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  • 1.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Reflective Equilibrium DefendedManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflective equilibrium is a method of justification in ethics. In this essay, I account for an argument against reflective equilibrium put forth by Theo van Willigenburg from a position of (weak) foundationalism. I attempt to demonstrate why it is flawed and how reflective equilibrium as a method of justification can withstand the foundationalist critique.

  • 2.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The Ethics of Immigration2015In: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567, Vol. 81, no 4, p. 380-384Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 3. Alger, I.
    et al.
    Weibull, Jörgen W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.). Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Strategic behavior of moralists and altruists2017In: Games, ISSN 2073-4336, E-ISSN 2073-4336, Vol. 8, no 3, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Does altruism and morality lead to socially better outcomes in strategic interactions than selfishness? We shed some light on this complex and non-trivial issue by examining a few canonical strategic interactions played by egoists, altruists and moralists. By altruists, we mean people who do not only care about their own material payoffs but also about those to others, and, by a moralist, we mean someone who cares about own material payoff and also about what would be his or her material payoff if others were to act like himself or herself. It turns out that both altruism and morality may improve or worsen equilibrium outcomes, depending on the nature of the game. Not surprisingly, both altruism and morality improve the outcomes in standard public goods games. In infinitely repeated games, however, both altruism and morality may diminish the prospects of cooperation, and to different degrees. In coordination games, morality can eliminate socially inefficient equilibria while altruism cannot.

  • 4. Al-Zoubi, N.
    et al.
    Schönecker, Stephan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Vitos, Levente
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Assessing the Exact Muffin-Tin Orbitals method for the Bain path of metals2017In: Philosophical Magazine, ISSN 1478-6435, E-ISSN 1478-6443, Vol. 97, no 15, p. 1243-1264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We scrutinise the muffin-tin approximation and the screening within the framework of the Exact Muffin-Tin Orbitals method in the case of cubic and tetragonal crystal symmetries. Systematic total energy calculations are carried out for the Bain path including the body-centred cubic and face-centred cubic structures for a set of simple and transition metals. The present converged results in terms of potential sphere radius (S) and hard sphere radius (b) are in good agreement with previous theoretical calculations. We demonstrate that for all structures considered here, potential sphere radii around and slightly larger than the average Wigner–Seitz radius (w) yield accurate total energy results whereas S values smaller than w give large errors. It is shown that for converged total energies hard spheres with radii b = 0.7–0.8w should be used for an efficient screening within real space clusters consisting typically of 70–90 lattice sites. The less efficient convergence of the total energy in the case of small hard spheres is ascribed to the delocalisation of the screened spherical waves, which leads to inaccurate interstitial overlap matrix. The above conclusions are not significantly affected by the volume of the system.

  • 5. Andersson, C
    et al.
    Authén, S
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Increased user-friendliness and transparency in PSA models: Phase 1. Pre-study2010Report (Other academic)
  • 6. Andersson, C.
    et al.
    Authén, S.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT, Espoo, Finland.
    User-friendliness and transparency in PSA modelling2010In: Proc. of PSAM 10 — International Probabilistic Safety Assessment & Management Conference, 7–11 June 2010, Seattle, Washington, USA, IAPSAM — International Association of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants were originally created to make conservative estimates of the core damage frequencies for internal events, which might occur during power operation. The PSA models have then been expanded to replace conservative estimates with more realistic assumptions and to include other types of initiating events, modes of operation and end states. The development has resulted in very large and detailed models, which are hard to understand completely, even for an experienced PSA engineer. Today, the trend to increase the level of detail and the scope of the PSA models continues as a consequence of regulatory requirements. Hence the Nordic PSA Group (NPSAG) has initiated a project with the aim of identifying methods to reduce the complexity of the PSA models. This paper presents and discusses the results of the first part of the project in which areas of importance for the user-friendliness and transparency of a PSA are identified.

  • 7.
    Angere, Staffan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The defeasible nature of coherentist justification2007In: Synthese, ISSN 0039-7857, E-ISSN 1573-0964, Vol. 157, no 3, p. 321-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impossibility results of Bovens and Hartmann (2003, Bayesian epistemology. Oxford: Clarendon Press) and Olsson (2005, Against coherence: Truth, probability and justification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.) show that the link between coherence and probability is not as strong as some have supposed. This paper is an attempt to bring out a way in which coherence reasoning nevertheless can be justified, based on the idea that, even if it does not provide an infallible guide to probability, it can give us an indication thereof. It is further shown that this actually is the case, for several of the coherence measures discussed in the literature so far. We also discuss how this affects the possibility to use coherence as a means of epistemic justification.

