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  • 1.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Hartl, M.
    Modelling public transport on-board congestion: comparing schedule-based and agent-based assignment approaches and their implications2016In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 1209-1224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transit systems are subject to congestion that influences system performance and level of service. The evaluation of measures to relieve congestion requires models that can capture their network effects and passengers' adaptation. In particular, on-board congestion leads to an increase of crowding discomfort and denied boarding and a decrease in service reliability. This study performs a systematic comparison of alternative approaches to modelling on-board congestion in transit networks. In particular, the congestion-related functionalities of a schedule-based model and an agent-based transit assignment model are investigated, by comparing VISUM and BusMezzo, respectively. The theoretical background, modelling principles and implementation details of the alternative models are examined and demonstrated by testing various operational scenarios for an example network. The results suggest that differences in modelling passenger arrival process, choice-set generation and route choice model yield systematically different passenger loads. The schedule-based model is insensitive to a uniform increase in demand or decrease in capacity when caused by either vehicle capacity or service frequency reduction. In contrast, nominal travel times increase in the agent-based model as demand increases or capacity decreases. The marginal increase in travel time increases as the network becomes more saturated. Whilst none of the existing models capture the full range of congestion effects and related behavioural responses, existing models can support different planning decisions.

  • 2.
    Chen, Guang
    et al.
    Tongji Univ, Coll Automot Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China.;Tech Univ Munich, Robot & Embedded Syst, Munich, Germany..
    Cao, Hu
    Hunan Univ, State Key Lab Adv Design & Mfg Vehicle Body, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Aafaque, Muhammad
    Tech Univ Munich, Robot & Embedded Syst, Munich, Germany..
    Chen, Jieneng
    Tongji Univ, Coll Elect & Informat Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Ye, Canbo
    Tongji Univ, Coll Automot Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Roehrbein, Florian
    Tech Univ Munich, Robot & Embedded Syst, Munich, Germany..
    Conradt, Jörg
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Chen, Kai
    Tongji Univ, Coll Automot Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Bing, Zhenshan
    Tech Univ Munich, Robot & Embedded Syst, Munich, Germany..
    Liu, Xingbo
    Tongji Univ, Coll Automot Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Hinz, Gereon
    Tech Univ Munich, Robot & Embedded Syst, Munich, Germany..
    Stechele, Walter
    Tech Univ Munich, Integrated Syst, Munich, Germany..
    Knoll, Alois
    Tech Univ Munich, Robot & Embedded Syst, Munich, Germany..
    Neuromorphic Vision Based Multivehicle Detection and Tracking for Intelligent Transportation System2018In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, article id 4815383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuromorphic vision sensor is a new passive sensing modality and a frameless sensor with a number of advantages over traditional cameras. Instead of wastefully sending entire images at fixed frame rate, neuromorphic vision sensor only transmits the local pixel-level changes caused by the movement in a scene at the time they occur. This results in advantageous characteristics, in terms of low energy consumption, high dynamic range, sparse event stream, and low response latency, which can be very useful in intelligent perception systems for modern intelligent transportation system (ITS) that requires efficient wireless data communication and low power embedded computing resources. In this paper, we propose the first neuromorphic vision based multivehicle detection and tracking system in ITS. The performance of the system is evaluated with a dataset recorded by a neuromorphic vision sensor mounted on a highway bridge. We performed a preliminary multivehicle tracking-by-clustering study using three classical clustering approaches and four tracking approaches. Our experiment results indicate that, by making full use of the low latency and sparse event stream, we could easily integrate an online tracking-by-clustering system running at a high frame rate, which far exceeds the real-time capabilities of traditional frame-based cameras. If the accuracy is prioritized, the tracking task can also be performed robustly at a relatively high rate with different combinations of algorithms. We also provide our dataset and evaluation approaches serving as the first neuromorphic benchmark in ITS and hopefully can motivate further research on neuromorphic vision sensors for ITS solutions.

  • 3. Ekström, J.
    et al.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Quttineh, N. -H
    Surrogate-based optimization of cordon toll levels in congested traffic networks2016In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 1008-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefit, in terms of social surplus, from introducing congestion charging schemes in urban networks is depending on the design of the charging scheme. The literature on optimal design of congestion pricing schemes is to a large extent based on static traffic assignment, which is known for its deficiency in correctly predict travel times in networks with severe congestion. Dynamic traffic assignment can better predict travel times in a road network, but are more computational expensive. Thus, previously developed methods for the static case cannot be applied straightforward. Surrogate-based optimization is commonly used for optimization problems with expensive-to-evaluate objective functions. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of a surrogate-based optimization method, when the number of pricing schemes, which we can afford to evaluate (because of the computational time), are limited to between 20 and 40. A static traffic assignment model of Stockholm is used for evaluating a large number of different configurations of the surrogate-based optimization method. Final evaluation is performed with the dynamic traffic assignment tool VisumDUE, coupled with the demand model Regent, for a Stockholm network including 1240 demand zones and 17 000 links. Our results show that the surrogate-based optimization method can indeed be used for designing a congestion charging scheme, which return a high social surplus.

