns det anledning att mera i detalj studera dessa samband. Det finns också studier som har kopplat ihop arbetsförhållanden och lärande. Utifrån definitioner på vad som karaktäriserar det goda arbetet har lärande och möjligheter att utvecklas lyfts fram som viktiga faktorer (Thorsrud, 1969). Detta kapitel syftar till att beskriva olika konsekvenser som kan uppstå för lärande och arbetsmiljö i samband med att organisationer inför lean eller initierar kvalitetsutveckling i sin verksamhet. Ett andra syfte är att koppla dessa konsekvenser till de förändringsansatser som genomförs.

  • 25. Englund, A. -CD.
    et al.
    Rydström, I.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Ahlstrom, L.
    Social support outside work and return to work among women on long-term sick leave working within human service organizations2016In: Applied Nursing Research, ISSN 0897-1897, E-ISSN 1532-8201, Vol. 30, p. 187-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate the relationships between return to work and social support outside work among women on long-term sick leave from human service organizations. Background: Work is an important part of life and is, in general, considered to be supportive of health and wellbeing. Few studies have thoroughly investigated the importance of aspects of social support outside work for return to work. Methods: A cohort of women on long-term sick leave was followed with questionnaires from 2005 to 2012. Results: The availability of social attachment increased the women's work ability, return to work, and vitality significantly more over time. There were positive relationships between return to work and seeking support in terms of emotional support and comfort and expressing unpleasant feelings. Conclusions: Important resources to increase return to work can be found in factors outside work, such as close social relationships and support seeking. Thus, it is important to take the woman's whole life situation into account and not focus solely on aspects related to the workplace.

  • 26.
    Giertz, Eric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Dynamics in Swedish Industry and Political History2016In: A Dynamic Mind: Perspectives on Industrial Dynamics in Honour of Staffan Laestadius / [ed] Pär Blomkvist, Petter Johansson, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016, 1, p. 321-367Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rules and regulations for industry are of great importance for the wellbeing of a country. In this chapter I discuss the complex inter-play between governmental actions and industrial development in Sweden during one and a half century. I divide the period into three phases.

    The first phase was initiated in the mid-1800s when a number of decisions speeded up the process of industrialization in Sweden – giving Sweden many new ventures founded by entrepreneurs. The second phase was initiated by the depression after World War I. The ownership of Swedish industry was concentrated to a few financial spheres, which closely cooperated with the Social Democratic government and the reformist labor movement. The third phase was initiated by the crises in the mid-1970s. The Social Democrats lost the election in 1976 and a new political era was born. In the late 1980s it was also followed by a new globalization era in industry.

    Globalization has fundamentally changed possibilities for small nations, like Sweden, to form national strategies for growth. But still the “Swedish model” from last century evokes a nostalgic response from many Swedes. Also, some concepts and institutions, as well as rules and regulations, still survive with some strength, even though they originated in a different era and are less relevant today. I hope that the reader of this chapter shall be aware that yesterday’s successful principles of setting rules for industry, as well as organizing and managing different businesses might no longer be appropriate.

  • 27.
    Gullström, Charlie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Kort, Joke
    TNO.
    Where did my Office go? Is it in the Cloud!?: Workshop on Spatial and Social Connectedness in Virtual and Mediated Work Environments2016In: Proceedings of the 19th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing Companion / [ed] Darren Gergle, Meredith Ringel Morris, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2016, p. 457-464Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The physical workplace, a hub for communication, collaboration and co-located interaction can no longer be taken for granted. Today, the design of intelligent interactive media, physical products and ubiquitous environments has passed the phase of being technology-driven. Meaning, insight and experience are now the key design drivers for the bridging of digital and physical design. We foresee how new interconnected knowledge systems – objects/devices, buildings and even cities created from web-based services and IoT – thoroughly transforms CSCW. A wide spectrum of services already invites users to seamlessly move between real and virtual workspaces, using a range of previously separated media channels. This interdisciplinary workshop welcomes researchers and practitioners to a day-long exchange targeting User eXperience (UX) and, specifically, the relationship between social and spatial connectedness in mediated and virtual work environments. Examples from ongoing research and developments informs a discussion on how the borders between the virtual and real become increasingly obsolete.

