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  • 1.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Sustainable energy prices and growth: Comparing macroeconomic and backcasting scenarios2007Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 63, nr 4, s. 722-731Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How do results from the sustainability research world of backcasting relate to the macroeconomic scenarios used for policy evaluation and planning? The answer is that they don't, mostly - they come from different scientific traditions and are not used in the same contexts. Yet they often deal with the same issues. We believe that much can be gained by bringing the two systems of thinking together. This paper is a first attempt to do so, by making qualitative comparisons between different scenarios and highlighting benefits and limitations to each of them. Why are the pictures we get of the energy future so different if we use a macroeconomic model from when using a backcasting approach based on sustainable energy use? It is evident that the methods for producing those two kinds of scenarios differ a lot, but the main reason behind the different results are found in the starting points rather than in the methods. Baseline assumptions are quite different, as well as the interpretations and importance attached to signals about the future. in this paper, it is discussed how those two types of scenarios differ and how they approach issues such as energy prices and growth. The discussion is based on a comparison between Swedish economic and sustainability scenarios. The economic scenarios aim at being forecasts of the future and are used as decision support for long-term policies. But are the assumptions in the economic scenarios reasonable? The sustainability scenarios are explicitly normative backcasting scenarios. They do not take the issue of growth and consumption fully into account. Could they be developed in this respect? The comparison between the scenarios is also used to look closer at the issue of energy prices in a society with sustainable energy use. One of the questions raised is if a low energy society calls for high energy prices. Moreover, the effects of tradable permits versus energy taxes is analysed in the context of how energy use could be kept low in a growing economy.

  • 2.
    Alfredsson, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Malmaeus, Mikael
    Real capital investments and sustainability: - The case of Sweden2019Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 161, s. 216-224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Real capital investments are important for a transition to a more sustainable economy and for the continuous process of creative destruction and economic development. At the same time investments have negative environmental effects. In this paper we analyze to what extent the current investments in real capital (i.e.,buildings, machinery and infrastructures) in Sweden are sustainable in regard of the most important resources used in investments and in terms of CO2 emissions. This is evaluated based on Sweden's share of a sustainable use of these resources and our share of the remaining carbon budget for achieving the Paris agreement. In the analysis we have used best publicly available data and methods to indicatively establish sustainable levels of resource use and emissions. We find that 1 million invested SEK (US$ 110,000) generate 15–75 tonnes of CO2 emissions and use 80–260 MWh of energy, and on average 4.8 tonnes of iron, 0.2 tonnes of aluminum, 260 tonnes of gravel and sand and 6 tonnes of timber. Our analysis shows that within 50 years current investment would use up Sweden's CO2 budget available for achieving the Paris agreement, leaving no room for emissions from consumption. The use of timber, gravel and sand is above Sweden's share of a global yearly sustainable production. The current use of iron and aluminum can be maintained for 20–50 years, but approaches the sustainability criteria with a 200 year perspective.

  • 3. Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    Ekstrom, M. P.
    Shanahan, H.
    Food and life cycle energy inputs: consequences of diet and ways to increase efficiency2003Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 44, nr 03-feb, s. 293-307Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Food consumption is one of the most polluting everyday activities when impacts during product life cycles are considered. Greenhouse gas emissions from the food sector are substantial and need to be lowered to stabilise climate change. Here, we present an inventory of life cycle energy inputs for 150 food items available in Sweden and discuss how energy efficient meals and diets can be composed. Energy inputs in food life cycles vary from 2 to 220 MJ per kg due to a multitude of factors related to animal or vegetable origin, degree of processing, choice of processing and preparation technology and transportation distance. Daily total life cycle energy inputs for diets with a similar dietary energy consumed by one person can vary by a factor of four, from 13 to 51 MJ. Current Swedish food consumption patterns result in life cycle energy inputs ranging from 6900 to 21,000 MJ per person and year. Choice of ingredients and gender differences in food consumption patterns explain the differences. Up to a third of the total energy inputs is related to snacks, sweets and drinks, items with little nutritional value. It is possible to compose a diet compatible with goals for energy efficiency and equal global partition of energy resources. However, such a diet is far from the Swedish average and not in line with current trends.

