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  • 1. Arbaugh, B
    et al.
    Bangert, A
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Subject matter effects and the community of inquiry framework: An exploratory study2009In: The Internet and higher education, ISSN 1096-7516, E-ISSN 1873-5525, Vol. 13, no 1-2, p. 37-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper integrates the emerging literatures of empirical research oil the Community of Inquiry (Col) framework and disciplinary effects in online teaching and learning by examining the disciplinary differences in perceptions of social, teaching, and cognitive presence of over 1500 students in seven disciplines at two U S institutions Our results found significant disciplinary differences, particularly regarding cognitive presence, in soft, applied disciplines relative to other disciplines. These initial results suggest the possibility that the Col framework play be more applicable to applied disciplines than pure disciplines Our findings suggest interesting opportunities for future researchers to consider how the individual elements of the Col framework may influence and be influenced by academic disciplines and how the framework play need to be refined or modified to explain effective course conduct in pure disciplines.

  • 2. Arbaugh, J.B
    et al.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    Athabasca Univ, Athabasca.
    Diaz, S
    Garrison, D.R
    Ice, P
    Richardson, J
    Swan, K
    Developing a community of inquiry instrument: testing a measure of the Community of Inquiry framework using a multi-institutional sample2009In: The Internet and higher education, ISSN 1096-7516, E-ISSN 1873-5525, Vol. 11, no 3-4, p. 133-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on the multi-institutional development and validation of an instrument that attempts to operationalize Garrison, Anderson and Archer's Community of Inquiry (Col) framework (2000). The results of the study suggest that the instrument is a valid, reliable, and efficient measure of the dimensions of social presence and cognitive presence, thereby providing additional support for the validity of the Col as a framework for constructing effective online learning environments. While factor analysis supported the idea of teaching presence as a construct, it also suggested that the construct consisted of two factors-one related to course design and organization and the other related to instructor behavior during the course. The article concludes with a discussion of potential implications of further refinement of the Col measures for researchers, designers, administrators, and instructors.

  • 3. Garrison, D.R
    et al.
    Cleveland-Innes, Martha
    Fung, Tak Shing
    Exploring causal relationships among cognitive, social and teaching presence:  Student perceptions of the community of inquiry framework2010In: The Internet and higher education, ISSN 1096-7516, E-ISSN 1873-5525, Vol. 13, no 1-2, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The causal relationships among the three presences in the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework are explored and tested in this paper. The CoI framework has been used extensively in the research and practice of online and blended learning contexts. With the development of a survey instrument based on the CoI framework, it is possible to test the hypothesized causal relationships that teaching and social presence have a significant perceived influence on cognitive presence and that teaching presence is perceived to influence social presence. The results of this study confirm the factor structure of the CoI survey and the hypothesized causal relationships among the presences predicted by the CoI framework. These results point to the key role of teaching presence in establishing and stustaining a community of inquiry. Further research is called for to explore the dynamic relationships among the presences across disciplines and institutions as well as understand the existence and role of the specific sub-elements (categories) of each presence.

  • 4. Garrison, R
    et al.
    Cleveland-Innes, Martha
    Koole, M
    Kappelman, J
    Revisiting methodology issues in the analysis of transcripts: Negotiated coding and reliability2006In: The Internet and higher education, ISSN 1096-7516, E-ISSN 1873-5525, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transcript analysis is an important methodology to study asynchronous online educational discourse. The purpose of this studyis to revisit reliability and validity issues associated with transcript analysis. The goal is to provide researchers with guidance incoding transcripts. For validity reasons, it is suggested that the first step is to select a sound theoretical model and coding scheme.Particular focus is placed on exploring the advantages of the option of a negotiated approach to coding the transcript. It isconcluded that researchers need to consider the advantages of negotiation when coders and researchers are not familiar with thecoding scheme.

  • 5.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Introducing an informal synchronous medium in a distance learning course: How is participation affected?2006In: The Internet and higher education, ISSN 1096-7516, E-ISSN 1873-5525, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 117-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving active participation has been argued to be an intrinsic part of learning and has become a central issue in debates on online education. This research examines whether an emerging synchronous communication medium, instant messaging (IM), may enable students in participating more actively in a distance learning course. In doing this, it is first evaluated how the system was used. When comparing two offerings of the course, where the first was delivered asynchronously and the second was complemented with an IM system, results indicated that the first class operated with a higher level of participation. However, when comparing students that adopted the IM system with those that did not it was found that the adopters operated with a higher level of participation. Since the results are tentative, the paper is concluded by calling for further research that tests the results of this study in both similar and different contexts. (Contains 1 table and 6 tables.)

  • 6.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Dennen, Vanessa
    Social media in higher education: Introduction to the special issue2012In: The Internet and higher education, ISSN 1096-7516, E-ISSN 1873-5525, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Stenbom, Stefan
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Student-student online coaching: Conceptualizing an emerging learning activity2013In: The Internet and higher education, ISSN 1096-7516, E-ISSN 1873-5525, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 66-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe student-student online coaching, defined as "an online service where a student gets support on a specific subject matter from a more experienced student". Student-student online coaching emphasizes learning a subject matter by giving a student the opportunity to get coached by a coach, i.e. a more experienced student. Online coaching is encouraged by an organization, but the control of learning is primarily in the hands of the student. An example of online coaching is described, i.e. math coaching by instant messaging. A key challenge for coaches is to interpret the students' competence level, despite that they often do not know the students beforehand, in order to coach on a level that is within their zone of proximal development.

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