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  • 1.
    Al-Zubaidy, Hussein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Liebeherr, Joerg
    Burchard, Almut
    Network-Layer Performance Analysis of Multihop Fading Channels2016In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 204-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental problem for the delay and backlog analysis across multihop paths in wireless networks is how to account for the random properties of the wireless channel. Since the usual statistical models for radio signals in a propagation environment do not lend themselves easily to a description of the available service rate, the performance analysis of wireless networks has resorted to higher-layer abstractions, e. g., using Markov chain models. In this paper, we propose a network calculus that can incorporate common statistical models of fading channels and obtain statistical bounds on delay and backlog across multiple nodes. We conduct the analysis in a transfer domain, where the service process at a link is characterized by the instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver. We discover that, in the transfer domain, the network model is governed by a dioid algebra, which we refer to as the algebra. Using this algebra, we derive the desired delay and backlog bounds. Using arguments from large deviations theory, we show that the bounds are asymptotically tight. An application of the analysis is demonstrated for a multihop network of Rayleigh fading channels with cross traffic at each hop.

  • 2.
    Andersin, Michael
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Zander, Jens
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Roseberg, Zvi
    Soft and safe admission control in cellular networks1997In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 255-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the mobile admission control problem in a cellular PCS network where transmitter powers are constrained and controlled by a distributed constrained power control (DCPC) algorithm. Receivers are subject to nonnegligible noise, and the DCPC attempts to bring each receiver's CIR (carrier-to-interference ratio) above a given quality target. Two classes of distributed admission control are considered. One is a noninteractive admission control (N-IAC), where an admission decision is instantaneously made based on the system state. The other is an interactive admission control (IAC), under which the new mobile is permitted to interact with one or more potential channels before a decision is made. The algorithms are evaluated with respect to their execution time and their decision errors. Two types of errors are examined: type I error, where a new mobile is erroneously accepted and results in outage; and type II error, where a new mobile is erroneously rejected and results in blocking. The algorithms in the N-IAC class accept a new mobile if and only if the uplink and the downlink interferences are below certain corresponding thresholds. These algorithms are subject to errors of type I and type II. In the IAC class, we derive a soft and safe (SAS) admission algorithm, which is type I and type II error free, and protects the CIR's of all active links at any moment of time. A fast-SAS version, which is only type I error-free, is proposed for practical implementation, and is evaluated in several case studies.

  • 3. Araldo, Andrea
    et al.
    Dan, Gyorgy
    Rossi, Dario
    Caching Encrypted Content Via Stochastic Cache Partitioning2018In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 548-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-network caching is an appealing solution to cope with the increasing bandwidth demand of video, audio, and data transfer over the Internet. Nonetheless, in order to protect consumer privacy and their own business, content providers (CPs) increasingly deliver encrypted content, thereby preventing Internet service providers (ISPs) from employing traditional caching strategies, which require the knowledge of the objects being transmitted. To overcome this emerging tussle between security and efficiency, in this paper we propose an architecture in which the ISP partitions the cache space into slices, assigns each slice to a different CP, and lets the CPs remotely manage their slices. This architecture enables transparent caching of encrypted content and can be deployed in the very edge of the ISP's network (i.e., base stations and femtocells), while allowing CPs to maintain exclusive control over their content. We propose an algorithm, called SDCP, for partitioning the cache storage into slices so as to maximize the bandwidth savings provided by the cache. A distinctive feature of our algorithm is that ISPs only need to measure the aggregated miss rates of each CP, but they need not know the individual objects that are requested. We prove that the SDCP algorithm converges to a partitioning that is close to the optimal, and we bound its optimality gap. We use simulations to evaluate SDCP's convergence rate under stationary and nonstationary content popularity. Finally, we show that SDCP significantly outperforms traditional reactive caching techniques, considering both CPs with perfect and with imperfect knowledge of their content popularity.

  • 4. Archambault, Emile
    et al.
    Alloune, Nabih
    Furdek, Marija
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Xu, Zhenyu
    Tremblay, Christine
    Muhammad, Ajmal
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Chen, Jiajia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Littlewood, Paul
    Belanger, Michel
    Routing and spectrum assignment in elastic filterless optical networks2016In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 3578-3592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elastic optical networking is considered a promising candidate to improve the spectral efficiency of optical networks. One of the most important planning challenges of elastic optical networks is the NP-hard routing and spectrum assignment (RSA) problem. In this paper, we investigate offline RSA in elastic filterless optical networks, which use a passive broadcast-and-select architecture to offer network agility. Here elastic optical network is referred to as the optical network that can adapt the channel bandwidth, data rate, and transmission format for each traffic demand in order to offer maximum throughput. In elastic filterless networks, the presence of unfiltered signals resulting from the drop-and-continue node architecture must be considered as an additional constraint in the RSA problem. In this paper, first the RSA problem in elastic filterless networks is formulated by using integer linear program (ILP) to obtain optimal solutions for small networks. Due to the problem complexity, two efficient RSA heuristics are also proposed to achieve suboptimal solutions for larger networks in reasonable time. Simulation results show that significant bandwidth savings in elastic filterless networks can be achieved compared to the fixed-grid filterless solutions. The proposed approach is further tested in multi-period traffic scenarios and combined with periodical spectrum defragmentation, leading to additional improvement in spectrum utilization of elastic filterless optical networks.

