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  • 1.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Personal Autonomy and Informed Consent: Conceptual and Normative Analyses2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis is comprised of a “kappa” and two articles. The kappa includes an account of personal autonomy and informed consent, an explanation of how the concepts and articles relate to each other, and a summary in Swedish.

    Article 1 treats one problem with the argument that a patient’s consent to treatment is valid only if it is authentic, i.e., if it is “genuine,” “truly her own,” “not out of character,” or similar. As interventions with a patient’s life and liberties must be justified, the argument presupposes that the authenticity of desires can be reliably determined. If the status of a desire in terms of authenticity cannot be reliably determined, discarding the desire-holder’s treatment decision on the basis that it is inauthentic is morally unjustified. In the article, I argue that no theory of authenticity that is present in the relevant literature can render reliably observable consequences. Therefore, the concept of authenticity, as it is understood in those theories, should not be part of informed consent practices.

    Article 2 discusses the problem of what it is to consent or refuse voluntarily. In it, I argue that voluntariness should be more narrowly understood than what is common. My main point is that a conceptualization of voluntariness should be agent-centered, i.e., take into account the agent’s view of her actions. Among other things, I argue that an action is non-voluntary only if the agent thinks of it as such when being coerced. This notion, which at first look may seem uncontroversial, entails the counterintuitive conclusion that an action can be voluntary although the agent has been manipulated or coerced into doing it. In defense of the notion, I argue that if the agent’s point of view is not considered accordingly, describing her actions as non-voluntary can be alien to how she leads her life. There are other moral concepts available to describe what is wrong with manipulation and coercion, i.e., to make sense of the counterintuitive conclusion. Voluntariness should be reserved to fewer cases than what is commonly assumed.

  • 2. Ahlin, Jesper
    The impossibility of reliably determining the authenticity of desires: implications for informed consent2017Inngår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is sometimes argued that autonomous decision-making requires that the decision-maker’s desires are authentic, i.e., “genuine,” “truly her own,” “not out of character,” or similar. In this article, it is argued that a method to reliably determine the authenticity (or inauthenticity) of a desire cannot be developed. A taxonomy of characteristics displayed by different theories of authenticity is introduced and applied to evaluate such theories categorically, in contrast to the prior approach of treating them individually. The conclusion is drawn that, in practice, the authenticity of desires cannot be reliably determined. It is suggested that authenticity should therefore not be employed in informed consent practices in healthcare.

  • 3.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Toward an Agent-Centered Theory of VoluntarinessManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of voluntariness is central to informed consent and personal autonomy, yet it has been underexplored by bioethicists. There are various theories intended to explain voluntary choice and action. None is fully agent-centered, in the sense that the conceptualization of voluntariness takes into account the agent’s views of her decisions and actions. An agent-centered theory of voluntariness would promote analytical precision, and foster autonomy in healthcare and research practices. According to the most influential bioethical theory of voluntariness, here called the Voluntariness as Control theory, an action is non-voluntary if the agent is controlled by external influences. The theory is critically discussed from an agent-centered perspective, and a new conceptualization of voluntariness is proposed.

  • 4.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    What Justifies Judgments of Inauthenticity?2018Inngår i: HEC Forum, ISSN 0956-2737, E-ISSN 1572-8498Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of authenticity, i.e., being “genuine,” “real,” or “true to oneself,” is sometimes held as critical to a person’s autonomy, so that inauthenticity prevents the person from making autonomous decisions or leading an autonomous life. It has been pointed out that authenticity is difficult to observe in others. Therefore, judgments of inauthenticity have been found inadequate to underpin paternalistic interventions, among other things. This article delineates what justifies judgments of inauthenticity. It is argued that for persons who wish to live according to the prevailing social and moral standards and desires that are seriously undesirable according to those standards, it is justified to judge that a desire is inauthentic to the extent that it is due to causal factors that are alien to the person and to the extent that it deviates from the person’s practical identity. The article contributes to a tradition of thinking about authenticity which is known mainly from Frankfurt and Dworkin, and bridges the gap between theoretical ideals of authenticity and real authenticity-related problems in practical biomedical settings.