  • 4.
    Cerin, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Bringing economic opportunity into line with environmental influence: A discussion on the Coase theorem and the Porter and van der Linde hypothesis2006Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 56, nr 2, s. 209-225Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concerns and tightened environmental policy parameters have been associated with the notion of additional costs of compliance rather than with innovation and sustainability. The contrary, has also been suggested, claiming that strict environmental legislation merely serves as a catalyst for firms to retain obvious economic and environmental mutual gains-so called win-wins-laying around waiting to be collected. Such implications can be seen from the Porter and van der Linde writings, heavily criticised by Palmer et al. as being built on faulty examples. This paper supports that conclusion and uses property rights and transactions costs theories to find private incentives to explore the win-wins for those actors who have the largest potentials to diminish the pressure on our environment. By applying the Coase theorem, emphasising transaction costs and property rights, this paper argues that strong public support is needed to create private incentives for exploring economic and environmental win-win innovations. The public support suggested is to (A) extend producer responsibilities-where the same costs which may be neglected by the end consumers will, if transferred to the design owner, be viewed as a production cost-and to (B) enforce environmental public procurement. Both may be combined with a support to (C) actors (such as non-governmental organisations and consumer agencies) positioning themselves as information bridges by informing the consumers. The negative effects of asymmetric information among actors can, thereby, be diminished as well as the low interest to primarily care for the environment among common consumers.

  • 5.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Wadeskog, Anders
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture2007Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 60, nr 3, s. 550-563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes an environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture, including upstream and downstream effects. The analysis is based on environmentally extended input-output analysis, but it is also supplemented with data from other sources. The analysis shows that direct effects by the Swedish agriculture are the most important, while indirect effects from other sources including mobile and impacts abroad are also considerable. The most important impacts from Swedish agriculture according to the analysis are eutrophication, global warming and resource use. The agricultural sector produces a large share of the Swedish emissions causing both global warming and eutrophication. In addition, current agricultural practice causes problems with loss of biodiversity. The most important actors in the sector are agriculture itself, but also all actors using fossil fuels: primarily the transport sector and the energy sector. In addition, consumers are important since they can influence the composition of agricultural production. The analysis shows the importance of including upstream and downstream effects when analysing the environmental impacts from a sector.

  • 6.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. University of Cape Town.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria (bytt namn 20120201).
    Ecosystem services as technology of globalization: On articulating values in urban nature2013Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, s. 274-284Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper demonstrates how ecosystem services can be viewed and studied as a social practice of value articulation. With this follows that when ecosystem services appear as objects of calculated value in decision-making they are already tainted by the social and cannot be viewed as merely reflecting an objective biophysical reality. Using urban case studies of place-based struggles in Stockholm and Cape Town, we demonstrate how values are relationally constructed through social practice. The same analysis is applied on ecosystem services. Of special interest is the TEEB Manual that uses a consultancy report on the economic evaluation of Cape Town's 'natural assets' to describe a step-by-step method to catalog, quantify and price certain aspects of urban nature. The Manual strives to turn the ecosystem services approach into a transportable method, capable of objectively measuring the values of urban nature everywhere, in all cities in the world. With its gesture of being universal and objective, the article suggests that the ecosystem services approach is a technology of globalization that de-historicizes and de-ecologizes debates on urbanized ecologies, effectively silencing other and often marginalized ways of knowing and valuing. The paper inscribes ecosystem services as social practice, as part of historical process, and as inherently political. A call is made for critical ethnographies of how ecosystem services and urban sustainability indicators are put into use to change local decision-making while manufacturing global expertise.

  • 7.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Isacs, Lina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Ecosystem services and regional development: An application to Sweden2009Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, nr 68, s. 2549-2559Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study carries out interregional comparisons of development and sustainable use of natural capital with and without inclusion of non-marketed ecosystem services. A simple dynamic model of an open economy shows that appropriate adjustment of conventional income accounts includes flow and stock components, but excludes explicit entrance of pollution. Calculations are made for Swedish regions and for two types of ecosystem services - pollution sequestration and recreational services - provided by three types of ecosystems: forests, agricultural landscape and wetlands. When comparing the adjusted and non-adjusted regional income accounts it is shown that the two measurements generate significantly different pictures of regional income and growth; regions that are traditionally considered as relatively less growth promoting are shown to hold important sources of wealth from natural capital, while counties that are rich in conventional accounts fall behind when adjusting for values of changes in natural capital.

  • 8. Gudmundsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Infrastruktur och samhällsplanering.
    Sustainable development principles and their implications for transport1996Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 269-282Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    'Sustainable mobility' has been adopted as an overall objective for European transport policy, and similar intentions are expressed in other parts of the world. However, little has been done to define what 'sustainable mobility' would actually imply for our understanding and assessment of transport. We suspect that this much used term could merely end up acting as a lubricant to the very development it was meant to challenge: The ever increasing movement of people and goods. In this article we attempt to place transport in the context of sustainable development principles. We emphasise the need to include principles of development (increasing well-being and equity) as well as sustainability (preserving natural and man-made capital). Four such principles are suggested, taking inspiration from Herman Daly and others. We then turn to explore the main features of transport, establishing a comprehensive transport concept. The concept combines a systems perspective with a service perspective. Omitting either one would disable a complete consideration of sustainable development. Our confrontation of the four principles with the reality of current transport trends gives rise to several critical implications. The most important of which relate to the contribution of transport to depleting natural capital and quality of life. Moreover, we are also forced to challenge the value of increasing mobility itself, if other forms of access may provide relevant substitutes. The article thereby outlines some conceptual foundations for a transport policy that could qualify as sustainable.