  • 5.
    Athanasiou, Georgios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Weeraddana, Pradeep Chathuranga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Tassiulas, Leandros
    University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece.
    Optimizing Client Association for Load Balancing and Fairness in Millimeter Wave Wireless Networks2015In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 836-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Millimeter-wave communications in the 60-GHz band are considered one of the key technologies for enabling multigigabit wireless access. However, the special characteristics of such a band pose major obstacles to the optimal utilization of the wireless resources, where the problem of efficient client association to access points (APs) is of vital importance. In this paper, the client association in 60-GHz wireless access networks is investigated. The AP utilization and the quality of the rapidly vanishing communication links are the control parameters. Because of the tricky non-convex and combinatorial nature of the client association optimization problem, a novel solution method is developed to guarantee balanced and fair resource allocation. A new distributed, lightweight, and easy-to-implement association algorithm, based on Lagrangian duality theory and subgradient methods, is proposed. It is shown that the algorithm is asymptotically optimal, that is, the relative duality gap diminishes to zero as the number of clients increases.

  • 6. Briat, C.
    et al.
    Yavuz, E.A
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Jönsson, Ulf T.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Karlsson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    The Conservation of Information, Towards an Axiomatized Modular Modeling Approach to Congestion Control2015In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 851-865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We derive a modular fluid-flow network congestion control model based on a law of fundamental nature in networks: the conservation of information. Network elements such as queues, users, and transmission channels and network performance indicators like sending/acknowledgment rates and delays are mathematically modeled by applying this law locally. Our contributions are twofold. First, we introduce a modular metamodel that is sufficiently generic to represent any network topology. The proposed model is composed of building blocks that implement mechanisms ignored by the existing ones, which can be recovered from exact reduction or approximation of this new model. Second, we provide a novel classification of previously proposed models in the literature and show that they are often not capable of capturing the transient behavior of the network precisely. Numerical results obtained from packet-level simulations demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed model.

  • 7. Chaporkar, Prasanna
    et al.
    Magureanu, Stefan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Proutiere, Alexandre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Optimal Distributed Scheduling in Wireless Networks Under the SINR Interference Model2016In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 2033-2045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In wireless networks, the design of radio resource sharing mechanisms is complicated by the complex interference constraints among the various links. In their seminal paper (IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1936-1948), Tassiulas and Ephremides introduced Maximum Weighted Scheduling, a centralized resource sharing algorithm, and proved its optimality. Since then, there have been extensive research efforts to devise distributed implementations of this algorithm. Recently, distributed adaptive CSMA scheduling schemes have been proposed and shown to be optimal, without the need of message passing among transmitters. However, their analysis relies on the assumption that interference can be accurately modeled by a simple interference graph. In this paper, we consider the more realistic and challenging signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) interference model. We present distributed scheduling algorithms that: 1) are optimal under the SINR interference model; and 2) do not require any message passing. These algorithms are based on a combination of a simple and efficient power allocation strategy referred to as Power Packing and randomization techniques. The optimality of our algorithms is illustrated in various traffic scenarios using numerical experiments.

  • 8.
    Chiesa, Marco
    et al.
    Université catholique du Louvain, Belgium.
    Kindler, G.
    Schapira, M.
    Traffic engineering with equal-cost-multipath: An algorithmic perspective2017In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 779-792, article id 7588075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To efficiently exploit the network resources operators, do traffic engineering (TE), i.e., adapt the routing of traffic to the prevailing demands. TE in large IP networks typically relies on configuring static link weights and splitting traffic between the resulting shortest paths via the Equal-Cost-MultiPath (ECMP) mechanism. Yet, despite its vast popularity, crucial operational aspects of TE via ECMP are still little-understood from an algorithmic viewpoint. We embark upon a systematic algorithmic study of TE with ECMP. We consider the standard model of TE with ECMP and prove that, in general, even approximating the optimal link-weight configuration for ECMP within any constant ratio is an intractable feat, settling a long-standing open question. We establish, in contrast, that ECMP can provably achieve optimal traffic flow for the important category of Clos datacenter networks. We last consider a well-documented shortcoming of ECMP: suboptimal routing of large ("elephant") flows. We present algorithms for scheduling "elephant" flows on top of ECMP (as in, e.g., Hedera) with provable approximation guarantees. Our results complement and shed new light on past experimental and empirical studies of the performance of TE with ECMP.

