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  • 1. Andersson, R. M.
    et al.
    Aizman, O.
    Aperia, A.
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Modulation of Na+,K+-ATPase activity is of importance for RVD2004In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 180, no 4, p. 329-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study was performed to examine the role of Na+,K+-ATPase activity for the adaptive response to cell swelling induced by hypoosmoticity, i.e. the regulatory volume decrease (RVD). Methods: The studies were performed on COS-7 cells transfected with rat Na+,K+-ATPase. To study changes in cell volume, cells were loaded with the fluorescent dye calcein and the intensity of the dye, following exposure to a hypoosmotic medium, was recorded with confocal microscopy. Results: Ouabain-mediated inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase resulted in a dose dependent decrease in the rate of RVD. Total Rb-86(+) uptake as well as ouabain dependent Rb-86(+) uptake, used as an index of Na+,K+-ATPase dependent K+ uptake, was significantly increased during the first 2 min following exposure to hypoosmoticity. Since protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in the modulation of RVD, a study was carried out on COS-7 cells expressing rat Na+,K+-ATPase, where Ser23 in the catalytic alpha1 subunit of rat Na+,K+-ATPase had been mutated to Ala (S23A), abolishing a known PKC phosphorylation site. Cells expressing S23A rat Na+,K+-ATPase exhibited a significantly lower rate of RVD and showed no increase in Rb-86(+) uptake during RVD. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that a PKC-mediated transient increase in Na+,K+-ATPase activity plays an important role in RVD.

  • 2. Baer, R
    et al.
    Eiken, Ola
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Effects of continuous positive- and negative-pressure breathing on the pattern of breathing in man during exercise.1989In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 137, no 2, p. 301-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breathing pattern and static lung volumes were studied in 10 subjects at rest and during incremental-load cycle ergometry under three different conditions, viz. with normal pressure in the airways (control) and during continuous positive- and negative-pressure breathing (CPPB, CNPB) of +15 and -15 cmH2O. End-expiratory, end-inspiratory and mid-expiratory volumes were increased by CPPB and decreased by CNPB; these effects were especially pronounced at rest and during mild exercise. Both at rest and during exercise mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI) was exaggerated by CPPB and attenuated by CNPB. At rest these changes were due mainly to concomitant changes in tidal volume (VT) which was increased by CPPB and decreased by CNPB, while inspiratory time duration (TI) was relatively unaffected by pressure breathing. The transition from rest to loadless pedalling induced an increase in VT but no change in TI in the control condition, whereas in the CPPB and CNPB conditions TI decreased and VT remained unaltered. This CPPB- and CNPB-induced change in the volume-time threshold relationship at the onset of pedalling is attributed to increased stretch receptor activity in the extrathoracic portion of the trachea as a result of the increments in transmural pressure. During the course of exercise there was an inverse relationship between the slope of the VT-TI curve and the mid-expiratory volume in that the slope was greater in the control than in the CPPB condition and greatest during CNPB, suggesting that in exercise hyperpnoea the VT-TI relationship is also determined by pulmonary and/or thoracic wall stretch receptors capable of sensing the absolute lung volume.

  • 3. Berglund, B
    et al.
    Gennser, Mikael
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Ornhagen, H
    Ostberg, C
    Wide, L
    Erythropoietin concentrations during 10 days of normobaric hypoxia under controlled environmental circumstances.2002In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 174, no 3, p. 225-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serum erythropoietin levels (s-[epo]), haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), haematocrit (hct), and ferritin concentration ([fer]) were measured in seven healthy male volunteers (20-23 years) exposed continuously to hypoxia (PO(2) 14 kPa) for 10 days. Serum erythropoietin concentration increased significantly from 9.5 +/- 3.51 to 33.6 +/- 11.64 U L(-1) (P < 0.05) after 2 days of hypoxia. Thereafter, s-[epo] decreased. However, after 10 days s-[epo] was 18.7 +/- 5.83 U L(-1) which was still increased above the pre-hypoxia level (P < 0.05). Serum haemoglobin concentration and hct increased over the 10 days of hypoxia, [Hb] from 152 +/- 8.9 to 168 +/- 9.2 gL(-1) (P < 0.001), and hct from 43 +/- 2.4 to 49 +/- 2.6% (P < 0.001). Ferritin concentration decreased significantly during the hypoxic exposure from 82 +/- 46.9 to 44 +/- 31.7 mmol L(-1) after 10 days (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the initial increase of s-[epo] under controlled normobaric hypoxia was marked, 353%, and levelled off after 5-10 days at 62-97% above normoxia level. There was also a significant increase in [Hb] and hct and a decrease in [fer] after 10 days of exposure to normobaric hypoxia.