  • 28. Gustavsen, B
    et al.
    Hofmaier, B
    Ekman Philips, M
    Wikman, A
    Paths of Development1995Book (Other academic)
  • 29. Gustavsen, Björn
    et al.
    Hofmaier, Bernd
    Ekman Philips, Marianne
    Wikman, Anders
    Utvecklingslinjer i arbetslivet och arbetslivsfondens roll1995Book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Hallström, Louise
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Entreprenörers motivation till säkert arbete: Faktorer som påverkar beställarens främjande av en säkerhetskultur där entreprenörer är inkluderade2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Working in the construction, paper and steel industry in Sweden means maintaining an occupation in a naturally hazardous environment. Engaging contractors in health and safety activities to achieve an improved occupational environment, and thereby raising the quality of production, can often be problematic due to a wide range of factors. These factors are being combated by Swedish companies which employees’ contractors Aim: The aim of this study is to examine which factors that could affect the improvement of the safety culture within a company which employees’ contractors. This study will focus on the client’s organization and the contractor’s participation. Method: A qualitative study was conducted including individual interviews with three companies in the construction, steel and paper industry in Sweden. One company from each field was selected, three managerial staff and three safety representatives interviewed from each. A thematic data analysis was conducted of the results. Results: The results indicate that the factors influencing the work of improving the safety culture in a company that employees’ contractors were as follows; management's approach to security, the organization of the security, cultural differences, control and monitoring of workplace conditions, participation, resources, communication and the contractor’s motivation to work safely. Discussion: A potential disadvantage of this study was that the results relate primarily to the client's perspective. Yet focusing on this perspective may also be seen as an advantage as it is the client who creates the safety culture that contractors should be a part of. The focus of the study was top-down analysis. If the study had instead been focused on a bottom-up perspective, the result would have been centered around strengthen the participation of contractors in how safety measures should be implemented, promoting their own desire to participate in a client’s safety culture. Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is that the promotion of a safety culture should be anchored within the management of a company. It is their approach to security and safety issues that is the deciding factor in promoting a safer workplace culture. Safety and security requirements should also be increasingly considered in the procurement of contractors, furthermore contractors should be included in security operations (including job training) and they should also be given the opportunity to report risks directly to the client's reporting system. This could promote both participation and communication within the company. Our final conclusion is that efforts should be to reduce the line between internal personnel and contractors on safety issues.

  • 31.
    Hedlund, Ann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Attraktivitetens dynamik: studier av förändringar i arbetets attraktivitet2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis takes a point of departure in the problems to recruit and retain personnel in woodworking companies. Companies, actors of society and researchers started with the ambition to create work which people, especially young ones, would like to have and where employees want to stay. The research has been carried out within the att…-project in collaboration between Dalarna University and National Institute for Working Life.

    The primary purpose was to create deeper understanding of characteristics of attractive work. A distinction has been made between on the one hand what makes work attractive, and on the other hand changes of the attractiveness. The empirical problem with recruitment was a starting point, followed by an interaction between theory and empiricism. The relation to practioners can be described as interactive with usefulness in focus. Questionnaires, group discussions and interviews, as well as informal conversations, have been used in five separate studies.

    The attractiveness of work depends on the individual’s estimation of the totality of work based upon her/his life situation. Characteristic for attractive work is that it is dynamic and comparative. Positive factors of work are related to other employments or to the idea of attractive work. A model of attractive work which represents an overall picture regarding what makes work attractive contains about 80 qualities in 22 dimensions. One finding is that changes in one dimension influences other dimensions. Another finding is that changed estimations of work depends both on changed valuation of the importance of different aspects of work, and on changed conception of the aspects.

    It is not enough to do a single effort aimed at retaining and recruiting personnel since the attractiveness of work is dynamic and comparisons are made with other employments. Companies must continuously do efforts for more attractive work. Existing attractive qualities that are hidden from applicants can be displayed. Other qualities can be realized and added to. Knowledge about what makes work attractive and about the dynamic of the attractiveness is valuable to create more attractive work.