  • 9.
    Korhonen, Jouni
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Honkasalo, Antero
    Seppala, Jyri
    Circular Economy: The Concept and its Limitations2018Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 143, s. 37-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular economy (CE) is currently a popular concept promoted by the EU, by several national governments and by many businesses around the world. However, the scientific and research content of the CE concept is superficial and unorganized. CE seems to be a collection of vague and separate ideas from several fields and semi scientific concepts. The objective of this article is to contribute to the scientific research on CE. First, we will define the concept of CE from the perspective of WCED sustainable development and sustainability science. Second, we will conduct a critical analysis of the concept from the perspective of environmental sustainability. The analysis identifies six challenges, for example those of thermodynamics and system boundaries, that need to be resolved for CE to be able to contribute to global net sustainability. These six challenges also serve as research themes and objectives for scholars interested in making progress in sustainable development through the usage of circular economy. CE is important for its power to attract both the business community and policy-making community to sustainability work, but it needs scientific research to secure that the actual environmental impacts of CE work toward sustainability.

  • 10.
    Larsen, Katarina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria.
    The impact of R&D on innovation for wind energy in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom2005Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 54, nr 2-3, s. 227-240Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the impact of public research and development (R&D) support on cost reducing innovation for wind turbine farms in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom (UK). First we survey the literature in this field. The literature indicates that in Denmark R&D policy has been more successful than in Germany or the UK in promoting innovation of wind turbines. Furthermore, such studies point out that (subsidy-induced) capacity expansions were more effective in the UK and Denmark in promoting cost-reducing innovation than in Germany. The second part of the paper describes the quantitative analysis of the impact of R&D and capacity expansion on innovation. This is calculated using the two-factor learning curve (2FLC) model, in which investment cost reductions are explained by cumulative capacity and the R&D based knowledge stock. Time-series data were collected for the three countries and organized as a panel data set. The parameters of the 2FLC model were estimated, focusing on the homogeneity and heterogeneity of the parameters across countries. We arrived at robust estimations of a learning-by-doing rate of 5.4% and a learning-by-searching rate of 12.6%. The analysis underlines the homogeneity of the learning parameters, enhancing the validity of the 2FLC formulation.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Markus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm and Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Granstedt, Artur
    Sustainable governance of agriculture and the Baltic Sea: Agricultural reforms, food production and curbed eutrophication2010Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, nr 69, s. 1943-1951Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural production and nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea are likely to increase following Poland's and the Baltic States' entrance into the EU. According to HELCOM these trends will be highly dependent on the agricultural policies of the EU. The expansion of the EU can be seen as a window of opportunity where agricultural policy could improve the Baltic Sea environment. Longstanding initiatives with local organic food systems and Ecological Recycling Agriculture (ERA) in the eight EU-countries in the Baltic Sea drainage area were evaluated during 2001–2004. The empirical results were scaled up to calculate environmental impact and food production for three different scenarios. In one scenario the Baltic Countries and Poland convert their agriculture following the average Swedish production.This resulted in 58% increase of nitrogen and 18% increase in phosphorus surplus, a corresponding increase inthe load to the Baltic Sea and increased food production. In two other scenarios agriculture production in thewhole Baltic Sea drainage area converts to ERA. This halved the nitrogen surplus from agriculture andeliminated the surplus of phosphorus. In these scenarios food production would decrease or remain stabledepending on strategy chosen.

  • 12.
    Nilsson, Måns
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Can Earth system interactions be governed?: Governance functions for linking climate change mitigation with land use, freshwater and biodiversity protection2012Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 75, s. 61-71Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth system interactions, as highlighted by the planetary boundaries framework, occur within and across natural, social and economic systems and shape global environmental change. This paper addresses the multi-level governance problem of coherently addressing key interactions between four Earth sub-systems - climate change, freshwater use, land use and biodiversity - taking into account concerns over problem shifting. After discussing possibilities for regional downscaling of the boundaries, we explore challenges for the EU region to coherently address this particular set of interacting Earth sub-systems and reduce the risk of problem shifting. This analysis demonstrates that Earth system interactions can be governed, but that they likely require comprehensive packages of governance responses across both sub-systems and levels. Three overarching governance functions are tentatively identified that directly or indirectly address Earth system interactions: reduction of system stress, risks and vulnerabilities; triggering and navigation of transformation of economic activity; and development of a diversity of options. Finally, the paper briefly discusses political and institutional challenges for developing, enabling and stabilising these governance functions.