  • 4. Brismar, Hjalmar
    et al.
    Agren, M.
    Holtback, U.
    beta-Adrenoceptor agonist sensitizes the dopamine-1 receptor in renal tubular cells2002In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 175, no 4, p. 333-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The renal effects of dopamine are mainly mediated via the dopamine-1 receptor (D1 receptor). This receptor is recruited from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane by dopamine and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), via adenylyl cyclase activation. We have studied whether isoproterenol, a beta -adrenoceptor (beta -AR) agonist that may interact with dopamine in the regulation of rat renal Na+, K+ -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, can recruit D1 receptors to the plasma membrane. The spatial regulation of D1 receptors was examined using confocal microscopy techniques in LLCPK cells and the functional interaction between dopamine and isoproterenol was examined by studying their effects on Na+, K+ -ATPase activity in microdissected single proximal tubular segments from rat. Isoproterenol was found to translocate the D1 receptors from the interior of the cell towards the plasma membrane. The recruitment of dopamine 1 receptors was found to be cyclic adenosine phosphate (cAMP) dependent, while protein kinase C (PKC) activation was not involved. The functional studies on Na+, K+ -ATPase activity showed that the effect of isoproterenol was abolished by a D1-like receptor antagonist (SCH 23390), and mediated via protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC dependent pathways. The results provide an explanation for the interaction between G protein-coupled receptors. The effects of isoproterenol on Na+, K+ -ATPase activity can be explained by a heterologous recruitment of D1 receptors to the plasma membrane.

  • 5.
    Broomé, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Haney, M.
    Häggmark, S.
    Johansson, G.
    Åneman, A.
    Biber, B.
    Pressure-independent cardiac effects of angiotensin II in pigs2004In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 182, no 2, p. 111-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a potent vasoconstrictor with an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Earlier results have shown a positive acute inotropic effect of Ang II in anaesthetized pigs together with significant vasoconstriction. This investigation was designed to study cardiac effects of Ang II, when blood pressure was maintained constant by experimental means. METHODS: Ang II (200 microg h(-1)) was infused in anaesthetized pigs (n = 10) at two different arterial blood pressures, the first determined by the effects of Ang II alone, and the second maintained at baseline blood pressure with nitroprusside. Cardiac systolic and diastolic function was evaluated by analysis of left ventricular pressure-volume relationships. RESULTS: Heart rate, end-systolic elastance (Ees) and pre-load adjusted maximal power (PWRmax EDV(-2)) increased at both blood pressure levels, although less when blood pressure was kept constant with nitroprusside. The time constant for isovolumetric relaxation (tau(1/2)) was prolonged with Ang II alone and shortened with Ang II infused together with nitroprusside. CONCLUSION: Ang II infusion in the pig has inotropic and chronotropic properties independent of arterial blood pressure levels, although the effects seem to be blunted by pharmacological actions of the nitric oxide donor nitroprusside.

