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  • 1. Acs, Zoltan J.
    et al.
    Audretsch, David B.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Growth and entrepreneurship2012Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 289-300Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we suggest that the spillover of knowledge may not occur automatically as typically assumed in models of endogenous growth. Rather, a mechanism is required to serve as a conduit for the spillover and commercialization of knowledge from the source creating it, to the firms actually commercializing the new ideas. In this paper, entrepreneurship is identified as one such mechanism facilitating the spillover of knowledge. Using a panel of entrepreneurship data from 18 countries, we provide empirical evidence that, in addition to measures of Research & Development and human capital, entrepreneurial activity also serves to promote economic growth.

  • 2. Acs, Zoltan J.
    et al.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi, Samhällsekonomi.
    Audretsch, David B.
    Carlsson, Bo
    The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship2009Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 15-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary theories of entrepreneurship generally focus on the recognition of opportunities and the decision to exploit them. Although the entrepreneurship literature treats opportunities as exogenous, the prevailing theory of economic growth suggests they are endogenous. This paper advances the microeconomic foundations of endogenous growth theory by developing a knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Knowledge created endogenously results in knowledge spillovers, which allow entrepreneurs to identify and exploit opportunities.

  • 3. Acs, Zoltan J.
    et al.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Phillipe Aghion: recipient of the 2016 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research2016Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Professor Philippe Aghion is the 2016 recipient of the Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research, consisting of 100,000 Euros and a statuette designed by the internationally renowned Swedish sculptor Carl Milles. He is one of the most influential researchers worldwide in economics in the last couple of decades. His research has advanced our understanding of the relationship between firm-level innovation, entry and exit on the one hand, and productivity and growth on the other. Aghion has thus accomplished to bridge theoretical macroeconomic growth models with a more complete and consistent microeconomic setting. He is one of the founding fathers of the pioneering and original contribution referred to as Schumpeterian growth theory. Philippe Aghion has not only contributed with more sophisticated theoretical models, but also provided empirical evidence regarding the importance of entrepreneurial endeavours for societal prosperity, thereby initiating a more nuanced policy discussion concerning the interdependencies between entrepreneurship, competition, wealth and growth.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Noseleit, Florian
    Start-ups and employment dynamics within and across sectors2011Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 36, nr 4, s. 461-483Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a decade of longitudinal data on start-ups and employment in Swedish regions to analyze the effect of start-ups on subsequent employment growth. We extend previous analyses by decomposing the effect of start-ups on total employment change into within- and cross-sector effects. We find that start-ups in a sector influence employment change in the same as well as in other sectors. The results illustrate that the known S-shaped pattern can be attributed to the different effects of start-ups in a sector on employment change in the same sector and in others. Start-ups in a sector have a positive impact on employment change in the same sector. The effects on employment change in other sectors may be negative or positive, and depend on the sector under consideration. In particular, start-ups in high-end services deviate from manufacturing and low-end services in that they have significant negative impacts on employment change in other sectors. The findings are consistent with the idea that start-ups are a vehicle for change in the composition of regional industry.

  • 5.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University.
    Olofsson, Christer
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Silver, Lars
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University.
    Control aversion and the search for external financing in Swedish SMEs2000Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 233-242Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion on growth (see Storey, 1997) and control aversion (Cressy, 1995; Chittenden et al., 1996; Cressy and Olofsson, 1996) in small and medium sized firms has been attracting an increasing amount of attention. Our purpose in this article is to identify under what circumstances small and medium sized firms are prepared to accept outside control in the business firm in order to grow. In the article it is argued that technology development, financial strength, size and perceived need to grow, change firms attitudes towards external financiers. The change in attitude towards more openness eventually leads to an actual behaviour where the principals choose to apply for external finance in the form of bank loans. A linear structural equation modelling program, LISREL, is used to analyse a sample of 281 Swedish firms. The firms all have less than 200 employees, and the sample includes both manufacturing and service firms.