  • 5.
    Ahlin Marceta, Jesper
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    A non-ideal authenticity-based conceptualization of personal autonomy2018Inngår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Respect for autonomy is a central moral principle in bioethics. The concept of autonomy can be construed in various ways. Under the non-ideal conceptualization proposed by Beauchamp and Childress, everyday choices of generally competent persons are autonomous to the extent that they are intentional and are made with understanding and without controlling influences. It is sometimes suggested that authenticity is important to personal autonomy, so that inauthenticity prevents otherwise autonomous persons from making autonomous decisions. Building from Beauchamp and Childress’s theory, this article develops a non-ideal authenticity-based conceptualization of personal autonomy. Factors that indicate inauthentic decision-making are explicated, and the full concept is defended from three expected objections. The theory is then tested on a paradigm case which has concerned theorists and practitioners for some time, namely the possible inauthenticity of anorexia nervosa patients’ decision-making. It is concluded that the theory seems to be fruitful in analyses of the degree of autonomy of patients’ decision-making, and that it succeeds in providing reliable action-guidance in practical contexts.

  • 6.
    Ahlin Marceta, Jesper
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Authenticity in Bioethics: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this doctoral thesis is to bridge the gap between theoretical ideals of authenticity and practical authenticity-related problems in healthcare. In this context, authenticity means being "genuine," "real," "true to oneself," or similar, and is assumed to be closely connected to the autonomy of persons. The thesis includes an introduction and four articles related to authenticity. The first article collects various theories intended to explain the distinction between authenticity and inauthenticity in a taxonomy that enables oversight and analysis. It is argued that (in-)authenticity is difficult to observe in others. The second article offers a solution to this difficulty in one theory of authenticity. It is proposed that under certain circumstances, it is morally justified to judge that the desires underlying a person's decisions are inauthentic. The third article incorporates this proposition into an already established theory of personal autonomy. It is argued that the resulting conceptualization of autonomy is fruitful for action-guidance in authenticity-related problems in healthcare. The fourth article collects nine cases of possible authenticity-related problems in healthcare. The theory developed in the third article is applied to the problems, when this is allowed by the case-description, to provide guidance with regard to them. It is argued that there is not one universal authenticity-related problem but many different problems, and that there is thus likely not one universal solution to such problems but various particular solutions.

  • 7.
    Ahlin Marceta, Jesper
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Nine Cases of Possible Inauthenticity in Biomedical Contexts and What They Require from BioethicistsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Respect for autonomy is a main moral principle in bioethics. It is sometimes argued that authenticity, i.e., being "real," "genuine," "true to oneself," or similar, is crucial to a person's autonomy. This article collects nine cases in which the notion of authenticity has been or could be invoked in biomedical contexts. One recently developed theory aiming to provide normative guidance with regard to authenticity-related problems is applied when it is possible, while it is explained in detail why the theory is inept or impractical in the remaining cases. The article thus provides an overview of authenticity-related problems which may be helpful for autonomy theorists. Furthermore, it is argued that there is no universal problem of authenticity, but many problems, and that they may require various particular solutions rather than one universal solution. Among other things, it is suggested that bioethicists should explore non-ideal methodological approaches to authenticity-related problems to provide action-guidance with regard to them.