  • 8. Authén, S.
    et al.
    Björkman, K.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Larsson, J.
    Guidelines for reliability analysis of digital systems in PSA context: Phase 1, Status Report2010Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Baard, Patrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Adaptive Ideals and Aspirational Goals: The Utopian Ideals and Realist Constraints of Climate Change Adaptation2015In: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 739-757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing need to implement anticipatory climate change adaptation measures, particularly in vulnerable sectors, such as in agriculture. However, setting goals to adapt is wrought with several challenges. This paper discusses two sets of challenges to goals of anticipatory adaptation, of (1) empirical and (2) normative character. The first set of challenges concern issues such as the extent to which the climate will change, the local impacts of such changes, and available adaptive responses. In the second set of uncertainties are issues such as the distribution of burdens to enhance adaptive capacities in vulnerable agents with a legitimate claim to such resources, and what anticipatory adaptation ideally should result in. While previous discussions have been limited to either discuss the first or second set of uncertainties, this paper suggests that both dimensions should be considered when setting goals in social planning with long time frames. A taxonomy will be suggested that combines both dimensions. Furthermore, strategies for managing situations in which there are either empirical, or normative, uncertainties will be proposed which could be used in social decision-making with long planning time-frames in which goals must be set.

  • 10.
    Baard, Patrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Cautiously utopian goals: Philosophical analyses of climate change objectives and sustainability targets2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the framework within which long-term goals are set and subsequently achieved or approached is analyzed. Sustainable development and climate change are areas in which goals have tobe set despite uncertainties. The analysis is divided into the normative motivations for setting such goals, what forms of goals could be set given the empirical and normative uncertainties, and how tomanage doubts regarding achievability or values after a goal has been set.

    Paper I discusses a set of questions that moral theories intended to guide goal-setting should respond to. It is often claimed that existent normative theories provide only modest guidance regarding climate change, and consequently have to be revised or supplemented. Two such suggested revisions or supplements are analyzed in order to determine whether they provide such guidance.

    Paper II applies the deep ecological framework to survey the extent to which it can be utilized to discuss issues concerning the management of climate change. It is suggested that the deep ecological framework can provide guidance by establishing a normative framework and an analysis of how the overarching values and principles can be specified to be relevant for actions.

    Paper III is focused on normative political theory, and explicates the two dimensions of empirical and normative uncertainty. By applying recent discussions in normative political theory on ideal/non-ideal theory, political realism, and the relation between normative demands and empirical constraints,strategies for managing the proposed goals are suggested.

    Paper IV suggests a form of goal that incorporates uncertainties. Cautious utopias allow greater uncertainty than realistic goals (goals that are known to be achievable or approachable, and desirable),but not to the same extent as utopian goals (goals wherein it is highly uncertain whether the goal can actually be achieved). Such goals have a performance-enhancing function. A definition and quality criteria for such goals are proposed.

    Paper V considers whether a goal that is becoming all the more unlikely to be achievable should be reconsidered. The paper focuses on the two degrees Celsius target, and asks whether it could still be a sensible goal to aspire to. By applying the principle that ‘ought’ implies ‘can’, the role of such obligations is investigated.

    Paper VI surveys how to treat circumstances in which an already set goal should be reconsidered and possibly revised, and what would evoke doubt in the belief upon which those goals have been set.Two situations are analyzed: (i) a problematic or surprising event occurs, upsetting confidence in one’s relevant beliefs, or (ii) respectable but dissenting views are voiced concerning one’s means and/or values. It is suggested that the validity of doubt has to be considered, in addition to the level in a goal-means hierarchy towards which doubt is raised.

  • 11.
    Baard, Patrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Change of plans?: An environmental pragmatist view on reconsidering long-term goals2015In: Environmental Philosophy, ISSN 1718-0918, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 185-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable ecosystem management often requires setting goals despite uncertainty regarding the achievability and desirability of the intended state of affairs. Coming to doubt the achievability or desirability of a previously set goal might sometimes, but not always, require reconsidering that goal. There is, however, a need to strike a balance between responsiveness to new information and knowing when to retain goals despite doubts. By critically engaging with adaptive ecosystem management (AEM), as advocated by environmental pragmatist Bryan G. Norton, criteria for warranted reconsideration of long-term goals are investigated. 

  • 12.
    Baard, Patrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Managing climate change: A view from deep ecology2015In: Ethics and the Environment, ISSN 1085-6633, E-ISSN 1535-5306, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 23-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the awareness that climate change is an increasingly urgent issue to manage, little is being done to adequately achieve mitigation targets and ambitions. It has been suggested that this is due to ill-equipped normative frameworks and that common concepts, such as responsibility, harm, and justice, collapse when applied to climate change. One perspective has however been missing from this debate – the deep ecological perspective. The paper will investigate the deep ecological view and will argue that it can provide a valuable contribution to normative issues pertaining to climate change.