  • 32.
    Helander, Max
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Bergqvist, Robert
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Lund Stetler, Katarina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Applying lean in product development - enabler or inhibitor of creativity?2015In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 68, no 1-2, p. 49-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean has become increasingly popular as a process management approach outside its original application in manufacturing, and it is frequently used as a means to increase efficiency in research and development (R&D) processes. Previous research suggests that lean can be used to increase R&D efficiency, but there is disagreement on whether or not this comes at the expense of creativity. In this article, the effects of lean product development on creativity are studied by means of case studies in the R&D departments of five companies. The empirical observations highlighted a number of important aspects when applying lean in product development. The data suggested that a primary focus of lean in product development was flow, rather than waste reduction, and that significant focus was given to the reduction of disturbances. Another finding was the need for a long-term perspective in R&D to safeguard creativity and that the reduction of slack time following the implementation of lean clearly limited the opportunities to undertake unsanctioned innovation projects, often referred to as 'skunk work'. Finally, the importance of management support and employee training to aid the implementation of lean was emphasised.

  • 33.
    Håkansson, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Waldenstrom, Mans
    Holden, Richard J.
    Department of BioHealth Informatics,Indiana University School of Informatics and Computing, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
    Sustained lean transformation of working conditions: A Swedish longitudinal case study2017In: Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, ISSN 1090-8471, E-ISSN 1520-6564, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 268-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of lean production’s effect on working conditions are mixed but point toward worsened conditions. The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess how lean contributes to transforming work characteristics in a medium-sized specialized industrial family business. A mixed methods approachwas used to combine an external assessment of work characteristics with selfreported employee questionnaires. Favorable psychosocial working conditions were indicated, with role conflicts decreasing over time. The assessment of work provided descriptions of how lean practices contributed to decreased task control due to standardized work and simplified work processes. At the same time, employees still had opportunities to influence their long-term work assignment. There was also a trend toward job enlargement through new, higher-skilled tasks, multiskilling, and extended opportunities to influence work through different continuous improvement activities. The participative lean approach and type of skilled jobs may have contributed to this transformation.

  • 34.
    Håkansson, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Holden, R. J.
    Department of BioHealth Informatics, Indiana University School of Informatics and Computing, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Dellve, L.
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Sociology and Work science.
    Managerial practices that support lean and socially sustainable working conditions2017In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 63-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite decades of using lean, there is little knowledge of how lean managerial practices affect working conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate in what ways managerial practices support socially sustainable working conditions (SSWCs) during a lean transformation. A mixed methods approach was used in this multiyear case study in a midsize Swedish manufacturing company. Assessment of work characteristics was combined with employee questionnaires and interviews with managers. Four practices were identified as instrumental for SSWCs: 1) a coherent lean approach with clear direction, 2) a value-creating leadership style comprising a participatorypromoting and caring leadership approach with joint focus on production and well-being, 3) conscious involvement of employees in a stepwise fashion, and 4) a focus on promoting meaningful jobs and health, aided by work environment management. Thus, managerial practices actively supporting important job resources as an integral part of the lean system seemed to support SSWCs.

  • 35.
    Karlsson, Sara
    et al.
    KTH.
    Berglund, Per
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Ledarskap i kravfylld tid: utveckling genom utvärdering vid KTH2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Kjellström, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Stålne, Kristian
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Törnblom, Oskar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.). Högskolan i Jönköping.
    The qualitative different understandings of leadership development as a potential tool for the good organization2017In: EGOS 2017. 33rd EGOS Colloquium: The Good Organization: Aspirations, Interventions, Struggles, Copenhagen, July 6–8, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Larsson, Tore J
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Normark, M
    Weigelt, A
    Åkerström, T
    Allvarliga arbetsskador och långvarig sjukfrånvaro - 20122012Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Lindborg, Per
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    A taxonomy of sound sources in restaurants2016In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 110, p. 297-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Restaurants are complex environments engaging all our senses. More or less designable sound sources, such as background music, voices, and kitchen noises, influence the overall perception of the soundscape. Previous research suggested typologies of sounds in some environmental contexts, such as urban parks and offices, but there is no detailed account that is relevant to restaurants. We collected on-site data in 40 restaurants (n = 393), including perceptual ratings, free-form annotations of characteristic sounds and whether they were liked or not, and free-form descriptive words for the environment as a whole. The annotations were subjected to cladistic analysis, yielding a multi-level taxonomy of perceived sound sources in restaurants (SSR) with good construct validity and external robustness. Further analysis revealed that voice-related characteristic sounds including a 'people' specifier were more liked than those without it (d = 0.14 SD), possibly due to an emotional crossmodal association mechanism. Liking of characteristic sounds differed between the first and last annotations that respondents made (d = 0.21 SD), which might be due to an initially positive bias being countered by exposure to a task inducing a mode of critical listening. Comparing the SSR taxonomy with previous classifications, we believe it will prove useful for field research, simulation design, and sound perception theory.

