Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 61
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Addessi, Anna Rita
    et al.
    Anelli, Filomena
    Benghi, Diber
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Child-Computer Interaction at the Beginner Stage of Music Learning: Effects of Reflexive Interaction on Children's Musical Improvisation2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article childrens musical improvisation is investigated through the reflexive interaction paradigm. We used a particular system, the MIROR-Impro, implemented in the framework of the MIROR project (EC-FP7), which is able to reply to the child playing a keyboard by a reflexive output, mirroring (with repetitions and variations) her/his inputs. The study was conducted in a public primary school, with 47 children, aged 6-7. The experimental design used the convergence procedure, based on three sample groups allowing us to verify if the reflexive interaction using the MIROR-Impro is necessary and/or sufficient to improve the childrens abilities to improvise. The following conditions were used as independent variables: to play only the keyboard, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro but with not-reflexive reply, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with reflexive reply. As dependent variables we estimated the childrens ability to improvise in solos, and in duets. Each child carried out a training program consisting of 5 weekly individual 12 min sessions. The control group played the complete package of independent variables; Experimental Group 1 played the keyboard and the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with not-reflexive reply; Experimental Group 2 played only the keyboard with the reflexive system. One week after, the children were asked to improvise a musical piece on the keyboard alone (Solo task), and in pairs with a friend (Duet task). Three independent judges assessed the Solo and the Duet tasks by means of a grid based on the TAI-Test for Ability to Improvise rating scale. The EG2, which trained only with the reflexive system, reached the highest average results and the difference with EG1, which did not used the reflexive system, is statistically significant when the children improvise in a duet. The results indicate that in the sample of participants the reflexive interaction alone could be sufficient to increase the improvisational skills, and necessary when they improvise in duets. However, these results are in general not statistically significant. The correlation between Reflexive Interaction and the ability to improvise is statistically significant. The results are discussed on the light of the recent literature in neuroscience and music education.

  • 2.
    Björkner, Eva
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Musical theater and opera singing - Why so different?: A study of subglottal pressure, voice source, and formant frequency characteristics2008In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 533-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The considerable voice timbre differences between musical theater (MT) and western operatic singers are analyzed with respect to voice source and formant frequencies in five representatives of each singer group. Audio, subglottal pressure (P(sub)), and electroglottograph (EGG) signals were recorded while the subjects sang a sequence of [pae:] syllables starting at maximal vocal loudness and then gradually decreasing vocal loudness. The task was performed at each of two fundamental frequencies (F(0)), approximately one octave apart. Ten equally spaced P(sub) values were then selected for each F(0). The subsequent vowels were analyzed in terms of flow glottograms derived by inverse filtering the audio signal, which also yielded formant frequency data. Period time (T(0)), peak-to-peak pulse amplitude (U(p-t-p)), and maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) were measured from the flow glottograms while closed quotient Q(closed) (T(cl)/T(0)) was determined in combination with the differentiated EGG signal. Also the relationship between the first and the second harmonic in the spectrum (H(1)-H(2)), the amplitude quotient (AQ), that is, the ratio between U(p-t-p) and MFDR, and normalized AQ, that is, AQ normalized with respect to period time was calculated as well as the sound pressure level. The results showed that both the MT and the opera singers varied their P(sub) systematically, approximately doubling P(sub) for a doubling of F(0). For a given value of P(sub), the MT singers produced higher values of MFDR, U(p-t-p), and Q(closed), and lower values of H(1)-H(2), indicating a weaker fundamental. Further, the MT singers showed higher formant frequencies and did not show the opera singers' characteristic clustering of F(3), F(4), and F(5).

  • 3.
    Björkner, Eva
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Why so different? - Aspects of voice characteristics in operatic and musical theatre singing: Aspects of voice characteristics in operatic and musical theatre singing2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses aspects of voice characteristics in operatic and musical theatre singing. The common aim of the studies was to identify respiratory, phonatory and resonatory characteristics accounting for salient voice timbre differences between singing styles.

    The velopharyngeal opening (VPO) was analyzed in professional operatic singers, using nasofiberscopy. Differing shapes of VPOs suggested that singers may use a VPO to fine-tune the vocal tract resonance characteristics and hence voice timbre. A listening test revealed no correlation between rated nasal quality and the presence of a VPO.

    The voice quality referred to as “throaty”, a term sometimes used for characterizing speech and “non-classical” vocalists, was examined with respect to subglottal pressure (Psub) and formant frequencies. Vocal tract shapes were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. The throaty versions of four vowels showed a typical narrowing of the pharynx. Throatiness was characterized by increased first formant frequency and lowering of higher formants. Also, voice source parameter analyses suggested a hyper-functional voice production.

    Female musical theatre singers typically use two vocal registers (chest and head). Voice source parameters, including closed-quotient, peak-to-peak pulse amplitude, maximum flow declination rate, and normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), were analyzed at ten equally spaced subglottal pressures representing a wide range of vocal loudness. Chest register showed higher values in all glottal parameters except for NAQ. Operatic baritone singer voices were analyzed in order to explore the informative power of the amplitude quotient (AQ), and its normalized version NAQ, suggested to reflect glottal adduction. Differences in NAQ were found between fundamental frequency values while AQ was basically unaffected.

    Voice timbre differs between musical theatre and operatic singers. Measurements of voice source parameters as functions of subglottal pressure, covering a wide range of vocal loudness, showed that both groups varied Psub systematically. The musical theatre singers used somewhat higher pressures, produced higher sound pressure levels, and did not show the opera singers’ characteristic clustering of higher formants.

    Musical theatre and operatic singers show highly controlled and consistent behaviors, characteristic for each style. A common feature is the precise control of subglottal pressure, while laryngeal and vocal tract conditions differ between singing styles. In addition, opera singers tend to sing with a stronger voice source fundamental than musical theatre singers.

  • 4. Bozkurt, Baris
    et al.
    Ayangil, Ruhi
    Holzapfel, André
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Computational analysis of makam music in Turkey: review of state-of-the-art and challenges2014In: Journal for New Music Research, ISSN 0929-8215, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 3-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This text targets a review of the computational analysis literature for Turkish makam music, discussing in detail the challenges involved and presenting a perspective for further studies. For that purpose, the basic concepts of Turkish makam music and the description of melodic, rhythmic and timbral aspects are considered in detail. Studies on tuning analysis, automatic transcription, automatic melodic analysis, automatic makam and usul detection are reviewed. Technological and data resource needs for further advancement are discussed and available sources are presented.