  • 8.
    Cao, GuiHong
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria.
    Comparison of China-US Engineering Ethics Educations in Sino-Western Philosophies of Technology2015Inngår i: Science and Engineering Ethics, ISSN 1353-3452, E-ISSN 1471-5546, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 1609-1635Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethics education has become essential in modern engineering. Ethics education in engineering has been increasingly implemented worldwide. It can improve ethical behaviors in technology and engineering design under the guidance of the philosophy of technology. Hence, this study aims to compare China-US engineering ethics education in Sino-Western philosophies of technology by using literature studies, online surveys, observational researches, textual analyses, and comparative methods. In my original theoretical framework and model of input and output for education, six primary variables emerge in the pedagogy: disciplinary statuses, educational goals, instructional contents, didactic models, teaching methods, and edificatory effects. I focus on the similarities and differences of engineering ethics educations between China and the US in Chinese and Western philosophies of technology. In the field of engineering, the US tends toward applied ethics training, whereas China inclines toward practical moral education. The US is the leader, particularly in the amount of money invested and engineering results. China has quickened its pace, focusing specifically on engineering labor input and output. Engineering ethics is a multiplayer game effected at various levels among (a) lower level technicians and engineers, engineering associations, and stockholders; (b) middle ranking engineering ethics education, the ministry of education, the academy of engineering, and the philosophy of technology; and (c) top national and international technological policies. I propose that professional engineering ethics education can play many important roles in reforming engineering social responsibility by international cooperation in societies that are becoming increasingly reliant on engineered devices and systems. Significantly, my proposals contribute to improving engineering ethics education and better-solving engineering ethics issues, thereby maximizing engineering sustainability.

  • 9.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Larsson, A.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Sandin, P.
    Operationalising and incorporating ethical considerations into a tool for multi-criteria decision making2016Inngår i: International Journal of Multicriteria Decision Making, ISSN 2040-106X, E-ISSN 2040-1078, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 290-315Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, an existing method for ethical analysis was extended by adding aspects of human rights and global distributional issues as framed by the United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). A procedure for incorporating these issues together with environmental, safety and cost considerations into a decision making framework using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) was devised. This includes a scoring system to convert qualitative ethical issues into semi-quantitative issues. The refined framework tool was tested in an illustrative case on the destruction of ammunition. The results showed that the extended framework for ethical analysis added value, for example as a way of highlighting ethical considerations in decision making. Use of the DecideIT software with its integrated MCDA improved the analysis by allowing for uncertain and imprecise values and estimations. The illustrative case results indicated that a combined alternative including recycling of metals and energetic materials had clear advantages over open detonation.

  • 10.
    Fröding, Barbro
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Virtue Ethics and Human Enhancement2013Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Fröding, Barbro
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi. Lincoln College Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Peterson, M.
    How to be a virtuous recipient of a transplant organ2015Inngår i: Organ Transplantation in Times of Donor Shortage: Challenges and Solutions, Springer Netherlands, 2015, Vol. 59, s. 89-98Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    ALARA: What is Reasonably Achievable?2013Inngår i: Social and Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management, Volume 19 (Radioactivity in the Environment), Elsevier, 2013, s. 143-155Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    "As low as practicable", "as low as reasonably practicable", and "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) are closely related principles that have been introduced into radiation protection where they supplement other principles such as justification of exposures and individual dose limits. ALARA has been interpreted differently in different practical applications. Four major issues of interpretation are identified and discussed: (1) Does ALARA require exposures to be "as low as possible" or does is require an "optimal balance" that it is undesirable to deviate from in either direction? (2) Should ALARA be applied even to very low doses or is there a dose level below which it is not applicable? (3) Should ALARA-based compromises between radiation protection and economic considerations be made separately for each company, or should they be made in a unified manner for a whole branch of industry or perhaps even for society as a whole? (4) Can ALARA be operationalized with cost-benefit calculations, and if it can, should it be based on standard monetary values for preventing a fatality or on higher such values?

  • 13.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Ethical implications of sensory prostheses2015Inngår i: Handbook of Neuroethics, Springer, 2015, s. 785-798Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This survey begins with an overview of currently available and foreseeable sensory prostheses. Cochlear implants are now a routine technology for patients with a dysfunctional inner ear but a functional auditory nerve. Auditory brainstem implants are available for patients whose auditory nerve cannot be used. Visual prosthesis for the blind is a highly active research area but still far from results that can be used in routine clinical practice. Experiments are also made with artificial proprioception and touch for sensory feedback in limb prostheses. Artificial biosensors are used in pacemakers, and research is being done on implantable drug delivery systems with biosensors that determine dosage. A wide range of ethical issues arise in connection with experiments and clinical usage of sensory prostheses: animal experimentation; informed consent, for instance, in patients with a locked-in syndrome that may be alleviated with a sensory prosthesis; unrealistic expectations of research subjects testing new devices; privacy issues for electronic implants with memory; security issues; effects of sensory improvements on a patient’s personality and self-image; cultural effects of the new technologies in disabled communities; and the psychological and social effects of sensory enhancement.

