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  • 1.
    Artman, Henrik
    Department of Communication Studies, Linköping University.
    Situation Awareness and Co-operation within and between Hierarchical Units in Dynamic Decision Making1999Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 42, nr 11, s. 1404-1417Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    his paper is a follow-up of a field study of two military command teams and reports an experiment that tests three organizations (serial, parallel and optional) of co-operation and situation awareness within commander teams, as well as the communication between the commander team and the operative level. It was found that most groups in the optional condition performed worse than the groups in the other conditions. It was also found that members of teams in the parallel condition differed from members of teams in the serial condition in their situation awareness. The more successful commander team produced more planning in relation to hypothesis, as well as sending fewer messages in total between the units, than the less successful team.

  • 2. Artman, Henrik
    Team situation assessment and information distribution2000Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 43, nr 8, s. 1111-1128Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Described is the cooperative work of constructing team situation awareness within two teams of a military command and control unit. Specifically discussed is how the distributed cognitive and cooperative work of decision-making of the two teams is structured. The situation enabled two different ways of distributing information within the team: one serial and one parallel. One team chose the parallel information transfer, the other the serial one. Discussed is the interaction patterns that emerge in the respective teams and their consequences for situation assessment and situation awareness. The differences are then discussed in terms of means of sharing information. Some hypotheses for future research are also offered.

  • 3. Babapour, Maral
    et al.
    Rolfö, Linda
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Ergonomi.
    Policies in Activity-based Flexible Offices: ‘I am sloppy with clean-desking. We don’t really know the rules.’2018Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity-based Flexible Offices (A-FOs) are offices with unassigned desks that provide a variety of workspaces. This paper presents desk-sharing and speech rules identified in A-FOs in four Swedish organisations, the emergence of and compliance with these rules, and their consequences for work conditions. Data collection involved 105 semi-structured interviews, document analyses, and observations. The identified rules were: (1) to remove belongings, (2) temporal restrictions on using the same workstations, (3) temporal restrictions on using scarce zones, (4) restrictions on verbal interactions, and (5) restrictions on phone conversations. The cases with extensive user involvement in their planning process had explicit unambiguous rules. A better compliance with rules occurred when (i) the employees were well-prepared and had a unified understanding regarding how and why to follow the rules, (ii) the rules were explicitly communicated and were regarded as easy to follow, and (iii) following the rules facilitated work and improved work conditions.

  • 4. Ciuha, U
    et al.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Mekjavic, B.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Strategies for increasing evaporative cooling during simulated desert patrol mission.2016Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 59, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study evaluated the efficiency of two heat dissipation strategies under simulated desert patrol missions. Ten men participated in four trials, during which they walked on a treadmill (45°C, 20% relative humidity), carrying a load of 35 kg; two 50-min walks were separated by a 20-min rest. Cooling strategies, provided by an ambient air-ventilated vest (active cooling condition, AC), or water spraying of the skin during the rest (passive cooling condition, PC), in addition to reduced clothing and open zippers, were compared to conditions with full protective (FP) clothing and naked condition (NC). Skin temperature was higher during NC (37.9 ± 0.4°C; p < 0.001), and rectal temperature and heart rate were higher during FP (38.6 ± 0.4°C, p < 0.001 and 145 ± 12, p < 0.001, respectively), compared to other conditions. Four subjects terminated the trial prematurely due to signs of heat exhaustion in FP. Both cooling strategies substantially improved evaporative cooling.

  • 5.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaiser, P.
    Holmér, I.
    Baer, R.
    Physiological effects of a mouth-borne heat exchanger during heavy exercise in a cold environment1989Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 32, nr 6, s. 645-653Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A mouth-borne heat and moisture exchanger (HME) was tested. Nine healthy subjects performed an incremental-load cycle ergometry test to exhaustion, breathing once through the HME and once through a similar device without heat-exchange function (control). HME substantially increased inspired gas temperatures and decreased expired gas temperatures measured at the mouth; at 260 W (pulmonary ventilation (VE) approximately 1001 min-1) these changes amounted to + 15 degrees C and -5 degrees C, respectively. The breathing resistance was increased by HME but remained well within tolerable levels even during severe exercise. This was reflected in the subjective assessments of breathing resistance and breathing discomfort which, at any given workload, were rated similarly in the HME and control conditions. Also, time to exhaustion as well as oxygen uptake and VE at a given workload were unaffected by HME. That even at high pulmonary ventilations HME provided a good heat-exchange function while keeping breathing resistance relatively low suggests HME to be a useful aid for individuals suffering from cold-induced bronchospasm.

