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  • 1. Bi, Z.M.
    et al.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde.
    Advances in 3D Data Acquisition and Processing for Industrial Applications2010In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 403-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical task of vision-based manufacturing applications is to generate a virtual representation of a physical object from a dataset of point clouds. Its success relies on reliable algorithms and tools. Many effective technologies have been developed to solve various problems involved in dataacquisition and processing. Some articles are available on evaluating and reviewing these technologies and underlying methodologies. However, for most practitioners who lack a strong background on mathematics and computer science, it is hard to understand theoretical fundamentals of the methodologies. In this paper, we intend to survey and evaluate recent advances in data acquisition and progressing, and provide an overview from a manufacturing perspective. Some potential manufacturing applications have been introduced, the technical gaps between the practical requirements and existing technologies discussed, and research opportunities identified.

  • 2. Bi, Z.M.
    et al.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde.
    Dynamic Control Model of a Cobot with Three Omni-Wheels2010In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 558-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a new collaborative robot with omni-wheels has been proposed and its dynamic control has been developed and validated. Collaborative robots (Cobots) have been introduced to guide and assist human operators to move heavy objects in a given trajectory. Most of the existing cobots use steering wheels: typical drawbacks of using steering wheels include the difficulties to (i) follow a trajectory with a curvature larger than that of the base platform, (ii) mount encoders on steering wheels due to self-spinning of the wheels, and (iii) quarantine dynamic control performance since it is purely kinematic control. The new collaborative robot is proposed to overcome the above-mentioned shortcomings. The methodologies for its dynamic control are focused and the simulation has been conducted to validate the control performance of the system.

  • 3. Bi, Z.M.
    et al.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde.
    Optimal Design of Reconfigurable Parallel Machining Systems2009In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 951-961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reconfigurable machining system is usually a modularized system, and its configuration design concerns the selections of modules and the determination of geometric dimensions in some specific modules. All of its design perspectives from kinematics, dynamics, and control have to be taken into considerations simultaneously, and a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) tool is required to support the configuration design process. This paper presents a new MDO tool for reconfigurable machining systems, and it includes the following works: (i) the literatures on the computer-aided design of reconfigurable parallel machining systems have been reviewed with a conclusion that the multidisciplinary design optimization is essential, but no comprehensive design tool is available to reconfigurable parallel machining systems; (ii) a class of reconfigurable systems called reconfigurable tripod-based machining system has been introduced, its reconfiguration problem is identified, and the corresponding design criteria have been discussed; (iii) design analysis in all of the disciplines including kinematics, dynamics, and control have been taken into considerations, and design models have been developed to evaluate various design candidates; in particular, the innovative solutions to direct kinematics, stiffness analysis for the design configurations of tripod-based machines with a passive leg, and concise dynamic modelling have been provided; and (iv) A design optimization approach is proposed to determine the best solution from all possible configurations. Based on the works presented in this paper, a computer-aided design and control tool have been implemented to support the system reconfiguration design and control processes. Some issues relevant to the practical implementation have also been discussed.

  • 4. Givehchi, M.
    et al.
    Ng, A.H.C.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde.
    Spot-Welding Sequence Planning and Optimization Using a Hybrid Rule-Based Approach and Genetic Algorithm2011In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 714-722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performing assembly planning to find a valid hierarchical assembling structure of a product (i.e. Manufacturing Bill of Materials or MBOM) based on the constraints and necessities inferred from or declared by different sources is potentially complicated. On the other hand, Engineering Changes (EC) may drastically affect the constraints and necessities which the planning of an MBOM was based on. Managing ECs to evaluate and propagate their effects on the upstream data used in assembly planning and downstream activities and information is crucial but problematic. Often it is possible to define a set of rules for the constraints and necessities of assembly planning and find solutions or check validity of solutions based on the rule-set. This paper proposes a rule-based assembly planning method and introduces the concepts and standard notations on how structured rule-sets can be derived from descriptive rules and then used in an algorithm for generating or validating MBOMs. The method was partially automated and successfully employed along with a commercial Virtual Manufacturing package integrated with an in-house developed GA-based sequence optimizer and applied to the sequence optimization in minimizing the cycle time of the robotic spot welding operations for a sheet-metal assembly found in automotive industry.

  • 5.
    Givehchi, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Haghighi, Azadeh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Cloud-DPP for distributed process planning of mill-turn machining operations2017In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 47, p. 76-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the dynamic market requires manufacturing firms to possess a high degree of adaptability to deal with shop-floor uncertainties. Specifically targeting SMEs active in the metal cutting sector who normally deal with intensive process planning problems, researchers have tried to address the subject. Among proposed solutions, Cloud-DPP elaborates a two-layer distributed adaptive process planning based on function-block technology and cloud concept. One of the challenges of companies is to machine as many part features as possible in a single setup on a single machine. Nowadays, multi-tasking machines are widely used due to their various advantages such as reducing setup times and increasing part accuracy. However, they also possess programming challenges because of their complex configuration and multiple machining functions. This paper reports the latest state of design and implementation of Cloud-DPP methodology to support parts with a combination of milling and turning features, and process planning for multi-tasking machining centers with special functionalities to minimize the number of setups. The contributions of this work are: representation of machining states and part transfer functionality, support of multi-tasking machines in adaptive setup merging, development of special function blocks to handle sub-setups and transitions, and finally generation of function block network for the merged setups. The developed prototype is validated through a case study.