  • 6.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi, Samhällsekonomi.
    Acs, Zoltan J.
    Audretsch, David B.
    Carlsson, Bo
    The missing link: knowledge diffusion and entrepreneurship in endogenous growth2010Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 105-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The intellectual breakthrough contributed by the new growth theory was the recognition that investments in knowledge and human capital endogenously generate economic growth through the spillover of knowledge. However, endogenous growth theory does not explain how or why spillovers occur. This paper presents a model that shows how growth depends on knowledge accumulation and its diffusion through both incumbents and entrepreneurial activities. We claim that entrepreneurs are one missing link in converting knowledge into economically relevant knowledge. Implementing different regression techniques for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during 1981 to 2002 provides surprisingly robust evidence that primarily entrepreneurs contributed to growth and that the importance of entrepreneurs increased in the 1990s. A Granger test confirms that causality goes in the direction from entrepreneurs to growth. The results indicate that policies facilitating entrepreneurship are an important tool to enhance knowledge diffusion and promote economic growth.

  • 7.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Industry clusters in Ohio and Sweden, 1975-19951999Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 12, s. 279-293Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Industry Clusters in Ohio and Sweden, 1975-19951999Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9. Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Steven Klepper: Recipient of the 2011 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research2011Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 131-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the academic contributions of the 2011 receiver of the Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research, Professor Steven Klepper, Carnegie Mellon University. The Global Award consists of 100,000 Euro and a statuette of the internationally renowned Swedish sculpture Carl Milles. Klepper has made breakthrough analyses in the realm of industrial dynamics, emphasizing the regularities in the time paths of entry of new producers, exit of incumbent firms, spin-offs and innovation. His work is predominantly empirical but he has also played an essential role in developing more rigorous theoretical models of phenomena such as spin-offs. Of particular importance is how Klepper has managed to link traditional neoclassical models with evolutionary theory as well as entrepreneurship research with mainstream economics.

  • 10.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Eklund, Johan
    Thulin, Per
    KTH.
    Taxes, the tax adminstrative burden and the entrepreneurial life cycle2019Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a modified version of the entrepreneurial choice model, where it is shown that the expected utility of becoming an entrepreneur is decreasing in both the levels of taxes and the tax administrative burden. We extend previous empirical findings by examining how these variables influence entrepreneurs at different stages in the entrepreneurial life cycle. Our findings imply that the effect of the tax administrative burden varies over the entrepreneurial life cycle from strongly negative to insignificant. The most pronounced negative effects appear in the early stages of entrepreneurship. We conclude that a 10% reduction in the tax administrative burden increases the propensity for new business establishments by 4%. Our findings support the idea that tax simplification is one way to encourage entrepreneurship, without any reduction in tax revenues.

  • 11.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi, Samhällsekonomi.
    Parker, Simon C.
    Josh Lerner: recipient of the 2010 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research2010Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 245-254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the academic contributions of the 2010 recipient of the Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research, Professor Josh Lerner of the Harvard Business School. Lerner's empirical research on the inter-relationship between venture capital, innovation and entrepreneurship has greatly extended and improved our understanding of one of the major drivers of growth in modern economies. The first part of this article explains Lerner's contributions as regards the structure and organization of the venture capital industry. Later, his most important publications on entrepreneurship, innovation and intellectual property rights are surveyed. Several aspects of Lerner's policy-oriented work are then outlined, before the article closes with a brief conclusion.

  • 12.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Ding, Ding
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    The knowledge spillover theory of intrapreneurship2017Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing the Knowledge Spillover Theory of Intrapreneurship, we examine how labour mobility impacts innovation distributed by firm size. A matched employer-employee dataset, pooled with firm-level patent application data, is implemented in the analysis. We provide new evidence that knowledge workers’ mobility has a positive and strongly significant impact on all firms’ innovation output, measured as patent applications. The patterns and effects do however differ between large and small firms. More precisely, for small firms, intraregional mobility of knowledge workers who have previously worked in a patenting firm (the learning-by-hiring effect) is shown to be statistically and economically highly significant, whereas only limited impact could be detected for firms losing knowledge workers (the learning-by-diaspora effect).