  • 14.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Experiments: Why and How?2016Inngår i: Science and Engineering Ethics, ISSN 1353-3452, E-ISSN 1471-5546, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 613-632Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment, in the standard scientific sense of the term, is a procedure in which some object of study is subjected to interventions (manipulations) that aim at obtaining a predictable outcome or at least predictable aspects of the outcome. The distinction between an experiment and a non-experimental observation is important since they are tailored to different epistemic needs. Experimentation has its origin in pre-scientific technological experiments that were undertaken in order to find the best technological means to achieve chosen ends. Important parts of the methodological arsenal of modern experimental science can be traced back to this pre-scientific, technological tradition. It is claimed that experimentation involves a unique combination of acting and observing, a combination whose unique epistemological properties have not yet been fully clarified.

  • 15.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Medical Ethics and New Public Management in Sweden2014Inngår i: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 261-267Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to shorten queues to healthcare, the Swedish government has introduced a yearly "queue billion" that is paid out to the county councils in proportion to how successful they are in reducing queues. However, only the queues for first visits are covered. Evidence has accumulated that queues for return visits have become longer. This affects the chronically and severely ill. Swedish physicians, and the Swedish Medical Association, have strongly criticized the queue billion and have claimed that it conflicts with medical ethics. Instead they demand that their professional judgments on priority setting and medical urgency be respected. This discussion provides an interesting illustration of some of the limitations of new public management and also more generally of the complicated relationships between medical ethics and public policy.

  • 16.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Moral Thinking and Radiation Protection2013Inngår i: Social and Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management, Volume 19 (Radioactivity in the Environment), Elsevier, 2013, s. 33-51Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The practical applicability of ethical theories is regrettably limited in many areas of application, but in radiation protection it is quite high. This is because radiation protection operates with doses that are measured in numerical units. These numbers can be added up just like the utilities of utilitarianism, and they can be compared to exact limits in ways that conform with deontological ideas. The chapter identifies five contact points, or parallel issues, between moral philosophy and radiation protection. First, should we consider risks and benefits separately for each individual, or should we make one great sum for all effects, irrespective of who is affected by them? Secondly, should the acceptability of risks be determined by weighing against benefits or by the application of general limits for the size of the risks themselves? Thirdly, should all effects be considered, or should sufficiently small effects such as small risks and small radiation doses be left out of our moral deliberations? Fourthly, how should we value future effects? Fifthly and finally, how should individual differences be treated in an ethical discourse aiming at justice?

  • 17.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Risk: Nuclear energy and the ethics of radiation protection2015Inngår i: The Ethics of Nuclear Energy: Risk, Justice, and Democracy in the Post-Fukushima Era, Cambridge University Press, 2015, s. 15-34Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Do we have an ethics of nuclear energy? The answer is, unfortunately: “It depends.” To be somewhat more precise it depends on what we mean by having an ethics of a social sector or activity. In one sense, we have an ethics of X if there are important ethical issues concerning X. In that sense, this volume as a whole bears witness to the existence of an ethics of nuclear energy. In another sense, we have an ethics of X if there is already a reasonably well-developed and focused discourse on ethical issues concerning X. In this latter sense, we do not yet have an ethics of nuclear energy (but we may have so in the future, something this volume can possibly contribute to). The distinction between these two senses of “an ethics of” is important since it helps clarifying the rather fragmented nature of ethical deliberations and discussions in our societies. On the one hand we have “fundamental” ethics, which dominates in philosophy departments. It is concerned with general, often rather abstract, problems such as the nature and sources of ethics, the structure of ethical statements, and whether such statements can be true or false in the same sense as factual statements. Many of these issues were discussed already by Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. On the other hand, we have disciplines of area-specific ethics, such as medical ethics, research ethics, engineering ethics, business ethics, and environmental ethics. (I use the term “area-specific ethics” rather than the more common “applied ethics” that gives the misleading impression that work in these areas consists in applying theories from fundamental ethics, cf. Hansson [2003b].) With the exception of medical ethics, these subdisciplines are relatively new. They cover only a very small part of the human activities in which ethical issues arise. Some of the lacunae are notable. For instance, we do not have a specialized ethical discourse on traffic safety although about 1.2 million people per year are killed in road traffic accidents and another 20–50 million are injured (World Health Organization 2013). Neither do we have a specialized ethical discussion on welfare provision, insurance, building and architecture, or foreign aid, to mention just a few examples.