  • 5. Cornelis, Olmo
    et al.
    Six, Joren
    Holzapfel, André
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Leman, Marc
    Evaluation and Recommendation of Pulse and Tempo Annotation in Ethnic Music2013In: Journal for New Music Research, ISSN 0929-8215, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 131-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large digital archives of ethnic music require automatic tools to provide musical content descriptions. While various automatic approaches are available, they are to a wide extent developed for Western popular music. This paper aims to analyse how automated tempo estimation approaches perform in the context of Central-African music. To this end we collect human beat annotations for a set of musical fragments, and compare them with automatic beat tracking sequences. We first analyse the tempo estimations derived from annotations and beat tracking results. Then we examine an approach, based on mutual agreement between automatic and human annotations, to automate such analysis, which can serve to detect musical fragments with high tempo ambiguity.

  • 6.
    Dahl, Sofia
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Movements and analysis of drumming2012In: Music, Motor Control and the Brain, Oxford University Press, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses the movement strategies used in drumming. These movement strategies can be described as whiplash-like and aim at achieving high stick velocities on impact. Skilled playing of percussion instruments involves adjusting to and utilising the kinesthetic feedback from the instrument in question. The overall patterns of the movement strategies are maintained consistently for different tempi, surfaces and dynamic levels. The height to which the stick is lifted in preparation for a stroke and the vertical velocity of the stick marker at impact are both strongly linked to the dynamic level.

  • 7.
    Dahl, Sofia
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    On the beat: human movement and timing in the production and perception of music2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses three aspects of movement, performance and perception in music performance. First, the playing of an accent, a simple but much used and practiced element in drumming is studied, second, the perception of gradually changing tempo, and third, the perception and communication of specific emotional intentions through movements during music performance.

    Papers I and II investigated the execution and interpretation of an accent in drumming, performed under different playing conditions. Players' movements, striking velocities and timing patterns were studied for different tempi, dynamic levels and striking surfaces. It was found that the players used differing movement strategies and that interpreted the accent differently, reflected in their movement trajectories. Strokes at higher dynamic levels were played from a greater average height and with higher striking velocities. All players initiated the accented strokes from a greater height, and delivered the accent with increased striking velocity compared to the unaccented strokes. The interval beginning with the accented stroke was also prolonged, generally by delaying the following stroke. Recurrent cyclic patterns were found in the players' timing performances. In a listening test, listeners perceived grouping of the strokes according to the cyclic patterns.

    Paper III concerned the perception of gradual tempo changes in auditory sequences. Using an adaptive test procedure subjects judged stimuli consisting of click sequences with either increasing or decreasing tempo, respectively. Each experiment included three test sessions at different nominal tempi (80, 120, and 180~beats per minute). The results showed that ten of the eleven subjects showed an inherent bias in their perception of tempo drift. The direction and magnitude of the bias was consistent between test sessions but varied between individuals. The just noticeable differences for tempo drift agreed well with the estimated tempo drifts in production data, but were much smaller than earlier reported thresholds for tempo drift.

    Paper IV studied how emotional intent in music performances is conveyed to observers through the movements of the musicians. Three players of marimba, bassoon, and saxophone respectively, were filmed when playing with the expressive intentions Happiness, Sadness, Anger and Fear. Observers rated the emotional content and movement cues in the videos clips shown without sound. The results showed that the observers were able to identify the intentions Sadness, Anger, and Happiness, but not Fear. The rated movement cues showed that an Angry performance was characterized by jerky movements, Happy performances by large, and somewhat fast and jerky movements, and Sad performances by slow, and smooth movements.

  • 8.
    Dahl, Sofia
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Playing the accent: comparing striking velocity and timing in an ostinato rhythm performed by four drummers2004In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 90, no 4, p. 762-776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four percussion players’ strategies for performing an accented stroke were studied by capturing movement trajectories.The players played on a force plate with markers on the drumstick, hand, and lower and upper arm. Therhythmic pattern – an ostinato with interleaved accents every fourth stroke – was performed at different dynamiclevels, tempi and on different striking surfaces attached to the force plate. The analysis displayed differencesbetween the movement trajectories for the four players, which were maintained consistently during all playingconditions. The characteristics of the players’ individual movement patterns were observed to correspond wellwith the striking velocities and timing in performance. The most influential parameter on the movement patternswas the dynamic level with increasing preparatory heights and striking velocity for increasing dynamic level. Theinterval beginning with the accented stroke was prolonged, the amount of lengthening decreasing with increasingdynamic level.

  • 9.
    Dahl, Sofia
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    The playing of an accent: Preliminary observations from temporal and kinematic analysis of percussionists2000In: Journal of New Music Research, ISSN 0929-8215, E-ISSN 1744-5027, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The movements and timing when playing an interleaved accent in drumming were studied for three professionals and one amateur. The movement analysis showed that the subjects prepared for the accented stroke by raising the drumstick up to a greater height. The movement strategies used, however, differed widely in appearance.

    The timing analysis showed two basic features, a slow change in tempo over a longer time span ("drift"), and a short ter variation between adjacent intervals ("flutter"). Cyclic patterns, with every fourth interval prolonged, could be seen in the flutter. The lengthening of the interval, beginning with the accented stroke, seems to be a common way for the player to give the accent more emphasis. A listening test was performed to investigate if these cyclic patterns conveyed information to a listener about the grouping of the strokes. Listeners identified sequences where the magnitude of the inter-onset interval fluctuations were large during the cyclic patterns.

  • 10.
    Dahl, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Visual perception of expressiveness in musicians' body movements2007In: Music perception, ISSN 0730-7829, E-ISSN 1533-8312, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 433-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MUSICIANS OFTEN MAKE GESTURES and move their bodies expressing a musical intention. In order to explore to what extent emotional intentions can be conveyed through musicians' movements, participants watched and rated silent video clips of musicians performing the emotional intentions Happy, Sad, Angry, and Fearful. In the first experiment participants rated emotional expression and movement character of marimba performances. The results showed that the intentions Happiness, Sadness, and Anger were well communicated, whereas Fear was not. Showing selected parts of the player only slightly influenced the identification of the intended emotion. In the second experiment participants rated the same emotional intentions and movement character for performances on bassoon and soprano saxophone. The ratings from the second experiment confirmed that Fear was not communicated whereas Happiness, Sadness, and Anger were recognized. The rated movement cues were similar in the two experiments and were analogous to their audio counterpart in music performance.