  • 6.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bjurstedt, H.
    Dynamic exercise in man as influenced by experimental restriction of blood flow in the working muscles1987In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 131, no 3, p. 339-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of reduced muscle perfusion pressure on dynamic exercise performance and cardiovascular and respiratory functions were investigated. Eight subjects were studied during supine cycle ergometry at stepwise increasing workloads until exhaustion with and without the legs exposed to a supra-atmospheric pressure of 50 mmHg (Leg Positive Pressure, LPP), a novel and convenient means of reducing the perfusion pressure in the working muscles. In the LPP condition exercise performance was reduced by 40% which, judging from assessments of perceived exertion, was due to premature muscle fatigue, indicating local or overall underperfusion of the working muscles. At any given work load, the arterial pressure response was considerably stronger during LPP than in the control condition. LPP also caused greater increases in blood lactate concentration and pulmonary ventilation, the differences from control increasing with the work load. Furthermore, the ventilatory equivalent for O2 at a given work load was markedly higher in the LPP than in the control condition, while exercise-induced decreases in end-tidal PCO2 were considerably exaggerated by LPP. The augmented pressor response during flow-restricted exercise, together with the strong ventilatory response which was out of proportion to overall O2 uptake, suggests increased activation of muscle chemoreflexes by accumulation of metabolic end products, the increased pressor response tending to reduce the local flow error in the working muscles.

  • 7.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University.
    Convertino, V. A.
    Doerr, D. F.
    Dudley, G. A.
    Morariu, G.
    Mekjavic, I. B.
    Characteristics of the carotid baroreflex in man during normal and flow-restricted exercise1992In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 144, no 3, p. 325-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight subjects were studied in the supine position at rest, during normal dynamic leg exercise (control exercise) and with blood-flow restriction in the working legs (flow-restricted exercise). Graded muscle blood-flow restriction was accomplished by applying a supra-atmospheric pressure of 50 mmHg to the working legs. During incremental-load exercise, flow restriction reduced exercise performance and peak heart rate by 36% and 13%, respectively. The function of the cardiac branch of the carotid baroreflex was studied over its full operational range, at rest and during constant-load control and flow-restricted exercise, by measuring R-R intervals during application of pulse-synchronous graded pressures (40 to -65 mmHg) in a neck-chamber device. Heart rate and arterial pressure were higher during flow-restricted than control exercise, indicating that the flow restriction activated the muscle chemoreflex. Raising the carotid transmural pressure (systolic arterial pressure minus neck-chamber pressure) was accompanied by increasing R-R intervals in all conditions. The set point (point of baseline carotid transmural pressure and R-R interval) coincided with the midportion of the pressure-response curve at rest and with the threshold point of the curve during exercise. The maximal rate of change in relative R-R intervals and the corresponding carotid transmural pressure range were higher during control exercise than at rest and highest during flow-restricted exercise, indicating that exercise and especially flow-restricted exercise increased carotid baroflex sensitivity, and shifted the carotid baroreflex optimal buffering range to higher pressures. The results suggest that the carotid baroflex attenuates exercise heart rate increases mediated by the muscle chemoreflex and/or by central command.

  • 8.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Defence Medicine, Berzelius v. 13, Karolinska Institutet.
    Kölegård, Roger
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Defence Medicine, Berzelius v. 13, Karolinska Institutet.
    Comparison of vascular distensibility in the upper and lower extremity2004In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 181, no 3, p. 281-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Because of the great differences in hydrostatic pressure acting along the blood vessels in the erect posture, leg vessels are exposed to greater transmural pressures than arm vessels. The in vivo pressure-distension relationship of arteries, arterioles and veins in the arm were compared with those of the leg. Methods: Experiments were performed with the subject (n = 11) positioned in a pressure chamber with an arm or lower leg (test limb) extended at heart level through a hole in the chamber door. Intravascular pressure in the arm/lower leg was increased by stepwise increasing chamber pressure to +180 and +210 mmHg, respectively. Diameters of blood vessels and arterial flow were measured using ultrasonographic/Doppler techniques. Changes in forearm and lower leg volumes were assessed using an impedance technique. The subject rated perceived pain in the test limb. Results: The brachial and radial arteries were found to be more distensible than the posterior tibial artery (P < 0.001). Likewise, the distension was more pronounced in the cephalic than in the great saphenous vein (P < 0.001). In the brachial artery, but not in the posterior tibial artery, flow increased markedly at the highest levels of distending pressure (P < 0.001). At the highest intravascular pressures, the rate of change in tissue impedance was greater in the forearm than the lower leg (P < 0.01). At any given level of markedly increased pressure, pain was rated higher in the arm than in the leg (P < 0.001). Conclusion: It seems that the wall stiffness of arteries, pre-capillary resistance vessels and veins adapts to meet the long-term demands imposed by the hydrostatic pressure acting locally on the vessel walls.

