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  • 1. Mialon, Bruno
    et al.
    Khrabrov, Alex
    Ben Khelil, Saloua
    Huebner, Andreas
    Da Ronch, Andrea
    Badcock, Ken
    Cavagna, Luca
    Eliasson, Peter
    Zhang, Mengmeng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics.
    Ricci, Sergio
    Jouhaud, Jean-Christophe
    Roge, Gilbert
    Hitzel, Stephan
    Lahuta, Martin
    Validation of numerical prediction of dynamic derivatives: The DLR-F12 and the Transcruiser test cases2011In: Progress in Aerospace Sciences, ISSN 0376-0421, E-ISSN 1873-1724, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 674-694Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic derivatives are widely used in linear aerodynamic models in order to determine the flying qualities of an aircraft: the ability to predict them reliably, quickly and sufficiently early in the design process is vital in order to avoid late and costly component redesigns. This paper describes experimental and computational research dealing with the determination of dynamic derivatives carried out within the FP6 European project SimSAC. Numerical and experimental results are compared for two aircraft configurations: a generic civil transport aircraft, wing-fuselage-tail configuration called the DLR-F12 and a generic Transonic CRuiser, which is a canard configuration. Static and dynamic wind tunnel tests have been carried out for both configurations and are briefly described within this paper. The data generated for both the DLR-F12 and TCR configurations include force and pressure coefficients obtained during small amplitude pitch, roll and yaw oscillations while the data for the TCR configuration also include large amplitude oscillations, in order to investigate the dynamic effects on nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics. In addition, dynamic derivatives have been determined for both configurations with a large panel of tools, from linear aerodynamic (Vortex Lattice Methods) to CFD. This work confirms that an increase in fidelity level enables the dynamic derivatives to be calculated more accurately. Linear aerodynamics tools are shown to give satisfactory results but are very sensitive to the geometry/mesh input data. Although all the quasi-steady CFD approaches give comparable results (robustness) for steady dynamic derivatives, they do not allow the prediction of unsteady components for the dynamic derivatives (angular derivatives with respect to time): this can be done with either a fully unsteady approach i.e. with a time-marching scheme or with frequency domain solvers, both of which provide comparable results for the DLR-F12 test case. As far as the canard configuration is concerned, strong limitations for the linear aerodynamic tools are observed. A key aspect of this work are the acceleration techniques developed for CFD methods, which allow the computational time to be dramatically reduced while providing comparable results.

  • 2.
    Pettersson, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics.
    Rizzi, Arthur
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics.
    Aerodynamic scaling to free flight conditions: past and present2008In: Progress in Aerospace Sciences, ISSN 0376-0421, E-ISSN 1873-1724, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 295-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes some of the problems when wind tunnel data should be scaled to free flight conditions. The main challenges in performing this extrapolation is how model support, wall interference, aeroelastic effects and a potentially lower Reynolds number in the wind tunnel should be corrected. A historical review of scale effects is presented showing wind tunnel to flight discrepancies of different types of aircraft configurations. An overview of scaling methodologies and Reynolds number effects are presented and discussed. Some modern approaches where computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used, together with wind tunnel testing, in order to identify scaling phenomena are presented as well.

  • 3.
    Rizzi, Arthur
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics.
    Modeling and simulating aircraft stability and control-The SimSAC project2011In: Progress in Aerospace Sciences, ISSN 0376-0421, E-ISSN 1873-1724, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 573-588Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper overviews the SimSAC Project, Simulating Aircraft Stability And Control Characteristics for Use in Conceptual Design. It reports on the three major tasks: development of design software, validating the software on benchmark tests and applying the software to design exercises. CEASIOM, the Computerized Environment for Aircraft Synthesis and Integrated Optimization Methods, is a framework tool that integrates discipline-specific tools for conceptual design. At this early stage of the design it is very useful to be able to predict the flying and handling qualities of this design. In order to do this, the aerodynamic database needs to be computed for the configuration being studied, which then has to be coupled to the stability and control tools to carry out the analysis. The benchmarks for validation are the F12 windtunnel model of a generic long-range airliner and the TCR windtunnel model of a sonic-cruise passenger transport concept. The design, simulate and evaluate (DSE) exercise demonstrates how the software works as a design tool. The exercise begins with a design specification and uses conventional design methods to prescribe a baseline configuration. Then CEASIOM improves upon this baseline by analyzing its flying and handling qualities. Six such exercises are presented.

