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  • 1. Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.).
    Manufacturing outsourcing and its effect on plant performance-lessons for KIBS outsourcing2009In: Journal of evolutionary economics, ISSN 0936-9937, E-ISSN 1432-1386, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 231-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the proclaimed advantages and popularity of outsourcing manufacturing and knowledge-intensive business services, there are few and mainly contradictory studies of its short- and long-term effects. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the way in which outsourcing manufacturing and design work relates to performance at plant level. The study is based on a large-scale survey among a representative sample of Swedish engineering plants. The results show no significant effects from outsourcing manufacturing on plant operating performance. The paper further shows that investments in technological and organizational capabilities explain the improvements of performance to a significantly higher extent than does outsourcing. The problems of additional costs and managing dependencies when applying partial outsourcing and separating interdependent key processes provide important insights to the analysis on the effects of outsourcing knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS).

  • 2. Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    Carlsson, B.
    Cetindamar, D.
    Johansson, D.
    The old and the new: the evolution of polymer and biomedical clusters in Ohio and Sweden2000In: Journal of evolutionary economics, ISSN 0936-9937, E-ISSN 1432-1386, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 471-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the rapid growth of the polymer-based and biomedical clusters in Ohio and Sweden - two regions of similar size and with similar traditions undergoing similar industrial restructuring. Two issues are addressed: First, why has growth been so strong in these particular clusters, i.e., can we identify the sources of the growth and dynamics in these sectors? Second, why do these two clusters differ in Ohio and Sweden in terms of size, level and type of activity, number and composition of actors, size structure of firms and growth patterns over the last couple of decades? In particular, what is the role of public policies as well as cultural, historical, and geographic factors? Our main conclusions are (1) that there is strong path dependence in both clusters in both countries, and (2) that the key to rapid development is a high absorptive capacity combined with rapid diffusion to new potential users. Our policy discussion addresses these issues.

  • 3.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Economics.
    Svensson, Roger
    The inventor's role: was Schumpeter right?2010In: Journal of evolutionary economics, ISSN 0936-9937, E-ISSN 1432-1386, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 413-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Schumpeter, the creative process of economic development can be divided into the stages of invention, innovation (commercialization) and imitation. Each stage is associated with specific skills. This paper examines whether Schumpeter's assertion was correct, i.e. whether the invention and innovation stages should be undertaken by different agents. In addition, we examine whether there is a rationale for the Schumpeterian entrepreneur to include the inventor in the commercialization process. Combining the abilities of the entrepreneur and the inventor may serve to facilitate customer adaptation, strengthen knowledge transfers and reduce uncertainty, thereby expanding market opportunities. Based on a unique database covering Swedish patents granted to individuals and small firms, the empirical analysis shows that profitability increases by 22 percentage points when inventions are commercialized by the entrepreneur instead of by inventors. However, active involvement of the inventor is shown to have a significantly positive impact on profitability, irrespective of commercialization mode.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Econ, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Eliasson, Gunnar
    KTH. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Ind Org, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sjoo, Karolin
    Lund Univ, Econ Hist, Lund, Sweden..
    The Swedish industrial support program of the 1970s revisited2018In: Journal of evolutionary economics, ISSN 0936-9937, E-ISSN 1432-1386, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 805-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The economy-wide dynamic cost-benefit study of the Swedish industrial subsidy program 1976 through 1984 (Carlsson et al. Res Policy 10(43):336-354 1981; Carlsson J Ind Econ 32(1):9-14, 1983a, b) is revisited in light of later economic development. Since the Swedish Micro to Macro model (Eliasson Am Econ Rev 67(1):277-281 1977a, 2017a) was used for quantification, this article is both (1) a study on the calibration of high dimensional micro-based and nonlinear economic systems models, and (2) a post inquiry into the empirical credibility of the cost-benefit calculations performed. We find that the Micro-based Macro model represents the minimum of detailed resolution necessary for the dynamic cost benefit calculations of the micro interventions in the Swedish economy we study. Even though the increased model complexity meant significant parameter calibration difficulties, a thoroughly researched model specification with exactly defined policy interfaces (with the markets of the economy) should take priority over parameter estimation problems, and always be preferred to estimating the parameters of a wrongly specified model perfectly. The oil price shocks of the 1970s caused radical market disorder in the western economies, bankrupting some 35% of Swedish manufacturing and threatening the Swedish government with massive unemployment. We confirm the earlier results that the government choice of a radical employment rescue policy came at enormous social cost in the form of economic stagnation, and still did not prevent the unemployment of the rest of OECD Europe from hitting Sweden a decade later, and persisting well into the next millennium. According to an alternative simulated policy scenario on the model, had the subsidies been replaced with a general lowering of the payroll tax of the same magnitude and the consequent increase in unemployment taken immediately during 1976-1980, production structures would have been radically and rapidly reorganized, normal employment would have been rapidly restored, and neither the stagnation nor the radical increase in unemployment of the early 1990s would have occurred. In retrospect we see no reason to worry about the empirical credibility of this computed dynamic trade off between Keynesian demand and Schumpeterian supply effects (caused by resource reallocations and endogenous structural change due to the price change), as we did then. We conclude with certainty that this trade-off would not even have been discovered as a possibility had we used a traditional model that did not embody these micro-macro linkages.