  • 9.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lind, F.
    Bjurstedt, H.
    Effects of blood volume distribution on ventilatory variables at rest and during exercise1986In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 127, no 4, p. 507-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ventilatory variables and heart rate (HR) were investigated in eight supine subjects during dynamic leg exercise at 0 and 100 W with and without the lower portion of the body exposed to a pressure of -50 mmHg (lower body negative pressure, LBNP). Resting values of inspired minute volume (V1), and respiratory drive in terms of mouth occlusion pressure (P0.1) were unchanged, whereas HR was higher during LBNP than in the control condition. Exercise values for HR in steady state were not affected by LBNP, whereas V1 was 15 and 11% lower and P0.1 was 20 and 11% lower in this condition at the 0 and 100 W workload levels, respectively. Time courses for V1 at the onset of 100 W exercise were similar with and without exposure to LBNP, indicating that the sudden increase in venous return occurring upon onset of pedalling during LBNP affords no significant stimulus in the initial development of exercise hyperpnoea. That exercise ventilation and P0.1 in steady state were reduced by LBNP suggests diminished humoral and/or locally induced chemical drive due to improved blood flow in exercising muscles resulting in reduced production of muscle metabolites or facilitation of their removal.

  • 10.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Mekjavic, I. B.
    Ischaemia in working muscles potentiates the exercise-induced sweating response in man2004In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 181, no 3, p. 305-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The purpose was to examine whether graded ischaemia in the working muscles affects the rate of sweating and the control of exercise core temperature.

    METHODS: Eight subjects performed cycle ergometry exercise in the supine position with (ischaemic exercise) and without (control exercise) restriction of blood flow in the contracting muscles, accomplished by exposure of the legs to a supra-atmospheric pressure of 6.6 kPa. Each subject performed one exhaustive incremental work rate trial and one steady-state exercise trial (at 33% of control peak work rate), in both the control and ischaemia conditions.

    RESULTS: Ischaemia decreased work performance by 45% so that in this condition the steady-state work rate level corresponded to 63% of ischaemic peak work rate. Ischaemia did not affect the oesophageal temperature equilibrium in the steady-state trials, but potentiated the exercise sweating response. Exercise responses of mean arterial pressure, heart rate and pulmonary ventilation were potentiated by ischaemia.

    CONCLUSION: During ischaemic exercise sweat secretion was potentiated by non-thermal and/or local thermal stimuli.

  • 11.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sun, J. C.
    Mekjavic, I. B.
    Effects of blood-volume distribution on the characteristics of the carotid baroreflex in humans at rest and during exercise1994In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 150, no 1, p. 89-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven supine subjects were studied at rest and during mild to moderate dynamic leg exercise with and without unloading of the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors accomplished by exposing the lower portion of the body to a subatmospheric pressure of 20 mmHg (Lower Body Negative Pressure, LBNP). The function of the cardiac branch of the carotid baroreflex was studied over its full operational range by measuring R-R intervals during application of pulse synchronous graded pressures (40 to -65 mmHg) in a neck-chamber device. Raising the carotid transmural pressure (systolic arterial pressure minus neck-chamber pressure) induced increasing R-R intervals in all conditions. In conformity with previous results from our laboratories it was found that the maximal rate of change in relative R-R intervals and the corresponding transmural pressure were higher during exercise than at rest, indicating that exercise increased the carotid baroreflex sensitivity and shifted its optimal buffering range to higher arterial pressures. LBNP did not affect the characteristics of the reflex at rest nor during exercise. It is concluded that reduced central venous pressure with consequent selective cardiopulmonary receptor disengagement exerts no influence on the carotid baroreflex control of heart rate (HR), as tested over the entire arterial pressure-effector response relation, either at rest or during mild-moderate exercise.