  • 13.
    Nilsson, Måns
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Reprint of "Can Earth system interactions be governed?: Governance functions for linking climate change mitigation with land use, freshwater and biodiversity protection"2012Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 81, s. 10-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth system interactions, as highlighted by the planetary boundaries framework, occur within and across natural, social and economic systems and shape global environmental change. This paper addresses the multi-level governance problem of coherently addressing key interactions between four Earth sub-systems - climate change, freshwater use, land use and biodiversity - taking into account concerns over problem shifting. After discussing possibilities for regional downscaling of the boundaries, we explore challenges for the EU region to coherently address this particular set of interacting Earth sub-systems and reduce the risk of problem shifting. This analysis demonstrates that Earth system interactions can be governed, but that they likely require comprehensive packages of governance responses across both sub-systems and levels. Three overarching governance functions are tentatively identified that directly or indirectly address Earth system interactions: reduction of system stress, risks and vulnerabilities; triggering and navigation of transformation of economic activity: and development of a diversity of options. Finally, the paper briefly discusses political and institutional challenges for developing, enabling and stabilising these governance functions.

  • 14. Scharin, Henrik
    et al.
    Ericsdotter, Siv
    Elliott, Michael
    Turner, R. Kerry
    Niiranen, Susa
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Hyytiainen, Kari
    Ahlvik, Lassi
    Ahtiainen, Heini
    Artell, Janne
    Hasselstrom, Linus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Soderqvist, Tore
    Rockstrom, Johan
    Processes for the sustainable stewardship of marine environments2016Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 128, s. 55-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable stewardship of the marine environment necessitates a holistic approach encompassing all the relevant drivers, activities and pressures causing problems for the natural state of the system and their impact on human societies today and in the future. This article provides a framework as well as a decision support process and tool that could guide such an approach. In this process, identifying costs and benefits of mitigation is a first step in deciding on measures and enabling instruments, which has to be accompanied by analyses regarding distributional effects (i.e. who gains or loses) related to different targets and policy instruments. As there are risks of future irreversible regime shifts and even system collapses, the assessments have to be broadened to include scenarios on possible future developments as well as ethical considerations. In particular, a deeper sustainable management strategy may be needed to respond to possible future increases in the rate of environmental change, amongst growing evidence of external pressures, interactions and non-linear dynamics. This adaptive management strategy should focus on building the resilience required to cope with and adapt to change.

  • 15.
    Turhan, Ethemcan
    Sabancı University, Turkey.
    Value-based adaptation to climate change and divergent developmentalisms in Turkish agriculture2016Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 121, s. 140-148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increased recognition and attention on human values with respect to their role in shaping climate change adaptation policies. Furthermore, as the recent literature suggests, values held by policy actors are centrally located in the debates linking adaptation to development. However, different values tend to give way to diverging adaptation policy preferences, which often appear as a dichotomy of adjustment (incremental change) versus transformation. This study enquires the assumptions and values in adaptation policy by using Q-methodology and advances value-based approach to adaptation policy with an empirical case from Turkey, a developing country with key vulnerabilities in its agricultural system. By exploring the narratives of 29 policy actors who participated in the making of Turkey's climate change adaptation strategy, the analysis suggests that assumptions regarding an economic growth-driven development agenda often shape adaptation concerns. Further analysis of the 4 emerging discourses (productivism, techno-managerialism, eco-localism, and authoritarianism) suggests that while discourses agree that the ultimate goal of adaptation is safeguarding a developmentalist vision in agriculture, they differ on the means and agents for reaching this goal. I argue that this divergence can enhance the transformative potential of adaptation by bringing "how," "for whom," and "why" questions back to policymaking.

  • 16.
    Westling, Nils
    et al.
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Stromberg, P. M.
    Swain, R. B.
    Can upstream ecosystems ensure safe drinking water—Insights from Sweden2020Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 169, artikel-id 106552Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Clean water is not only the product of expensive treatment technology, but also of upstream ecosystems. Yet, the effect of land use on downstream water quality is poorly understood. We investigate the value of ecosystem water purification as an input to the production of drinking water in Sweden. We employ a recently modified empirical approach, complementing ex-ante modelling. We capture plant operator behaviour, rather than assuming rational individuals that value ecosystem services as a factor in the drinking water production function. The GMM technique is applied to estimate the marginal contributions of different land uses to water quality and chemical costs of treatment plants. The analysis is based on upstream land-use data, raw water quality, and chemical costs for a large share of Sweden's municipal surface water treatment plants, for the period 2000 to 2012. Our results show that upstream forests lead to lower levels of E. coli (a pathogen associated with disease outbreaks) in downstream water and indicate the same effect on turbidity (not significant). We also find that turbidity increases treatment costs, but the effect of E. coli remains unclear. Consequently, in addition to water treatment equipment, decision-makers should consider investment in upstream ecosystems.

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