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  • 1. Boere, Stijn
    et al.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Kuijpers, Ard
    Nijmeijer, Henk
    Tyre/road interaction model for the prediction of road texture influence on rolling resistance2014In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 65, no 2-3, p. 202-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel modelling approach to predict the influence of road texture on the rolling resistance of car tyres is presented where the large static tyre deformations and the small texture induced tyre vibrations are treated separately. The energy dissipation due to the large continuous cyclic deformation of the tyre cross section for a treadless tyre subject to nominal load on a smooth road is determined in a non-linear steady-state rolling analysis on an FEM tyre model. The additional energy dissipation resulting from the con tact forces and tyre vibrations due to the combined effect of the tread profile and the road texture, are determined based on a modal representation of the deformed tyre. The predicted rolling resistance coefficients are compared to experimental data. Although an offset in the absolute rolling resistance levels can be observed, the model predicts the correct trend regarding the increase of rolling resistance with increasing texture depth.

  • 2. Dahlberg, E.
    et al.
    Stensson, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    The dynamic rollover threshold - a heavy truck sensitivity study2006In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 40, no 03-jan, p. 228-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of rollover mechanics, which is required in heavy truck development, commonly relies on a static analysis, providing the steady-state rollover threshold, SSRT. In a rolling vehicle, kinetic energy is always present and that deteriorates the analysis of roll stability from SSRT and implies the need for a dynamic rollover threshold, DRT as a complement. A method to determine DRT is presented and a parameter sensitivity study The influences on SSRT and DRT, including interaction effects, from roll stiffnesses and roll centre heights, are calculated. Results show that a rigid truck and a tractor semitrailer combination are unequally sensitive to parameter changes. Design changes can hence affect SSRT and DRT differently, which indicates that two vehicles can be equally stable statically but differently dynamically. Therefore, if DRT is not analysed, a redesign of a vehicle can deteriorate roll stability even though it appears to improve it.

  • 3.
    Davari, Mohammad Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Extended Brush Tyre Model to Study Rolling Loss in Vehicle Dynamics Simulations2017In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 73, no 4, p. 255-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a semi-physical tyre model that enables studies of rolling loss in combination with vehicle dynamic simulations. The proposed model, named extended brush tyre model (EBM), takes the effects of driving conditions, wheel alignment, and tyre materials into account. Compared to the basic brush tyre model, EBM includes multiple numbers of lines and bristles as well as integrated rubber elements into the bristles. The force and moment characteristics of the model are shown to have a good correlation with the Magic Formula tyre model and experimental data. The numerically estimated rolling resistance coefficients under different conditions are compared to findings in the literature, FE-simulations and experiments. The model can capture some aspects that are not covered by the available literature and experimental observations such as camber effect on rolling loss. EBM can be used as a platform for future studies of rolling loss optimisation using active chassis control.

  • 4.
    Erséus, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Characteristics of path tracking skill on a curving road2015In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 26-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this research work is to evaluate the relation of driver skill to measurements done when driving on a regular curving road, i.e., performing a primary driving task. A curving road scenario is designed using both clear sight and fog-limited sight distance. Measures are compared under equal conditions to identify the best separation of recruited driver types. A moving base simulator, VTI Simulator III, is used for the acquisition of driver metrics. Curves are found to be more reliable for identifying driver skill than straight road segments, and a number of measures show good performance in characterising driving skill under the tested conditions, both for clear sight and with the preview limited down to 30 m. The standard deviation proves to be very useful and qualifies for successful driver skill categorisation for commonly sampled data such as the lateral acceleration, yaw rate and steering wheel angle.

  • 5.
    Favre, Tristan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Näfver, Jonas Jarlmark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Efraimsson, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Static coupling between detached-eddy simulations and vehicle dynamic simulations of a generic road vehicle model with different rear configurations in unsteady crosswind2016In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 332-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, aerodynamic loads of a generic car model obtained from advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are coupled to a vehicle dynamics model to enable the assessment of the on-road response. The influence of four rear configurations is studied. The different configurations yield large differences in yaw moments and side forces, which in turn result in considerable discrepancies in lateral displacements as well as yaw rates. From the simulations, it is seen that through balancing the location of the centre of pressure, the stiffness of the suspension bushings and the cornering stiffness of the tyres, it is possible to obtain stable vehicles in strong crosswind conditions for all four rear designs. The results show that monitoring the location of the aerodynamic centre of pressure with respect to the centre of gravity and the neutral steer point is essential for the possibility of designing stable vehicles in transient crosswind.

  • 6.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. Volvo Cars.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Cars.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Correlations of subjective assessments and objective metrics for vehicle handling and steering: A walk through history2016In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 17-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving customer satisfaction concerning steering feel and vehicle handling requires subjective assessments and tuning of vehicle components by expert test drivers and engineers. Extensive subjective testing is expensive, time consuming and requires physical vehicles, which is in conflict with reduction of development time and cost. Objective testing and model-based development are constantly increasing but translating subjective requirements into objective ones is non-trivial. This paper summarises, discusses and classifies the methods, strategies and findings in previously published research regarding correlations of subjective assessments and objective metrics for vehicle handling and steering. The aim is twofold: (i) to identify key parameters of steering, handling and their preferred values and (ii) to compile and discuss the fundamental issues to deal with in the continued search for correlations between objective metrics and subjective assessments. The paper gives a comprehensive overview and insight of different aspects to take into account when conducting research in this field.

  • 7.
    Jarlmark, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Steering system forces due to local camber in ruts2006In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 40, no 1-3, p. 93-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A driver related area that is difficult to simulate and to reproduce in a driving simulator is the steering feel, especially the sense of longitudinal ruts and the self-steering of the vehicle. The hypothesis that the major contribution to the steering feel is due to the lateral movement of the vertical force due to local camber changes is stated. A tyre measurement rig is original hypothesis is proven to be false by computer simulations using the measurements from the rig. Instead the aligning moment created by the tare belt stiffness for a cambered tyre is shown to have the largest significance on a steering system of modern layout.

  • 8. Kanchwala, Husain
    et al.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Vehicle handling control of an electric vehicle using active torque distribution and rear wheel steering2017In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 319-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two objectives of this work. First is to develop a detailed mathematical model of a vehicle. The second is to develop a controller which makes the vehicle follow desired dynamic characteristics. Suspension kinematics and compliance characteristics have been obtained from the complex suspension models developed in Adams Car (R). Vehicle roll-pitch interactions and variations of roll and pitch centres with respect to wheel travel are considered. The controller is developed as a combination of force allocation control and active rear wheel steering control. Reference trajectories of vehicle velocity, path geometry and vehicle slip angle are the inputs. The controller transforms these user inputs and generates wheel torques and steering commands. A desired value of yaw rate is maintained by generating a restoring yaw moment from unequal torque distribution, and side slip is substantially reduced by active rear wheel steering controller. Finally simulation results illustrate the suitability of the controller.

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