  • 6.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Svensson, R.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Reported occupational injuries at Swedish recycling centres - based on official statistics2011Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 54, nr 4, s. 357-366Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish recycling centres are manned facilities for waste collection. There is no special category in the official injury statistics for employees at recycling centres, which precludes a straightforward analysis of reported occupational injuries. This study aimed at identifying the frequency of reported accidents and diseases and the type of events that contribute to such injuries at recycling centres, based on official injury statistics. The employees were identified as being affected by more than three to five times as many accidents compared with the total workforce in Sweden. The reported accidents had occurred during a wide range of situations, but most frequently during manual handling of waste. Reported work-related diseases were mostly associated with musculoskeletal disorders, mainly due to heavy lifting. A more detailed classification of sanitation professions and workplaces in the official injury statistics would facilitate future studies of injuries in a specific professional category, e.g. employees at recycling centres. Suggestions for prevention are given. Statement of Relevance: The present article describes all reported work accidents and diseases among employees at recycling centres from 1992 to February 2005. It also highlights the problem of identifying new working groups in the official statistics and gives advice for a detailed classification to facilitate such future studies of injuries.

  • 7. Fernström, E A
    et al.
    Ericson, Mats O
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Upper-arm elevation during office work.1996Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 39, nr 10, s. 1221-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present aim was to measure and quantify upper-arm elevation and to find how changed work organization and work tasks influence arm movement during a working day. Sixteen female office workers participated in the study. Their main work was statistical data entry. Upper-arm elevation was measured on two occasions separated by 18 months, i.e., before and after a change of work organization. The measurements were performed during the whole of one ordinary working day. The differences between the two measurements were mostly non-significant. Arm elevation remained essentially below 30 degrees during the main time of the working day, and the subjects worked with limited arm movements. Despite new alternative office tasks, they did not achieve a change in their habitual arm postures, or in their neck-and-shoulder disorders.

  • 8. Fernström, E
    et al.
    Ericson, Mats O
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Malker, H
    Electromyographic activity during typewriter and keyboard use.1994Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 477-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated how ergonomic design influences neck-and-shoulder muscle strain, through keyboard assessment. Muscular activity was measured electromyographically (EMG) from six muscles in the forearm and shoulders of eight experienced typists using each of five different types of keyboard: one mechanical, one electromechanical, and one electronic typewriter; one personal computer/word processor (PC-XT) keyboard; and one angled at 20 degrees in the horizontal plane. The impact on muscular activity of using a palmrest was also studied. The mechanical typewriter induced a higher strain in the forearm and finger muscles than did the modern typewriters and keyboards. These induced no different strain on the neck-and-shoulder muscles, except for the right shoulder muscle, which was more active with the electronic typewriter than with the other machines. Using a palmrest did not decrease the strain on the muscles investigated. Use of the 'angled' PC-XT keyboard did not influence the measured muscular load on the forearm and finger muscles compared to typing on an ordinary PC-XT keyboard, but decreased the extensor muscular strain compared to the electronic typewriter.

