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  • 1.
    Berggren, Daniel
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical Engineering.
    Investigation of limit cycle oscillations for a wing section with nonlinear stiffness2004In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 27-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wind tunnel experiment is designed with the objective to obtain well-behaved limit cycle oscillations for a wing section with two degrees of freedom, translation and rotation, in two-dimensional flow. This is accomplished using a setup of linear springs so that the resulting moment is a nonlinear function of the rotation angle. The experimental setup is designed so that the amplitudes of the limit cycle oscillations are sufficiently low to motivate the use of linear aerodynamics in the analysis. The experimental results are compared to analyses for two different configurations, and the agreement is fairly good.

  • 2. Bravo-Mosquera, P. D.
    et al.
    Cerón-Muñoz, H. D.
    Díaz-Vázquez, Guillermo
    KTH.
    Martini Catalano, F.
    Conceptual design and CFD analysis of a new prototype of agricultural aircraft2018In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 80, p. 156-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the agricultural aviation, there are several aerodynamic factors that must be optimized in order to contribute to the successful application of agricultural products, such as the high aerodynamic efficiency (L/D) required at the working phase and the influence of aircraft wingtip phenomena on the spray deposition and movement. For these reasons, in this research is presented the conceptual design of an advanced prototype of agricultural aircraft, whose main characteristic is an adaptive multi-winglet device installed on the wingtips, which optimized the main aerodynamic issues presented in its mission. Traditional aircraft design methods were used to develop and assess the suitability of the aircraft, focusing on its design requirements and tackling studies of weight sizing, pilot ergonomics, aerodynamics, stability, and performance. Subsequently, analytical and computational methods were used to design the adaptive multi-winglet device, which is composed by three winglets with its own geometry fitted on a tip-tank. Six configurations were created by modifying only the cant angle of each winglet in order to determine the arrangement that provides the best aerodynamic characteristics through a study of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), using the Reynolds–Averaged–Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model. First, the flow around the wing and the multi-winglet section of the aircraft was investigated exclusively. Afterward, the airflow around the entire aircraft was studied at the product application condition, in order to compare the overall aerodynamic performance of the baseline concept along with the optimal multi-winglet configuration installed on the aircraft. Lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients were assessed, as well as the wingtip vortex structure of the most relevant configurations. Results of this study showed that adaptive multi-winglet devices are a promising alternative to improve the overall performance of an agricultural aircraft, because they provide control over the size and strength of the wake-spray interaction on the sprayed product, reduce the induced drag, reduce the bending moment and improve the aerodynamic efficiency of the aircraft.

  • 3.
    Carlsson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Cronander, Carin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Efficient roll control using distributed control surfaces and aeroelastic effects2005In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 143-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of using multiple leading and trailing edge control surfaces and aeroelastic effects for efficient roll manoeuvring is investigated. Numerical optimization in combination with a simulation model including aeroelastic dynamics is used to design a controller for roll angle tracking. The controller distributes the control power to the individual surfaces such that it minimizes the control effort yet fulfilling roll performance requirements in a wide airspeed envelope. The controller is implemented and experimentally validated using an elastic wind-tunnel model equipped with 16 individual control surfaces. Good correlation between simulations and experiments is obtained although some deviations are observed and discussed. Finally, the choice of the most efficient control surface layout is investigated by evaluating control laws which utilize a subset of the available control surfaces.

  • 4.
    Chen, Song
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Zhao, Dan
    Numerical study of non-reacting flowfields of a swirling trapped vortex ramjet combustor2018In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 74, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, 3D numerical investigations of a trapped vortex combustor operated in different swirling flow conditions are performed by solving Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with Reynolds-stress model. Emphasis is placed on the non-reacting flowfield characteristics and the stability of the locked vortex. Validation is performed first by comparing the present results with experimental data available. It shows that the Reynolds-stress model can provide good predictions for flows with a swirl number up to 0.98. It is also found that the cavity vortex can be trapped well in flows with different swirl numbers. To further study the "locked" vortices, flow disturbances are introduced to the trapped vortex combustor via suddenly increasing swirl number from 0.6 to 0.98. The transient simulation results reveal that the cavity vortex is highly resistant to the flow disturbances and is still well trapped in the cavity, while vortex shedding of the conventional breakdown vortex is observed in the presence of the flow disturbances. Turbulence intensity and kinetic energy are found to be significantly increased by approximately 300%, which indicates that the fuel-air mixing can be dramatically improved. This study shows that the swirling trapped vortex combustor is an alternative promising robust and efficient combustor concept.