  • 39.
    Linghag, Sophie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management.
    Regnö, Klara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management.
    What is Gender in Organizations?2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades different constructionist approaches, frequently gathered under the label of ‘doing gender’, have become influential in Scandinavian gender research (Widerberg 2007). In this text we focus on just what ‘doing gender’ in organisations is seen to be. What is gender and how can it be looked at with doing gender as the point of departure? Our initial inquiry involves taking a look at what the suggested definition of doing gender is in research on gender in organisations. We look at the criticism directed towards doing gender and how this has been treated. After going through the research on doing gender, we then outline our view of gender in organisations. We argue in favour of keeping a “divided eye” on how actors do gender via an analytical look at ‘where they have been’ and ‘where they are heading’, in relation to context and practices, and in this way being able to focus on the process of how gender is done. Following this we present some methodological implications arising from our view on gender with regard to two ongoing research projects on gender and leadership in two different organisational contexts. Finally, we give a summary of our ways of reasoning along with one or two observations on our view of gender and approaches to studying organisations. 

  • 40. Ljungblad, C.
    et al.
    Granström, F.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Åkerlind, I.
    Workplace health promotion and working conditions as determinants of employee health2014In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 89-104, article id 17112741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate general psychosocial work conditions and specific workplace health promotion (WHP) measures in relation to employee health and sickness absence in Swedish municipal social care organizations. Design/methodology/approach - In a random sample of 60 out of the 290 municipalities in Sweden, 15,871 municipal social care employees working with elderly and disabled clients were sent a questionnaire concerning psychosocial work environment, WHP, and self-rated health. The responses (response rate 58.4 per cent) were complemented by register data on sickness absence (>14 days). All data were aggregated to employer level. Findings - A structural equation modelling analysis using employer-level data demonstrated that employers with more favourable employee ratings of the psychosocial work conditions, as well as of specific health-promoting measures, had better self-rated health and lower sickness absence level among employees. Practical implications - The results from this representative nationwide sample of employers within one sector indicate that employers can promote employee health both by offering various health-specific programmes and activities, such as work environment education, fitness activities, and lifestyle guidance, as well as by forming a high-quality work environment in general including developmental and supportive leadership styles, prevention of role conflicts, and a supportive and comfortable social climate. Originality/value - This study with a representative nationwide sample demonstrates: results in line with earlier studies and explanations to the challenges in comparing effects from specific and general WHP interventions on health.

  • 41.
    Lund, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Glav, Ragnar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Strategies for managing micro-level contextual ambidexterity: Combining exploration and exploitation in R&D2015In: Proceedings of the 15th annual CINet conference, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the achievement of contextual ambidexterity at the individual level, i.e. the micro-level. We explore how employees in four different teams in an automotive company use different strategies to prioritise time between, on the one hand exploration such as pre-development activities and research and, on the other hand exploitation such as realising set concepts in the later phases of the product development process. Based on our findings we argue that the status of exploratory activities must be elevated to equal levels with exploitation activities if ambidexterity is to achieved without using separation as the main strategy. We propose that clear goal setting, stricter follow-up of exploratory activities, and high levels of endurance among managers in change initiatives are ways to achieve a contextually ambidextrous organisation.

  • 42.
    Lund Stetler, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Jennie, Björk
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Myopic Creative Climate: The Result of Streamlining in R&D Organizations?2014In: Academy of management proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creative climate has been proposed as a fundamental component of organizations displaying high innovation performance, and validated tools for measuring creative climate are today readily available. In the existing literature, however, the multi-dimensionality of the creative climate concept is not thoroughly reflected, but organizations have primarily been regarded to either have or not have a creative climate. In this article we attempt to bring a more nuanced perspective to creative climate – describing what can be seen as a myopic creative climate. This type of climate is characterized by a good working environment where people support each other’s ideas and trust each other. However the levels of risk taking and idea time are lower and, more importantly, this results in a significantly lower innovation performance than is found in a good creative climate. This alters the way we view creative climate by highlighting that not all dimensions are equally important. Even in a work environment where the majority of creative climate dimensions are at high levels, the organization may suffer from decreased levels of innovation.