  • 4.
    Rizzi, Arthur
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics.
    Eliasson, Peter
    Department of Aeronautics & Systems Technology, FOI, Swedish Defense Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Goetzendorf-Grabowski, Tomasz
    Institute of Aeronautics & Applied Mechanics, Aircraft Design Department Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Vos, Jan B.
    CFS Engineering, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Zhang, Mengmeng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics.
    Virtual-aircraft design & control of transcruiser: a canard configuration2011In: Progress in Aerospace Sciences, ISSN 0376-0421, E-ISSN 1873-1724Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Rizzi, Arthur
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics.
    Eliasson, Peter
    Goetzendorf-Grabowski, Tomasz
    Vos, Jan B.
    Zhang, Mengmeng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics.
    Richardson, Thomas S.
    Design of a canard configured TransCruiser using CEASIOM2011In: Progress in Aerospace Sciences, ISSN 0376-0421, E-ISSN 1873-1724, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 695-705Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CEASIOM is a multidisciplinary software environment for aircraft design that has been developed as part of the European Framework 6 SimSAC project. It closely integrates discipline-specific tools such as those used for CAD, grid generation, CFD, stability analysis and control system design. The environment allows the user to take an initial design from geometry definition and aerodynamics generation through to full six degrees of freedom simulation and analysis. Key capabilities include variable fidelity aerodynamics tools and aeroelasticity modules. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of CEASIOM by presenting the results of a Design, Simulate and Evaluate (DSE) exercise applied to a novel, project specific, transonic cruiser configuration called the TCR. The baseline TCR configuration is first defined using conventional methods, which is then refined and improved within the CEASIOM software environment. A wind tunnel model of this final configuration was then constructed, tested and used to verify the results generated using CEASIOM.

  • 6.
    Rizzi, Arthur
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics.
    Vos, Jan B.
    Preamble2011In: Progress in Aerospace Sciences, ISSN 0376-0421, E-ISSN 1873-1724, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 571-572Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Tomac, Maximilian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics.
    Eller, David
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Flight Dynamics.
    From geometry to CFD grids-An automated approach for conceptual design2011In: Progress in Aerospace Sciences, ISSN 0376-0421, E-ISSN 1873-1724, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 589-596Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CEASIOM software developed in the EU-funded collaborative research project SimSAC generates stability and control data for preliminary aircraft design using different methods of varying fidelity. In order to obtain the aerodynamic derivatives by CFD, the aircraft geometry must be defined, computational meshes generated, and numerical parameters set for the flow solvers. An approach to automation of the process is discussed, involving geometry generation and mesh generation for inviscid as well as RANS flow models.

  • 8. Vos, J.
    et al.
    Rizzi, Arthur
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Darracq, D.
    Hirschel, E. H.
    Navier-Stokes solvers in European aircraft design2002In: Progress in Aerospace Sciences, ISSN 0376-0421, E-ISSN 1873-1724, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 601-697Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper gives a broad perspective of the progress made during the last 10 years in solving the Navier-Stokes equations and traces how this simulation technique went from being a specialized research topic to a practical engineering tool that design engineers use on a routine basis. The scope is limited to Navier-Stokes solvers applied to industrial design of airframes with attention focused particularly on developments in Europe. An overview of the different Navier-Stokes codes used in Europe is given, and on-going developments are outlined. The current state of progress is illustrated by computed steady and unsteady solutions to industrial problems, ranging from airfoil characteristics, flow around an isolated wing, to full aircraft configurations. A discussion on the future industrial design environment is given, and developments in Europe towards a more integrated design approach with underlying concepts like 'concurrent engineering (CE)' and the 'virtual product (VP)' are summarized. The paper concludes with a discussion on future challenging applications.

  • 9.
    Örlu, Ramis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    On near wall measurements of wall bounded flows-The necessity of an accurate determination of the wall position2010In: Progress in Aerospace Sciences, ISSN 0376-0421, E-ISSN 1873-1724, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 353-387Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present review paper is an account on the experimental determination of the wall position relative to the probe in wall-bounded turbulent flow studies. A thorough review on common measurement techniques as well as correction methods reveals, that there are a number of pitfalls, that-when not accounted for-can lead to wrong conclusions about the wall position and thereby also on the near-wall behaviour of mean and turbulence quantities. Employing the state-of-the-art databases from direct numerical simulations of wall-bounded turbulent flows various indirect methods have been tested and assessed in terms of their robustness and accuracy. It is also demonstrated that accurate measurements reaching the viscous sublayer are necessary in order to ensure a correctly deduced wall position, and dependent quantities as for instance the near-wall scaling of mean (e.g. Reynolds number dependence of the buffer region or the log law constants) and turbulence (e.g. the near-wall peak location of Reynolds stresses) quantities. In experiments using hot-wires near the wall it is well known that heat conduction between the hot-wire and the wall gives errors and mean velocity data from the viscous sublayer can usually not be used to determine the wall position. In this paper we introduce a new method which takes advantage of the similarity of the probability density distributions (pdf) in the near wall region. By using the high velocity data of the pdf, which is shown not to be affected by heat conduction, the heat conduction problem can be circumvented. Extensive appendices are included, describing the history and present knowledge about the scaling of the mean velocity in the near wall and overlap regions in wall bounded turbulent flows.

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