  • 18.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    The ethics of risk: Ethical analysis in an uncertain world2013Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    When is it morally acceptable to expose others to risk? Most moral philosophers have had very little to say in answer to that question, but here is a moral philosopher who puts it at the centre of his investigations. © Sven Ove Hansson 2013. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Linda
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Is it morally right to use Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in war?2011Inngår i: Philosophy & Technology, ISSN 2210-5433, E-ISSN 2210-5441, ISSN 2210-5433, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 279-291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several robotic automation systems, such as UAVs, are being used in combat today. This evokes ethical questions. In this paper it is argued that UAVs, more than other weapons, may determine which normative theory the interpretation of the laws of war (LOW) will be based on. UAVs are unique as a weapon in the sense that the advantages they provide in terms of fewer casualties, and the fact that they make war seem more like a computer game, might lower the threshold for entering war. This indicates the importance of revising the LOW, or adding some rules that focus specifically on UAVs.

  • 20.
    Johansson, Linda
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Moraliska robotar2011Inngår i: Allt om Vetenskap, ISSN 1652-3318, nr 10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 21.
    Johansson, Linda
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Robots and the ethics of care2013Inngår i: International Journal of Technoethics, ISSN 1947-3451, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 67-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the moral theory ethics of care - EoC - is investigated and connected to care robots. The aim is twofold: first, to provide a plausible and ethically relevant interpretation of the key term care in EoC (which is, it is argued, slightly different from the everyday use of the term) indicating that we should distinguish between "natural care" and "ethical care". The second aim is to discuss whether EoC may be a suitable theory to implement in care robots. The conclusion is that EoC may be a theory that is suitable for robots in health care settings.

  • 22.
    Larsen, Katarina
    et al.
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Gärdebo, Johan
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Retooling Engineering for Social Justice: The use of explicit models for analytical thinking, critical reflection, and peer-review in Swedish engineering education2017Inngår i: International Journal of Engineering, Social Justice, and Peace, ISSN 1927-9434, Vol. 5, nr 1-2, s. 13-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper engages with how engineering education in Sweden have been retooled towards literacy in social justice. To achieve this, the authors used a set of pedagogical tools aimed at analytical thinking, critical reflection, and peer-review by students. The students were asked to use the tools in the course to critically analyze social justice in the city planning of twentieth century Stockholm, Sweden. This included, for example, national identities, social engineering, and politics that shaped Swedish society. The authors conducted a textual analysis of student essays on social justice that indicate increased social justice literacy and a shift towards the practices of engineers’ work with city planning. The study concludes by discussing conditions for engineering students to gain familiarity with formats used for critical reflection within the humanities.

  • 23.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    McGee, Ellen M.
    Long Island University - C. W. Post, Long Island Center for Ethics.
    Chips cerebrales implantables: hoy y mañana2010Inngår i: Dendra Médica.Revista de Humanidades, ISSN 1889-8203, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 133-138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    McGee, Ellen M.
    Long Island University - C. W. Post, Long Island Center for Ethics.
    ¿Es posible implantar chips cerbrales?: Momento para el debate2010Inngår i: Dendra Médica.Revista de Humanidades, ISSN 1889-8203, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 139-142Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [es]

    Durante mucho tiempo se han utilizado prótesis mecánicas para compensar las discapacidades físicas. Los últimos avances habidos en el campo de la bioelectrónica van posibilitar que en los próximos 20 años se diseñen chips informáticos y otros dispositivos electrónicos que, al set implantados en el cerebro, potencien los sentidos o augmenten la memoria, permitiendo en cualquier momento el accesso a la información o la cominicación invisible con otras personas. Estas cuestiones sustican un debate moral en relación con la seguridad, la equidad, la privacidad y la autonomía, y el temor acerca del uso de las interfaces cerbro-ordenador por parte de los gobiernos para controlar a los individuos. Esto nos obliga a iniciar un debate público para la toma de decisiones en relación al uso y regulación de estas tecnologás.

