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  • 1.
    Bälter, Olof
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Zimmaro, Dawn
    Open Learning Initiative.
    Keystroke-level analysis to estimate time to process pages in online learning environments2018In: Interactive Learning Environments, ISSN 1049-4820, E-ISSN 1744-5191, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 476-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is challenging for students to plan their work sessions in online environments, as it is very difficult to make estimates on how much material there is to cover. In order to simplify this estimation, we have extended the Keystroke-level analysis model with individual reading speed of text, figures, and questions. This was used to estimate how long students might take to work through pages in an online learning environment. The estimates from the model were compared to data collected from 902 volunteer students. Despite the huge differences in reported reading speeds between students, the presented model performs reasonably well and could be used to give learners feedback on how long it takes to work through pages in online learning environments. This feedback could be used to support students’ motivation and effort regulation as they work through online course components. Although the model performs reasonably well, we propose giving feedback in the form of intervals to indicate the uncertainty of the estimates.

  • 2.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Teachers as developers of local evidence to improve digital course design2019In: Interactive Learning Environments, ISSN 1049-4820, E-ISSN 1744-5191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence can be used to support digital course design. The aim of this paper is to discuss how teachers can develop local evidence to support digital course design. Previous research has focused on how practice can be based on research, while we have a limited understanding of how local evidence is used and produced in practice. Local evidence helps practitioners to address a local issue, such as how to improve the design of a blended or online course. It is context-dependent and not intended to address universal problems. An edited book written by university teachers is used to provide examples of local evidence. It is argued that local evidence might be one of the key drivers of high-quality digital course design. Researchers play an important role in producing research evidence, while practitioners are essential to adapt research evidence into local evidence based on the local context, and to produce local evidence in order to improve digital course designs.

  • 3. Hrastinski, Stefan
    The relationship between adopting a synchronous medium and participation in online group work: An explorative study2006In: Interactive Learning Environments, ISSN 1049-4820, E-ISSN 1744-5191, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 137-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. Achieving student participation, it has been argued, is one of the most important challenges in distance education. This explorative study examines whether a synchronous communication medium, instant messaging (IM), may enable students to participate more actively in online group work. When comparing two groups that adopted IM with two groups that didn't it was found that the adopters had a higher sense of participation and spent more time working with the content and communicating with their peers. Moreover, the social networks of the adopters were slightly denser. Thus, the study indicates that the groups that adopted IM operated with a higher level of participation, although it should be noted that these results are based on a small group of students. All groups used e-mail for group interactions but the adopters also used IM as a complement to e-mail. This paper concludes by calling for more research to test the results of this study in other contexts. (Contains 6 tables and 2 figures.)

  • 4.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Edman, A.
    Andersson, F.
    Kawnine, T.
    Soames, C.A.
    Informal math coaching by instant messaging: Two case studies of how university students coach K-12 students2014In: Interactive Learning Environments, ISSN 1049-4820, E-ISSN 1744-5191, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 84-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to describe and explore how instant messaging (IM) can be used to support informal math coaching. We have studied two projects where university students use IM to coach K-12 students in mathematics. The coaches were interviewed with a focus on how informal coaching works by examining coaching challenges, how coaching can be organized, whether coaching should be anonymous or personal, which tools can be used and how informal math coaching supports learning. Research shows that generating and answering questions are important in the process of understanding and learning, which means that both the students and the coaches can learn math through this type of project. The coaches perceive informal math coaching as complementing online math forums. For students to learn effectively, the coaches need to be able to interpret the students' competence level in order to coach on a level that is within their development zone. It seems particularly challenging to coach at the right level when using IM and, therefore, it is important to establish a personal relationship with the students.

  • 5.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Stenbom, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Benjaminsson, Simon
    Smartera AB.
    Jansson, Malin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Identifying and exploring the effects of different types of tutor questions in individual online synchronous tutoring in mathematics2019In: Interactive Learning Environments, ISSN 1049-4820, E-ISSN 1744-5191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although we know that asking questions is an essential aspect of onlinetutoring, there is limited research on this topic. The aim of this paperwas to identify commonly used direct question types and explore theeffects of using these question types on conversation intensity, approachto tutoring, perceived satisfaction and perceived learning. The researchsetting was individual online synchronous tutoring in mathematics. Theempirical data was based on 13,317 logged conversations and aquestionnaire. The tutors used a mix of open, more student-centredquestions, and closed, more teacher-centred questions. In contrast toprevious research, this study provides a more positive account indicatingthat it is indeed possible to train tutors to focus on asking questions,rather than delivering content. Frequent use of many of the questiontypes contributed to increased conversation intensity. However, therewere few question types that were associated with statisticallysignificant effects on perceived satisfaction or learning. There are nosilver bullet question types that by themselves led to positive effects onperceived satisfaction and learning. The question types could be used byteachers and teacher students when reflecting on what types ofquestions they are asking, and what kind of questions they could be asking.

  • 6.
    Viberg, Olga
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro Universitet.
    Wiklund, Matilda
    Stockholm University.
    Designing for sustainable mobile learning – re-evaluating the concepts “formal” and “informal”2018In: Interactive Learning Environments, ISSN 1049-4820, E-ISSN 1744-5191, no 46739192417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Practitioners designing for mobile learning (mLearning) and scholars exploring the same are faced with the challenge of planning for and understanding a variety of ways and places of learning. This study focuses on one crucial distinction concerning this; that of formal and informal learning. Through the analysis of contemporary research literature, we found that informal learning is represented as more enriching than formal learning. We also identified that some representations of informal learning, such as subconscious and tacit, actually gainsay the idea of designing the learning process. Based on these results we propose a number of implications to enhance pedagogical sustainability in mLearning design. We argue that in order to fuse informal and formal learning, mLearning designers need to offer more clear definitions of the concepts “formal” and “informal”; they need to omit some design aspects to the learners themselves, or to offer a design in form of a learning path that students themselves can customise according to their learning habits, routines, and preferences.

1 - 6 of 6
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