  • 9.
    Chiesa, Marco
    et al.
    Université catholique du Louvain, Belgium.
    Nikolaevskiy, I.
    Mitrovic, S.
    Gurtov, A.
    Madry, A.
    Schapira, M.
    Shenker, S.
    On the Resiliency of Static Forwarding Tables2017In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 1133-1146, article id 7728092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast reroute and other forms of immediate failover have long been used to recover from certain classes of failures without invoking the network control plane. While the set of such techniques is growing, the level of resiliency to failures that this approach can provide is not adequately understood. In this paper, we embarked upon a systematic algorithmic study of the resiliency of forwarding tables in a variety of models (i.e., deterministic/probabilistic routing, with packet-headerrewriting, with packet-duplication). Our results show that the resiliency of a routing scheme depends on the "connectivity" k of a network, i.e., the minimum number of link deletions that partition a network. We complement our theoretical result with extensive simulations. We show that resiliency to four simultaneous link failures, with limited path stretch, can be achieved without any packet modification/duplication or randomization. Furthermore, our routing schemes provide resiliency against k - 1 failures, with limited path stretch, by storing log(k) bits in the packet header, with limited packet duplication, or with randomized forwarding technique.

  • 10.
    Chiesa, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Retvari, Gabor
    MTA BME Informat Syst Res Grp, H-1521 Budapest, Hungary..
    Schapira, Michael
    Hebrew Univ Jerusalem, IL-9190401 Jerusalem, Israel..
    Oblivious Routing in IP Networks2018In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 1292-1305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To optimize the flow of traffic in IP networks, operators do traffic engineering (TE), i.e., tune routing-protocol parameters in response to traffic demands. TE in IP networks typically involves configuring static link weights and splitting traffic between the resulting shortest-paths via the equal-cost-multipath (ECMP) mechanism. Unfortunately, ECMP is a notoriously cumbersome and indirect means for optimizing traffic flow, often leading to poor network performance. Also, obtaining accurate knowledge of traffic demands as the input to TE is a non-trivial task that may require additional monitoring infrastructure, and traffic conditions can be highly variable, further complicating TE. We leverage recently proposed schemes for increasing ECMP's expressiveness via carefully disseminated bogus information (lies) to design COYOTE, a readily deployable TE scheme for robust and efficient network utilization. COYOTE leverages new algorithmic ideas to configure (static) traffic splitting ratios that are optimized with respect to all (even adversarial) traffic scenarios within the operator's "uncertainty bounds". Our experimental analyses show that COYOTE significantly outperforms today's prevalent TE schemes in a manner that is robust to traffic uncertainty and variation. We discuss experiments with a prototype implementation of COYOTE.

  • 11.
    Cho, Jeong-woo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Yi, Yung
    KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology).
    On the Payoff Mechanisms in Peer-Assisted Services With Multiple Content Providers: Rationality and Fairness2014In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 731-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies an incentive structure for cooperation and its stability in peer-assisted services when there exist multiple content providers, using a coalition game-theoretic approach. We first consider a generalized coalition structure consisting of multiple providers with many assisting peers, where peers assist providers to reduce the operational cost in content distribution. To distribute the profit from cost reduction to players (i.e, providers and peers), we then establish a generalized formula for individual payoffs when a "Shapley-like" payoff mechanism is adopted. We show that the grand coalition is unstable, even when the operational cost functions are concave, which is in sharp contrast to the recently studied case of a single provider where the grand coalition is stable. We also show that irrespective of stability of the grand coalition, there always exist coalition structures that are not convergent to the grand coalition under a dynamic among coalition structures. Our results give us an incontestable fact that a provider does not tend to cooperate with other providers in peer-assisted services and is separated from them. Three facets of the noncooperative (selfish) providers are illustrated: 1) underpaid peers; 2) service monopoly; and 3) oscillatory coalition structure. Lastly, we propose a stable payoff mechanism that improves fairness of profit sharing by regulating the selfishness of the players as well as grants the content providers a limited right of realistic bargaining. Our study opens many new questions such as realistic and efficient incentive structures and the tradeoffs between fairness and individual providers' competition in peer-assisted services.