  • 43.
    Lund Stetler, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. Institute for Management of Innovation and Technology, Sweden .
    Exploring the tension between clarity and ambiguity in goal setting for innovation2015In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 231-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we analyse the role of goal setting for innovation in an R&D context. The literature on goal setting for innovation is inconclusive; some scholars claim that goals should be ambiguous in order to inspire novel ideas, but others claim that clear project goals are important in order to undertake innovation projects in an efficient manner. We aim to explain this inconsistency by taking a more fine-grained view of innovation where we study goal setting in relation to exploratory aspects such as idea generation separately from exploitatory aspects such as idea implementation. The results from an empirical survey study in the R&D department of an automotive company reveal that a general ambition to be innovative is positively related to all phases of innovation, but the effects of clear project goals are more complex. We found that idea novelty increases under conditions of either high or low levels of goal clarity, whereas mid-range levels of goal clarity are related to fewer novel ideas. These findings inform existing knowledge about goal setting and innovation, and in particular challenge the body of literature showing that only high levels of ambiguity in goal setting are a fruitful means for innovation.

  • 44. Lundin, Rolf A.
    et al.
    Arvidsson, Niklas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Brady, Tim
    Ekstedt, Eskil
    Midler, Christophe
    Sydow, Jörg
    Managing and working in Project Society: Institutional Challenges of Temporary Organizations2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this book, leading authorities on project organizing explore the growing deployment of projects and other types of temporary organizations, with a focus on the challenges created by projectification. The way projects are coordinated and handled influences the success of innovation and change within organizations and is critical for strategic development in our societies, yet it is often at odds with the institutions of traditional industrial society. Drawing on both theoretical perspectives and real-world cases, this book sheds light on the transformation toward a project society and explores the effects, opportunities, and conflicts it has created. As change continues, the authors make a case for renewing institutions and mind-sets and provide a foundation from which to discuss societal changes for the future. This is an invaluable book for researchers and students in project management and organizational theory programs, as well as professionals involved in the management of projects.

  • 45.
    Magnusson, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). LUISS School of Business and Management, Italy.
    Mascia, D.
    Di Vincenzo, F.
    Project social capital in biotech R&D: Its configuration and impact on knowledge development2017In: Learning and Innovation in Hybrid Organizations: Strategic and Organizational Insights, Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 115-141Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing upon recent literature, which employs social networks in the field of project management, the aim of this research is to empirically investigate the importance of projects’ social capital for knowledge development in R&D projects. Primary data were collected via sociometric questionnaires on a population of 53 biotech R&D projects located at one of the most important science parks in Sweden. The analysis focused on the distinctive structural configuration of projects’ social capital, among which the roles of network diversity were emphasized. Our results suggest that certain structural configurations of project social capital maximize the level of effectiveness in knowledge development. More specifically, we found an inverted U-shaped relationship between projects’ network diversity and their level of knowledge development, demonstrating that intermediate levels of diversity maximize project knowledge development. Implications for innovation managers and policymakers are discussed.

  • 46.
    Mattsson, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    The education and profession of land surveyors in Western Europe2001In: Maan-käyttö 3/2000Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Mikiver, Helene
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.) (closed (20130101).
    Persson, Ida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.) (closed (20130101).
    Efficiency drawbacks within complex M&A integrations: - A study that observes leadership affection2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a recurring interest and attention regarding the problems with M&A integrations andthe difficulty to implement these successfully. Focus is often set on necessary financialaspects and smart strategic moves but equally important factors such as leadership andculture has recently been shown to be crucial.

    The purpose of this study has been to identify potential kinds of efficiency drawbacks inchange management situations of complex M&A integrations. Complex M&A integrationshave been designated by constellations of multiple companies, concentrated in differentindustries.

    The data collection has been a qualitative case study that spanned over three months, locatedinternationally. More than 40 interviews were conducted, in which the majority have beenface-to-face. The co-operating company contributed with employees to interview and gatherknowledge from, where emphasis was placed on differentiating the interviewees to reduceany potential bias.