  • 5.
    Chen, Song
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Zhao, Dan
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Mech Engn, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand..
    RANS investigation of the effect of pulsed fuel injection on scramjet HyShot II engine2019In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 84, p. 182-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective and efficient fuel-air mixing plays a critical role in the successful operation of scramjet engines. To enhance the fuel-air mixing in supersonic combustion systems with a short flow residence time, the pulsed fuel injection strategy in a realistic scramjet combustor flow condition provided by the HyShot II is numerically studied in this work. For this, 2D and 3D simulations of the hydrogen fueled HyShot II scramjet with pulsed fuel injections are performed. Emphasis is placed on the cold flow field characteristics and fuel-air mixing performance in the combustor. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the implementation of the two equation k-omega SST turbulence model via using the ANSYS FLUENT v17.1. The pulsed fuel injection is numerically achieved by implementing a time-dependent total pressure pulse with the shape of a square wave. The total pressure peak is maintained as same as the one that chokes the fuel injector in steady operations. The numerical model is validated first by comparing the results with the experimental data available in the literature. It is then used to study the effect of the pulse injection with different frequencies. It is found that complicated waves structures are formed inside the fuel injector in pulsed fuel injections due to the total pressure pulse. These waves propagate outside the fuel injector and lead to the fuel streams with wavy patterns and the unsteady shock structures in the combustion chamber. Fuel penetration depths are not found to be increased for pulsed injections in this study, but much high turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) levels are observed especially inside the fuel injector. With the help of increased TKE, mixing efficiency is found to be improved for all of the pulsed fuel injection by up to 30%. This mixing improvement also strongly depends on the frequency applied. 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  • 6. Cronander, C.
    et al.
    Ringertz, Ulf
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Vehicle Engineering.
    Closed loop roll control using aeroelastic information2000In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 4, no 7, p. 481-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mathematical model of the rolling dynamics of a flexible wing is derived by experimental measurements and 3D potential flow analysis. Based on the mathematical model which includes one aeroelastic parameter, control laws are designed which almost completely eliminate the problem of reduced aileron efficiency for increasing airspeed. Finally, the control laws are tested on the model in the wind tunnel, and good correlation with computer simulations is achieved, except when a structural mode is excited.

  • 7. Ericsson, A.
    et al.
    Rumpler, Romain
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Sjöberg, D.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Wellander, N.
    Johansson, J.
    A combined electromagnetic and acoustic analysis of a triaxial carbon fiber weave for reflector antenna applications2016In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 58, p. 401-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fiber composites are widely used for space applications such as antennas, solar panels and spacecraft support structures. This paper presents a combined electromagnetic and acoustic analysis of a triaxial carbon fiber weave structure, designed for ultra lightweight reflector antennas in satellite communication systems. The electromagnetic and acoustic performance of the structure are analyzed over a wide range of parametric studies, both at a microscopic and mesoscopic length scale. The electromagnetic study indicates that the main parameter governing the electromagnetic reflection performance of the weave is the electric conductivity of the carbon fibers, given that the weave structure is significantly smaller than the wavelength of the incident signals. The acoustic study identifies a critical threshold in the mesoscale geometry in order to avoid a critically high resistive behavior of the weave structure, driven by viscous effects. Design guidelines are drawn from these analyses in order to achieve a trade-off between the electromagnetic reflection properties and the resistance to acoustic loading of such composite materials. These combined analyses allow to deepen the understanding from both an electromagnetic and acoustic perspective in order to open for some new design possibilities.

  • 8. Franke, M.
    et al.
    Wallin, Stefan
    Thiele, F.
    Assessment of explicit algebraic Reynolds-stress turbulence models in aerodynamic computations2005In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 573-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the aerodynamic industrial design process, the use of numerical simulation, including viscous effects, is of ever increasing importance. As simple, standard Boussinesq-viscosity turbulence models have proven insufficient to correctly predict complex flow situations, attention is drawn to more reliable approaches towards the modelling of turbulence. This work aims at assessing the potential of Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress Models (EARSM) for application-oriented aerodynamic computations. To this end, two different EARSM are investigated on a variety of configurations in sub- and transonic steady flow, ranging from 2D aerofoils to 3D wing/body-configurations. Is is demonstrated that an increased over-all simulation quality is achieved. Thus, while their overhead with respect to standard linear approaches remains limited, EARSM constitute a valuable extension to the model range available to the aerodynamic design engineer.