  • 12. Dainotti, A.
    et al.
    Squarcella, C.
    Aben, E.
    Claffy, K. C.
    Chiesa, Marco
    Roma Tre University, Italy.
    Russo, M.
    Pescape, A.
    Analysis of country-wide internet outages caused by censorship2014In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 1964-1977, article id 6678649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first months of 2011, Internet communications were disrupted in several North African countries in response to civilian protests and threats of civil war. In this paper, we analyze episodes of these disruptions in two countries: Egypt and Libya. Our analysis relies on multiple sources of large-scale data already available to academic researchers: BGP interdomain routing control plane data, unsolicited data plane traffic to unassigned address space, active macroscopic traceroute measurements, RIR delegation files, and MaxMind's geolocation database. We used the latter two data sets to determine which IP address ranges were allocated to entities within each country, and then mapped these IP addresses of interest to BGP-announced address ranges (prefixes) and origin autonomous systems (ASs) using publicly available BGP data repositories in the US and Europe. We then analyzed observable activity related to these sets of prefixes and ASs throughout the censorship episodes. Using both control plane and data plane data sets in combination allowed us to narrow down which forms of Internet access disruption were implemented in a given region over time. Among other insights, we detected what we believe were Libya's attempts to test firewall-based blocking before they executed more aggressive BGP-based disconnection. Our methodology could be used, and automated, to detect outages or similar macroscopically disruptive events in other geographic or topological regions.

  • 13.
    Dán, György
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Carlsson, N.
    Centralized and distributed protocols for tracker-based dynamic swarm management2013In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 297-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With BitTorrent, efficient peer upload utilization is achieved by splitting contents into many small pieces, each of which may be downloaded from different peers within the same swarm. Unfortunately, piece and bandwidth availability may cause the file-sharing efficiency to degrade in small swarms with few participating peers. Using extensive measurements, we identified hundreds of thousands of torrents with several small swarms for which reallocating peers among swarms and/or modifying the peer behavior could significantly improve the system performance. Motivated by this observation, we propose a centralized and a distributed protocol for dynamic swarm management. The centralized protocol (CSM) manages the swarms of peers at minimal tracker overhead. The distributed protocol (DSM) manages the swarms of peers while ensuring load fairness among the trackers. Both protocols achieve their performance improvements by identifying and merging small swarms and allow load sharing for large torrents. Our evaluations are based on measurement data collected during eight days from over 700 trackers worldwide, which collectively maintain state information about 2.8 million unique torrents. We find that CSM and DSM can achieve most of the performance gains of dynamic swarm management. These gains are estimated to be up to 40% on average for small torrents.

  • 14.
    Fischione, Carlo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Park, Pangun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Ergen, S.C.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A.
    Analytical modeling and optimization of duty-cycles in preamble-based IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks2009In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Fodor, Gabor
    et al.
    Telek, M
    Bounding the blocking probabilities in multirate CDMA networks supporting elastic services2007In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 944-956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several previous contributions have proposed calculation methods that can be used to determine the steady state (and from it the blocking probabilities) of code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems. This present work extends the classical Kaufman-Roberts formula such that it becomes applicable in CDMA systems in which elastic services with state-dependent instantaneous bit rate and average-bit-rate-dependent. residency time are supported. Our model captures the effect of soft blocking, that is, an arriving session may be blocked in virtually all system states but with a state dependent probability. The core of this method is to approximate the original irreversible Markov chain with a reversible one and to give lower and upper bounds on the so-called partially blocking macro states of the state space. We employ this extended formula to establish lower and upper bounds on the steady state and the classwise blocking probabilities.

  • 16.
    He, Qing
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems Engineering.
    Dán, Gyorgy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems Engineering.
    Fodor, Viktoria
    Joint Assignment and Scheduling for Minimizing Age of Correlated Information2019In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Jayakrishnan, Nair
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Technology Bombay.
    Andreasson, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Andrew, Lachlan
    Monash University.
    Low, Steven H.
    California Institute of Technology.
    Doyle, John
    California Institute of Technology.
    On Channel Failures, File Fragmentation Policies, and Heavy-Tailed Completion Times2014In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. PP, no 99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been recently discovered that heavy-tailed completion times can result from protocol interaction even when file sizes are light-tailed. A key to this phenomenon is the use of a restart policy where if the file is interrupted before it is completed, it needs to restart from the beginning. In this paper, we show that fragmenting a file into pieces whose sizes are either bounded or independently chosen after each interruption guarantees light-tailed completion time as long as the file size is light-tailed; i.e., in this case, heavy-tailed completion time can only originate from heavy-tailed file sizes. If the file size is heavy-tailed, then the completion time is necessarily heavy-tailed. For this case, we show that when the file size distribution is regularly varying, then under independent or bounded fragmentation, the completion time tail distribution function is asymptotically bounded above by that of the original file size stretched by a constant factor. We then prove that if the distribution of times between interruptions has nondecreasing failure rate, the expected completion time is minimized by dividing the file into equal-sized fragments; this optimal fragment size is unique but depends on the file size. We also present a simple blind fragmentation policy where the fragment sizes are constant and independent of the file size and prove that it is asymptotically optimal. Both these policies are also shown to have desirable completion time tail behavior. Finally, we bound the error in expected completion time due to error in modeling of the failure process. 