  • 13. Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    McKelvey, Maureen
    Olofsson, Christer
    Persson, Lars
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    The evolving domain of entrepreneurship research2013Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 913-930Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on entrepreneurship has flourished in recent years and is evolving rapidly. This article explores the history of entrepreneurship research, how the research domain has evolved, and its current status as an academic field. The need to concretize these issues stems partly from a general interest in defining the current research domain and partly from the more specific tasks confronting the prize committee of the Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research. Entrepreneurship has developed in many sub-fields within several disciplines-primarily economics, management/business administration, sociology, psychology, economic and cultural anthropology, business history, strategy, marketing, finance, and geography-representing a variety of research traditions, perspectives, and methods. We present an analytical framework that organizes our thinking about the domain of entrepreneurship research by specifying elements, levels of analysis, and the process/context. An overview is provided of where the field stands today and how it is positioned relative to the existing disciplines and new research fields upon which it draws. Areas needed for future progress are highlighted, particularly the need for a rigorous dynamic theory of entrepreneurship that relates entrepreneurial activity to economic growth and human welfare. Moreover, applied work based on more careful design as well as on theoretical models yielding more credible and robust estimates seems also highly warranted.

  • 14.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    University choice and entrepreneurship2014Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 42s. 729-746Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at shedding light upon the impact of universities on graduates' entrepreneurial choice. Previous studies analyze the relationship between the choice of university and labor market success of graduates in terms of their subsequent wages, employability or over-education, whereas the possible link between the choice of university and entrepreneurial choice is neglected. Using 1998-2008 data on graduates from Swedish higher education institutions, the paper finds significant variation in the impact of universities on the career choice of graduates. The results suggest that graduates with degrees in the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine and teacher education from more prestigious universities systematically differ from others in their entrepreneurial choice. At the same time, no statistically significant difference is found for technical science graduates.

  • 15. Daunfeldt, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi (Stängd 20130101). The Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    Are High-Growth Firms One-Hit Wonders?: Evidence from Sweden2015Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 361-383Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most firms do not grow, and a small number of high-growth firms seem to create most new jobs. These firms have therefore received increasing attention among policymakers. The question is whether high-growth tends to persist? We investigate this question using data on 432,689 observa-ions in Sweden during 1998-2008. We find that high-growth firms had declining growth rates in the previous 3-year period, and their probability of repeating high growth rates was very low. HGFs are essentially one-hit wonders, and it is thus doubtful whether policymakers can improve economic outcomes by targeting them.

  • 16. Douhan, Robin
    et al.
    Eliasson, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Henrekson, Magnus
    Israel M. Kirzner: An outstanding Austrian contributor to the economics of entrepreneurship2007Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 29, nr 1-2, s. 213-223Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Israel M. Kirzner is the 2006 winner of The International Award for Entrepreneurship and Small Business Research. In this essay, we present and evaluate his main contributions to the economics of entrepreneurship. The focus is on how Kirzner defines the entrepreneurial function. In order to better understand his theory, we posit Kirzner's notion of an entrepreneur in the Austrian tradition. In so doing we emphasize that this concept opens up different perspectives as compared to the neoclassical theoretical framework. The three areas of economic policy, justice and freedom, and economic growth are discussed. We also show why the Kirznerian entrepreneur makes these issues relevant. Perhaps most importantly, Kirzner has made the Austrian School intelligible for non-Austrians. By bridging the chasm between Austrian and mainstream thinking, the crucial role of entrepreneurship and the individual entrepreneur has become visible to a much broader audience.

  • 17.
    Eliasson, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Henrekson, M
    William J. Baumol: An entrepreneurial economist on the economics of entrepreneurship2004Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 1-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    William J. Baumol is the 2003 winner of the International Award for Entrepreneurship and Small Business Research. Throughout his career Baumol has urged the profession to pay attention to the instrumental role of entrepreneurship in economic renewal and growth. At the same time he has insisted that economists continue to use their usual tool box when the purview of analysis is extended to entrepreneurship. Hence, Baumol can be characterized as a revolutionary from within. In this article we present and discuss Baumol's research contribution in the areas of entrepreneurship and small business economics, notably from a growth perspective. In addition to placing his work in these areas into the wider context of his full contribution, we emphasize Baumol's findings that growth cannot be explained by the accumulation of various factors of production per se; human creativity and productive entrepreneurship are needed to combine the inputs in profitable ways. As a result, an institutional environment that encourages productive entrepreneurship and human experimentation becomes the ultimate determinant of economic growth.