  • 5.
    Eliasson, Gunnar
    KTH.
    Advanced purchasing, spillovers and innovative discovery2011In: Journal of evolutionary economics, ISSN 0936-9937, E-ISSN 1432-1386, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 121-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced product development distinguishes itself by being surrounded by a "cloud of technology spillovers" available to external users in proportion to their competence to commercialize them. The local capacity to commercialize spillovers is experience based and hence more narrow than the range of innovations. The cloud will therefore be incompletely explored. While the value of the cloud to society may be greater than the development investment, the value captured by the producer is often not sufficient to make the product development privately profitable. The producer faces the property rights problem of how to charge for the dual product it develops, the product itself and as much as possible for the technology cloud. The public and private customers, however, appreciate the situation differently. While the former appears in the double customer role of being interested in both the product procured and the spillover benefits to society, the latter is not interested in paying for spillovers that only benefit society. Marketing the product, therefore, involves the ability to present a credible case for the economic value to society of the spillovers. To do that, a theory is needed that demonstrates both the user value to the customer, and the entrepreneurial capacity of the economy to commercialize the spillovers. The theoretical argument is illustrated with the case of downstream industrial business formation around Swedish military aircraft industry.

  • 6.
    Eliasson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    The incomplete Schumpeter Stockholm School connection2015In: Journal of evolutionary economics, ISSN 0936-9937, E-ISSN 1432-1386, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 45-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the early post WWII years Walrasian minded static equilibrium economists managed to disconnect a promising merge of Schumpeterian and Swedish School economics, and for decades more or less block the development of evolutionary dynamics. This paper is a fresh start of what should then have been done. I link my discussion to Loasby's (1998) two forms of coordination failure of; (1) failure of economists to model the coordination of an economy "out of equilibrium" and (2) failure of economists of competing schools to understand and benefit from each other. I find that 2 may explain 1.

  • 7.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Economics.
    Multinational enterprises and innovation: firm level evidence on spillover via R&D collaboration2009In: Journal of evolutionary economics, ISSN 0936-9937, E-ISSN 1432-1386, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 41-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates the knowledge spillovers to multinational enterprises (MNEs) in Sweden via domestic and foreign R&D collaboration. Applying an augmented generalized method of moments-estimator that accounts for selectivity and simultaneity bias on data from 1,249 MNEs, our research has resulted in five distinct conclusions. First, we find that the knowledge spillovers via R&D collaboration typically take place as a network phenomenon rather than a process between the local firm and a single innovation partner. Second, successful collaboration is conditional on the presence of foreign innovation partners in the network. Third, output is found to be an increasing function of R&D-collaboration only among non-export oriented firms. Fourth, foreign MNEs, selling mainly to local and regional markets in Sweden, benefit more from R&D collaboration than do other firms. Overall, the results show that demand-driven motives that require entrepreneurial knowledge to adapt products to local consumers and markets are more important for successful R&D-collaboration than supply-driven motives.

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