  • 25.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik, IMIT.
    McGee, Ellen M.
    Long Island University - C. W. Post, Long Island Center for Ethics.
    Implantable Brain Chips?: Time for Debate2004Inngår i: Healt, Disease, and Illness: Concepts in Medicine / [ed] Arthur Caplan, James J. McCartney, Dominic Sisti, Georgetown, District of Columbia: Georgetown University Press, 2004, 1Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 26.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    McGee, Ellen M.
    Long Island University - C. W. Post, Long Island Center for Ethics.
    Implantable Brain Chips?: Time for Debate.2007Inngår i: Biomedical Ethics: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Moral Issues in Medicine and Biology, An Anthology from the Lehey Clinic Journal Medical Ethics / [ed] David Steinberg, Lebanon, NH: University Press of New England , 2007, s. 164-168, 171-172-164-168, 171-172Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik, IMIT.
    McGee, Ellen M.
    Long Island University - C. W. Post, Long Island Center for Ethics.
    Implantable Brain Chips?: Time for Debate2001Inngår i: Computers and Ethics in the Cyberage / [ed] D. Micah Hester and Paul J. Ford, Prentice-Hall, 2001, 1, s. 129-141Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Teleinformatik.
    McGee, Ellen M.
    Long Island University - C. W. Post, Long Island Center for Ethics.
    Implantable brain chips? Time for debate1999Inngår i: The Hastings center report, ISSN 0093-0334, E-ISSN 1552-146X, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 7-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29. McGee, Ellen M.
    et al.
    Maguire, Gerald Q. Jr.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Becoming borg to become immortal: Regulating brain implant technologies2007Inngår i: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 291-302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    McGee, Ellen M.
    et al.
    Long Island University - C. W. Post, Long Island Center for Ethics.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Teleinformatik.
    Ethical Assessment of Implantable Brain Chips1998Inngår i: The Proceeedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, 1998Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    My purpose is to initiate a discussion of the ethics of implanting computer chips in the brain and to raise some initial ethical and social questions. Computer scientists predict that within the next twenty years neural interfaces will be designed that will not only increase the dynamic range of senses, but will also enhance memory and enable "cyberthink" — invisible communication with others. This technology will facilitate consistent and constant access to information when and where it is needed. The ethical evaluation in this paper focuses on issues of safely and informed consent, issues of manufacturing and scientific responsibility, anxieties about the psychological impacts of enhancing human nature, worries about possible usage in children, and most troubling, issues of privacy and autonomy. Inasmuch as this technology is fraught with perilous implications for radically changing human nature, for invasions of privacy and for governmental control of individuals, public discussion of its benefits and burdens should be initiated, and policy decisions should be made as to whether its development should be proscribed or regulated, rather than left to happenstance, experts and the vagaries of the commercial market.