  • 18. Fölster, Stefan
    Do entrepreneurs create jobs?2000Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 137-148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries support the creation of new firms. Such policy is based on the presumption that the total number of jobs increases when a person moves from unemployment or regular employment to self-employment. In this paper the link between self-employment and overall employment is analyzed. The empirical analysis, based on panel data of Swedish counties from 1976-1995, pays particular attention to simultaneity issues. The results suggest that self-employment may have a significant positive effect on overall employment.

  • 19. Fölster, Stefan
    Do lower taxes stimulate self-employment?2002Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 135-145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the relation between taxation and the share of self-employed in two data sets. First, in a panel of OECD countries a strong negative correlation is found between the tax burden and the share of self-employed in total employment. Unfortunately the OECD data contains a number of measurement problems, and too few observations to allow a reliable detection of reverse causation. Therefore the analysis is complemented with regressions on the relation between the income tax and the share of self-employed using a panel of Swedish counties over the previous two decades. Here again there is a strong negative correlation between the tax burden and the share of self-employment. This survives simultaneous equations estimates and tests of Granger causality. Both samples indicate that reducing the tax burden by 10 percentage points (of GDP) increases the share of self-employed by about 3 percent of total employment.

  • 20. Karlsson, C.
    et al.
    Nyström, Kristina
    Exit and entry over the product life cycle: Evidence from the Swedish manufacturing industry2003Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 135-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the process of exit and entry of firms in the Swedish manufacturing industry is investigated within the framework of the product life cycle. The product life cycle theory explains how the high degree of uncertainty, as regards product designs and production methods, which is connected to the early stages of the product life cycle requires a high level of knowledge-intensity. Since uncertainty decrease over the product life cycle, less knowledge is needed in production during later stages of the product life cycle. This implies that knowledge-intensity differs for firms that exit and enter in different stages of the product life cycle. Four hypotheses regarding these relationships are stated and empirically tested in this paper, using data at the 5-digit SIC-level for the Swedish manufacturing industry during 1990-1996. The empirical results show that entrants in the early stages of the product life cycle are more knowledge-intensive than incumbent firms. It is also found that firms exiting in early stages of the product life cycle are more knowledge-intensive than firms exiting in later stages.

  • 21. Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    Warda, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. JIBS, Jonkoping, Sweden.
    Entrepreneurship and innovation networks2014Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 393-398Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we give a general introduction to the notion of entrepreneurship and how it has many complex meanings. Entrepreneurs in new firms but also in incumbent firms have a key role in local, regional and national economic development by taking risks to get things done by developing new combinations of ideas and/or doing things differently. In view of this, two of the main questions that are dealt with are: (1) which features make structural differences in institutions and innovation networks remain invariant between decades, and (2) how knowledge about such features can be employed in policy at the national and the regional level. The research questions highlighted in this special issue relate to many pertinent national and regional policy issues. The most apparent concerns conditions conducive for entrepreneurship in the form of new firms and firm growth. In this paper, we also introduce the different contributors to this special issue.

  • 22.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    et al.
    Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge.
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Nationalekonomi. Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Independent by necessity? The life satisfaction of necessity and opportunity entrepreneurs in 70 countries2019Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 921-934Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between self-employment and subjective well-being (SWB) is contingent on the heterogeneity observed among entrepreneurs. We argue that independence and job control, two commonly suggested sources of entrepreneurs’ higher SWB, are likely to disproportionately benefit opportunity entrepreneurs who were pulled into their occupation choice. A review of the psychological literature on the determinants of well-being further supports the view that more dynamic and impactful entrepreneurship should lead to higher SWB. Analysis of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data from 70 countries (N = 111,589) confirm this proposition. We show that entrepreneurs, all else equal, rate their life satisfaction substantially higher than employees and, further, that this effect is entirely driven by opportunity entrepreneurs.