  • 9. Hagberg, M.
    et al.
    Vilhelmsson, R.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    Toomingas, Allan
    Incidence of self-reported reduced productivity owing to musculoskeletal symptoms: association with workplace and individual factors among computer users2007Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 50, nr 11, s. 1820-1834Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to assess the incidence and identify possible risk factors for self-reported reduced productivity owing to musculoskeletal symptoms among computer users. Design: a cohort study with a baseline questionnaire and monthly follow ups during 10 months. Methods: the study base consisted of 1283 computer users, 636 men and 896 women. Ergonomists observed workstation characteristics before entering the cohort. Cases were defined as subjects reporting reduced productivity or reporting being on sick leave owing to musculoskeletal symptoms. Results: women had approximately two times the incidence of self-reported reduced productivity owing to symptoms in the neck, shoulder and in the forearm/hand than men. There was no difference in gender for the incidence of self-reported reduced productivity owing to back symptoms. Working overtime and job demands were risk factors for self-reported reduced productivity owing to neck and back symptoms. Physical exercise fewer than 8 times the last month was a risk factor for self-reported reduced productivity owing to neck, shoulder and forearm/hand symptoms. Computer mouse use for more than 0.5 h/day was a risk factor for self-reported reduced productivity owing to shoulder and forearm/hand symptoms. Conclusions: risk factors for self-reported reduced productivity owing to musculoskeletal symptoms included life style factors, such as overweight and low physical exercise, occupational factors, such as overtime, job demands and computer mouse operating time.

  • 10. Lindegard, A.
    et al.
    Wahlström, J.
    Hagberg, M.
    Hansson, G. A.
    Jonsson, P.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    The impact of working technique on physical loads - an exposure profile among newspaper editors2003Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 46, nr 6, s. 598-615Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible associations between working technique, sex, symptoms and level of physical load in VDU-work. A study group of 32 employees in the editing department of a daily newspaper answered a questionnaire, about physical working conditions and symptoms from the neck and the upper extremities. Muscular load, wrist positions and computer mouse forces were measured. Working technique was assessed from an observation protocol for computer work. In addition ratings of perceived exertion and overall comfort were collected. The results showed that subjects classified as having a good working technique worked with less muscular load in the forearm (extensor carpi ulnaris p =0.03) and in the trapezius muscle on the mouse operating side ( p =0.02) compared to subjects classified as having a poor working technique. Moreover there were no differences in gap frequency (number of episodes when muscle activity is below 2.5% of a reference contraction) or muscular rest (total duration of gaps) between the two working technique groups. Women in this study used more force (mean force p =0.006, peak force p =0.02) expressed as % MVC than the men when operating the computer mouse. No major differences were shown in muscular load, wrist postures, perceived exertion or perceived comfort between men and women or between cases and symptom free subjects. In conclusion a good working technique was associated with reduced muscular load in the forearm muscles and in the trapezius muscle on the mouse operating side. Moreover women used more force (mean force and peak force) than men when operating the click button (left button) of the computer mouse.

  • 11. Milerad, E
    et al.
    Ericson, Mats O
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Effects of precision and force demands, grip diameter, and arm support during manual work: an electromyographic study.1994Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 255-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Musculoskeletal disorders in the neck, shoulder, and arm are common in some occupational groups, and have been ascribed to high precision demands and sustained static load in the neck-shoulder region. In order to evaluate the influence of precision and force demands in manual work related to arm support, instrument grip size, the muscular activity in neck, shoulder, and arm muscles was recorded by electromyography. This EMG and perceived exertion were estimated during a simulated work situation where 12 subjects followed a rotating track, using a handheld dental instrument. Normalized mean EMG amplitude levels (% reference maximal contraction) were calculated. The analysis of variance of the results showed that (a) the precision factor affected significantly the muscular load of the two dominant muscles with postural stabilization function (extensor carpi radialis and infraspinatus); (b) the force factor itself had no specific influence on the muscular load of the investigated muscles; (c) arm support, but not hand support, was of significant importance for the load of three dominant shoulder muscles (trapezius, supraspinatus, and anterior deltoid); and (d) the two different hand grip diameters did not change the activity of any muscle investigated.