  • 9. Frink, N. T.
    et al.
    Tomac, Maximillian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics.
    Rizzi, Arthur
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics.
    Collaborative study of incipient separation on 53°-swept diamond wing2016In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic analysis of incipient separation and subsequent vortex formation from moderately-swept blunt leading edges is presented for a 53°-swept diamond wing. This work contributes to a collective body of knowledge generated within the multinational NATO/STO AVT-183 Task Group titled "Reliable Prediction of Separated Flow Onset and Progression for Air and Sea Vehicles". Details of vortex formation are inferred from numerical solutions of two flow solvers after establishing a good correlation of the global flow field and surface pressure distributions with those from wind tunnel measurements. From this, significant and sometimes surprising insights into the nature of incipient separation and part-span vortex formation are derived from the wealth of information available in the computational solutions.

  • 10.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Tailored acoustic and vibrational damping in porous solids - Engineering performance in aerospace applications2008In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 26-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A porous solid, saturated with fluid, may be described as an elastic-viscoelastic and acoustic-viscoacoustic medium. The transport of vibroacoustic energy is carried both through the sound pressure waves propagating through the fluid in the pores, and through the elastic stress waves, carried through the solid frame of the material. For most porous materials, used to reduce sound and vibration, these waves are coupled to each other, i.e. they simultaneously propagate in both the fluid and the solid frame but with different strengths. A characteristic of this coupled wave propagation, is that the vibroacoustic energy is dissipated and converted into heat as the wave travels through the material. Clearly for a given situation, the balance between energy dissipated through vibration of the solid frame and changes in the acoustic pressure varies with the topological arrangement, choice of material properties, interfacial conditions, etc. This paper illustrates the influence such a balancing has on the performance of a multi-layer sound proofing arrangement applicable for an aircraft interior.

  • 11. Haggmark, C. P.
    et al.
    Hildings, C.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Mechanics.
    A numerical and experimental study of a transitional separation bubble2001In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 317-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A combined numerical and experimental study of a two-dimensional transitional separation bubble due to an adverse pressure gradient is reported. The experiments have been performed in the MTL wind tunnel with a contoured wall imposing an adverse pressure gradient on the flow over a flat plate. The separated shear-layer is highly unstable and transition to turbulence occurs in the flow. The experimental separation bubble flow is modelled numerically using two-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS). Prescribing free stream boundary conditions in the wall normal velocity the experimental bubble is reproduced. The development of artificially forced two-dimensional instability waves is investigated and good agreement is found between experiments, simulations and linear stability theory (LST). The performance of several engineering transition prediction methods applied on the present separation bubble is presented and compared. Methods based on simplifications of the e(n)-method yield predictions in accordance with experiments and DNS.

  • 12.
    Jacobsen, Marianne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Flight Dynamics.
    Real time drag minimization using redundant control surfaces2006In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 574-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for minimizing the drag of a wind tunnel model with multiple control surfaces is presented. The minimization is performed in the wind tunnel and measurements are performed in real time. Real time measurements introduce difficulties such as noise in the signals, hysteresis and problems with repeatability of the function evaluations. The lack of a numerical function to minimize therefore puts certain demands on the optimization method, and hence a derivative free method, often referred to as a generating set search method, is used. The proposed method is generalized to take both linear equality constraints as well as linear inequality constraints into account. The generating set search method is implemented in the wind tunnel and tests show that the drag can be decreased while satisfying the constraints.

  • 13.
    Jacobsen, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Flight Dynamics.
    Ringertz, Ulf
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Flight Dynamics.
    Reducing emissions using aircraft trajectory optimizationIn: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal aircraft trajectories reducing engine emissions are computed using numerical optimization. The emissions from the jet engine are modeled as functions of the aircraft altitude, airspeed and throttle setting. Combining the emission models with a performance model of the aircraft, the optimization problem is formulated with the objective of reducing emissions for a given distance flight. The resulting problem, involving a system of differential and algebraic equations, is discretized using collocation and the optimization problem is solved using sequential quadratic programming. Different objectives are investigated, such as minimizing the total emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons during a flight. Methods from life cycle impact assessment are used to weigh the different emissions to an index and several different indices are used and compared. A model of the Boeing 737-600 is used to illustrate the developed optimization method. The results show that the trajectories differ significantly depending on the chosen objective. Using a combination of objectives at different altitudes may give the most appropriate problem formulation.