  • 23.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Nabavi, Pardis
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Survival, productivity and growth of new ventures across locations2014Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 477-491Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We assess the impact of the location of genuinely new ventures and spinoffs on these firms' survival, productivity and growth. The study distinguishes between four different categories of locations: metro cities, metro regions, urban areas, and rural areas. Using a unique database covering more than 23,000 new entrants between 2000 and 2004 in Sweden and observing them for 5 years, several conclusions may be drawn from our study. First, there is a substantial difference in ex-post entry performance between the manufacturing and service sectors. Second, the proposed superiority of start-ups by ex-employees depends on the performance measures and the sector. Third, knowledge and technology intensity of the industry matter for the viability of the new firms.

  • 24.
    Minniti, Maria
    et al.
    Syracuse Univ, Whitman Sch Management, Syracuse, NY USA..
    Andersson, Martin
    Blekinge Inst Technol BTH, Karlskrona, Sweden.;Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Stockholm, Sweden.;Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Nationalekonomi. Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Delmar, Frederic
    EMLYON Business Sch, Ecully, France.;Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden..
    Rickne, Annika
    Linkoping Univ, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Thorburn, Karin
    Univ Penn, Wharton Sch, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.;Norwegian Sch Econ NHH, Bergen, Norway..
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linkoping Univ, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Stenkula, Mikael
    Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Boyan Jovanovic: recipient of the 2019 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research2019Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 547-553Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2019 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research has been awarded to Professor Boyan Jovanovic at New York University in the USA. Boyan Jovanovic has developed pioneering research that advances our understanding of the competitive dynamics between incumbent firms and new entrants, entrepreneurial learning and selection processes, and the importance of entrepreneurship for the economy. Key perspectives in his research are that the entrepreneur makes employment choices based on the comparative advantage of his or her skills and that entrepreneurial firms are vehicles of technological change and knowledge diffusion that influence industry dynamics and, in turn, economic growth.

  • 25.
    Mohammadi, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Shafi, Kourosh
    Gender differences in the contribution patterns of equity-crowdfunding investors2018Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 275-287Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an exploratory attempt to understand gender-related differences in the behavior of investors in firms seeking equity financing. Using data from the Swedish equity crowdfunding platform FundedByMe, we find that female investors are less likely to invest in the equity of firms that are younger and high tech and have a higher percentage of equity offerings. This pattern seems consistent with a greater risk aversion in female versus male investors. Furthermore, female investors are more likely to invest in projects in which the proportion of male investors is higher.

  • 26.
    Nyström, Kristina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Entrepreneurial politicians2013Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 41-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the entrepreneurial experience (and spirit) of politicians. To what extent have they been involved in entrepreneurial activities? Are politicians more or less entrepreneurial than their voters? Are entrepreneurship policies more or less important to politicians compared to the voters they represent? The Members of the Swedish Parliament were asked the same questions regarding their entrepreneurial activities as found in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). The empirical results indicate that when we analyse the statistical significance of the differences and control for individual characteristics, politicians have similar experiences and ambitions to the rest of the population when it comes to entrepreneurial activities. Politicians have a high potential for becoming entrepreneurs in the future, but seem to be less optimistic about how entrepreneurs are perceived in the cultural context. In addition, there is a substantial discrepancy between how politicians and voters perceive the ease of starting and running a business. Unlike politicians, voters do not agree that it is easy to start and run a business in Sweden.

