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  • 1.
    Baard, Patrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Risk-Reducing Goals: Ideals and Abilities when Managing Complex Environmental Risks2016Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 19, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social decision-making involving risks ideally results in obligations to avoid expected harms or keep them within acceptable limits. Ambitious goals aimed at avoiding or greatly reducing risks might not to be feasible, forcing the acceptance of higher degrees of risk (i.e., unrealistic levels of risk reduction are revised to comport with beliefs regarding abilities). In this paper, the philosophical principle ‘ought implies can’ is applied to the management of complex risks, exemplified by the risks associated with climate change. In its common interpretation, the principle states that we cannot expect an agent to perform something that lies beyond his or her abilities. However, it is here argued that this principle requires setting thresholds for legitimate claims of inabilities that justify the waiving of normative demands. This paper discuss three claims: (1) that caution is required before revising a risk-reducing goal that is perhaps exceedingly ambitious; (2) that claims on abilities are not only descriptive, but also value-laden; and (3) that the function of a goal has to be clarified before risk-reducing goals are revised. Risk-reducing goals that initially seem unrealistic arguably serve performance-enhancing purposes in risk management. Neglecting such goals could lead to choosing less desirable, but certainly feasible, risk-reducing goals.

  • 2.
    Boholm, Max
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The representation of nano as a risk in Swedish news media coverage2013Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 227-244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on the role of language in categorization and on the broad conceptual fi eld centred on the morpheme nano, this study addresses the association between phenomena referred to by words having nano as a constituent and risk in Swedish newspaper reporting. The study raises the question of how nano- associated phenomena (e.g. nanotechnology and nanoparticle) are represented as risks? Articles considered for analysis contain both a word having nano as a constituent and the Swedish words for risk or danger. Articles representing nano-associated phenomena (e.g. nanotechnology and nanoparticle) as risks mainly fall into one of five groups: (I) nanotechnology, without reference to particles, materials or products; (II) nanotechnology, nanoparticles, nanomaterials and/or products containing such particles and materials; (III) nanoparticles in products, but without reference to nanotechnology; (IV) nanotechnology and nanorobots; and (V) non-nanotechnological nanoparticles. For each group, using a theoretical approach addressing the relational nature of risk, the paper analyses representations of objects at risk, bad outcomes, causal conditions, reference to applications and sources cited. Various patterns of these categories emerge for the fi ve groups, indicating a diversi fi ed set of associations between nano and risk. In certain respects, the fi ndings support the results of other studies of media reporting on nanotechnology, suggesting certain international patterns of newspaper coverage of nanotechnology drawing on both science and science fiction.

  • 3.
    Boholm, Max
    et al.
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Boholm, Åsa
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Corvellec, Hervé
    Lunds universitet.
    Molander, Sverker
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Dis-Ag-reement: the construction and negotiation of risk in the Swedish controversy over antibacterial silver2015Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 93-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    What constitutes a potentially hazardous object is often debated. This article analyses the polemic construction and negotiation of risk in the Swedish controversy over the use of antibacterial silver in health care and consumer products. This debate engages the media, government agencies, parliament and government, non-governmental organizations and companies. Texts and websites from these actors were studied using content analysis. Antibacterial silver is construed by some actors as a risk object with harmful effects on a series of objects at risk: the environment, public health, organisms and sewage treatment. In contrast, other actors deny that antibacterial silver is a risk object, instead construing it as mitigating risk. In such a schema, antibacterial silver is conceived of as managing the risk objects of bacteria and micro-organisms, in turn managing the risk objects of infection, bad smell and washing, and in turn helping the environment and public health (objects at risk). The structure of the debate suggests two basic modes of risk communication. First, antibacterial silver is construed as a risk object, endangering a variety of objects at risk, such as organisms, public health, the environment and sewage treatment. Second, this association between antibacterial silver and objects at risk is obstructed, by denying that antibacterial silver is a risk object or by associating silver with the benefit of mitigating risk.