  • 18.
    Jeong, Jaeseong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Yi, Yung
    Cho, Jeong-Woo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Eun, Do Young
    Chong, Song
    Energy-Efficient Wi-Fi Sensing Policy Under Generalized Mobility Patterns With Aging2016In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 2416-2428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An essential condition precedent to the success of mobile applications based on Wi-Fi (e. g., iCloud) is an energy-efficient Wi-Fi sensing. Clearly, a good Wi-Fi sensing policy should factor in both inter-access point (AP) arrival time (IAT) and contact duration time (CDT) distributions of each individual. However, prior work focuses on limited cases of those two distributions (e. g., exponential) or proposes heuristic approaches such as Additive Increase (AI). In this paper, we first formulate a generalized functional optimization problem on Wi-Fi sensing under general inter-AP and contact duration distributions and investigate how each individual should sense Wi-Fi APs to strike a good balance between energy efficiency and performance, which is in turn intricately linked with users mobility patterns. We then derive a generic optimal condition that sheds insights into the aging property, underpinning energy-aware Wi-Fi sensing polices. In harnessing our analytical findings and the implications thereof, we develop a new sensing algorithm, called Wi-Fi Sensing with AGing (WiSAG), and demonstrate that WiSAG outperforms the existing sensing algorithms up to 37% through extensive trace-driven simulations for which real mobility traces gathered from hundreds of smartphones is used.

  • 19.
    Josilo, Sladana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
    Dan, György
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
    Decentralized Algorithm for Randomized Task Allocation in Fog Computing Systems2019In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 85-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fog computing is identified as a key enabler for using various emerging applications by battery powered and computationally constrained devices. In this paper, we consider devices that aim at improving their performance by choosing to offload their computational tasks to nearby devices or to an edge cloud. We develop a game theoretical model of the problem and use a variational inequality theory to compute an equilibrium task allocation in static mixed strategies. Based on the computed equilibrium strategy, we develop a decentralized algorithm for allocating the computational tasks among nearby devices and the edge cloud. We use the extensive simulations to provide insight into the performance of the proposed algorithm and compare its performance with the performance of a myopic best response algorithm that requires global knowledge of the system state. Despite the fact that the proposed algorithm relies on average system parameters only, our results show that it provides a good system performance close to that of the myopic best response algorithm.

  • 20.
    Kozica, Ermin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Sound and Image Processing.
    Kleijn, W. Bastiaan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Sound and Image Processing.
    A Quantization Theoretic Perspective on Simulcast and Layered Multicast Optimization2012In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 585-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider rate optimization in multicast systems that use several multicast trees on a communication network. The network is shared between different applications. For that reason, we model the available bandwidth for multicast as stochastic. For specific network topologies, we show that the multicast rate optimization problem is equivalent to the optimization of scalar quantization. We use results from rate-distortion theory to provide a bound on the achievable performance for the multicast rate optimization problem. A large number of receivers makes the possibility of adaptation to changing network conditions desirable in a practical system. To this end, we derive an analytical solution to the problem that is asymptotically optimal in the number of multicast trees. We derive local optimality conditions, which we use to describe a general class of iterative algorithms that give locally optimal solutions to the problem. Simulation results are provided for the multicast of an i.i.d. Gaussian process, an i.i.d. Laplacian process, and a video source.

  • 21.
    Krishnamurthy, Supriya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB.
    El-Ansary, Sameh
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS).
    Aurell, Erik
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB.
    Haridi, Seif
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Software and Computer Systems, SCS.
    An analytical study of a structured overlay in the presence of dynamic membership2008In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 814-825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present an analytical study of dynamic membership (aka churn) in structured peer-to-peer networks. We use a fluid model approach to describe steady-state or transient phenomena and apply it to the Chord system. For any rate of churn and stabilization rates and any system size, we accurately account for the functional form of the probability of network disconnection as well as the fraction of failed or incorrect successor and finger pointers. We show how we can use these quantities to predict both the performance and consistency of lookups under churn. All theoretical predictions match simulation results. The analysis includes both features that are generic to structured overlays deploying a ring as well as Chord-specific details and opens the door to a systematic comparative analysis of, at least, ring-based structured overlay systems under churn.