  • 27.
    Nyström, Kristina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Entrepreneurship after displacement2018Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Hoetker and Agarwal (Academy of Management Journal, 50(2), 446–469, 2007), research on knowledge transfers related to business closures is scarce. This paper intends to fill the knowledge gap on the transition to entrepreneurship after a business closure. This paper studies which employees are most likely to start an entrepreneurial venture after being affected by a displacement. Furthermore, following, e.g., Hyttinen and Maliranta (Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 110(1), 1–21, 2008) and Sørensen (Administrative Science Quarterly, 52, 387–412, 2007), this study investigates the link between former workplace characteristics, such as the size and age of the former workplace, and the transition into entrepreneurship. In the second part of the analysis, the performance of the entrepreneurial ventures started by employees after displacement is explored as it relates to survival, employment, and profitability. The empirical setting employs an employer-employee-matched dataset coving all displaced employees in Sweden during 2001–2010. The empirical findings suggest that employees displaced from smaller firms are more likely to transition to entrepreneurship. Employing a Cox proportional hazard model to study the survival of these companies shows that new firms generated by displaced employees from small establishments are more viable. Furthermore, individuals who took part in labor market polices have a higher probability of becoming entrepreneurs, although these firms tend to show lower survival rates, which indicates that these transitions are necessity-based. As for the performance of the business, the empirical findings suggest modest growth in terms of employment, turnover, and operating profit for the vast majority of entrepreneurial ventures started after displacement.

  • 28.
    Nyström, Kristina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.). The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Working for an entrepreneur: heaven or hell?2019Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recruiting employees to an entrepreneurial venture is a challenging task. From the employee’s perspective, accepting a position in an entrepreneurial venture potentially implies considerable uncertainty. This paper provide a literature review and identifies research gaps related to labor mobility of employees into and out of entrepreneurial firms. Who works for an entrepreneur? What are the conditions under which the employees of entrepreneurial firms work? Additionally, labor mobility after an employee works for an entrepreneurial firm is discussed. In conclusion, the quality of the jobs generated by entrepreneurial firms may be questionable (and still relatively unexplored in empirical research), but they are nevertheless important from a labor dynamic perspective. Better understanding about motives to work for an entrepreneur, issues related to job security beyond survival rates, and job quality may contribute to ease the recruitment problems that many entrepreneurial firms struggle with. Furthermore, the relevance and potential pros and cons of working for an entrepreneurial firm in future career paths (entrepreneur or employee) need to be carefully addressed in future research.

  • 29.
    Nyström, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Zhetibaeva Elvung, Gulzat
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    New firms and labor market entrants: Is there a wage penalty for employment in new firms?2014Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 399-410Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the role of new firms as an entry point to the labor market. Because the vast majority of new firms are short-lived, it is a risky decision to accept employment in a new venture. It can be argued that individuals with little (or no) labor market experience are more willing to accept the high risks associated with employment in new firms. Hence, new firms may work as an entry point to the labor market. Nevertheless, some research concludes that one disadvantage of employment in a new firm is that new firms pay less (Shane in Small Bus Econ 33:141-149, 2009). However, this empirical conclusion is primarily based on literature on the wage penalty of small firms. In this paper, we study whether the wage penalty of employment in a new firm persists if we focus solely on labor market entrants. In the empirical analysis, we employ an employer-employee matched dataset that covers the Swedish population during the period from 1998 to 2008. We use the propensity score matching method to study the wage differences between labor market entrants employed in new and incumbent firms. We find an average wage penalty of 2.9 % for labor market entrants employed in new firms over the studied period.

  • 30. Westlund, Hans
    et al.
    Bolton, R.
    Local social capital and entrepreneurship2003Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 77-113Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We aim to contribute to the analysis of the role that spacebound social capital plays in local/regional entrepreneurship. We compare social capital with other forms of capital. The conclusion is that in the main, social capital can be analyzed in the same way as other capital but it has some important special attributes. With these attributes as starting point we sketch an outline model of how the spatially-defined producer surplus and consumer surplus form a place surplus, and of the role played by social capital in the creation of the producer surplus. A rereading of Schumpeter shows that he was aware of several aspects of what we denominate entrepreneurship-inhibiting and facilitating aspects of social capital. Finally, we discuss some formal economic modeling approaches to the theoretical relationship between social capital and entrepreneurship.

  • 31.
    Westlund, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Bolton, Roger
    Local Social Capital and Entrepreneurship2003Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, s. 77-113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
1 - 31 of 31
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