  • 11.
    Dahl, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Ability to determine continuous drift in auditory sequences: Evidence for bias in listeners' perception of tempo2005In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12. de Valk, Reinier
    et al.
    Volk, Anja
    Utrecht University.
    Holzapfel, André
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Pikrakis, Aggelos
    Kroher, Nadine
    Six, Joren
    MIRchiving: Challenges and opportunities of connecting MIR research and digital music archives2017In: DLfM '17 Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Digital Libraries for Musicology, ACM Digital Library, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a call for action for the music information retrieval (MIR) community to pay more attention to collaboration with digital music archives. The study, which resulted from an interdisciplinary workshop and subsequent discussion, matches the demand for MIR technologies from various archives with what is already supplied by the MIR community. We conclude that the expressed demands can only be served sustainably through closer collaborations. Whereas MIR systems are described in scientific publications, usable implementations are often absent. If there is a runnable system, user documentation is often sparse---posing a huge hurdle for archivists to employ it. This study sheds light on the current limitations and opportunities of MIR research in the context of music archives by means of examples, and highlights available tools. As a basic guideline for collaboration, we propose to interpret MIR research as part of a value chain. We identify the following benefits of collaboration between MIR researchers and music archives: new perspectives for content access in archives, more diverse evaluation data and methods, and a more application-oriented MIR research workflow.

  • 13. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Burk, Fabian
    Koeberlein, Marie
    Selamtzis, Andreas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Doellinger, Michael
    Burdumy, Michael
    Richter, Bernhard
    Herbst, Christian Thomas
    Laryngeal evidence for the first and second passaggio in professionally trained sopranos2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, article id e0175865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Due to a lack of empirical data, the current understanding of the laryngeal mechanics in the passaggio regions (i.e., the fundamental frequency ranges where vocal registration events usually occur) of the female singing voice is still limited. Material and methods In this study the first and second passaggio regions of 10 professionally trained female classical soprano singers were analyzed. The sopranos performed pitch glides from A3 (f(o) = 220 Hz) to A4 (f(o) = 440 Hz) and from A4 (f(o) = 440 Hz) to A5 (f(o) = 880 Hz) on the vowel [i:]. Vocal fold vibration was assessed with trans-nasal high speed videoendoscopy at 20,000 fps, complemented by simultaneous electroglottographic (EGG) and acoustic recordings. Register breaks were perceptually rated by 12 voice experts. Voice stability was documented with the EGG-based sample entropy. Glottal opening and closing patterns during the passaggi were analyzed, supplemented with open quotient data extracted from the glottal area waveform. Results In both the first and the second passaggio, variations of vocal fold vibration patterns were found. Four distinct patterns emerged: smooth transitions with either increasing or decreasing durations of glottal closure, abrupt register transitions, and intermediate loss of vocal fold contact. Audible register transitions (in both the first and second passaggi) generally coincided with higher sample entropy values and higher open quotient variance through the respective passaggi. Conclusions Noteworthy vocal fold oscillatory registration events occur in both the first and the second passaggio even in professional sopranos. The respective transitions are hypothesized to be caused by either (a) a change of laryngeal biomechanical properties; or by (b) vocal tract resonance effects, constituting level 2 source-filter interactions.

  • 14. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Arndt, Susan
    Breyer, Tobias
    Markl, Michael
    Schumacher, Martin
    Richter, Bernhard
    Vocal tract and register changes analysed by real-time MRI in male professional singers - a pilot study2008In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes of vocal tract shape accompanying changes of vocal register and pitch in singing have remained an unclear field. Dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was applied to two professional classical singers (a tenor and a baritone) in this pilot study. The singers sang ascending scales from B3 to G#4 on the vowel /a/, keeping the modal register throughout or shifting to falsetto register for the highest pitches. The results show that these singers made few and minor modifications of vocal tract shape when they changed from modal to falsetto and some clear modifications when they kept the register. In this case the baritone increased his tongue dorsum height, widened his jaw opening, and decreased his jaw protrusion, while the tenor merely lifted his uvula. The method used seems promising and should be applied to a greater number of singer subjects in the future.

  • 15. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Arndt, Susan
    Markl, Michael
    Schumacher, Martin
    Richter, Bernhard
    Vocal Tract in Female Registers: A Dynamic Real-Time MRI Study2010In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 133-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The area of vocal registers is still unclarified. In a previous investigation, dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is able to produce up to 10 frames per second, was successfully applied for examinations of vocal tract modifications in register transitions in male singers. In the present study, the same MRI technique was used to study vocal tract shapes during four professional young sopranos' lower and upper register transitions. The subjects were asked to sing a scale on the vowel /a/ across their transitions. The transitions were acoustically identified by four raters. In neither of these transitions, clear vocal tract changes could be ascertained. However, substantial changes, that is, widening of the lips, opening of the jaw, elevation of the tongue dorsum, and continuous widening of the pharynx, were observed when the singers reached fundamental frequencies that were close to the frequency of the first formant of the vowel sung. These findings suggest that in these subjects register transition was not primarily the result of modifications of the vocal tract.

  • 16. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Baumann, Tobias
    Markl, Michael
    Richter, Bernhard
    Vocal tract area functions and formant frequencies in opera tenors' modal and falsetto registers2011In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 129, no 6, p. 3955-3963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to recent model investigations, vocal tract resonance is relevant to vocal registers. However, no experimental corroboration of this claim has been published so far. In the present investigation, ten professional tenors' vocal tract configurations were analyzed using MRI volumetry. All subjects produced a sustained tone on the pitch F4 (349 Hz) on the vowel /a/(1) in modal and (2) in falsetto register. The area functions were estimated from the MRI data and their associated formant frequencies were calculated. In a second condition the same subjects repeated the same tasks in a sound treated room and their formant frequencies were estimated by means of inverse filtering. In both recordings similar formant frequencies were observed. Vocal tract shapes differed between modal and falsetto register. In modal as compared to falsetto the lip opening and the oral cavity were wider and the first formant frequency was higher. In this sense the presented results are in agreement with the claim that the formant frequencies differ between registers.