  • 4. Estepa, Rafael
    et al.
    Estepa, Antonio
    Wideberg, Johan
    Jonasson, Mats
    Stensson-Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    More Effective Use of Urban Space by Autonomous Double Parking2017In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, article id UNSP 8426946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new capabilities of autonomous cars can be used to mitigate to a large extent safety concerns and nuisance traditionally associated with double parking. In this paper double parking for autonomous cars is proposed as a new approach to temporarily increase parking capacity in locations in clear need for extra provision when best alternatives cannot be found. The basic requirements, operation, and procedures of the proposed solution are outlined. A curbside parking has been simulated implementing the suggested double parking operation and important advantages have been identified for drivers, the environment, and the city. Double parking can increase over 50% the parking capacity of a given area. Autonomous car owners would (at least) double their probabilities of finding parking compared to traditional drivers, saving cruising time and emissions. However, significant work and technological advances are still needed in order to make this feasible in the near future.

  • 5.
    Fadaei Oshyani, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Bhaskar, Ashish
    A hybrid scheme for real-time prediction of bus trajectories: Hybrid Scheme for Real-Time Prediction2017In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 50, no 8, p. 2130-2149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The uncertainty associated with public transport services can be partially counteracted by developing real-time models to predict downstream service conditions. In this study, a hybrid approach for predicting bus trajectories by integrating multiple predictors is proposed. The prediction model combines schedule, instantaneous and historical data. The contribution of each predictor as well as values of respective parameters is estimated by minimizing the prediction error using a linear regression heuristic.The hybrid method was applied to five bus lines in Stockholm, Sweden and Brisbane, Australia. The results indicate that the hybrid method consistently outperforms the timetable and delay conservation prediction method for different line layouts, passengerdemands and operation practices.Model validation confirms model transferability and real-time applicability. Generating more accurate predictions can helpservice users adjust their travel plans and service providers to deploy proactive management and control strategies to mitigate the negative effects of service disturbances.

  • 6. Kim, Nam Seok
    et al.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Comparison of pedestrian trip generation models2013In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 399-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Poisson regression and negative binomial regression, this paper presents an empirical comparison of four different regression models for the estimation of pedestrian demand at the regional level and finds the most appropriate model with reference to the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) 2001 data for the Baltimore (USA) region. The results show that Poisson regression seems to be more appropriate for pedestrian trip generation modeling in terms of χ2 ratio test, Pseudo R2, and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). However, R2 based on deviance residuals and estimated log-likelihood value at convergence confirmed the empirical studies that negative binomial regression is more appropriate for the over-dispersed dependent variable than Poisson regression.

  • 7.
    Susilo, Yusak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Avineri, Erel
    The impacts of household structure on the individual stochastic travel and out of-home activity time budgets2014In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 454-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of time individuals and households spend in travelling and in out-of-door activities can be seen as a result of complex daily interactions between household members, influenced by opportunities and constraints, which vary from day to day. Extending the deterministic concept of travel time budget to a stochastic term and applying a stochastic frontier model to a dataset from the 2004 UK National Travel Survey, this study examines the hidden stochastic limit and the variations of the individual and household travel time and out-of-home activity duration - concepts associated with travel time budget. The results show that most individuals may not have reached the limit of their ability to travel and may still be able to spend further time in travel activities. The analysis of the model outcomes and distribution tests show that among a range of employment statuses, only full-time workers' out-of-home time expenditure has reached its limit. Also observed is the effect of having children in the household: Children reduce the flexibility of hidden constraints of adult household members' out-of-home time, thus reducing their ability to be further engaged with out-of-home activities. Even when out-of-home trips are taken into account in the analysis, the model shows that the dependent children's in-home responsibility reduces the ability of an individual to travel to and to be engaged with out-of-home activities. This study also suggests that, compared with the individual travel time spent, the individual out-of-home time expenditure may perform as a better budget indicator in drawing the constraints of individual space-time prisms.

  • 8.
    Zhang, Wei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Badia, Hugo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Efficiency of semi-autonomous and fully autonomous bus services in trunk-and-branches networks2019In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, article id 7648735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation technology is expected to change the public transport sector radically in the future. One rising issue is whether to embrace the intermediate stage of semi-autonomous buses or to wait until fully autonomous buses are available. This paper proposes a cost model of bus operations considering automation technology. The generalized cost, which is the sum of waiting, riding, operating, and capital cost, is modeled for conventional, semi-autonomous, and fully autonomous bus services on a generic trunk-and-branches network. Semi-autonomous buses achieve reduced unit operating cost through automated platooning on the corridor. The relative efficiency of the different services is studied under a range of scenarios for commercial speed, network structure, and demand distribution. Analytical and numerical results show that fully autonomous buses exhibit great potential through reduced operating and waiting costs even if the additional capital cost is high. The advantages of semi-autonomous buses are weaker and most prominent in networks with low demand along a long corridor such as interurban networks. For both automation levels a commercial speed comparable to conventional vehicles is crucial. The established criteria provide input to planners and operators for understanding the potential of automated bus services.

1 - 8 of 8
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