  • 12.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Tesch, P.A.
    Effects of hyperoxia and hypoxia on dynamic and sustained static performance of the human quadriceps muscle1984In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 122, no 4, p. 629-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of variations in inspired PO2 on dynamic and static muscle performance of the left quadriceps muscle was studied. Eight subjects performed (1) 60 maximal consecutive dynamic contractions and (2) one sustained exhaustive static contraction at 27% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Breathing mixtures containing 11%, 21% or 99% O2, were administered. Peak torque as an average of the 60 knee extensions was higher (p less than 0.01) during hyperoxia (mean +/- SE = 104 +/- 4 Nm) than during normoxia (98 +/- 4 Nm), but did not differ significantly between hypoxia (95 +/- 5 Nm) and normoxia. Peak torque of individual extensions declined more rapidly during hypoxia than during normoxia, differing in the final 12 extensions by 11% from normoxic values. Static endurance time was reduced (p less than 0.02) during hypoxia (152 +/- 12 s) as compared to normoxia (189 +/- 13 s) and hyperoxia (169 +/- 11 s). No significant difference in endurance time was demonstrated between hyperoxia and normoxia. Thus, hypoxia impaired muscle performance in both dynamic and sustained static exercise, whereas acute hyperoxia improved dynamic but not static muscle performance. The results are interpreted in terms of differences in rate of intramuscular H+ accumulation.

  • 13. Esbjörnsson, M
    et al.
    Jansson, E
    Sundberg, C J
    Sylvén, C
    Eiken, Ola
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nygren, A
    Kaijser, L
    Muscle fibre types and enzyme activities after training with local leg ischaemia in man.1993In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 148, no 3, p. 233-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight healthy men performed supine one-legged training on a bicycle ergometer 45 min per leg four times per week for 4 week. The ergometer and lower body were inside a pressure chamber, the opening of which was sealed at the level of the crotch. One leg trained with impeded leg blood flow (I-leg), induced by an increased (50 mmHg) chamber pressure, at the highest tolerable intensity. The contralateral leg trained at the same power under normal pressure (N-leg). Before and after training biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of both legs and maximal one-legged exercise tests were executed with both legs. Biopsies were repeated when the subjects had been back to their habitual physical activity for 3 months. Training increased exercise time to exhaustion, but more in the I-leg than in the N-leg. After training, the I-leg had higher activity of citrate synthase (CS), a marker of oxidative capacity, and lower activity of the M-subunit of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes. It also had a higher percentage of type-I fibres and a lower percentage of IIB fibres, larger areas of all fibre types and a greater number of capillaries per fibre. It is concluded that ischaemic training changes the muscle metabolic profile in a direction facilitating aerobic metabolism. An altered fibre-type composition may contribute, but is not enough prerequisite for the change.

  • 14. Holtback, U.
    et al.
    Kruse, M. S.
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    Aperia, A.
    Intrarenal dopamine coordinates the effect of antinatriuretic and natriuretic factors2000In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 168, no 1, p. 215-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The precision by which sodium balance is regulated suggests an intricate interaction between modulatory factors released from intra- and extrarenal sources. Intrarenally produced dopamine has a central role in this interactive network. Dopamine, produced in renal tubular cells acts as an autocrine and paracrine factor to inhibit the activity of Na+,K+-ATPase as well as of a number of sodium influx pathways. The natriuretic effect of dopamine is most prominent under high salt diet. The antinatriuretic effects of noradrenaline, acting on alpha-adrenoceptors and angiotensin II are opposed by dopamine as well as by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Several lines of evidence have suggested that ANP acts via the renal dopamine system and recent studies from our laboratory have shown that this effect is attributed to recruitment of silent D1 receptors from the interior of the cell towards the plasma membrane. Taken together, the observations suggest that dopamine coordinates the effects of antinatriuretic and natriuretic factors and indicate that an intact renal dopamine system is of major importance for the maintenance of sodium homeostasis and normal blood pressure.