  • 12. Milerad, E
    et al.
    Ericson, Mats O
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Nisell, R
    Kilbom, A
    An electromyographic study of dental work.1991Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 34, nr 7, s. 953-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Musculoskeletal disorders are common among dentists, and have been ascribed to the demands of high precision work and sustained static loading in the neck-shoulder region, combined with a flexed and rotated cervical spine. In order to determine muscular load levels during dentistry, activity in neck, shoulder, and arm muscles was recorded using an electromyography technique (EMG). Normalized mean, median, 10th and 90th percentile EMG amplitude levels (% maximal reference contraction, %max-RVC) were calculated during ordinary dental work. Among the muscles investigated, the trapezius muscle on both sides had the highest mean (the right trapezius 9.0% and the left 7.6% of max-RVC) and 10th percentile amplitude levels (both about 2% of max-RVC). The trapezius muscles showed similar myoelectric activity on the right and left side, probably because of similar muscular static load on the both sides. The right extensor carpi radialis muscle had a significantly higher muscular load level than the left one, possibly due to stabilization demands on the dominant wrist during demanding precision work. The infraspinatus muscle had low activity level on both sides, reflecting that the dentists worked with a small degree of arm elevation and external rotation. The dentistry work thus seems to generate relatively high muscular load on both trapezius and dominant extensor-carpi-radialis, and relatively low load on the infraspinatus muscle.

  • 13. Neumann, W. P.
    et al.
    Dixon, S. M.
    Ekman, Marianne
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Ergonomics action research I: shifting from hypothesis testing to experiential learning2012Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 55, nr 10, s. 1127-1139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the case for the need for 'Action Research' (AR) approaches to gain understanding of how ergonomics considerations can best be integrated into the design of new work systems. The AR researchers work collaboratively with other stakeholders to solve a real-world problem: gaining insight into the problem and factors influencing solution building from an embedded position in the development process. This experience is interpreted in terms of available theory and can support further theory development. This non-experimental approach can help provide practical new approaches for integrating ergonomics considerations into real work system design processes. The AR approach suffers from a lack of acceptance by conventionally trained scientists. This paper aims to help overcome this weakness by developing the underlying theory and rationale for using AR approaches in ergonomics research. We propose further development of hybrid approaches which incorporate other evaluation techniques to extend the knowledge gains from AR projects.

  • 14. Neumann, W. P.
    et al.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Hansson, B.
    Lindbeck, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Effect assessment in work environment interventions: A methodological reflection2010Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 130-137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses a number of issues for work environment intervention (WEI) researchers in light of the mixed results reported in the literature. If researchers emphasise study quality over intervention quality, reviews that exclude case studies with high quality and multifactorial interventions may be vulnerable to 'quality criteria selection bias'. Learning from 'failed' interventions is inhibited by both publication bias and reporting lengths that limit information on relevant contextual and implementation factors. The authors argue for the need to develop evaluation approaches consistent with the complexity of multifactorial WEIs that: a) are owned by and aimed at the whole organisation; and b) include intervention in early design stages where potential impact is highest. Context variety, complexity and instability in and around organisations suggest that attention might usefully shift from generalisable 'proof of effectiveness' to a more nuanced identification of intervention elements and the situations in which they are more likely to work as intended. Statement of Relevance: This paper considers ergonomics interventions from perspectives of what constitutes quality and 'proofo. It points to limitations of traditional experimental intervention designs and argues that the complexity of organisational change, and the need for multifactorial interventions that reach deep into work processes for greater impact, should be recognised.

  • 15.
    Neumann, W. Patrick
    et al.
    Ryerson University.
    Dixon, Shane
    Ryerson University.
    Ekman, Marianne
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell arbetsvetenskap (stängd 20130101).
    Action Research in Ergonomics Intervention Research: Shifting from Hypothesis Testing to Experiential Learning?Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16. Neumann, W.P
    et al.
    Dixon, S.M.
    Ekman, Marianne
    Arbetsvetenskap Indek.
    Action Research in Ergonomics Intervention Research: Shifting from Hypothesis Testing to Experiential LearningIngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Rolfö, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Perceptions of performance and satisfaction after relocation to an activity-based office2017Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies move from open-plan offices (OPO) to activity-based workplaces (ABWs). However, few studies examine the benefits and drawbacks following such a change. The aim of this study was to explore how physical conditions, office use, communication, privacy, territoriality, satisfaction and perceived performance change following a company’s relocation from an OPO to an ABW. A mixed methods approach included pre- and post-relocation questionnaires and post-relocation focus groups, individual interviews and observations. The questionnaires enabled comparisons over time (n = 34) and broader analyses based on retrospective ratings of perceived change (n = 66). Results showed that satisfaction with auditory privacy, background noise, air quality, outdoor view and aesthetics increased significantly after relocation. Negative outcomes, such as lack of communication within teams, were perceived as being due to the high people-to-workstation ratio and lack of rules. Overall satisfaction with the physical work environment increased in the ABW compared to the OPO. Perceived performance did not change significantly.