  • 13.
    Baard, Patrik
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Mill, miljö och hållbarhet2011In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, no 3, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Baard, Patrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    New Beginnings?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Baard, Patrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Risk-Reducing Goals: Ideals and Abilities when Managing Complex Environmental Risks2016In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 19, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social decision-making involving risks ideally results in obligations to avoid expected harms or keep them within acceptable limits. Ambitious goals aimed at avoiding or greatly reducing risks might not to be feasible, forcing the acceptance of higher degrees of risk (i.e., unrealistic levels of risk reduction are revised to comport with beliefs regarding abilities). In this paper, the philosophical principle ‘ought implies can’ is applied to the management of complex risks, exemplified by the risks associated with climate change. In its common interpretation, the principle states that we cannot expect an agent to perform something that lies beyond his or her abilities. However, it is here argued that this principle requires setting thresholds for legitimate claims of inabilities that justify the waiving of normative demands. This paper discuss three claims: (1) that caution is required before revising a risk-reducing goal that is perhaps exceedingly ambitious; (2) that claims on abilities are not only descriptive, but also value-laden; and (3) that the function of a goal has to be clarified before risk-reducing goals are revised. Risk-reducing goals that initially seem unrealistic arguably serve performance-enhancing purposes in risk management. Neglecting such goals could lead to choosing less desirable, but certainly feasible, risk-reducing goals.

  • 16.
    Baard, Patrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Sustainable Goals: Feasible Paths to Desirable Long-Term Futures2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this licentiate thesis is to analyze the framework in which long-term goals are set and subsequently achieved. It is often claimed that goals should be realistic, meaning that they should be adjusted to known abilities. This thesis will argue that this might be very difficult in areas related to sustainable development and climate change adaptation, and that goals that are, to an acceptable degree, unrealistic, can have important functions.

    Essay I discusses long-term goal setting. When there is a great temporal discrepancy between the point in time of setting and achieving a goal, many uncertainties have to be considered. The surrounding world and the agent’s abilities and values might change. This is an ontological uncertainty. We often form beliefs regarding how abilities and values might change, but this belief is always uncertain. This is an epistemological uncertainty. A form of goal called cautiously utopian goals is proposed, which incorporate such uncertainties, but enables goal setting with long time-frames.

    Essay II discusses the issue of goals intended to reduce great risks. We cannot expect an agent to do something that lies beyond this agent’s abilities, as exemplified in the principle ‘ought implies can’. Adjusting goals to what we currently, with a high degree of certainty know could be done is difficult. If not including an estimation of how abilities can change, important performance-enhancing functions of goals might be lost. It is argued that very ambitious goals should be set. This is partly due to the great magnitude and likelihood of unwanted consequences and partly due to the difficulty of delineating what lies in agents’ capacity to manage complex risks.

    Essay III discusses a decision-facilitating tool Sustainability Analysis to be used by Swedish municipal planners. One sub-part of the tool, Goal Conflict Analysis, can be used to identify how the consequences of a planned adaptation measure will affect other long-term municipal goals. Identified goal conflicts can then be used in order to determine whether the conflicts are acceptable, or whether a different adaptation measure should be worked out. The paper discusses a workshop in a Swedish municipality in which the tool has been tested.

  • 17.
    Baard, Patrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The Shape of Order at the Edge of Chaos2011In: Ephemera : Theory and Politics in Organization, ISSN 2052-1499, E-ISSN 1473-2866, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 116-123Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Baard, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Cautious Utopias: Environmental goal-setting with long time frames2015In: Ethics, Policy & Environment, ISSN 2155-0085, E-ISSN 2155-0093, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 187-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development is a common goal in the public sector but may be difficult to implement due to epistemic uncertainties and required long time frames. This paper proposes that some of these problems can be solved by formulating cautious utopias, entailing a relationship between means and goals differing from both utopian and realistic goal-setting. Cautiously utopian goals are believed, but not certain, to be achievable and to remain desirable, but are open to future adjustments due to changing desires and/or factual circumstances. Quality criteria for such goals are suggested.

  • 19.
    Baard, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Vredin Johansson, Maria
    Carlsen, Henrik
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Scenarios and sustainability: tools for alleviating the gap between municipal means and responsibilities in adaptation planning2012In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 17, no 6-7, p. 641-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to climate change often involves long-time frames and uncertainties over the consequences of chosen adaptation measures. In this study, two tools designed for assisting local decision-makers in adaptation planning were tested: socio-economic scenarios and sustainability analysis. The objective was to study whether these tools could be of practical relevance to Swedish municipalities and facilitate local-level climate change adaptation. We found that the municipal planners who participated in the testing generally considered the tools useful and of high relevance, but that more time was needed to use the tools than was provided during the test process.