  • 4.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Anthropology and risk2019Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 532-533Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria.
    Fallacies of risk2004Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 353-360Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to traditional fallacies such as ad hominem, discussions of risk contain logical and argumentative fallacies that are specific to the subject-matter. Ten such fallacies are identified, that can commonly be found in public debates on risk. They are named as follows: the sheer size fallacy, the converse sheer size fallacy, the fallacy of naturalness, the ostrich's fallacy, the proof-seeking fallacy, the delay fallacy, the technocratic fallacy, the consensus fallacy, the fallacy of pricing, and the infallibility fallacy.

  • 6.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Five caveats for risk–risk analysis2016Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, s. 1-4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk analysis should be symmetrical in the sense that when evaluating an option for decision-making, we assess the risks that it may increase in the same way as those that it may decrease. However, implementing such symmetry is not always easy. In this contribution, five complications that have to be dealt with are introduced and briefly discussed: (1) We need to take all types of advantages and disadvantages into account, not only the risks. (2) There is more than one way to weigh risks against each other. (3) Decision-makers may legitimately put more weight on the direct effects of their decisions than on more indirect and uncertain effects, in particular, if the latter fall outside of their area of responsibility. (4) When a trade-off between risks is unsatisfactory, we should search for innovative solutions that make the trade-off unnecessary. (5) An exclusive focus on risks does not solve the incommensurability problem.

  • 7.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Genetic risk assessment from an ethical point of view2018Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 206-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution provides analyses of four ethically problematic issues in genetic risk assessment and management. First, should we require a positive risk-benefit balance for each concerned individual, or is it sufficient that the total sum of benefits outweighs the total sum of risks? Secondly, should sensitive groups have special protection, and in that case with what types of measures? Thirdly, what types of measures should be taken to protect against the risks associated with teratogenic, embryotoxic and foetotoxic agents? Fourthly, how should we deal with the new issues relating to equity and to group-based risk assessment that genomic medicine gives rise to?

  • 8.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi.
    Risk: objective or subjective, facts or values2010Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 231-238Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perhaps the most fundamental divide in risk research is that between proponents of two contradictory concepts of risk. Some take risk as objectively given and determined by physical facts, whereas others see risk as a social construction that is independent of physical facts. These two views are scrutinized, and it is concluded that neither is tenable. Risk is both fact-laden and value-laden, and it contains both objective and subjective components. It is argued that both the objectivist and the subjectivist view of risk are failed attempts to rid a complex concept of much of its complexity. The real challenge is to identify the various types of factual and valuational components inherent in statements about risk and to understand how they are combined. The two oversimplifications both stand in the way of a more sophisticated analysis of risk.

  • 9.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och historia.
    Hadorn, Gertrude Hirsch
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Environm Decis, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Argument-based decision support for risk analysis2018Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 21, nr 12, s. 1449-1464Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The calculation of statistical expectation values is a most useful tool in risk analysis, but it is not a panacea. Valuable additional decision support can be obtained from argument-based tools, i.e. rigorous tools based on conceptual distinctions and logical reasoning. If the decision problem is not well defined, then argument-based tools can be used to analyse the uncertainties involved and provide a more well-reasoned presentation of the problem. If the available information is insufficient for a reliable quantitative analysis, then argument-based tools can partly replace it as guidance for the decision-making process. Argument-based tools can be grouped into three main categories: (1) tools used to determine the impact of alternative structurings of decisions and to make an informed choice among them, (2) tools used for the evaluation of decision options, and (3) tools used for the choice among such options in terms of the relative strengths of the arguments that speak for and against each of the options.

  • 10.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria.
    Rudén, Christina
    Improving the incentives for toxicity testing2003Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 3-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The legal systems for the classification and labelling of chemical substances have an incentives structure that discourages rather than encourages companies to test their products. This is shown in a logical analysis of the European classification system and also in an analysis of recent changes in the classification of individual substances. Finally two methods to improve the incentives structure are proposed and discussed: the introduction of negative clauses that allow new information to lead to less strict classifications, and a new danger-class and a symbol (a question mark) that indicates serious lack of data.