  • 15. Jensen-Urstad, K
    et al.
    Storck, N
    Bouvier, F
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Lindblad, L E
    Jensen-Urstad, M
    Heart rate variability in healthy subjects is related to age and gender.1997In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 160, no 3, p. 235-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of age and gender on heart rate variability as measured by spectral and time domain analysis of 24 h ECG recordings were evaluated in 101 healthy subjects, 49 men and 52 women (20-69 years of age). In the frequency domain, total power, very low-frequency power, low-frequency power and high-frequency power were negatively correlated to age (P < 0.001 for all variables). Total power decreased by 30% between 20-29 and 60-69 years of age. In the time domain, SDNN-index, the mean of the standard deviations of all normal R-R intervals for all 5 min segments of a 24 h ECG recording, was negatively correlated to age (P < 0.001). Total power, very low-frequency power, low-frequency power and the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio were lower in women (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01), although the absolute differences were much smaller than for age. There was a pronounced circadian variation; at night total power increased in all age groups (P < 0.01). The results show that age, and to a lesser degree gender, are important determinants of heart rate variability in healthy subjects. Heart rate variability is a valuable tool for risk stratification in cardiovascular disease, but the physiological effects of ageing, with diminishing heart rate variability in older age groups, must also be taken into account.

  • 16. Mekjavic, I. B.
    et al.
    Eiken, Ola
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Inhibition of shivering in man by thermal stimulation of the facial area1985In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 125, no 4, p. 633-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of the facial thermoreceptors to thermoregulatory shivering was studied. Seven subjects were exposed to -3 degrees C ambient air for 1 h. Radiant heat was applied to the facial area during 30 s periods at 10 min intervals and the effects on the integrated electromyographic activity (IEMG) in the brachial biceps, trapezius and femoral rectus muscles, and on the heart rate (HR) were studied. During cold-air exposure mean skin temperature as measured at four sites decreased by 15.5 +/- 0.6 degrees C (mean +/- SE) while rectal temperature remained virtually unchanged. During the radiant heat exposures IEMG activity decreased by 18.9 +/- 2.3%; HR decreased by 11 +/- 1 beats min-1. The changes in IEMG occurred within or slightly below the range of maximum cold receptor sensitivity (20-30 degrees C) and coincided with the maximum rate of change in chin temperature. The observed inhibition of shivering IEMG during locally applied facial heat stimulation suggest that the trigeminal region contributes an important input to the overall thermoregulatory responses.