  • 20.
    Barton, Adrien
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    How Tobacco Health Warnings Can Foster Autonomy2013In: Public Health Ethics, ISSN 1754-9973, E-ISSN 1754-9981, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 207-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I investigate whether tobacco health warnings' interference with autonomy is ethically justifiable in order to deter people from smoking. I dissociate first the informational role and the persuasive role of tobacco health warnings and show that both roles enable typical addicted smokers to better rule themselves, fostering their autonomy. The fact that some messages address people's non-deliberative faculties is therefore compensated by a larger positive influence on their autonomy. However, misleading messages are not ethically justified and should be avoided. Tobacco health warnings' effect on autonomy highlights an important difference between libertarian paternalism and classical paternalism.

  • 21.
    Barton, Adrien
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Burgun, A.
    Duvauferrier, R.
    Probability assignments to dispositions in ontologies2012In: Front. Artif. Intell. Appl., 2012, p. 3-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how probabilities can be assigned to dispositions in ontologies, building on Popper's propensity approach. We show that if D is a disposition universal associated with a trigger T and a realization R, and d is an instance of D, then one can assign a probability to the triplets (d,T,R) and (D,T,R). These probabilities measure the causal power of dispositions, which can be defined as limits of relative frequencies of possible instances of T triggering an instance of R over a hypothetical infinite random sequence of possible instances of T satisfying certain conditions. Adopting a fallibilist methodology, these probability values can be estimated by relative frequencies in actual finite sequences.

  • 22.
    Belfrage, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Exploitative,irresistible and coercive offers.: Why research participants should be paid well or not at all.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper starts with the assumption that it ismorally problematic when people in need are offered money in exchange forresearch participation if the amount offered is unfair. Such offers are called“coercive”, and the degree of coerciveness is said to be determined by theoffer’s potential to cause exploitation and its irresistibility. Depending onwhat view we take on the possibility to compensate for the sacrifices made byresearch participants, a wish to avoid “coercive offers” leads to policyrecommendations concerning payment for participation. For sacrifices consideredcompensable we ought to offer either no payment or payment at a level deemedfair, while for sacrifices deemed incompensable we always ought to offer nopayment.

  • 23.
    Belfrage, Sara
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Exploiting gift-giving2014In: Ethical Perspectives, ISSN 1370-0049, E-ISSN 1783-1431, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 371-400Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly thought that transactions that are the result of voluntary gift-giving do not constitute exploitation. This paper argues that exploitation is indeed possible in such situations, by showing how gift-giving can fulfil the two commonly proposed criteria for exploitation, namely that in an interaction between two persons one receives disproportionally little and the other disproportionally much of the resulting benefits, and that this disproportion is caused by the latter making inappropriate use of a disadvantage of the former. A theoretical approach to what such inappropriate use would amount to in cases of gift-giving is lacking. The paper therefore aims at spelling out such an approach. The method of reflective equilibrium inspires this endeavour, which proceeds by testing intuitions about examples that embody a set of possible conditions. It is concluded that three of the conditions are necessary for exploitation of gift-giving, namely (1) the giver incurs a loss, (2) the recipient has aimed for the gift, and (3) the gift is undeserved.

  • 24.
    Belfrage, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    In the name of research: Essays on the ethical treatment of human research subjects2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Essay 1: Traffic research shares a fundamental dilemma with other areas of empirical research in which humans are potentially put at risk. Research is justified because it can improve safety in the long run. Nevertheless, people can be harmed in the research situation. Hence, we need to balance short-term risks against long-term safety improvements, much as in other areas of research with human subjects. In this paper we focus on ethical issues that arise when human beings are directly affected in the performance of research by examining how the ethical requirements in biomedical research can inform traffic research. After introducing the basic ethical requirements on biomedical research, each of the major requirements is discussed in relation to traffic research. We identify the main areas where biomedical research and traffic research differ, and where the ethical requirements from the former cannot easily be transferred to the latter. We then point to some of the issues that need to be addressed for a systematic approach to the ethics of traffic research.

    Essay 2: The requirement of always obtaining participants’ informed consent in research with human subjects cannot always be met, for a variety of reasons. In this paper, research situations where informed consent is unobtainable are described and categorised. Some of these kinds of situations, common in biomedicine and psychology, have been previously much discussed, whereas others, more prevalent in for example infrastructure research, introduce new perspectives. The advancement of new technology may lead to an increase in research of these kinds. The paper also provides a review of methods intended to compensate for a lack of consent and their applicability and usefulness for the different categories of situations are discussed, thereby providing insights into one important aspect of relevance for the question of permitting research without informed consent: how well that which informed consent is meant to safeguard can be achieved by other means.

    Essay 3: This paper starts with the assumption that it is morally problematic when people in need are offered money in exchange for research participation if the amount offered is unfair. Such offers are called “coercive”, and the degree of coerciveness is said to be determined by the offer’s potential to cause exploitation and its irresistibility. Depending on what view we take on the possibility to compensate for the sacrifices made by research participants, a wish to avoid “coercive offers” leads to policy recommendations concerning payment for participation. For sacrifices considered compensable we ought to offer either no payment or payment at a level deemed fair, while for sacrifices deemed incompensable we always ought to offer no payment.