  • 11.
    Hayenhjelm, Madeleine
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria.
    Out of the ashes: hope and vulnerability as explanatory factors in individual risk taking2006Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 189-204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High individual risk taking, whether in terms of life-style risks or others, has often been explained in terms of acceptance of risks or misperception of the possible negative outcome. This article challenges this view, and points to a kind of risks that does not seem to fit this explanation. These risks are referred to as risks from vulnerability. They are taken because there are no positive alternatives to them, and the choice is perceived as having an element of hope. A new framework is proposed in order to expand these explanatory factors within the risk perception research. This framework analyzes individual risk taking in terms of: poor outset conditions, lack of reasonable options, hope, and liability to disinformation.

  • 12.
    Hermansson, Hélène
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria.
    Consistent risk management: three models outlined2005Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 8, nr 7-8, s. 557-568Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces three models on how to understand the demand for consistent risk management. The first model, which accords with traditional risk analysis, is called the Standard Model. In this model, the decisive criterion of whether or not to accept a risk is if the total benefit exceeds the total cost. Since this model cannot protect the individual from unfair risk exposure two more models are outlined. The arguments in the Model of Inviolable Rights and in the Model of Procedural Justice evolve around the separateness of individuals, rights and fair risk taking. It is argued that risk management needs to acknowledge a variety of morally salient factors to avoid exposing people unfairly to risks.

  • 13.
    Hermansson, Hélène
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi.
    Towards a Fair Procedure for Risk Management2010Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 501-515Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for fairness in risk management is frequently expressed in the risk literature. In this article, fairness is connected to the procedure for decision-making. Two models for procedural justice in the management of risks are discussed, one that focuses on a hypothetical thought experiment, and one that focuses on actual dialogue. The hypothetical approach takes John Rawls' theory of justice as a starting point. The actual inclusion approach employs Iris Marion Young's theory of inclusive deliberative democracy. With Rawls' theory, important issues concerning risk distribution are emphasized, and a parallel between social primary goods and risk management is drawn. The hypothetical reasoning should mainly serve as a guide concerning risk issues that affect people who cannot be included in the decision procedure, such as future generations. However, when the affected can be included, an interactive dialogical reasoning is to be preferred. Here, Young's theory is fruitful. It aims at fair decisions by fulfilling conditions of inclusiveness, equality, reasonableness and publicity.

  • 14.
    Jonsson, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för bank och finans, Cefin.
    Soderberg, Inga-Lill
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för bank och finans, Cefin.
    Investigating explanatory theories on laypeople's risk perception of personal economic collapse in a bank crisis - the Cyprus case2018Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 763-779Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the explanatory power of decision, psychometric, and trust theory to describe laypeople's risk perception of personal economic collapse in a bank crisis. The aim of this investigation is to improve the understanding of the effects of national initiatives for crisis fighting taken to prevent systemic risk. Using a stratified sample of 738 Cypriote citizens, we conducted an investigation in Cyprus in the spring of 2013 when the country was facing a bank crisis. At that point in time, the Cypriote Government had imposed capital controls to prevent a bank run. We find that decision theory variables alone have low explanatory value on laypeople's risk perception, and that laypeople's risk perception in this situation is affected primarily by psychometric variables. Further, confidence in one's own bank also explains risk perception. Our findings contribute novel knowledge about risk perceptions in a financial crisis, with practical crisis management implications for regulators.

  • 15.
    Peterson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria.
    On the application of rights-based moral theories to siting controversies2004Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 269-275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss how rights-based moral theories can increase our understanding of siting controversies. It is argued that the notion of residual obligations can be used to overcome, at least in part, the conflict between the individual right not to be exposed to involuntary risks arising from e.g. the establishment of a new industry, and the rights of industries and other large organizations to build plants that are associated with risks for people living nearby. Use is made of a typology of residual obligations according to which the types are obligations to compensate, to communicate, to improve, to search for knowledge, and to have an appropriate attitude. Each of these types of residual obligations can be shown to be relevant in siting controversies.