  • 17. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Markl, Michael
    Richter, Bernhard
    Professional Opera Tenors' Vocal Tract Configurations in Registers2010In: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, ISSN 1021-7762, E-ISSN 1421-9972, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 278-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Tenor singers may reach their top pitch range either by shifting from modal to falsetto register or by using their so-called 'voix mixte'. Material and Methods: In this study, dynamic real-time MRI of 8 frames per second was used to analyze the vocal tract profile in 10 professional opera tenors, who sang an ascending scale from C4 (262 Hz) to A4 (440 Hz) on the vowel /a/. The scale included their register transition and the singers applied both register techniques in different takes. Results: Modal to falsetto register changes were associated with only minor vocal tract modifications, including elevation and tilting of the larynx and a lifted tongue dorsum. Transitions to voix mixte, by contrast, were associated with major vocal tract modifications. Under these conditions, the subjects widened their pharynges, their lip and jaw openings, and increased their jaw protrusion. These modifications were stronger in more 'heavy' tenors than in more 'light' tenors. The acoustic consequences of these articulatory changes are discussed.

  • 18. Eyben, Florian
    et al.
    Salomao, Glaucia Laís
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Scherer, Klaus R.
    Schuller, Bjorn W.
    Emotion in the singing voice-a deeper look at acoustic features in the light of automatic classification2015In: EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing, ISSN 1687-4714, E-ISSN 1687-4722, ISSN 1687-4714, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the automatic recognition of emotions in the singing voice and study the worth and role of a variety of relevant acoustic parameters. The data set contains phrases and vocalises sung by eight renowned professional opera singers in ten different emotions and a neutral state. The states are mapped to ternary arousal and valence labels. We propose a small set of relevant acoustic features basing on our previous findings on the same data and compare it with a large-scale state-of-the-art feature set for paralinguistics recognition, the baseline feature set of the Interspeech 2013 Computational Paralinguistics ChallengE (ComParE). A feature importance analysis with respect to classification accuracy and correlation of features with the targets is provided in the paper. Results show that the classification performance with both feature sets is similar for arousal, while the ComParE set is superior for valence. Intra singer feature ranking criteria further improve the classification accuracy in a leave-one-singer-out cross validation significantly.

  • 19. Fossum, Dave
    et al.
    Holzapfel, André
    Bogazici University, Istanbul.
    Exploring the Music of Two Masters of the Turkmen Dutar Through Timing Analysis2014In: Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Folk Music Analysis, Bogaziçi University , 2014, p. 52-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze onset characteristics to try to identify important differences between two famous Turkmen dutar performers in terms of patterns of timing. We first analyzed annotated onset data for equivalent excerpts from recordings by these two musicians. We then analyzed unannotated onset data for a larger set of entire recordings. These analyses showed several conclusions. First, during introductory strumming outside the context of a composed melody, the two have different timing habits. Mylly aga is more consistent and Purli aga more varied ¨ in terms of recurring inter-onset-intervals (IOIs). Second, during through-composed melodies, the timing profiles of the two musicians are very similar. This perhaps reflects the traditional Turkmen emphasis on preserving the form of traditional compositions in great detail and the attention paid to strumming technique. Finally, we found that automatically derived representations of rhythmic patterns, referred to as pulsation matrices, could be useful for identifying departures from typical timing patterns, which we could then analyze in order to understand such variations and their possible significance

  • 20.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Commentary on Polak How short is the shortest metric subdivision?2017In: Empirical Musicology Review, ISSN 1559-5749, E-ISSN 1559-5749, Vol. 12, no 3-4, p. 227-228Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This commentary relates to the target paper by Polak on the shortest metric subdivision by presenting measurements on West-African drum music. It provides new evidence that the perceptual lower limit of tone duration is within the range 80-100 ms. Using fairly basic measurement techniques in combination with a musical analysis of the content, the original results in this study represents a valuable addition to the literature. Considering the relevance for music listening, further research would be valuable for determining and understanding the nature of this perceptual limit.

  • 21.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Home conducting: Control the overall musical expression with gestures2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 International Computer Music Conference, San Francisco: International Computer Music Association , 2005, p. 479-482Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous computer systems for "conductingOa score, the control is usually limited to tempo and overall dynamics. We suggest a home conducting system allowing an indirect control of the expressive musical details on the note level. In this system, the expressive content of human gestures is mapped into semantic expressive descriptions. These descriptions are then mapped to performance rule parameters using a real time version of the KTH rule system for music performance. The resulting system is intuitive and easy to use also for people lacking formal musical education, making it a tool for the listener rather than the professional performer.

  • 22.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Choi, K.
    Schön, Ragnar
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Downie, J. S.
    Elowsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Cross-cultural aspects of perceptual features in K-pop: A pilot study comparing Chinese and Swedish listeners2017In: 2017 ICMC/EMW - 43rd International Computer Music Conference and the 6th International Electronic Music Week, Shanghai Conservatory of Music , 2017, p. 291-296Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous studies it has been shown that perceptual features can be used as an intermediate representation in music processing to model higher-level semantic descriptions. In this pilot study, we focused on the cross-cultural aspect of such perceptual features, by asking both Chinese and Swedish listeners to rate a set of K-Pop samples using a web-based questionnaire. The music samples were selected from a larger set, previously rated in terms of different emotion labels. The selection procedure of the subset was carefully designed to maximize both the variation of emotion and genre. The listeners rated eight perceptual features: dissonance, speed, rhythmic complexity, rhythmic clarity, articulation, harmonic complexity, modality, and pitch. The results indicated a small but significant difference in the two groups, regarding the average speed and rhythmic complexity. In particular the perceived speed of hip hop was different for the two groups. We discuss the overall consistency of the ratings using this methodology in relation to the interface, selection and number of subjects.

  • 23.
    Frid, Emma
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Sonification of women in sound and music computing - The sound of female authorship in ICMC, SMC and NIME proceedings2017In: 2017 ICMC/EMW - 43rd International Computer Music Conference and the 6th International Electronic Music Week, Shanghai Conservatory of Music , 2017, p. 233-238Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of this study was to approximate the number of female authors in the academic field of Sound and Music Computing. This was done through gender prediction from author names for proceedings from the ICMC, SMC and NIME conferences, and by sonifying these results. Although gender classification by first name can only serve as an estimation of the actual number of female authors in the field, some conclusions could be drawn. The total percentage of author names classified as female was 10.3% for ICMC, 11.9% for SMC and 11.9% for NIME. When merging data from all three conferences for years 2004-2016, it could be concluded that names classified as female ranged from 9.5 to 14.3%. Changes in the ratio of female vs. male authors over time were further illustrated by sonifications, allowing the reader to explore, compare and reflect upon the results by listening to sonic representations of the data. The conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that the field of Sound and Music Computing is still far from being gender-balanced.