    Essay 4: It is commonly thought that transactions that are the result of voluntary gift-giving do not constitute exploitation. This paper argues that exploitation is indeed possible in such situations, by showing how gift-giving can fulfil the two commonly proposed criteria for exploitation, namely that in an interaction between two persons one receives disproportionally little and the other disproportionally much of the resulting benefits, and that this disproportion is caused by the latter making inappropriate use of a disadvantage of the former. A theoretical approach to what such inappropriate use would amount to in cases of gift-giving is lacking. The paper therefore aims at spelling out such an approach. The method of reflective equilibrium inspires this endeavour, which proceeds by testing intuitions about examples that embody a set of possible conditions. It is concluded that three of the conditions are necessary for exploitation of gift-giving, namely (1) the giver incurs a loss, (2) the recipient has aimed for the gift, and (3) the gift is undeserved.

  • 25.
    Belfrage, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Without Informed Consent2011In: International Journal of Technoethics, ISSN 1947-3451, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 48-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The requirement of always obtaining participants’ informed consent in research with human subjects cannot always be met, for a variety of reasons. This paper describes and categorises research situations where informed consent is unobtainable. Some of these kinds of situations, common in biomedicine and psychology, have been previously discussed, whereas others, for example, those more prevalent in infrastructure research, introduce new perspectives. The advancement of new technology may lead to an increase in research of these kinds. The paper also provides a review of methods intended to compensate for lack of consent, and their applicability and usefulness for the different categories of situations are discussed. The aim of this is to provide insights into one important aspect of the question of permitting research without informed consent, namely, how well that which informed consent is meant to safeguard can be achieved by other means.

  • 26.
    Belfrage, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Ethical problems in traffic research2006In: TRA - TRANSPORT RESEARCH ARENA EUROPE 2006: GREENER, SAFER AND SMARTER ROAD TRANSPORT FOR EUROPE. PROCEEDINGS, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic research gives rise to many types of ethical issues. In this paper we focus on ethical issues that arise when human beings are directly affected in the performance of research, by comparing traffic research to the ethical requirements imposed on biomedical research. After introducing the basic ethical requirements on biomedical research, each of the major requirements is discussed in relation to traffic research. We identify the main areas where biomedical research and traffic research differ, and where the ethical requirements from the former cannot easily be transferred to the latter. Finally, we argue that there is a need for systematic studies of the ethics of traffic research and point to some of the issues that need to be addressed (A). For the covering abstract of the conference see ITRD E212343

  • 27. Bengtsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rossi, Jukka
    Knochenhauer, Michael
    Probabilistic Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants; Phases 2-4: Final Report2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety goals are defined in different ways in different countries and also used differently. Many countries are presently developing them in connection to the transfer to risk-informed regulation of both operating nuclear power plants (NPP) and new designs. However, it is far from self-evident how probabilistic safety criteria should be defined and used. On one hand, experience indicates that safety goals are valuable tools for the interpretation of results from a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), and they tend to enhance the realism of a risk assessment. On the other hand, strict use of probabilistic criteria is usually avoided. A major problem is the large number of different uncertainties in a PSA model, which makes it difficult to demonstrate the compliance with a probabilistic criterion. Further, it has been seen that PSA results can change a lot over time due to scope extensions, revised operating experience data, method development, changes in system requirements, or increases of level of detail, mostly leading to an increase of the frequency of the calculated risk. This can cause a problem of consistency in the judgments.

    This report presents the results from the second, third and fourth phases of the project (2007–2009), which have dealt with providing guidance related to the resolution of some specific problems, such as the problem of consistency in judgement, comparability of safety goals used in different industries, the relationship between criteria on different levels, and relations between criteria for level 2 and 3 PSA. In parallel, additional context information has been provided. This was achieved by extending the international overview by contributing to and benefiting from a survey on PSA safety criteria which was initiated in 2006 within the OECD/NEA Working Group Risk.

    The results from the project can be used as a platform for discussions at the utilities on how to define and use quantitative safety goals. The results can also be used by safety authorities as a reference for risk-informed regulation. The outcome can have an impact on the requirements on PSA, e.g., regarding quality, scope, level of detail, and documen¬tation. Finally, the results can be expected to support on-going activities concerning risk-informed applications.

    The project provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art description and has contributed to clarifying the history of safety goals both nationally and internationally, the concepts involved in defining and applying probabilistic safety criteria, and the international status and trends in general. It has identified critical issues and the main problem areas. Finally, the project provides useful recommendations and guidance on the definition and application of criteria.