  • 22. Lehrieder, Frank
    et al.
    Dán, György
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Hossfeld, Tobias
    Oechsner, Simon
    Singeorzan, Vlad
    Caching for BitTorrent-Like P2P Systems: A Simple Fluid Model and Its Implications2012In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 1176-1189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peer-to-peer file-sharing systems are responsible for a significant share of the traffic between Internet service providers (ISPs) in the Internet. In order to decrease their peer-to-peer-related transit traffic costs, many ISPs have deployed caches for peer-to-peer traffic in recent years. We consider how the different types of peer-to-peer caches-caches already available on the market and caches expected to become available in the future-can possibly affect the amount of inter-ISP traffic. We develop a fluid model that captures the effects of the caches on the system dynamics of peer-to-peer networks and show that caches can have adverse effects on the system dynamics depending on the system parameters. We combine the fluid model with a simple model of inter-ISP traffic and show that the impact of caches cannot be accurately assessed without considering the effects of the caches on the system dynamics. We identify scenarios when caching actually leads to increased transit traffic. Motivated by our findings, we propose a proximity-aware peer-selection mechanism that avoids the increase of the transit traffic and improves the cache efficiency. We support the analytical results by extensive simulations and experiments with real BitTorrent clients.

  • 23. Li, Bo
    et al.
    Wu, Junfeng
    Qi, Hongsheng
    Proutiere, Alexandre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Shi, Guodong
    Boolean Gossip Networks2018In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 118-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes and investigates a Boolean gossip model as a simplified but non-trivial probabilistic Boolean network. With positive node interactions, in view of standard theories from Markov chains, we prove that the node states asymptotically converge to an agreement at a binary random variable, whose distribution is characterized for large-scale networks by mean-field approximation. Using combinatorial analysis, we also successfully count the number of communication classes of the positive Boolean network explicitly in terms of the topology of the underlying interaction graph, where remarkably minor variation in local structures can drastically change the number of network communication classes. With general Boolean interaction rules, emergence of absorbing network Boolean dynamics is shown to be determined by the network structure with necessary and sufficient conditions established regarding when the Boolean gossip process defines absorbing Markov chains. Particularly, it is shown that for the majority of the Boolean interaction rules, except for nine out of the total 2(16) - 1 possible nonempty sets of binary Boolean functions, whether the induced chain is absorbing has nothing to do with the topology of the underlying interaction graph, as long as connectivity is assumed. These results illustrate the possibilities of relating dynamical properties of Boolean networks to graphical properties of the underlying interactions.

  • 24.
    Miao, Guowang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Li, Ye (Geoffrey)
    Swami, Ananthram
    Channel-Aware Distributed Medium Access Control2012In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 1290-1303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we solve a fundamental problem: how to use distributed random access to achieve the performance of centralized schedulers. We consider wireless networks with arbitrary topologies and spatial traffic distributions, where users can receive traffic from or send traffic to different users and different communication links may interfere with each other. The channels are assumed heterogeneous, and the random channel gains of different links may have different distributions. To resolve the network contention in a distributed way, each frame is divided into contention and transmission periods. The contention period is used to resolve conflicts, while the transmission period is used to send payload in collision-free scenarios. We design a multistage channel-aware Aloha scheme for the contention period to enable users with relatively better channel states to have higher probabilities of contention success while assuring fairness among all users. We show analytically that the proposed scheme completely resolves network contention and achieves throughput close to that of centralized schedulers. Furthermore, the proposed scheme is robust to any uncertainty in channel estimation. Simulation results demonstrate that it significantly improves network performance while maintaining fairness among different users. The proposed random access approach can be applied to different wireless networks, such as cellular, sensor, and mobile ad hoc networks, to improve quality of service.

  • 25. Munari, Andrea
    et al.
    Maehoenen, Petri
    Petrova, Marina
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    A Stochastic Geometry Approach to Asynchronous Aloha Full-Duplex Networks2017In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 3695-3708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-band full-duplex is emerging as a promising solution to enhance throughput in wireless networks. Allowing nodes to simultaneously send and receive data over the same bandwidth can potentially double the system capacity, and a good degree of maturity has been reached for physical layer design, with practical demonstrations in simple topologies. However, the true potential of full-duplex at a system level is yet to be fully understood. In this paper, we introduce an analytical framework based on stochastic geometry that captures the behavior of large full-duplex networks implementing an asynchronous random access policy based on Aloha. Via exact expressions, we discuss the key tradeoffs that characterize these systems, exploring among the rest the role of transmission duration, imperfect self-interference cancellation, and fraction of full-duplex nodes in the network. We also provide protocol design principles, and our comparison with slotted systems sheds light on the performance loss induced by the lack of synchronism.