    The findings demonstrate many forms of identified efficiency drawbacks, which inconclusions are later categorized into the efficiency drawback lack of leadership. Thisefficiency drawback may be considered critically important to address, advantageouslyproactively for successful M&A integrations.

  • 48. Monnier, Andreas
    et al.
    Larsson, Helena
    Djupsjobacka, Mats
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Ang, Bjorn O.
    Musculoskeletal pain and limitations in work ability in Swedish marines: a cross-sectional survey of prevalence and associated factors2015In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, no 10, article id e007943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of self-rated musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting work ability in Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) marines, and to study factors potentially associated with pain limiting work ability for the most prevalent pain regions reported. Design Population-based, cross-sectional survey. Participants There were 272 SAF marines from the main marine battalion in Sweden included in the study. Outcomes Self-assessed musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting the marines' work ability within a 6-month period, as obtained from structured questionnaires. The association of individual, health and work-related factors with musculoskeletal pain limiting work ability was systematically regressed with multiple logistic models, estimating OR and 95% CI. Results Musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting work ability were most common in the back, at 46% and 20%, and lower extremities at 51% and 29%, respectively. Physical training 1day/week (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.7 to 16.8); body height 1.80m (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.6 to 15.1) and 1.86m (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 14.1); computer work 1/4 of the working day (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.0 to 10.0) and 1/2 (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.1) of the working day were independently associated with back pain limiting work ability. None of the studied variables emerged significantly associated with such pain for the lower extremities. Conclusions Our findings show that musculoskeletal pain and resultant limitations in work ability are common in SAF marines. Low frequency of physical training emerged independently associated with back pain limiting work ability. This suggests that marines performing physical training 1day per week or less are suitable candidates for further medical evaluation and secondary preventive actions. While also associated, body height and computer work need further exploration as underlying mechanisms for back pain limiting work ability. Further prospective studies are necessary to clarify the direction of causality.

  • 49.
    Morgunova, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Kutcherov, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    The Petroleum Industry in a Period of Structural Change2016In: A Dynamic Mind: Perspectives on Industrial Dynamics in Honour of Staffan Laestadius / [ed] Pär Blomkvist, Petter Johansson, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016, 1, p. 249-275Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we aim to contribute to the understanding of industrial dynamics through a concept of development blocks introduced by Dahmén (1950/1970) applied to the case of thepetroleum industry (oil and natural gas). In pursuing that objective, we first aim to offer some insight into the current state of the energy sector and the petroleum industry by describing the development of the energy system from the 1800s to the present day to reveal the system’s structural changes. Second, we focus on the definition of the development block. We suggest a brief overview of relevant notions and the manner in which they function within the conceptual framework. Third, we apply the development block concept to the case of the petroleum industry. We want to explore the new structural tensions and transformation pressures in the petroleum industry that have occurred within the last transformation period. Finally, we elucidate the theoretical and empirical conclusions both in terms of the use of the concept of development blocks and of the dynamics of the petroleum industry by focusing on the latest industrial period; then, we suggest managerial and policy implications deriving from our investigation.

  • 50.
    Nylén, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Favero, Federico
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Glimne, S.
    Fahnehjelm, K. Tear
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Vision, light and aging: A literature overview on older-age workers2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 399-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In many western countries individuals will need to continue their professional careers beyond the current retirement age. This requires adaptation of the working conditions to compensate for age related visual changes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to compile and structure knowledge concerning age related changes in visual and non-visual functions among older-age workers and to describe in what way these changes relate to light and work performance. METHOD: An overview of the literature was performed in PubMed and EMBASE concerning visual changes among elderly people, light, visual ergonomics and consequences at work. RESULTS: Visual conditions and lighting design have an impact on work performance in those over age 65 even if there are few studies available. Natural age related changes in the eyes or ocular diseases can result in reduced visual function and performance. Moreover, evidence of the importance of light and dark rhythms for circadian regulation is mounting; there are indications that the older-age population might need specific attention related to this issue. Finally, visual deteriorations might also, secondarily, induce strained postures and musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and injury. CONCLUSION: Age-related changes in the eyes and also ocular diseases among older-age people have an impact on well-being and work performance, and therefore call for reconsideration of their working conditions. Knowledge about how visual functions, light and ocular diseases is needed for work design and preventive actions.

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