    Furthermore, the project makes it possible to define criteria stringently, improving the possibilities of argumentation on safety. Generally, this supports efficient use of criteria, yielding more useful PSA results. In this connection, the introduction of ALARP type criteria is judged to provide a very useful way of balancing stringency with the necessary flexibility. There is a possibility of making more active use of lower level criteria. This makes the connection to defence in depth more evident, and opens the perspective of increased control of defence in depth by use of probabilistic methods, including the use as design tools. There is an opportunity for comparison of risk of different NPPs, as well as of comparison of NPP risk with other risks in society. This is judged to provide an opportunity for improved communication on risks with non-PSA experts and with the public in general. However, a necessary condition for meaningful comparisons is to agree on the scope of PSA and methods applied.

    Obviously, there will also be challenges in the future definition and application of probabilistic safety criteria. These include very general aspects, such as the interpretation of the probability, quality aspects of PSA, and the definition of meaningful and consistent risk criteria for different usages. The need and usefulness of subsidiary criteria has been stressed in the project, but there is obviously also a challenge in defining a relevant set of criteria on different levels. Defining criteria for L(E)RF is complex, especially if release criteria are defined as subsidiary for societal and individual risk. Finally, it will be a challenge to develop coherent application procedures relative to the criteria defined.

  • 28. Bengtsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rossi, Jukka
    Knochenhauer, Michael
    Probabilistic Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants; Phases 2-4: Final Report.2010Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Bergman, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Jakobsson,, Kristina
    Universitetssjukhuset Lund.
    Källén, Erland
    Stockholms universitet.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Giftfritt – en nyttig utopi2009In: Chemicalnet.seArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 30. Beronius, A.
    et al.
    Hanberg, A.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Background paper on the risk assessment of Bisphenol A: Overview of previous risk assessments2010In: The joint FAO/WHO expert meeting to review toxicological and health aspects of bisphenol A, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31. Beronius, A.
    et al.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hanberg, A.
    Garai, J.
    Håkansson, H.
    Assessing the risks of endocrine disrupting chemicals2009In: Endocrine disrupting chemicals in food / [ed] Ian Shaw, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2009, p. 356-380Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, four European regulatory frameworks are compared concerning how they cope with identifying and risk assessing endocrine-disrupting chemicals. This comparison is performed by using four example chemicals, bisphenol A, dioxins, ethinyl estradiol and vinclozolin, representing four different regulatory categories. It is concluded that within these regulations, there are no general test requirements that specifically enable identification of endocrine disruptors, and there seem to be little conformity in the risk assessment processes even though the route of exposure and the mode of toxicity are similar. Further development of risk assessment guidance for endocrine disruptors requires continued cooperation between experimental scientists, risk assessors, regulators and industry.

  • 32. Björkdahl, Christina
    et al.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Effects of workplace inspection of the Swedish noise campaign2008In: Policy and Practice in Health and Safety, ISSN 1477-3996, E-ISSN 1477-4003, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Björkdahl, Christina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Evaluation of the Work Environment Authority 2005 campaign: STOP THAT NOISE!2006Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Björkdahl, Christina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Utvärdering av Arbetsmiljöverkets kampanj 2005: BORT MED BULLRET!2006Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Björkman, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Different Types, Different Rights: Distinguishing Between Different Perspectives on Ownership of Biological Material2007In: Science and Engineering Ethics, ISSN 1353-3452, E-ISSN 1471-5546, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 221-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on a social construction theory of ownership in biological material this paper discusses which differences in biological material might motivate differences in treatment and ownership rights. The analysis covers both the perspective of the person from whom the material originates and that of the potential recipient. Seven components of bundles of rights, drawing on the analytical tradition of Tony Honore, and their relationship to various types of biological material are investigated. To exemplify these categories the cases of a heart, a kidney, stem cells and hair are used.

  • 36.
    Björkman, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Ethical aspects of owning human biological material2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Björkman, Barbro
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Etiska aspekter på samhällets riskhantering2005In: Filosofins Nya Möten / [ed] K. Edvardsson, S.O. Hansson & J. Nihlén Fahlquist, Hedemora: Gidlunds Förlag , 2005, p. 103-111Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Björkman, Barbro
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    How agencies inspect: A comparative study of inspectionpolicies in eight Swedish government agencies2003Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Björkman, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    On the Necessary Self-regarding Aspects of Other-regarding VirtuesArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Björkman, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Virtue Ethics, Bioethics, and the Ownership of Biological Material2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to show how some ideas in Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics can be interpreted and used as a productive way to approach a number of pressing issues in bioethics. Articles I-II introduce, and endorse, a social constructivist perspective on rights (as opposed to the more traditional natural rights idea). It is investigated if the existence of property-like rights to biological material would include the moral right to commodification and even commercialisation. Articles III-V discuss similar questions and more specifically champion the application of an Aristotelian virtue ethics perspective. The articles are preceded by an introductory essay on some of the central themes in the Nicomachean Ethics. This section also includes a very brief account of what the connection between virtue ethics and a theory of social construction, including rights, could look like. The thesis seeks to show that if read somewhat creatively many of the ideas in the Nicomachean Ethics make for a highly useful approach to modern moral problems. It should be noted, however, that this thesis in no way claims to be an exegetic, or a complete, study of the Nicomachean Ethics.