  • 24. Gren, P.
    et al.
    Tatar, K.
    Granström, J.
    Molin, N. E.
    Jansson, Erik V.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Laser vibrometry measurements of vibration and sound fields of a bowed violin2006In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 635-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser vibrometry measurements on a bowed violin are performed. A rotating disc apparatus, acting as a violin bow, is developed. It produces a continuous, long, repeatable, multi-frequency sound from the instrument that imitates the real bow-string interaction for a 'very long bow'. What mainly differs is that the back and forward motion of the real bow is replaced by the rotating motion with constant velocity of the disc and constant bowing force (bowing pressure). This procedure is repeatable. It is long lasting and allows laser vibrometry techniques to be used, which measure forced vibrations by bowing at all excited frequencies simultaneously. A chain of interacting parts of the played violin is studied: the string, the bridge and the plates as well as the emitted sound field. A description of the mechanics and the sound production of the bowed violin is given, i.e. the production chain from the bowed string to the produced tone.

  • 25. Hagleitner, Michael
    et al.
    Holzapfel, AndréKTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Music on Crete: Traditions of a Mediterranean Island2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 26. Hallqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    La, Filipa M. B.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Soul and Musical Theater: A Comparison of Two Vocal Styles2017In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 229-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phonatory and resonatory characteristics of nonclassical styles of singing have been rarely analyzed in voice research. Six professional singers volunteered to sing excerpts from two songs pertaining to the musical theater and to the soul styles of singing. Voice source parameters and formant frequencies were analyzed by inverse filtering tones, sung at the same fundamental frequencies in both excerpts. As compared with musical theater, the soul style was characterized by significantly higher subglottal pressure and maximum flow declination rate. Yet sound pressure level was lower, suggesting higher glottal resistance. The differences would be the effects of firmer glottal adduction and a greater frequency separation between the first formant and its closest spectrum partial in soul than in musical theater.

  • 27.
    Handberg, Leif
    et al.
    KTH.
    Elblaus, Ludvig
    KTH.
    Chafe, C.
    Canfield-Dafilou, E. K.
    Op 1254: Music for neutrons, networks and solenoids using a restored organ in a nuclear reactor2018In: TEI 2018 - Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, p. 537-541Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an installation is presented that connects Stanford and Stockholm through a one-of-a-kind combination of instrument and venue: the Skandia Wurlitzer theatre organ (Wurlitzer serial no. 1254) situated in the KTH R1 Experimental Performance Space, a disused nuclear reactor. A continuous stream of musical data, audio, and video between the two places explored the capabilities of the digital to play with the concepts of presence and embodiment, virtuality and the physical. In the installation, a series of performances presented new pieces written especially for this setting. The pieces were performed by musicians in Stanford, mediated in real-time, allowing them to play together with the theatre organ in Stockholm, temporarily fusing the two venues to create one ensemble, one audience, in one space.

  • 28.
    Hansen, Kjetil Falkenberg
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Music Besides Grooves2002In: Pitch - Mutating Turntables: Argos Festival Catalogue 2002 / [ed] Depraetere, Frie; Willemsen, Paul, Argos Editions , 2002, p. 136-146Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Hansen, Kjetil Falkenberg
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Playing the turntable: An introduction to scratching2001In: KTH Speech, Music and Hearing Quarterly Progress and Status Report, Vol. 42, p. 69-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the popular and rarely studied art form of manipulating a vinyl record by rhythmically dragging and pushing it, commonly labelled “scratching”. With sufficient practise, a Disc Jockey (DJ) can have great control over the sounds and treat the turntable as an expressive musical instrument. Even though a digital-based model of scratching might seem preferable to the vulnerable vinyl record, the acoustical behaviour of the scratch has not been formally studied until now. To gain information of this behaviour a DJ was asked to perform some typical scratching patterns. These common playing techniques and the corresponding sounds have been analysed. Since the focus of the article is on the basics of how the instrument works, an overview on standardized equipment and alternative equipment is given.

  • 30.
    Hansen, Kjetil Falkenberg
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Turntable Music2000In: Musikklidenskapelig Årbok 2000 / [ed] Jonsson, Leif; Oversand, Kjell; Breivik, Magnar, Department of Music, Norwegian University of Science and Technology , 2000, p. 145-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Holzapfel, André
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    A case study of ethnography and computational analysis as complementary tools for analyzing dance tunes2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Holzapfel, André
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Computational Analysis of Melodic Motives in Cretan Leaping Dances: Motivations, Perspectives, and Limitations2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Holzapfel, André
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Die ersten Schritte: Interviews mit kretischen Tanzlehrern2017In: Music on Crete: Traditions of a Mediterranean island / [ed] Michael Hagleitner and Andre Holzapfel, Vienna: Institut fuer Musikwissenschaft, Universität Wien , 2017, p. 303-330Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Holzapfel, André
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Leaping dances in Crete: Tradition in motion2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the last decades a new enthusiasm for local music and an increasing trend towards rediscovering old local dances and tunes gained momentum in the island of Crete. In the presented analysis I combine an ethnographic with a comparative approach, driven by audio signal analysis tools, in order to address the question of how far tunes that serve to define local and micro-local identities differ in certain aspects with regard to the sound of performances. For this I investigate three sound aspects of Cretan leaping dance performances: tempo, rhythmic stress patterns, and contained melodic patterns. I accompany the analytical results with information obtained from my interviews with dancing teachers and musicians. My results depict small but significant differences depending on the dance, but also underline the great homogeneity of the repertoire. The results imply that all three aspects contribute to the fine differences between the dance tunes, with a clear emphasis on the melodic phrases. Therefore, this study with its findings and its computational tools paves the way towards the establishment of dictionaries of characteristic melodic phrases of Cretan dance repertoire, as well as of dance tunes with similar morphology.