    Practitioner Summary: Activity-based workplaces (ABWs) are commonly implemented although their effects on performance and well-being are unclear. This case study gives advice to stakeholders involved in office planning. Despite shortcomings with the people-to-workstation ratio and rules, employees showed improved satisfaction with auditory privacy and aesthetics in the ABW compared with the previous open-plan office.

  • 18.
    Rose, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap.
    Beauchemin, Catherine A. A.
    Ryerson Univ, Dept Phys, Toronto, ON, Canada.;RIKEN, Interdisciplinary Theoret & Math Sci iTHES, iTHEMS, Res Grp, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Neumann, W. Patrick
    Ryerson Univ, Dept Mech & Ind Engn, Human Factors Engn Lab, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Modelling endurance and resumption times for repetitive one-hand pushing2018Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 61, nr 7, s. 891-901Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study's objective was to develop models of endurance time (ET), as a function of load level (LL), and of resumption time (RT) after loading as a function of both LL and loading time (LT) for repeated loadings. Ten male participants with experience in construction work each performed 15 different one-handed repetaed pushing tasks at shoulder height with varied exerted force and duration. These data were used to create regression models predicting ET and RT. It is concluded that power law relationships are most appropriate to use when modelling ET and RT. While the data the equations are based on are limited regarding number of participants, gender, postures, magnitude and type of exerted force, the paper suggests how this kind of modelling can be used in job design and in further research.Practitioner Summary: Adequate muscular recovery during work-shifts is important to create sustainable jobs. This paper describes mathematical modelling and presents models for endurance times and resumption times (an aspect of recovery need), based on data from an empirical study. The models can be used to help manage fatigue levels in job design.

  • 19.
    Rose, Linda
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Ortengren, R.
    Endurance time, pain and resumption in passive loading of the elbow joint2000Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 405-420Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated reactions in passively loaded, fully extended elbow joints in 13 men. Pain reactions during and after loading were studied, as were endurance time, T(end), and resumption time, Tr. The loading moment on the elbow joint, Mn, varied between 7 and 100% of maximum elbow moment. Discomfort/ pain was estimated with Borg's CR-10 scale. T(end) decreased with increasing load level. The opposite was found for the resumption time: the higher the load, held until T(end), the shorter the Tr. The pain limiting the working capability originated mainly from muscle tissue and not from the joint itself. It is concluded that the relation between load and endurance time for passively loaded, fully extended elbow joints resembles that for muscular loading in more 'normal' postures. Equations for estimation of endurance and resumption times (in minutes) for fully extended joints are proposed: T(end) = 20.6e(-6.04Mn) and Tr = 0.0167e(8.84/(1.46+0.346Mn)), respectively.

  • 20.
    Rose, Linda M.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Neumann, W. Patrick
    Hägg, Göran M.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Kentta, Göran
    Fatigue and recovery during and after static loading2014Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 57, nr 11, s. 1696-1710Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjectively assessed endurance time (ET), resumption time (RT) and perceived discomfort, pain or fatigue (PD), and objectively measured maximum force-exerting capacity were investigated for varying loads and durations of a pushing task with two repeated trials. Beyond the main results quantifying how the load scenario affected ET, RT and PD, three additional results are of note: (1) although the maximum pushing force did not change between trials, shorter ET, longer RT and higher PD indicated accumulation of fatigue in Trial 2; (2) the PD ratings showed a trend with a linear increase during loading and a curvilinear decrease during recovery; and (3) the RT and the load level for different relative loading times were found to have an unexpected U-shaped relationship, indicating lowest fatigue at the intermediate load level. These results can be used to model a more sustainable and productive work-recovery ratio.