  • 26.
    Pacifici, Valentino
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dán, György
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Coordinated Selfish Distributed Caching for Peering Content-centric Networks2016In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. PP, no 99, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A future content-centric Internet would likely consist of autonomous systems (ASes) just like today’s Internet. It would thus be a network of interacting cache networks, each of them optimized for local performance. To understand the influence of interactions between autonomous cache networks, in this paper, we consider ASes that maintain peering agreements with each other for mutual benefit and engage in content-level peering to leverage each others’ cache contents. We propose a model of the interaction between the caches managed by peering ASes. We address whether stable and efficient content-level peering can be implemented without explicit coordination between the neighboring ASes. We show that content-level peering leads to stable cache configurations, both with and without coordination. However, peering Internet Service Providers (ISPs) that coordinate to avoid simultaneous updates converge to a stable configuration more efficiently. Furthermore, if the content popularity estimates are inaccurate, content-level peering is likely to lead to cost efficient cache allocations. We validate our analytical results using simulations on the measured peering topology of more than 600 ASes.

  • 27.
    Pacifici, Valentino
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Lehrieder, Frank
    University of Wurzburg.
    Dán, György
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Cache Bandwidth Allocation for P2P File Sharing Systems to Minimize Inter-ISP Traffic2016In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 437-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Internet service providers (ISPs) have deployed peer-to-peer (P2P) caches in their networks in order to decrease costly inter-ISP traffic. A P2P cache stores parts of the most popular contents locally, and if possible serves the requests of local peers to decrease the inter-ISP traffic. Traditionally, P2P cache resource management focuses on managing the storage resource of the cache so as to maximize the inter-ISP traffic savings. In this paper we show that, when there are many overlays competing for the upload bandwidth of a P2P cache, then in order to maximize the inter-ISP traffic savings the cache's upload bandwidth should be actively allocated among the overlays. We formulate the problem of P2P cache bandwidth allocation as a Markov decision process, and propose three approximations to the optimal cache bandwidth allocation policy. We use extensive simulations and experiments to evaluate the performance of the proposed policies, and show that the bandwidth allocation policy that prioritizes swarms with a small ratio of local peers to all peers in the swarm can improve the inter-ISP traffic savings in BitTorrent-like P2P systems by up to 30 to 60 percent.

  • 28. Peresini, Peter
    et al.
    Kuzniar, Maciej
    Kostic, Dejan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Dynamic, Fine-Grained Data Plane Monitoring with Monocle2018In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 534-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring network reliability is important for satisfying service-level objectives. However, diagnosing network anomalies in a timely fashion is difficult due to the complex nature of network configurations. We present Monocle — a system that uncovers forwarding problems due to hardware or software failures in switches, by verifying that the data plane corresponds to the view that an SDN controller installs via the control plane. Monocle works by systematically probing the switch data plane; the probes are constructed by formulating the switch forwarding table logic as a Boolean satisfiability (SAT) problem. Our SAT formulation quickly generates probe packets targeting a particular rule considering both existing and new rules. Monocle can monitor not only static flow tables (as is currently typically the case), but also dynamic networks with frequent flow table changes. Our evaluation shows that Monocle is capable of fine-grained monitoring for the majority of rules, and it can identify a rule suddenly missing from the data plane or misbehaving in a matter of seconds. In fact, during our evaluation Monocle uncovered problems with two hardware switches that we were using in our evaluation. Finally, during network updates Monocle helps controllers cope with switches that exhibit transient inconsistencies between their control and data plane states.

  • 29. Radunovic, B.
    et al.
    Proutiere, Alexandre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    On downlink capacity of cellular data networks with WLAN/WPAN relays2013In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 286-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the downlink of a cellular network supporting data traffic in which each user is equipped with the same type of IEEE 802.11-like WLAN or WPAN interface used to relay packets to further users. We are interested in the design guidelines for such networks and how much capacity improvements the additional relay layer can bring. A first objective is to provide a scheduling/relay strategy that maximizes the network capacity. Using theoretical analysis, numerical evaluation, and simulations, we find that when the number of active users is large, the capacity-achieving strategy divides the cell into two areas: one closer to the base station where the relay layer is always saturated and some nodes receive traffic through both direct and relay links, and the farther one where the relay is never saturated and the direct traffic is almost nonexistent. We also show that it is approximately optimal to use fixed relay link lengths, and we derive this length. We show that the obtained capacity is independent of the cell size (unlike in traditional cellular networks). Based on our findings, we propose simple decentralized routing and scheduling protocols. We show that in a fully saturated network our optimized protocol substantially improves performance over the protocols that use naive relay-only or direct-only policies.