    Article I deals with ownership of biological material from a philosophical, as opposed to a legal, perspective. It is argued that a strand in liberal political theory that treats property relations as socially constructed bundles of rights, as developed by e.g. Felix Cohen and Tony Honoré, is well suited for discussions on ownership of biological material.

    Article II investigates which differences in biological material might motivate differences in treatment and ownership rights. The article draws on the social constructivist theory of ownership which was developed in Article I.

    Article III employs virtue ethics to explain why it is morally permissible to donate but not to sell organs such as kidneys. It is suggested that the former action will bring the agent closer to a state of human flourishing.

    Article IV argues that virtues like philia, justice, beneficence and generosity — traditionally all seen as other-regarding — contain strong self-regarding aspects. The central claim is that these self-regarding aspects of the other-regarding virtues are necessary components of complete virtue and thus that the fully virtuous agent has to act virtuously both in her dealings with herself and others.

    Article V applies the ideas that were developed in Article IV to the case of living organ donations to next of kin. It is proposed that such an act, although noble and fine, is supererogatory, rather than obligatory, as the donor is morally entitled to be partial to herself. This argument is made against the backdrop of a discussion on some Aristotelian ideas on philia and partiality.

  • 41.
    Björkman, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Why Organ Donation from the Living is a Supererogatory Act: A Discussion on Philia and the Moral Right to Favour OneselfArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Björkman, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Why We are Not Allowed to Sell that Which We are Encouraged to Donate2006In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 60-70Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Björkman, Barbro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Bodily Rights and Property Rights2006In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 209-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas previous discussions on ownership of biological material have been much informed by the natural rights tradition, insufficient attention has been paid to the strand in liberal political theory represented by Felix Cohen, Tony Honore, and others, which treats property relations as socially constructed bundles of rights. In accordance with that tradition, we propose that the primary normative issue is what combination of rights a person should have to a particular item of biological material. Whether that bundle qualifies to be called `` property'' or `` ownership'' is a secondary, terminological issue. We suggest five principles of bodily rights and show how they can be applied to the construction of ethically appropriate bundles of rights to biological material.

  • 44.
    Björkman, Beyza
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Department for Library services, Language and ARC, Language and communication.
    Linguistic Justice for Europe and for the World2012In: International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, ISSN 0269-8595, E-ISSN 1469-9281, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 354-357Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Björnberg, Karin Edvardsson
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Historic Injustices and the Moral Case for Cultural Repatriation2015In: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, ISSN 1386-2820, E-ISSN 1572-8447, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 461-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly argued that cultural objects ought to be returned to their place of origin in order to remedy injustices committed in the past. In this paper, it is shown that significant challenges attach to this way of arguing. Although there is considerable intuitive appeal in the idea that if somebody wrongs another person then she ought to compensate for that injustice, the principle is difficult (albeit not impossible) to apply to wrongdoings committed many decades or centuries ago. It is not clear that historic injustices can meaningfully be corrected, or compensated for, and there are several arguments why, even in cases where there is a prima facie moral case for compensation, repatriation might not be a legitimate means of remedy. In order to bring analytical clarity to the issue, this paper discusses the various steps of the argument that must be addressed in order to ground a valid repatriation claim based on historic injustices.

  • 46. Bladh, K.
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT.
    Kahlbom, U.
    Nirmark, J.
    Sparre, E.
    An approach to analyse human reliability during refuelling outage of a nuclear power plant2007In: Proc. of Enlarged Halden Programme Group Meeting, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human reliability analysis (HRA) constitutes a central role in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for the low power and shutdown period of a nuclear power plant. This is because a large number of operative and maintenance activities take place during a refuelling outage when the plant, to a great extent, is disassembled, maintained, and then reassembled back to operational mode. The paper presents the HRA approach used in the shutdown PSA for Forsmark 1/2 and 3 nuclear power units in Sweden. Challenges of the analysis comprises handling the large scope of activities to be analysed, development and use of a quantification method consistent with the full power PSA, and integration of HRA with the “technical” part of PSA. Experiences from the analysis and results will also be discussed.

  • 47. Bladh, K.
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Nirmark, J.
    Sandstedt, J.
    Shutdown PSA for Forsmark 1/2 and 32006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48. Bladh, K.
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Pyy, P.
    An evaluation of the enhanced Bayesian THERP method using simulator data2009In: SAFETY, RELIABILITY AND RISK ANALYSIS: THEORY, METHODS AND APPLICATIONS, VOLS 1-4 / [ed] Martorell, S; Soares, CG; Barnett, J, London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2009, p. 227-232Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Enhanced Bayesian THERP (Technique for Human Reliability Analysis) method has been successfully used in real PSA-studies at Finnish and Swedish NPPs. The method offers a systematic approach to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze operator actions. In order to better know its characteristics from a more international perspective, it has been subject to evaluation within the framework of the "HRA Methods Empirical Study Using Simulator Data." This paper gives a brief overview of the method with major findings from the evaluation work including identified strengths and potential weaknesses of the method. A number of possible improvement areas have been identified and will be considered in future development of the method.