  • 21.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    On physiological demands and sustainability in meat cutting2014Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 58, nr 3, s. 463-479Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Meat cutters' work has been investigated by several researchers. However, knowledge about the physiological demands of meat cutting is almost lacking. The aim of this explorative study was to assess physiological demands in meat cutting, to compare them with International Labour Organization (ILO) recommendations for acceptable workload and to discuss the findings in relation to individual and work-related factors. In accordance with the ILO recommendations, work was categorised as sustainable or non-sustainable based on critical relative aerobic strain (RAS) levels. Twenty-one beef and pork cutters participated in the study, which included workload measurements, assessment of workplace and individual factors. Thirteen meat cutters were categorised as having non-sustainable and eight as having sustainable work. Results suggest that the workload is higher in beef cutting than in pork cutting, and that longer work experience is related to lower RAS. Other factors contributing to the physical workload are discussed.

    Practitioner Summary: Meat-cutting work may exceed recommended physical workload levels. Beef cutting is physically more demanding than pork cutting. Furthermore, factors such as years in the profession, knife sharpness, work pace, wage system, working technique, maximum oxygen uptake level and muscular strength should be considered when planning actions regarding the workload for meat cutters.

  • 22.
    Wigö, Hans
    et al.
    Univ Gavle, Dept Technol & Built Environm.
    Knez, Igor
    Psychological impact of air velocity variations in ventilated room2005Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 48, nr 9, s. 1086-1096Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments investigated the psychological impact of two velocity conditions (constant low velocity (V1) and variations of low and high velocity (V2)) in two temperature conditions (Experiment 1: an air temperature increase from 21 degrees C to 24 degrees C; Experiment 2: an air temperature increase from 25 degrees C to 27 degrees C) in females and males, aged 16 to 18 years, under realistic classroom conditions during an exposure period of 80 min. It was predicted that the V2 room condition compared to the V 1 room condition would be more beneficial for subjects' perceived room temperature and air quality, self-reported affect and cognitive performance. The results obtained showed no significant effects on cognitive performance. However and as predicted, in Experiment 1, the subjects in the V2 compared to those in the V1 room condition felt that the air temperature decreased (while it de facto increased) and reported a constant level of high activation. In Experiment 2, the subjects in the V2 room condition felt that the air temperature increased less and reported that their unactivated unpleasantness increased less and activated pleasantness decreased less than it did for subjects in the V 1 room condition. All this indicates, as was suggested by Wigo et al. (2002), that a cooling effect, induced by air velocity variations, might be beneficial for subjects in a ventilated room and that their perceived pleasantness of the indoor climate could be met at a higher room temperature than otherwise.

  • 23.
    Yang, Liyun
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Ergonomi. IMM, Karolinska Institutet.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Ergonomi.
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Ergonomi. IMM, Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Seoane, Fernando
    Ekblom, Örjan
    GIH, The Swedish School of Sport and Health.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Ergonomi.
    Evaluation of physiological workload assessment methods using heart rate and accelerometry for a smart wearable system2019Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 62, nr 5, s. 694-705Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Work metabolism (WM) can be accurately estimated by oxygen consumption (VO2), which is commonly assessed by heart rate (HR) in field studies. However, the VO2–HR relationship is influenced by individual capacity and activity characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three models for estimating WM compared with indirect calorimetry, during simulated work activities. The techniques were: the HR-Flex model; HR branched model, combining HR with hip-worn accelerometers (ACC); and HR + arm-leg ACC model, combining HR with wrist- and thigh-worn ACC. Twelve participants performed five simulated work activities and three submaximal tests. The HR + arm-leg ACC model had the overall best performance with limits of agreement (LoA) of −3.94 and 2.00 mL/min/kg, while the HR-Flex model had −5.01 and 5.36 mL/min/kg and the branched model, −6.71 and 1.52 mL/min/kg. In conclusion, the HR + arm-leg ACC model should, when feasible, be preferred in wearable systems for WM estimation.

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