  • 35.
    Holzapfel, André
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Rhythmic and melodic aspects of Cretan Leaping dances2017In: Music on Crete: Traditions of a Mediterranean island / [ed] Michael Hagleitner and Andre Holzapfel, Vienna: Institut fuer Musikwissenschaft, Universität Wien , 2017, p. 281-302Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Jerkert, Jesper
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Review of Enharmonic Instruments and Music 1470–1900 by Patrizio Barbieri2010In: Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning, ISSN 0081-9816, Vol. 92, p. 121-123Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Karnebäck, Stefan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Spectro-temporal properties of the acoustic speech signal used for speech/music discrimination2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 38. Laukkanen, Anne-Maria
    et al.
    Björkner, Eva
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Throaty voice quality: Subglottal pressure, voice source, and formant characteristics2006In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 25-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "Throaty" voice quality has been regarded by voice pedagogues as undesired and even harmful. This study attempts to identify acoustic and physiological correlates of this quality. One male and one female subject read a text habitually and with a throaty voice quality. Oral pressure during p-occlusion was measured as an estimate of subglottal pressure. Long-term average spectrum analysis described the average spectrum characteristics. Sixteen syllables, perceptually evaluated with regard to throaty quality by five experts, were selected for analysis. Formant frequencies and voice source characteristics were measured by means of inverse filtering, and the vocal tract shape of the throaty and normal versions of the vowels [a,u,i,ae] of the male subject were recorded by magnetic resonance imaging. From this material, area functions were derived and their resonance frequencies were determined. The throaty versions of these four vowels all showed a pharynx that was narrower than ill the habitually produced versions. To test the relevance of formant frequencies to perceived throaty quality, experts rated degree of throatiness in synthetic vowel samples, in which the measured formant frequency values of the subject were used. The main acoustic correlates of throatiness seemed to be all increase of F1, a decrease of F4, and in front vowels a decrease of F2, which presumably results from a narrowing of the pharynx. In the male Subject, voice Source parameters suggested a more hyperfunctional voice in throaty samples.

  • 39. Lehto, Laura
    et al.
    Airas, Matti
    Björkner, Eva
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Alku, Paavo
    Comparison of two inverse filtering methods in parameterization of the glottal closing phase characteristics in different phonation types2007In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 138-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inverse filtering (IF) is a common method used to estimate the source of voiced speech, the glottal flow. This investigation aims to compare two IF methods: one manual and the other semiautomatic. Glottal flows were estimated from speech pressure waveforms of six female and seven male subjects producing sustained vole /a/ in breathy, normal, and pressed phonation. The closing phase characteristics of the glottal pulse were parameterized using two time-based parameters: the closing quotient (C1Q) and the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ). The information given by these two parameters indicates a strong correlation between the two IF methods. The results are encouraging in showing that the parameterization of the voice source in different speech sounds can be performed independently of the technique used for inverse filtering.

  • 40.
    Lindborg, PerMagnus
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    About TreeTorika: Rhetoric, CAAC and Mao2008In: OM Composer’s Book #2 / [ed] Bresson, J., Agon C. & Assayag G., Paris, France: Éditions Delatour France / IRCAM - Centre Pompidou , 2008, p. 95-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines computer assisted analysis and composition (CAAC) techniquesin relation to the composition of my piece TreeTorika for chamber orchestra. I describemethods for analysing the musical features of a recording of a speech by Mao Zedong,in order to extract compositional material such as global form, melody, harmony andrhythm, and for developing rhythmic material. The first part focuses on large scalesegmentation, melody transcription, quantification and quantization. Automatic tran-scription of the voice was discarded in favour of an aural method using tools in Amadeusand Max/MSP. The data was processed in OpenMusic to optimise the accuracy and read-ability of the notation. The harmonic context was derived from the transcribed melodyand from AudioSculpt partial tracking and chord-sequence analyses. The second partof this chapter describes one aspect of computer assisted composition, that is the useof the rhythm constraint library in OpenMusic to develop polyrhythmic textures. Theflexibility of these techniques allowed the computer to assist me in all but the final phasesof the work. In addition, attention is given to the artistic and political implications ofusing recordings of such a disputed public figure as Mao.

  • 41.
    Lindborg, PerMagnus
    Université de Paris IV Sorbonne.
    Le dialogue musicien-machine : Aspects des systèmes d'interactivité musicale2003Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [fr]

    Ce texte a comme sujet la confluence entre la création musicale et les sciences cognitives. Le but principal du travail a été de faire de la reconnaissance sur le terrain. Le présent texte est donc forcément incomplet, et ne servira que de point de départ pour une recherche substantielle.

    J’ai choisi comme thématique l’interactivité musicale, qui sera définie comme le dialogue musicien–machine. Je vais tenter d’approcher ce phénomène par multiples chemins, qui se superposent. Le thème restera au centre, et autour de lui, j’esquisserai sa relation avec plusieurs faits et phénomènes liés, en particulier : les langages naturels et formels, la question de l’interface à la création, l’intelligence artificielle, et les notions de mémoire et de sens. Ces approches mises ensemble constitueront l’étude des aspects des systèmes d’interactivité.

    Le vaste sujet de l’interactivité musicale est incrusté dans l’histoire de la musique d’ordinateur, une histoire qui date déjà d’un demi-siècle au moins. Par conséquent il sera nécessaire de cerner le cœur du sujet et de parcourir des cercles concentriques ou en spirale, pour gagner des connaissances qui nous permettent de comprendre mieux le phénomène. La procédure est un peu comme quand on observe une étoile avec l’œil nu : si on la regarde tout droit elle disparaît… La rétine est plus sensible à la lumière dans les côtés. Le texte est donc fatalement un collage consistant de plusieurs études d’envergure limitée. Malgré cela, il faut respecter les aspects importants propres au sujet, essayer d’esquiver le superflu et faire le plus possible de liens. La recherche est guidée par trois thématiques. Quelle est la matière, en d’autres termes, les composants et les processus qui constituent le système de proprement dit, utilisé dans la situation de performance musicale ? Deuxièmement, quelle est la relation entre recherche cognitive et outils technologiques à disposition ? Troisièmement, quelles implications est-ce que les technologies ont eues et auront d’autant plus à l’avenir sur la créativité musicale ?