  • 31.
    McGee, Ellen M.
    et al.
    Long Island University - C. W. Post, Long Island Center for Ethics.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Implantable brain chips: ethical and policy issues2001Inngår i: Medical ethics (Burlington, Mass.), ISSN 1543-4672, s. 1-2, 8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Moula, Payam
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Ethical aspects of crop biotechnology in agriculture2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses a few selected aspects of crop biotechnology in agriculture. The thesis contains two essays; the first addresses the topic of how ethical tools can help to, especially in democratic societies, improve ethical judgments on modern biotechnologies used in agriculture and food production. The second essay explores GM crops and the question of whether engaging and promoting agriculture biotechnology would be an expression of hubris. Essay I discusses ethical tools and more specifically what makes a tool a good one. It is argued that some of the previous attempts of evaluating ethical tools are unfruitful. Myself and Per Sandin propose that ethical tools be divided into three categories with regard to their different aim(s). We suggest that the quality of an ethical tool is decided by its purposiveness, i.e. how well the tool achieves its assigned purpose(s). Essay II discusses the concept of hubris with regard to agricultural biotechnology. Several authors have claimed that supporting agricultural biotechnology is an expression of hubris. Ronald Sandler has given the argument its most structured account of yet. I argue that Sandler fails to establish a presumption against the use of GM crops and that the concept of hubris should play no role in evaluating GM crops and agricultural biotechnology.

  • 33.
    Moula, Payam
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    GM Crops, the Hubris Argument and the Nature of Agriculture2015Inngår i: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 161-177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I investigate the moral status of agricultural biotechnology and, more specifically, genetically modified (GM) crops by employing the hubris argument. The old notion of hubris, given to us by the ancient Greeks, provides a narrative from which we can understand ourselves and technology. Ronald Sandler offers us an understanding of hubris he claims gives us a prima facie reason and a presumption against the use of GM crops. I argue that Sandler's hubris argument fails for several reasons: (1) Sander and many others fail to have a proper understanding of agriculture as an inherently technological practice which is radically different from 'nature'; (2) the notions of control and manipulation which are central to the concept of hubris are difficult to understand and use in the context of agriculture; (3) trying to establish a prima facie reason against GM crops runs into serious difficulty since many GM crops are profoundly different from each other; and (4) even if we accept Sandler's argument of hubris, it actually plays no role in the reasoning and evaluation of the moral status of different GM crops.

  • 34.
    Moula, Payam
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi. Mistra Biotech.
    Sandin, Per
    Evaluating ethical tools2015Inngår i: Metaphilosophy, ISSN 0026-1068, E-ISSN 1467-9973, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 263-279Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews suggestions for how ethical tools are to be evaluated and argues that the concept of ethical soundness as presented by Kaiser etal. (2007) is unhelpful. Instead, it suggests that the quality of an ethical tool is determined by how well it achieves its assigned purpose(s). Those are different for different tools, and the article suggests a categorization of such tools into three groups. For all ethical tools, it identifies comprehensiveness and user-friendliness as crucial. For tools that have reaching a decision in a democratic context as a main purpose, it identifies transparency, guiding users toward a decision and justification of the decision-supporting mechanism. For tools that aim to engage the public, it identifies procedural fairness as essential. It also notes that the scope of use for ethical tools is limited to the same moral community, and that this feature is frequently overlooked.

  • 35. Munteanu, C.
    et al.
    Molyneaux, H.
    Moncur, W.
    Romero, Mario
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsvetenskap och beräkningsteknik (CST). Georgia Institute of Technology.
    O'Donnell, S.
    Vines, J.
    Situational ethics: Re-thinking approaches to formal ethics requirements for human-computer interaction2015Inngår i: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015, s. 105-114Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) researchers are accustomed to the process of formal ethics review for their evaluation or field trial protocol. Although this process varies by country, the underlying principles are universal. While this process is often a formality, for field research or lab-based studies with vulnerable users, formal ethics requirements can be challenging to navigate - A common occurrence in the social sciences; yet, in many cases, foreign to HCI researchers. Nevertheless, with the increase in new areas of research such as mobile technologies for marginalized populations or assistive technologies, this is a current reality. In this paper we present our experiences and challenges in conducting several studies that evaluate interactive systems in difficult settings, from the perspective of the ethics process. Based on these, we draft recommendations for mitigating the effect of such challenges to the ethical conduct of research. We then issue a call for interaction researchers, together with policy makers, to refine existing ethics guidelines and protocols in order to more accurately capture the particularities of such field-based evaluations, qualitative studies, challenging labbased evaluations, and ethnographic observations.