  • 17. Rousseau, A.
    et al.
    Bak, Z.
    Janerot Sjöberg, Birgitta
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Heart Centre, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, F.
    Acute hyperoxaemia-induced effects on regional blood flow, oxygen consumption and central circulation in man2005In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 183, no 3, p. 231-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Despite numerous in vitro and animal studies, circulatory effects and mechanisms responsible for the vasoconstriction seen during hyperoxaemia are yet to be ascertained. The present study set out to: (i) set up a non-invasive human model for the study of hyperoxia-induced cardiovascular effects, (ii) describe the dynamics of this effect and (iii) determine whether hyperoxaemia also, by vasoconstriction alters oxygen consumption (O(2)). METHODS: The study comprised four experiments (A, B, C and D) on healthy volunteers examined before, during and after 100% oxygen breathing. A: Blood flow (mL min(-1).100 mL(-1) tissue), venous occlusion plethysmography was assessed (n = 12). B: Blood flow was recorded with increasing transcutaneous oxygen tension (P(tc)O(2)) levels (dose-response) (n = 8). C: Heart rate (HR), stroke volume, cardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) was assessed using echocardiography (n = 8). D: O(2) was measured using an open circuit technique when breathing an air-O(2) mix (fraction of inhaled oxygen: F(i)O(2) = 0.58) (n = 8). RESULTS: Calf blood flow decreased 30% during O(2) breathing. The decrease in calf blood flow was found to be oxygen dose dependent. A similar magnitude, as for the peripheral circulation, of the effect on central parameters (HR/CO and SVR) and in the time relationship was noted. Hyperoxia did not change O(2). An average of 207 (93) mL O(2) per subject was washed in during the experiments. CONCLUSION: This model appears suitable for the investigation of O(2)-related effects on the central and peripheral circulation in man. Our findings, based on a more comprehensive (central/peripheral circulation examination) evaluation than earlier made, suggest significant circulatory effects of hyperoxia. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  • 18. Sundberg, C. J.
    et al.
    Eiken, Ola
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nygren, A.
    Kaijser, L.
    Effects of ischaemic training on local aerobic muscle performance in man1993In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 148, no 1, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of ischaemic and non-ischaemic training on aerobic performance. In 10 subjects, peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) and time to fatigue (TTF) for one-legged exercise were measured before and after 4 weeks (4 times week-1) of one-legged training. Each training session started with one leg training for 45 min with 20% blood-flow reduction induced by local application of a supra-atmospheric external pressure of 50 mmHg (ischaemic leg; I-leg). We have previously shown that this decreases leg blood flow by about 20%. The contralateral leg (non-restricted-flow leg; N-leg), serving as a control, then trained with an identical power-output profile for 45 min but without flow restriction. In the I-leg the average training-induced increments in TTF and peak VO2 were 27 and 24%, respectively. In the N-trained leg TTF and peak-VO2 increased 10 and 14%, respectively. Both increments were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the I-trained leg. Moreover, the performance increase in the I-trained leg was exaggerated (P < 0.05) in the ischaemic test condition, i.e. there was a specificity in the training response. In conclusion, ischaemia acts as an additive stimulus to training leading to an exaggerated increase in endurance and peak-VO2 compared to identical training without blood-flow restriction. The main explanation is probably an enhanced local adaptation in the I-trained leg.

  • 19. Sundstedt, M.
    et al.
    Hedberg, P.
    Jonason, T.
    Ringqvist, I.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henriksen, E.
    Left ventricular volumes during exercise in endurance athletes assessed by contrast echocardiography2004In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 182, no 1, p. 45-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The objective was to assess left ventricular (LV) volumes at rest and during upright submaximal exercise in endurance athletes to see whether changes in heart volume could explain the large predicted increase in cardiac output in endurance athletes. Method: Contrast echocardiography was used to assess changes in LV volumes during upright bicycle exercise in 24 healthy male endurance athletes. Maximal oxygen uptake and oxygen pulse were measured by using cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Results: From rest to exercise at a heart rate of 160 beats min(-1) end-diastolic volume increased by 18% (P < 0.001) and end-systolic volume decreased by 21% (P = 0.002). Stroke volume showed an almost linear increase during exercise (45% increase, P < 0.001). The increase in end-diastolic volume contributed to 73% of the increase in stroke volume. No significant differences were observed between stroke volume calculated from LV volumes with contrast echocardiography and stroke volume calculated from oxygen pulse at heart rates of 130 and 160 beats min(-1). Using the linear regression equation between oxygen uptake and cardiac output assessed by echocardiography during exercise (r = 0.87, P = 0.002), cardiac output at maximal exercise was estimated at 33 +/- 3 L min(-1), with an estimated increase in stroke volume by 69% from rest to maximal exercise. Conclusion: By using contrast echocardiography, a large increase in stroke volume in endurance athletes could be explained by an almost linear increase in end-diastolic volume and an initial small decrease in end-systolic volume during incremental upright exercise.

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