  • 49. Bladh, Kent
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Oxstrand, Johanna
    Chalmers.
    Pyy, Pekka
    Enhanced Bayesian THERP: Experience from HRA method evaluation2010In: Proceedings of  European Safety and Reliability, ESREL 2010, London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Enhanced Bayesian THERP (Technique for Human Reliability Analysis) method uses as its basis the time-reliability curve introduced in the Swain’s human reliability analysis (HRA) handbook. It differs from the Swain's Handbook via a transparent adjustment of the time-dependent human error probabilities by use of five performance shaping factors (PSFs): (1) support from procedures, (2) support from training, (3) feedback from process, (4) need for co-ordination and communication, (5) mental load, decision burden. In order to better know the characteristics of the Enhanced Bayesian THERP from a more international perspective, the method has been subject to evaluation within the framework of the international “HRA Methods Empirical Study Using Simulator Data”. Without knowledge of the crews’ performances, several HRA analysis teams from different countries, using different methods, performed predictive analyses of four scenarios. This paper gives an overview of the method with major findings from the benchmarking. The empirical comparison gives confidence that the time reliability curve is a feasible and cost effective method to estimate human error probabilities when the time window is well defined and relatively short. The comparison of empirical observations with predictions was found as an useful exercise to identify areas of improvements in the HRA method.

  • 50.
    Boholm, Max
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Risk, language and discourse2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis analyses the concept of risk and how it functions as an organizing principle of discourse, paying close attention to actual linguistic practice.

              Article 1 analyses the concepts of risk, safety and security and their relations based on corpus data (the Corpus of Contemporary American English). Lexical, grammatical and semantic contexts of the nouns risk, safety and security, and the adjectives risky, safe and secure are analysed and compared. Similarities and differences are observed, suggesting partial synonymy between safety (safe) and security (secure) and semantic opposition to risk (risky). The findings both support and contrast theoretical assumptions about these concepts in the literature.

              Article 2 analyses the concepts of risk and danger and their relation based on corpus data (in this case the British National Corpus). Frame semantics is used to explore the assumptions of the sociologist Niklas Luhmann (and others) that the risk concept presupposes decision-making, while the concept of danger does not. Findings partly support and partly contradict this assumption.

              Article 3 analyses how newspapers represent risk and causality. Two theories are used: media framing and the philosopher John Mackie’s account of causality. A central finding of the study is that risks are “framed” with respect to causality in several ways (e.g. one and the same type of risk can be presented as resulting from various causes). Furthermore, newspaper reporting on risk and causality vary in complexity. In some articles, risks are presented without causal explanations, while in other articles, risks are presented as results from complex causal conditions. Considering newspaper reporting on an aggregated overall level, complex schemas of causal explanations emerge.

              Article 4 analyses how phenomena referred to by the term nano (e.g. nanotechnology, nanoparticles and nanorobots) are represented as risks in Swedish newspaper reporting. Theoretically, the relational theory of risk and frame semantics are used. Five main groups of nano-risks are identified based on the risk object of the article: (I) nanotechnology; (II) nanotechnology and its artefacts (e.g. nanoparticles and nanomaterials); (III) nanoparticles, without referring to nanotechnology; (IV) non-nanotechnological nanoparticles (e.g. arising from traffic); and (V) nanotechnology and nanorobots. Various patterns are explored within each group, concerning, for example, what is considered to be at stake in relation to these risk objects, and under what conditions. It is concluded that Swedish patterns of newspaper reporting on nano-risks follow international trends, influenced by scientific assessment, as well as science fiction.

              Article 5 analyses the construction and negotiation of risk in the Swedish controversy over the use of antibacterial silver in health care and consumer products (e.g. sports clothes and equipment). The controversy involves several actors: print and television news media, Government and parliament, governmental agencies, municipalities, non-government organisations, and companies. In the controversy, antibacterial silver is claimed to be a risk object that negatively affects health, the environment, and sewage treatment industry (objects at risk). In contrast, such claims are denied. Antibacterial silver is even associated with the benefit of mitigating risk objects (e.g. bacteria and micro-organisms) that threaten health and the environment (objects at risk). In other words, both sides of the controversy invoke health and the environment as objects at risk. Three strategies organising risk communication are identified: (i) representation of silver as a risk to health and the environment; (ii) denial of such representations; and (iii) benefit association, where silver is construed to mitigate risks to health and the environment.

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