  • 36.
    Munthe, Christian
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Philosophy Linguist & Theory Sci, Box 200, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden. unthe, Christian; Nijsingh, Niels; Larsson, D. G. Joakim.
    Nijsingh, Niels
    De Fine Licht, Karl
    KTH.
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Health-related Research Ethics and Social Value: Antibiotic Resistance Intervention Research and Pragmatic Risks2019Inngår i: Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702, E-ISSN 1467-8519, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 335-342Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the implications for the ethical evaluation of research programs of two fundamental changes in the revised research ethical guideline of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. The first is the extension of scope that follows from exchanging "biomedical" for "health-related" research, and the second is the new evaluative basis of "social value," which implies new ethical requirements of research. We use the example of antibiotic resistance interventions to explore the need to consider the instances of what we term the pragmatic risks of such interventions to evaluate the social value of certain kinds of health-related research. These (pragmatic) risks severely threaten the social value of interventions in every area where human and social responses significantly impact on their effectiveness. Thus, the social value of health-related research needed to demonstrate its effectiveness depends on the extent and successful management of such risks. Research designed to take into account the management of pragmatic risks also gives rise to similar types of risks, and the potential for social value in light of those risks needs to be considered in ethical reviews based on the new guidelines. We argue that, to handle this new expanded task, the international system of research ethical review addressed by the guidelines needs institutional development.

  • 37.
    Möller, Niklas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Intuition, Theory, and Anti-Theory in Ethics2016Inngår i: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, ISSN 1386-2820, E-ISSN 1572-8447, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 559-561Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Responsibility and Privacy: Ethical Aspects of Using GPS to Track Children2015Inngår i: Children & society, ISSN 0951-0605, E-ISSN 1099-0860, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 38-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With GPS technology, children can be monitored 24 h a day throughout their childhood and teens. In spite of the advantages in terms of safety and security, there are ethical problems with this. In this article, some of these are discussed. First, the concept of parental responsibility is explored and discussed in the context of GPS and children. Second, against the background of psychological research, it is argued that it is not conducive for children's sense of responsibility to be constantly monitored. Third, the question whether children have a right to privacy is discussed. It is concluded that due to the considerable uncertainty concerning the effects of constant monitoring as well as the ethical problems discussed, we ought to adopt a cautious attitude to using GPS to track children.

  • 39. Sandin, P.
    et al.
    Moula, Payam
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Modern Biotechnology, Agriculture, and Ethics2015Inngår i: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, Vol. 28, nr 5, s. 803-806Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 40. Sandin, Per
    et al.
    Moula, Payam
    Simple plain fare or exquisite eating - Is simplicity really a consumer virtue?2015Inngår i: Know Your Food, Wageningen Academic Publishers , 2015, s. 249-253Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the proposed consumer virtue of material simplicity, as advocated by Joshua Colt Gambrel and Philip Cafaro. We argue that the introduction of simplicity as a virtue is unnecessary and arbitrary. We also argue that there are reasons to doubt whether simplicity is really a virtue, and using counterexamples, we argue that the arguments presented by Gambrel and Cafaro are unconvincing in this respect. Finally, some considerations for further research are suggested.

  • 41. Vines, John
    et al.
    McNaney, Roisin
    Clarke, Rachel
    Lindsay, Stephen
    McCarthy, John
    Howard, Steve
    Romero, Mario
    Wallace, Jayne
    Designing For- and With- Vulnerable People2013Inngår i: CHI ’13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2013, s. 3231-3234Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ubiquitous technology, coupled with a surge in empirical research on people that engages people with multiple challenges in their lives, is increasingly revealing the potential for HCI to enrich the lives of vulnerable people. Designing for people with vulnerabilities requires an approach to participation that is sensitive to the risks of possible stigmatization and an awareness of the challenges for participant involvement. This workshop will bring together researchers and practitioners to explore the critical issues surrounding designing with and for vulnerable individuals. We aim to provoke discussion about how 'vulnerability' is defined in HCI, what methodological and ethical concerns are raised when working with specific cases, and ways of designing for future technologies that support vulnerable people in novel and sensitive ways.

1 - 41 of 41
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