    Depuis plusieurs années, les concepts qui sous-tiennent ce texte ont influencé mon travail de compositeur et performeur. J’ai fait des expériences en la matière au travers d’œuvres employant des dispositifs électroacoustiques de configuration variable : “Beda+” (1995), “Tusalava” (1999), “Leçons pour un apprenti sourd-muet” (1998-9), “gin/gub” (2000), “Manifest”[1] (2000), “Project Time”[2] (2001), “sxfxs” (2001), “Extra Quality” (2001-2), ”D!sturbances 350–500”[3]… Ces morceaux de musique sont nés d'une curiosité pour le fondement théorique de la cognition et le fonctionnement du cerveau humain. En particulier, je me suis consacré à analyser la situation de jeu dans laquelle a lieu un échange d’informations et d’initiatives musicales entre musicien et machine, qui agissent sur un degré équivalent de participation dans un système complexe. J’éprouve que cette situation ludique peut également servir d’outil de recherche ; elle est un peu comme un laboratoire, ou un banc d’essai, pour tester des hypothèses, qu’elles soient des propos limités à la musique, ou bien plus étendues, élargissant vers des terrains inhabituels.

    Étant compositeur, j’ai essayé de rendre l’étude ni trop limitée, ni strictement descriptive. J’ai ressenti le besoin d’analyser des travaux contemporains, ayant des composants scientifiques : les trois projets étudiés sont effectivement en cours de développement. Il s’agissait dans cette étude de capter plutôt leur raison d’être que de montrer leurs formes respectives dans un état finalisé, qui de toute façon n’est pas leur destin. Si la musicologie se contentait de démontrer des structures dans des œuvres de répertoire connues depuis longtemps, ou si elle s’enfermait dans un académisme technocrate développant des modèles n’expliquant que des choses qui sont évidentes pour les musiciens, alors elle souffrirait d’anémie. En proposant une hypothèse, elle doit comporter des aspects prédictifs. Ce serait encore mieux si des modèles développés en support à l’hypothèse étaient facilement accessibles et pouvaient servir au développement de nouveaux outils innovants. Cela est souhaitable, non seulement pour stimuler la production créative, mais également pour aider à mieux comprendre le fonctionnement de la créativité lui-même.

    L’activité musicale, au sens général, pour ceux qui la produisent autant que pour ceux qui l’apprécient, est un exercice essentiellement non-verbal dont le but est l’émergence d'une compréhension de la créativité humaine d’un ordre autre que verbal ou écrit. En étudiant la créativité, et surtout sa formalisation, ne risquerait-on pas de la dénaturer ? Peut-être la créativité ne risque-t-elle pas de s’effondrer dans la recherche ? Que restera-t-il de la création musicale le jour où une machine aura composé une œuvre capable d’émouvoir les auditeurs ignorant tout de son mode de fabrication ? Néanmoins, en suivant l’appel de William Faulkner, “kill your darlings”, espérons transcender la créativité telle qu’on la connaît et aller vers des pays musicaux inouïs.

  • 42. Mürbe, D.
    et al.
    Roers, F.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Stimmgattung professioneller Sänger: Einfluss von Stimmlippenlänge, Vokaltraktdimensionen und Körpermaßen2011In: HNO (Berlin. Print), ISSN 0017-6192, E-ISSN 1433-0458, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 556-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional voice performance is strongly affected by the functional adjustments of the structures involved in voice production. Generally, these functional skills are required by means of intensive training. On the other hand, the individual morphology of the larynx and vocal tract limits this functional variability. Thus, to neglect morphological conditions might result in voice problems. The present paper summarizes investigations on the influence of morphological measurements on the voice classification of professional singers. Vocal fold length, vocal tract length and body height have been found to differ systematically between sopranos, mezzosopranos, altos, tenors, baritones and basses. Although the knowledge of morphological measures does not permit a definite assignment or prediction of the individual voice classification, the data are valuable for counseling by voice teachers and phoniatricians. This might contribute to the prevention of voice disorders.

  • 43. Mürbe, Dirk
    et al.
    Zahnert, Thomas
    Kuhlisch, Eberhard
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Effects of professional singing education on vocal vibrato - A longitudinal study2007In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 683-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocal vibrato is regarded as one of the essential characteristics of voice quality in classical singing. Professional singers seem to develop vibrato automatically, without actively striving to acquire it. In this longitudinal investigation, the vocal vibrato of 22 singing students was examined at the beginning of and after 3 years of professional singing education. Subjects sang an ascending-descending triad pattern in slow tempo on vowel [a:] at a comfortable pitch level twice at soft (piano) and twice at medium (mezzo-forte) loudness. The top note of the triad pattern was sustained for approximately 5 s. The mean and the standard deviation (SD) of the vibrato rate were measured for this note. Results revealed that after 3 years of training, voices with vibrato slower than 5.2 Hz were found to have a faster vibrato, and voices with vibrato faster than 5.8 Hz were found to have a slower vibrato. Standard deviation of vibrato rate was higher in soft than in medium loudness, particularly before the education. Also high values of SD of vibrato rate, exceeding 0.65 Hz, had decreased after the education. These findings confirm that vibrato characteristics can be affected by singing education.

  • 44.
    Salomão, Glaucia Lais
    et al.
    Pontifical Catholic University, Sao Paolo, Brazil.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Relation between perceived voice register and flow glottogram parameters in males2008In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 124, no 1, p. 546-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perception of modal and falsetto registers was analyzed in a material consisting of a total of 104 vowel sounds sung by 13 choir singers, 52 sung in modal register, and 52 in falsetto register. These vowel sounds were classified by 16 expert listeners in a forced choice test and the number of votes for modal was compared to the voice source parameters: (1) closed quotient (Q(closed)), (2) level difference between the two lowest source spectrum partials (H1-H2), (3) AC amplitude, (4) maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), and (5) normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ, AC amplitude/MFDR* fundamental frequency). Tones with a high value of Q(closed) and low values of H1-H2 and of NAQ were typically associated with high number of votes for modal register, and vice versa, Q(closed) showing the strongest correlation. Some singer subjects produced tones that could not be classified as either falsetto or modal register, suggesting that classification of registers is not always feasible.

  • 45. Scherer, K. R.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Fantini, B.
    Trznadel, S.
    Eyben, F.
    The expression of emotion in the singing voice: Acoustic patterns in vocal performance2017In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 142, no 4, p. 1805-1815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been little research on the acoustic correlates of emotional expression in the singing voice. In this study, two pertinent questions are addressed: How does a singer's emotional interpretation of a musical piece affect acoustic parameters in the sung vocalizations? Are these patterns specific enough to allow statistical discrimination of the intended expressive targets? Eight professional opera singers were asked to sing the musical scale upwards and downwards (using meaningless content) to express different emotions, as if on stage. The studio recordings were acoustically analyzed with a standard set of parameters. The results show robust vocal signatures for the emotions studied. Overall, there is a major contrast between sadness and tenderness on the one hand, and anger, joy, and pride on the other. This is based on low vs high levels on the components of loudness, vocal dynamics, high perturbation variation, and a tendency for high low-frequency energy. This pattern can be explained by the high power and arousal characteristics of the emotions with high levels on these components. A multiple discriminant analysis yields classification accuracy greatly exceeding chance level, confirming the reliability of the acoustic patterns.