  • 16.
    Sandin, Per
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Infrastruktur.
    The precautionary principle in the 20th century: Late lessons from early warnings2004Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 365-367Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17. Sjoberg, L.
    et al.
    Peterson, M.
    Fromm, J.
    Boholm, A.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi.
    Neglected and overemphasized risks: the opinions of risk professionals2005Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 8, nr 08-jul, s. 599-616Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on risks has mainly been devoted to detailed analyses of such risks that are subject to public debate and policy decision making. However, many if not most of the risks that are now the subject of regulation were once neglected. Experts in conjunction with regulators have a crucial role in putting risks on the policy agenda. But what views do experts have on the matter of attention to risks? In order to answer this question risk assessment experts were asked to list the risks they considered to be over-emphasized, respectively neglected. Radiation risks constituted the largest category of risks reported to be over-emphasized. Other risks often reported to be over-emphasized included BSE, GMOs, amalgam, and air traffic. Lifestyle risks were the largest category of risks reported to be neglected. Other risks often listed as neglected included radon (as an exception within the radiation category), road traffic, socio-economic risks, energy production excluding nuclear power, and local accidents (including fires and workplace accidents). Risks mentioned about equally often as neglected and over-emphasized included chemicals and crime. There was a correlation between perceived risk and neglect: risks considered to be neglected were also judged as larger. For a comparison, the topics of articles in the journal Risk Analysis from 1991-2000 were categorized into the same risk categories that were used for the questionnaire. The risks most commonly treated in the journal (chemicals and cancer) coincided with the risks which experts in our survey considered to be overemphasized rather than neglected.

  • 18.
    Wester-Herber, Misse
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Lars-Erik, Warg
    Did they get it?: Examining the goals of risk communication within the Seveso II Directive in a Swedish context2004Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. 495-506Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the success of a risk communication programme conducted in two municipalities in Sweden is evaluated. The communication efforts were initiated in order to comply with the Seveso II Directive, passed as a national law in July 1999. Data from two different questionnaires are used. Between the distribution of the two questionnaires, an information campaign took place in the communities. The first questionnaire was aimed at measuring the public's opinion and understanding of the risks related to chemical industries in their communities, as well as the public's knowledge of emergency behaviour in the event of an accident. The second was aimed at measuring the effects or impact of the risk communication programme on the public. A total of 346 respondents participated in the study by answering two questionnaires. An evaluation of the risk communication efforts was focused around three dimensions: comprehension, audience evaluation and communication failures. The results showed differences between the two campaigns that gave significantly different results in the two communities. In the community with the multimedia channel campaign, the respondents showed greater knowledge of the production process at the local industry, they also judged the health threats for that industry to be less after the campaign, and they saved the information material to a greater extent. However, the overall effects of the information campaigns were weak. Future research is needed to explore the relation between people's emergency behaviour and risk communication.

  • 19.
    Yaraghi, Niam
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik.
    Langhé, Roland G.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik.
    Critical success factors for risk management systems2011Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 551-581Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the existence of extensive literature regarding risk management, there still seems to be lack of knowledge in the identification of critical success factors (CSFs) in this area. In this research, grounded theory is implemented to identify CSFs in risk management systems (RMS). Factor analysis and one-sample t-tests are then used to refine and rank the CSFs on the basis of the results of a survey which has been conducted among risk management practitioners in various types of Swedish corporations. CSFs are defined from three different perspectives: (1) the factors that have influence on the inclination and readiness of a corporation for implementing RMS; (2) The factors that are important during the design and implementation of RMS in a corporation and can significantly affect the success of RMS design and implementation; and (3) the factors that are crucially important to successfully run, maintain, and administrate RMS after the closure of the project of RMS design and implementation. A case study of a largely successful RMS is presented and discussed in terms of these key factors. This systematic approach toward understanding the taxonomy of the success dimension in RMS is important for re-enforcing effective risk management practices.

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