  • 14.
    Lim, H.D.
    et al.
    Nanyang Technological University.
    New, T.H.
    Nanyang Technological University.
    Mariani, Raffaello
    School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Republic of Singapore.
    Cui, Y.D.
    bTemasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore.
    Effects of bevelled nozzles on standoff shocks in supersonic impinging jets2019In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moderately under-expanded jets issuing from a circular baseline and two bevelled circular nozzles impinging upon a perpendicular flat plate were experimentally studied. The effects of nozzle-pressure-ratio and separation distance variations on the standoff shock formations were investigated with schlieren visualizations and a visual hull based three-dimensional (3D) shock reconstruction technique to provide deeper insights into their 3D features. Across all flow configurations arising from the different combinations of these parameters, results indicated that the bevelled nozzles are effective in introducing asymmetry to the standoff shock geometries. Depending on the exact flow configuration, standoff shock locations may also undergo significant upstream displacements. In particular, the single-bevelled nozzle produces highly unsteady standoff shocks with asymmetric oscillation amplitudes along both side of the nozzle lip regions. Changes to the standoff shock key characteristics were observed to be sensitive towards the jet shock structures and reflection point modified by the bevelled nozzle exits. In particular, the strength and relative position of the reflection point are identified as the major contributing factors influencing the upstream static pressure distribution of the standoff shock, hence leading to the observed changes in the standoff shock behaviour.

  • 15.
    Majić, Frane
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Efraimsson, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Potential improvement of aerodynamic performance by morphing the nacelle inlet2016In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 54, p. 122-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work numerical investigations of the aerodynamic performance of an adaptive turbofan-engine inlet is performed. The adaptation is made on the inner front part of the symmetric inlet by changing the positions of two contour knots, which acts as a possible inlet struc- ture morphing. The contour knots are moved in the axisymmetric and radial directions of the inlet, respectively. The numerical calcula- tions are performed using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations and are made for climb and cruise flight conditions. The evaluation of the aerodynamic performance is based on the absolute total pressure recovery at the fan plane. The results show that the adaptation of only a small part of the inlet contour gives benefits in the performance at different flight conditions. The radial position in- crease of the knot closer to the leading edge gives overall increase of the pressure recovery level for both flight conditions. The radial posi- tion change of the knot close to the throat diameter leads to the global maximum of absolute total pressure recovery almost independent of the axial position change of the same knot, for both flight conditions. These maximums are attained at different radial positions of the knot close to the throat diameter, for the two flight conditions.

  • 16. Mendenhall, M.R.
    et al.
    Perkins, S.C.
    Tomac, Maximilian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics.
    Rizzi, Arthur
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics.
    Nangia, Raj K.
    Nangia Aero Research Associates.
    Comparing and benchmarking engineering methods for the prediction of X-31 aerodynamics2012In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 12-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of useful engineering methods are available for fast and economic estimates of the aerodynamic characteristics of complex flight vehicles. This article investigates the application of three specific engineering methods to the X-31 fighter configuration, and CFD, wind tunnel, and flight test data are used for comparison and evaluation purposes. The emphasis is on static longitudinal stability aspects up to high angles of attack; however, selected asymmetric and unsteady effects are considered. Results from the engineering methods are in good agreement with experiment and CFD for angles of attack up to 15° for most cases and higher angles for some cases. Results for pitching moment are in good agreement with CFD, but many of the nonlinear characteristics of the airplane are not predicted by the engineering methods. The quality of the longitudinal stability results is discussed in terms of the prediction of the center of pressure on the vehicle. The results provide improved understanding of the continued usefulness of engineering methods as an analysis tool during the design phase and into the flight test diagnostic phase of a new aircraft.

  • 17.
    Tomac, Maximilian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Stenfelt, Gloria
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Predictions of stability and control for a flying wing2014In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 39, p. 179-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The numerical simulation of a generic reduced radar signature tailless aircraft is considered. Investigation compares simulated data to low-speed wind tunnel experiments. Focus is on numerical predictions of steady longitudinal and lateral aerodynamics and influence of control surfaces on aerodynamic forces. Fully turbulent and transitional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations predicted in agreement with experiment unstable pitch characteristics for low angles of attack (alpha), this was not the case for inviscid or laminar simulations. However, all simulations captured a sudden rapid increase in nose up pitch moment at higher angles of attack compared to experiments. Time accurate computations (URANS) captured non-linearity and unsteadiness in yaw moment with respect to differential split flap deflections for the studied angles of attack.

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