  • 46.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Mechanics and acoustics of violin bowing: Freedom, constraints and control in performance2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses sound production in bowed-string instruments from two perspectives: the physics of the bowed string, and bow control in performance. Violin performance is characterized by an intimate connection between the player and the instrument, allowing for a continuous control of the sound via the main bowing parameters (bow velocity, bow force and bow-bridge distance), but imposing constraints as well. In the four included studies the focus is gradually shifted from the physics of bow-string interaction to the control exerted by the player. In the first two studies the available bowing parameter space was explored using a bowing machine, by systematically probing combinations of bow velocity, bow force and bow-bridge distance. This allowed for an empirical evaluation of the maximum and minimum bow force required for the production of a regular string tone, characterized by Helmholtz motion. Comparison of the found bow-force limits with theoretical predictions by Schelleng revealed a number of striking discrepancies, in particular regarding minimum bow force. The observations, in combination with bowed-string simulations, provided new insights in the mechanism of breakdown of Helmholtz motion at low bow forces. In the second study the influence of the main bowing parameters on aspects of sound quality was analyzed in detail. It was found that bow force was totally dominating the control of the spectral centroid, which is related to the perceived brightness of the tone. Pitch flattening could be clearly observed when approaching the upper bow-force limit, confirming its role as a practical limit in performance. The last two studies were focused on the measurement of bowing gestures in violin and viola performance. A method was developed for accurate and complete measurement of the main bowing parameters, as well as the bow angles skewness, inclination and tilt. The setup was used in a large performance study. The analyses revealed clear strategies in the use of the main bowing parameters, which could be related to the constraints imposed by the upper and lower bow-force limits and pitch flattening. Further, it was shown that two bow angles (skewness and tilt) were systematically used for controlling dynamic level; skewness played an important role in changing bow-bridge distance in crescendo and diminuendo notes, and tilt was used to control the gradation of bow force. Visualizations and animations of the collected bowing gestures revealed significant features of sophisticated bow control in complex bowing patterns.

  • 47.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    On the Use of Skewness in Violin Bowing: Should the Bow be Straight or Not?2010In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 593-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bowing parallel to the bridge is by many players considered as the golden standard. However, in practice straight bow strokes are rarely observed, and the bow can be considerably slanted even in the performance of renowned players. In any case, the angle of the bow with the violin (skewness) is likely to form an important control parameter, which has hardly been addressed in scientific studies of violin performance. In the current study measurements of skewness in violin and viola performance are presented, and possible explanations of the observed behavior are offered. The results provide strong indications of that skewness fulfills an important function in controlling bow-bridge distance, integrated in players' performance strategies.

  • 48.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    The player and the bowed string: Coordination and control of bowing in violin and viola performance2009In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 126, no 5, p. 2709-2720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment was conducted with four violin and viola players, measuring their bowing in performance using a combination of motion capture and sensors. The measurements allowed for a detailed analysis of the main bowing parameters bow velocity, bow force and bow-bridge distance, as well as the bow angles skewness and tilt. An analysis of bowing strategies in détaché playing of notes of three durations (0.2, 2, 4 seconds) at three dynamic levels (pp, mf, f) on all four strings is presented, focusing on the "steady" part of the notes. The results revealed clear trends in the coordinated variations of the bowing parameters depending of the constraints of the task, reflecting a common behavior as well as individual strategies. Furthermore, there were clear indications of that the players adapted the bowing parameters to the physical properties of the string and the instrument, respecting the limits of the playable control parameter space. A detailed analysis of the bow angles skewness and tilt showed that skewness played an important role in controlling bow-bridge distance, particularly in crescendo and diminuendo notes, and that tilt was used to control the gradation of bow force.

  • 49.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    The violinist's sound palette: Spectral centroid, pitch flattening and anomalous low frequencies2009In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 901-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The string player controls variations in spectral content mainly via bow velocity, bow-bridge distance and bow force. Many combinations of the bowing parameters influence the pitch noticeably as well, in particular close to the upper bow-force limit in the Schelleng diagram. The influence of the bowing parameters on the spectral content and pitch were studied systematically by use of a monochord and a bowing machine. Bow force was found to be the totally dominating parameter in determining the spectral centroid. Bow-bridge distance and bow velocity serve essentially as indirect control parameters of spectral content by giving the player access to playable areas with high or low bow forces in the Schelleng diagram. Clear areas of pitch flattening could be distinguished below the upper bow-force limits in the Schelleng diagrams, confirming the role of pitch flattening as a practical bow-force limit in playing. The conditions for anomalous low frequencies (ALF), S-motion and other, higher types of string motion were analyzed, and it was shown that secondary waves might play an important role in their creation.

  • 50.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Guettler, Knut
    Askenfelt, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    An empirical investigation of bow-force limits in the Schelleng diagram2008In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 94, no 4, p. 604-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study of the upper and lower bow-force limits for bowed violin strings is reported. A bowing machine was used to perform bow strokes with a real violin bow on steel D and E strings mounted on a rigid monochord and on a violin. Measurements were systematically performed for 11 values of relative bow-bridge distance and 24 values of bow force at four bow velocities (5, 10, 15 and 20 cm/s). The measured string velocity signals were used to compile Schelleng diagrams, showing the distribution of different classes of string motion (multiple slipping, Helmholtz motion, raucous motion). It was found that the maximum bow-force limit for Helmholtz motion corresponded well to Schelleng's equation in modified form, taking the shape of the (hyperbolic) friction curve into account. The minimum bow force was found to be independent of bow velocity, which is in clear contradiction to Schelleng's prediction. Observations and simulations suggested that the breakdown of Helmholtz motion at low bow forces involves a mechanism related to ripple and corner rounding which was not taken into account in Schelleng's derivation of minimum bow force. The influence of damping showed only qualitative agreement with Schelleng's predictions.

12 1 - 50 of 61
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf