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  • 1. Bergman, Caroline
    et al.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Skagert, Katrin
    Exploring communication processes in workplace meetings: A mixed methods study in a Swedish healthcare organization2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 533-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: An efficient team and a good organizational climate not only improve employee health but also the health and safety of the patients. Building up trust, a good organizational climate and a healthy workplace requires effective communication processes. In Sweden, workplace meetings as settings for communication processes are regulated by a collective labor agreement. However, little is known about how these meetings are organized in which communication processes can be strengthened. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore communication processes during workplace meetings in a Swedish healthcare organization. METHODS: A qualitatively driven, mixed methods design was used with data collected by observations, interviews, focus group interviews and mirroring feedback seminars. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and conventional content analysis. RESULTS: The communication flow and the organization of the observed meetings varied in terms of physical setting, frequency, time allocated and duration. The topics for the workplace meetings were mainly functional with a focus on clinical processes. Overall, the meetings were viewed not only as an opportunity to communicate information top down but also a means by which employees could influence decision-making and development at the workplace. CONCLUSIONS: Workplace meetings have very distinct health-promoting value. It emerged that information and the opportunity to influence decisions related to workplace development are important to the workers. These aspects also affect the outcome of the care provided.

  • 2. Bergman, David
    et al.
    Liljefors, Ingrid
    Palm, Kristina
    Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning,Informatics,Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effects of dialogue groups on physicians' work environment: A matter of gender?2015In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 407-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Over the past decades, the work environment of physicians has been deteriorating, particularly for female physicians. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated the effects of dialogue groups on the work environment of physicians in relation to gender. METHODS: Sixty physicians (38 women) at Sachs' Children's Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden, participated in dialogue groups once a month during a period of one year. Assessments of their psychosocial work environment were performed before and after the intervention. RESULTS: At baseline, female physicians experienced their work environment as less satisfactory compared to male physicians. After the intervention, the female physicians perceived improvements in more areas than their male colleagues. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that female physicians at this clinic were disadvantaged in relation to the work environment, but, more importantly, the findings suggest that several of the disadvantages can be reduced. Dialogue groups appear to improve the physicians' work environment and promote gender equality.

  • 3.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Office type's association to employees' welfare: Three studies2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 779-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The workplace is important for employees' daily life and well-being. This article investigates exploratory the office design's role for employees' welfare from different perspectives. OBJECTIVE: By comparing different studies of the office, type's influence on different factors of employees' welfare the aim is to see if any common patterns exist in office design's impact. METHODS: The three included studies investigate office type's association with employees' welfare by measuring its influence on: a) perception of leadership, b) sick leave, and c) job satisfaction. The sample consists of office employees from a large, national representative work environment survey that work in one of the seven identified office types in contemporary office design: (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Statistical method used is multivariate logistic and linear regression analysis with adjustment for background factors. RESULTS: Overall results show that shared-room office, traditional open plan offices and flex-office stand out negatively, but to different degree(s) on the different outcomes measured. CONCLUSIONS: This explorative comparison of different studies finds a pattern of office types that repeatedly show indications of negative influence on employees' welfare, but further studies are needed to clarify this.

  • 4.
    Brännmark, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Håkansson, Malin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Lean production and work-related musculoskeletal disorders: Overviews of international and Swedish studies2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 2321-2328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aimed at summarizing the knowledge of the relationship between Lean and work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD), and WMSD risk factors, in manufacturing companies. Literature search processes identified 23 publications studying this, in scientific journals. Eight included measurements of WMSD; three were mostly negative, two showed mixed results, one showed no results and two were mostly positive. Eighteen publications included measurements of WMSD risk factors; seven showed mostly negative results, eight snowed mixed results, two showed mostly positive results and one was inconclusive. Three literature reviews were identified, which studied this question; two were mostly negative, while the third was inconclusive. Also, 12 publications of grey literature studying Lean and WMSD risk factors in Swedish organizations were identified; nine showed mixed results, two showed mostly positive results and one showed mostly negative results. Due to the varying quality and study design of the publications, together with the few identified studies, it is difficult to compare them. The context and the implementation also likely affect the results. The general conclusion was that a Lean implementation may increase the risk of WMSD and risk factors for WMSD, if it is not accompanied with an ergonomic intervention.

  • 5.
    Dellve, Lotta
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Eriksson, Jesper
    Vilhelmsson, Rebecka
    Assessment of long-term work attendance within human service organisations2007In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 71-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Terms and theories of work attendance vary according to their use and focus. This paper analyzes long-term work attendance in relation to social, psychosocial, and health-related factors. Register-based and questionnaire-based data covering 3,804 human service organisation workers over a three-year period were analyzed at individual and work-unit level. The results showed positive relationships between work attendance and male gender, high income, work commitment, job satisfaction, and having positive feelings towards work. High work attendance combined with work commitment, stress, or pain did not show any negative long-term effects upon short-term or long-term sick leave. Instead, work attendance seemed to be more associated with stable patterns of behaviour. Register-based measures of work attendance (at most 4–7 days of sick leave per worker per year) may be a useful tool in managing psychosocial work environment and related behaviour, but their inability to encompass information regarding individual health and disease must be borne in mind.

  • 6.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Karltun, Johan
    Ten years of experience from interactive ergonomics projects2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 4862-4865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights experiences from ergonomics projects, applying an interactive research approach. The aim of this paper is to summarise experiences from seven interactive ergonomics projects with the aim to improve ergonomics and organizational performance jointly. Results from these seven projects were analysed with a model for assessing sustainable change, including the factors active ownership, professional management, competent project leadership, and involved participants. All factors were found giving support to impact and sustainability of the change projects. However, the role of the researcher is difficult and demanding.

  • 7.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci Occupat & Environm Med, Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Carl, Lind
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Nyman, Teresia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci Occupat & Environm Med, Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Factors influencing ergonomists' use of observation-based risk-assessment tools2019In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 93-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Several observation-based risk-assessment tools have been developed in recent decades. Studies reporting their use often focus only on the user, the ergonomist. The influence of context and the attributes of the tools may also affect the use but are factors that are seldom considered. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore the process of risk-assessment assignments and to identify factors influencing the use of research-based observation-based risk-assessment tools among Swedish ergonomists, with a background as reg. physiotherapists, employed in Occupational Health Services (OHS). METHODS: A web-based questionnaire (n = 70) was combined with semi-structured interviews (n = 12). RESULTS: There was limited use of several observation-based risk-assessment tools. Furthermore, the results showed that ergonomics risk-assessment assignments are most commonly initiated reactively and that interventions were seldom evaluated. Factors that influence use are related both to the ergonomist and to the attributes of the tools as well as to contextual factors assigned to authorities, and internal organisations both within occupational health service companies and client companies. CONCLUSION: There was a lack of systematic approaches in ergonomics risks assessment and low use and knowledge of risk-assessment tools. This indicates that there is a need to support OHS companies in implementing systematic tools in their practice.

  • 8. Eriksson, Andrea
    et al.
    Axelsson, Runo
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Bihari Axelsson, Susanna
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Health promoting leadership: Different views of the concept2011In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 75-84Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Glimne, S.
    et al.
    Öqvist Seimyr, G.
    Ygge, J.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Brautaset, R. L.
    Measuring glare induced visual fatigue by fixation disparity variation2013In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 431-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To introduce fixation disparity variance as an objective measure of visual discomfort. A higher variance in fixation disparity is indicative of more visual fatigue. This observation is based on the results from a study where we investigated how fixation disparity was affected by glare on a VDU. Participants. In total 16 subjects with normal vision participated in this study. METHOD: In a balanced repeated-measurement experiment, all subjects performed equal near-vision tasks. In addition to the condition of no glare three controlled conditions of glare were used: direct light, indirect light, and desk luminary. After each condition, the fixation disparity was measured 15 times using a computerized fixation disparity test. RESULTS: The results showed that the average (mean) disparity was found to increase towards esophoric (crossed) with the adversity of the lighting conditions, but the differences were not significant. However, when analyzing the variation (standard deviation) within the 15 measurements and comparing these between conditions, we found that the direct light condition resulted in significantly higher variation compared to lighting condition of no glare and desk luminary lighting. CONCLUSION: Based on these findings, we argue that fixation disparity variance may be a useful objective measure of visual fatigue.

  • 10. Hemphälä, H.
    et al.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Optimal correction in spectacles: Intervention effects on eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort among postal workers2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 329-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The static posture of postal workers when sorting mail can lead to musculoskeletal discomfort. Research has shown a connection between eyestrain and upper-body musculoskeletal discomfort in general, including postal workers. A previous study of postal workers found that most of those with eye strain were in need of a new correction in their existing spectacles.

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate intervention effects on eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort with new spectacles for postal workers.

    METHODS: Postal workers subjectively reported eyestrain, musculoskeletal discomfort and their opinions of the visual environment via questionnaires pre- and post-intervention. After an eye examination the postal workers were divided into two groups: those who needed new spectacles and those who did not.

    RESULTS: Those who needed new spectacles showed a higher prevalence of eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort pre-intervention. Post-intervention, the postal workers rated their vision better and the average eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort decreased for both groups. These workers also experienced a decrease in discomfort on the left (static) side of the neck while sorting mail.

    CONCLUSION: An intervention providing the optimal correction reduces eyestrain and decreases musculoskeletal discomfort, especially from the neck.

  • 11. Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Dahlqvist, Camilla
    Nordander, Catarina
    Gao, Chuansi
    Kuklane, Kalev
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Working spectacles for sorting mail2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 319-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sorting mail into racks for postmen is visually demanding work. This can result in backward inclination of their heads, especially more pronounced for those who use progressive addition lenses. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of customized working spectacles on the physical workload of postmen. METHODS: Twelve male postmen sorted mail on two occasions: once using their private progressive spectacles and once using customized sorting spectacles with inverted progressive lenses. Postures and movements of the head, upper back, neck, and upper arms were measured by inclinometry. The muscular load of the trapezius was measured by surface electromyography. RESULTS: With the customized sorting spectacles, both the backward inclination of the head and backward flexion of the neck were reduced (3 degrees), as well as the muscular load of the right upper trapezius, compared to sorting with private spectacles. However, with the sorting spectacles, there was a tendency for increased neck forward flexion, and increased sorting time. CONCLUSION: The reduction in work load may reduce the risk for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders due to the positive reduction of the backward inclination of the head. But the tendency for increased neck forward flexion may reduce the positive effects. However, the magnitude of the possible reduction is difficult to predict, especially since quantitative data on exposure-response relationships are unknown. Alternative working spectacles with inverted near progressive lenses ought to be evaluated. They should still result in a positive reduced backward inclination of the head and may not cause any increased forward flexion.

  • 12. Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Dahlqvist, Camilla
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Visual ergonomics interventions in mail sorting facilities2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 3433-3437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was performed between 2004 and 2011 at mail sorting facilities in Sweden. During this time, different interventions were performed. The first was a lighting intervention that had a positive impact on the postal workers, especially those with eyestrain. A new lighting system also improved the illuminance and gave better light distribution. The second intervention involved new personal spectacles for the postal workers who needed them and this had a positive effect on eyestrain. The third intervention involved a specific type of sorting spectacles for the postal workers who already used progressive lenses privately. The reading distances that the postal workers had while sorting the mail was inverted to the distances in their regular progressive lenses. The new sorting spectacles had a positive effect on head postures and on muscular activity.

  • 13.
    Hjalmarson, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Helping in transfer from wheelchair to toilet: A case study analysing ergonomic postures in the bathroom for home care workers2013In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders are common among home care workers, and the task of helping care recipients between wheelchair and toilet is described as particularly burdensome.

    OBJECTIVES: This study’s objectives were to find out where exposure to risks is highest for overexertion injuries in the task of helping a care recipient move between wheelchair and toilet, and to suggest how the bathroom environment or assistive devices could be improved to decrease risk of injury.

    METHODS: In a full-scale laboratory, home care workers helped persons move between wheelchair and toilet. The CUELA measurement system was used, combined with video observation, to record postures assumed during the task.

    RESULTS: Maximum back inclination on average exceeded 40 degrees. This angle is, combined with rotation of the back and the weight of the care recipient, well over recommended limits for helping in the task. The knees were exposed to a particularly heavy load when the wheelchair was adjusted, taking off leg-rests.

    CONCLUSIONS: Solutions should be developed which increase possibilities for the care recipient to participate and bear much of the load. Development of wheelchairs and other assistive devices should include usability aspects for the assisting care workers.

  • 14. Kjellberg, Anders
    et al.
    Toomingas, Allan
    Norman, Kerstin
    Hagman, Maud
    Herlin, Rose-Marie
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Stress, energy and psychosocial conditions in different types of call centres2010In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 9-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To identify risk indicators for high stress and low mental energy as well as to describe psychosocial working conditions at different types of call centres. Participants: 1183 operators from 28 call centres in Sweden, both external and internal, with different levels of task complexity, ownership and geographical location. Method: A cross sectional questionnaire study. Results: The stress level was moderately high and the energy level fairly high. Stress levels tended to be lower and psychosocial conditions better with increasing level of task complexity. Fourteen per cent of the operators were in a state of high stress/low energy ("worn out") and 47% in high stress/high energy ("committed under pressure"). Operators in a state of low stress/high energy ("committed without pressure") were most likely to report a better health status. High stress and lack of energy was mainly associated with time pressure, low decision latitude, and lack of social and supervisor support. Conclusions: Time pressure in combination with lack of support and influence should be seen as a potential high risk situation for the development of a "worn-out" state among call centre operators. Management should make use of this knowledge in order to promote a long lasting efficient and healthy call centre work.

  • 15. Medin, Jennie
    et al.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Nordlund, Anders
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University.
    Organisational change, job strain and increased risk of stroke: A pilot study2008In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 443-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The objective of this pilot study was to explore whether organisational change and work-related stress, as measured by the Job Content Questionnaire, were associated with first-ever stroke among working people aged 30-65. Methods: In a case-control study a total of 65 consecutive cases, aged 30-65 years of age, with first-ever stroke were recruited from four hospitals in Sweden during 2000-2002. During the same period, 103 random population controls in the same age interval were recruited. Data on job-related stress and traditional medical risk factors were collected by a questionnaire. Results: In the multivariate analyses, organisational change (OR 3.38) increased the likelihood of stroke, while experiencing an active job (OR 0.37) decreased the likelihood of stroke. Regarding risk factors outside work, age (OR 1.11), low physical activity (OR 5.21), low education (OR 2.48) and family history of stroke (OR 2.59) were associated with increased likelihood of stroke. Conclusion: This study suggests an association between organisational change, work-related stress and stroke. The likelihood of stroke was lower for people in active job situations.

  • 16. Norman, Kerstrin
    et al.
    Flodreus, B.
    Hagman, Maud
    Toomingas, Allan
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    Musculoskeletal symptoms in relation to work exposures at call centre companies in Sweden2008In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 201-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Call centres (CCs) are one of the most rapidly growing types of workplaces in Sweden. The purpose of the study was to assess associations between exposures at CC work and symptoms in the Neck/shoulders and Arm/hand. Comparisons were made between internal and external CCs. An internal CC is a department or separate unit within a larger company with another main core business, while an external CC is a free-standing company. Methods: A cross-sectional study of a selected sample of CCs was conducted. A questionnaire, covering characteristics of work and management, physical and psychosocial exposures and symptoms during the last month, was answered by 1183 operators from 28 CCs. Results: Three out of four operators reported pain or aches in one or more of the requested body regions, with no major difference between internal and external CC operators. Comfort of the work environment, showed the strongest association with symptoms in the Neck/shoulder and Arm/hand, in both types of CCs. Other exposures associated with symptoms in the Neck/shoulder or Arm/hand in either type of CC were: low complexity of work, long total time of customer calls per day, continuous computer work without a break, high psychological demands, low decision latitude, lack of social support from colleagues and supervisor. Conclusions: The study is unique in that there are no previous studies focusing on a large variety of exposures specific to CC work, based on a large number of workers from different types of CCs. The study confirms previously suggested associations between unfavourable work characteristics and management, a poor physical and psychosocial environment, and musculoskeletal symptoms in computer-telephone interactive tasks. The nature of calls during work were related to symptoms of persons working in internal CCs, whereas the time spent seated and continuous computer work were related to symptoms of those in external CCs.

  • 17.
    Nylén, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Favero, Federico
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Glimne, S.
    Fahnehjelm, K. Tear
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Vision, light and aging: A literature overview on older-age workers2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 399-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In many western countries individuals will need to continue their professional careers beyond the current retirement age. This requires adaptation of the working conditions to compensate for age related visual changes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to compile and structure knowledge concerning age related changes in visual and non-visual functions among older-age workers and to describe in what way these changes relate to light and work performance. METHOD: An overview of the literature was performed in PubMed and EMBASE concerning visual changes among elderly people, light, visual ergonomics and consequences at work. RESULTS: Visual conditions and lighting design have an impact on work performance in those over age 65 even if there are few studies available. Natural age related changes in the eyes or ocular diseases can result in reduced visual function and performance. Moreover, evidence of the importance of light and dark rhythms for circadian regulation is mounting; there are indications that the older-age population might need specific attention related to this issue. Finally, visual deteriorations might also, secondarily, induce strained postures and musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and injury. CONCLUSION: Age-related changes in the eyes and also ocular diseases among older-age people have an impact on well-being and work performance, and therefore call for reconsideration of their working conditions. Knowledge about how visual functions, light and ocular diseases is needed for work design and preventive actions.

  • 18. Osterhaus, W
    et al.
    Hemphälä, H
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Lighting at computer workstations: review article2015In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 315-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The visual conditions for computer work are complex and include several factors that need to be well controlled. These factors include the lighting system, the design of the computer and screen itself, the screens position and orientation within the room, the surface reflectances and colours of the room, and the visualability of the worker.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to review the literature (including standards) on lighting for computer work in an accessible summary. This contribution focuses on lighting for computer work, but the reader is reminded of the fact that lighting continuously interacts with the other factors mentioned above.

    RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The combined visual conditions shall enable the worker to see and perform the work task without causing unnecessary strain for the eyes or the other parts of the body. The main lighting-related factors in the visual environment to evaluate are: illuminance, luminance, direction of light, glare, correlated colour temperature of the light source (CCT), colour rendering of the light source, and the non-visual effects (such as non-visual flicker). A visual ergonomics checklist is presented as a guide to analyse the visual environment

  • 19.
    Palm, Kristina
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ, Dept Learning Informat Management & Eth, Solna, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Sustainable Prod Dev, Sch Ind Engn & Management, Sodertalje, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Andrea
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Understanding salutogenic approaches to managing intensive work: Experiences from three Swedish companies2018In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 627-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Recent research has highlighted the risks involved in work intensification; i.e. the risk of human resources being consumed, incurring higher risks of emotional ill health such as burnout among employees. At the same time, there are some indications that individual employees are being left to themselves to manage work tasks in intensive work environments. OBJECTIVE: This article explores how strongly engaged people master intensive work through coping and job crafting in a salutogenic way. METHODS: The article is based on 34 in depth interviews of persons in various professions within research and development departments in three Swedish companies. RESULTS: The interviews indicated that employees generally experienced work as almost constantly intense. We identified two strategies for mastering intensive work; i.e. an active strategy and a cognitive strategy, involving elements of both coping and job crafting. The specific elements of these strategies determine whether salutogenic processes are present. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that it is the specific elements of the coping and job-crafting strategies that determine whether or not salutogenic processes occur, and that organisational support is an important supplement to the individual processes for mastering intensive work.

  • 20. Reiman, T.
    et al.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Competing values, tensions and trade-offs in management of nuclear power plants2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 722-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The specific goal of the study is to look how tensions, competing values and trade-offs manifest in the management of nuclear power plants. Second goal is to inspect how existing frameworks, such as Competing Values Framework, can be used to model the tensions. Empirical data consists of thirty interviews that were conducted as part of a NKS study on safety culture in the Nordic nuclear branch. Eight trade-offs are identified based on a grounded theory based analysis of the interview data. The competing values and potential tensions involved in the trade-offs are discussed.

  • 21.
    Rose, Linda M.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics (Closed 20130701).
    Risk management project for work with precast concrete shells2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 4157-4162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a project with the aim of reducing the risk of injury when using precast concrete shells in the Swedish construction industry by identifying injury risks, developing and implementing solutions. An interactive research approach was used. Three major injury risks were identified and a system consisting of three tools and a handbook was developed, evaluated, and implemented at one company and made available to the construction industry.

  • 22.
    Schmidt, Lisa
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Sjöström, John
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Antonsson, Ann-Beth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    How can occupational health services in Sweden contribute to work ability?2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, p. 2998-3001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational health service in Sweden is often described as an important and strategic resource to reduce work-related diseases, improve work ability and successfully assess improvement of the workplace. However, not much research has been done on how OHS contribute to reduced absence due to work-related illness or improvement of the work ability of employees. In our study, the ambition has been to describe how OHS can contribute and give effects in client companies.

    Fifteen companies considered to be good examples were selected in cooperation with the social partners. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with representatives of the company and OHS. The results show that efficient collaboration depend strongly on the relationship between the OHS and the company, and were highly correlated with a continuously dialogue and contact. Good occupational safety and health management at company level was a key factor for effective use of OHS. The strategic collaborations also often led to that OHSs contribution was gradually shifted from a reactive or medical focus to a more proactive approach. Several of the interviewed OHSs also held this strategy to work more with prevention, and focusing on “treating the organization”, not the individual, leaving the executive measures to the company.

  • 23.
    Schmidt, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Sjöström, John
    Antonsson, Ann-Beth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Is ownership the decisive factor in collaborations between occupational health services and client companies?2017In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 309-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Swedish employers are required to use external resources such as Occupational Health Services ( OHS providers) if their own knowledge of occupational health and safety is insufficient. Some large employers have their own in-house OHS units but it is more common to engage the services of an external provider. However, no studies have been carried out from a critical perspective regarding how ownership of the OHS provider is related to a successful collaboration with client companies. OBJECTIVES: This study explores the extent to which the six key factors for a successful collaboration are related to ownership and seeks to identify the challenges that the different models of ownership pose. METHODS: Interviews with 15 client companies and their OHS providers were conducted in order to identify key factors in achieving a successful collaboration with an OHS provider. This study utilizes existing data to identify challenges related to ownership. RESULTS: Two key factors were identified with challenges related to ownership of the OHS provider: The importance of having a long-term perspective when building a relationship; and ensuring that collaboration extends beyond the client's HR Department to the various organisational levels of the company. CONCLUSIONS: Whatever form the ownership of an OHS provider may take, each comes with its own specific set of challenges that must be managed in order to achieve a successful collaboration with the client company.

  • 24.
    Schmidt, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Sjöström, John
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Antonsson, Ann-Beth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Successful collaboration between occupational health service providers and client companies: Key factors2015In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Occupational health services (OHS) are often described as an important resource to reduce work-related diseases and improve the workplace. OBJECTIVE: This paper identifies key factors for successful collaboration between Swedish OHS providers and their client companies. METHODS: Interviews were carried out with representatives of 15 companies and their OHS providers. The interviews were transcribed and their content analyzed. RESULTS: The results revealed that successful collaboration was highly correlated with six factors. First, the collaboration depends on both parties; "it takes two to tango". Second, the company and the OHS provider have a joint commitment to a longterm collaboration. Third, the collaboration is built on frequent contact at different organizational levels. Fourth, the company has a well-structured work environment for occupational health and safety management. Fifth, the OHS provider uses a consultative approach in its prevention and promotion activities. Finally, OHS providers seek to treat the company, not the individual. CONCLUSIONS: Our research indicates that a successful collaboration requires both occupational health and safety management (OHSM) within the company and the assistance of a competent OHS provider. A change toward more promotion and prevention services benefits the company, since the occupational health services are better tailored to the company's needs.

  • 25. Steffner, D.
    et al.
    Schenkman, Bo
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Change blindness when viewing web pages2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 6098-6102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Change blindness on web pages was studied for 20 participants. The purpose was to find how change blindness appears for web pages, and which changes are easier to detect. The task was to detect if a change had occurred and to show this by the means of the cursor. Rensink's flicker paradigm was used, where four categories of changes were presented. It was easier to detect a change not consisting of a person than one with a person. It was easier to detect a change to the left than to the right. The complexity of the web pages did not appear to have an effect, while large changes were easier to detect than small. The results may indicate that focused attention is differently sensitive for different kinds of changes. They also show that change blindness is a general phenomenon that can be applied to the perception of web pages.

  • 26.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Supervisors in ergonomic change of meat cutting work2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 4850-4855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being a supervisor is an important and lonely occupation. The aim of this study was to identify barriers and opportunities in working conditions for supervisors, being facilitators and implementers of change for meat cutters. Nine supervisors of meat cutters in one large company were interviewed. The semi-structured interviews covered their roles as supervisors, per-formance of the change process and their own working conditions. Notes were taken and structured in themes. Similarities, differences, plus and minus were identified. There was a nuanced view on the change processes and their effects. The change processes and the decisions were anchored in a democratic process with groups of employees and the union. All were clear on what demands the company had on them. They were secure in a functioning network of peers and their immediate superior. On their own education, most were as a whole satisfied, but in need of more training and talked of lifelong learning. They consi-dered their work demanding and lonely, with a need both to be manager and leader. A shared leadership could mean doing a better job. There is a need for education and training as a manager and leader as well as the opportunity to discuss with peers.

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