  • 30. Shi, Guodong
    et al.
    Li, Bo
    Johansson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Finite-Time Convergent Gossiping2016In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 2814-2826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gossip algorithms are widely used in modern distributed systems, with applications ranging from sensor networks and peer-to-peer networks to mobile vehicle networks and social networks. A tremendous research effort has been devoted to analyzing and improving the asymptotic rate of convergence for gossip algorithms. In this work we study finite-time convergence of deterministic gossiping. We show that there exists a symmetric gossip algorithm that converges in finite time if and only if the number of network nodes is a power of two, while there always exists an asymmetric gossip algorithm with finite-time convergence, independent of the number of nodes. For n = 2(m) nodes, we prove that a fastest convergence can be reached in nm = n log(2) n node updates via symmetric gossiping. On the other hand, under asymmetric gossip among n = 2(m) + rnodes with 0 <= r <= 2(m), it takes at least mn + 2r node updates for achieving finite-time convergence. It is also shown that the existence of finite-time convergent gossiping often imposes strong structural requirements on the underlying interaction graph. Finally, we apply our results to gossip algorithms in quantum networks, where the goal is to control the state of a quantum system via pairwise interactions. We show that finite-time convergence is never possible for such systems.

  • 31. Skorin-Kapov, Nina
    et al.
    Chen, Jiajia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    A New Approach to Optical Networks Security: Attack-Aware Routing and Wavelength Assignment2010In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 750-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Security issues and attack management in transparent wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical networks have become of prime importance to network operators due to the high data rates involved and the vulnerabilities associated with transparency. Deliberate physical-layer attacks, such as high-powered jamming, can seriously degrade network performance and must be dealt with efficiently. While most approaches are focused on the developing fast detection and reaction mechanisms triggered in case of an attack, we propose a novel approach to help deal with these issues in the network planning and provisioning process as a prevention mechanism. Namely, we propose to route lightpaths in such a way as to minimize the potential damage caused by various physical-layer attacks. We present a new objective criterion for the routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem, which we call the maximum Lightpath Attack Radius (maxLAR), and formulate the routing subproblem as an integer linear program (ILP). We test it on small networks to get an insight into its complexity and compare it to a formulation that minimizes congestion. Results indicate that our formulation achieves significantly better results for the maxLAR while obtaining near-optimal or optimal congestion in all cases. For larger networks, we propose a tabu search algorithm for attack-aware lightpath routing, in combination with an existing graph-coloring algorithm for wavelength assignment. Testing and comparing with existing approaches from literature indicate its superiority with respect to the maxLAR and average lightpath load, albeit at the expense of somewhat higher congestion. However, this is justified with the obtained improvement in network security.

  • 32.
    Tang, Ao
    et al.
    Cornell University.
    Andrew, Lachlan L. H.
    Swinburne University of Technology.
    Jacobsson, Krister
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Low, Steven H.
    California Institute of Technology.
    Queue Dynamics With Window Flow Control2010In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 1422-1435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a new model that describes the queueing process of a communication network when data sources use window flow control. The model takes into account the burstiness in sub-round-trip time (RTT) timescales and the instantaneous rate differences of a flow at different links. It is generic and independent of actual source flow control algorithms. Basic properties of the model and its relation to existing work are discussed. In particular, for a general network with multiple links, it is demonstrated that spatial interaction of oscillations allows queue instability to occur even when all flows have the same RTTs and maintain constant windows. The model is used to study the dynamics of delay-based congestion control algorithms. It is found that the ratios of RTTs are critical to the stability of such systems, and previously unknown modes of instability are identified. Packet-level simulations and testbed measurements are provided to verify the model and its predictions.

  • 33.
    Yang, Guang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.
    Xiao, Ming
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.
    Al-Zubaidy, Hussein
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Huang, Yongming
    Gross, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.
    Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Multi-Hop Networks With Full-Duplex Buffered Relays2018In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 576-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The abundance of spectrum in the millimeter-wave (mm-wave) bands makes it an attractive alternative for future wireless communication systems. Such systems are expected to provide data transmission rates in the order of multi-gigabits per second in order to satisfy the ever-increasing demand for high rate data communication. Unfortunately, mm-wave radio is subject to severe path loss, which limits its usability for long-range outdoor communication. In this paper, we propose a multi-hop mm-wave wireless network for outdoor communication, where multiple full-duplex buffered relays are used to extend the communication range, while providing end-to-end performance guarantees to the traffic traversing the network. We provide a cumulative service process characterization for the mm-wave propagation channel with self-interference in terms of the moment generating function of its channel capacity. Then, we then use this characterization to compute probabilistic upper bounds on the overall network performance, i.e., total backlog and end-to-end delay. Furthermore, we study the effect of self-interference on the network performance and propose an optimal power allocation scheme to mitigate its impact in order to enhance network performance. Finally, we investigate the relation between relay density and network performance under a sum power constraint. We show that increasing relay density may have adverse effects on network performance, unless the selfinterference can be kept sufficiently small.

1 - 33 of 33
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