  • 6. Keshavarzmanesh, Shadi
    et al.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde.
    Feng, Hsi-Yung
    A Hybrid Approach for Dynamic Routing Planning in an Automated Assembly Shop2010In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 768-777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly turbulent environment of dynamic job-shop operations affects shop floor layout as well as manufacturing operations. Due to the dynamic nature of layout changes, essential requirements such as adaptability and responsiveness to the changes need to be considered in addition to the cost issues of material handling and machine relocation when reconfiguring a shop floor's layout. Here, based on the source of uncertainty, the shop floor layout problem is split into two sub-problems and dealt with by two modules: re-layout and find-route. GA is used where changes cause the entire shop re-layout, while function blocks are utilised to find the best sequence of robots for the new conditions within the existing layout. This paper reports the latest development to the authors' previous work

  • 7.
    Lundholm, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Production Engineering.
    Bergström, Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Production Engineering.
    Enarson, Daniel
    Harder, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Production Engineering.
    Lindström, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Production Engineering.
    Nicolescu, Mihai
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Production Engineering.
    Nilsson, Bruno
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Production Engineering.
    NEW TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO ADAPTIVE CONTROLLED MACHINING1992In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 9, no 4-5, p. 383-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The future capital intensive CIM and FMS systems will demand adaptive controlled (AC) machine tools. At the Department of Production Engineering of the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm (IMT/KTH) we are continuing the development of an advanced AC turning center. Our approach is to design and use sophisticated sensor systems to measure several features both on-line and off-line in order to obtain sufficient information on the cutting process and make adaptive feedback feasible. The AC system operates at three different levels: advanced process monitoring adaptive control constraint (ACC) adaptive control optimization (ACO). In this paper we give an overview of practical progress and improvements that have been achieved since our contribution to MSTF '87 in Cambridge.1 This includes: a new flexible sensor installation for optical tool wear measurements on-line tool wear estimation based upon a dynamic force sensor applied time series analysis for on-line chatter control real-time control of maching conditions with respect to cutting forces distributed real-time computer system solution.

  • 8.
    Lundholm, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Production Engineering.
    Yngen, Magnus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Production Engineering.
    Lindström, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Production Engineering.
    Advanced Process Monitoring - A Major Step Towards Adaptive-Control1988In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 4, no 3-4, p. 413-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive Control (AC) of machine tools requires many kinds of measured input data. The more information about the complex metal cutting process that can be obtained, the better the process can be controlled.

    The paper describes an Adaptive Control Optimization (ACO) system for turning operations. The system continuously chooses Optimal Cutting Data (OCD), taking into account both economical criteria and technical limitations.

    The system operates at three different levels:

    • • Advanced Process Monitoring

    • • Adaptive Control Constraint (ACC)

    • • Adaptive Control Optimization (ACO).

    Two commercial monitoring systems perform process monitoring. In addition, five independent measurement systems have been developed.

    A dedicated vision system has been installed in the lathe to measure the tool flank wear between cuts. The flank wear data are utilized to predict the tool life. Based upon these predictions economical optimum cutting data can be calculated at the ACO level.

    To obtain in-process real-time control of the metal cutting process the cutting forces are measured during machining. The forces are measured with conventional piezoelectric force transducers which are located between the turret housing and the cross-slide. The measured force signals are processed by a dedicated microcontroller at the ACC level and cutting data adjustments are fed back to the machine control.

    A vibration measurement system, which either can be connected to an accelerometer or use the dynamic force signal from the piezoelectric force transducer, is part of a vibration control module at the ACC level. An ultra-fast signal processor performs the signal analysis.

    The remaining two measurement systems—a high frequency tool signal analysis system and a power spectra analysis system—are mentioned in the paper but not further discussed.

    Finally, the paper deals with how the strategies at the three different levels will be combined, in order to form an AC system. The monitoring tasks will always reside in the background and be activated if any failure occurs. The ACO subsystem will act as a path-finder and suggest cutting data. The active control tasks will, however, be carried out at the ACC level.

  • 9. Newman, S.T.
    et al.
    Nassehi, A.
    Xu, Xun
    Rosso Jr., R.S.U.
    Wang, Lihui
    Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute, NRC, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Yusof, Y.
    Ali, L.
    Liu, R.
    Zheng, L.
    Kumar, S.
    Vichare, P.
    Dhokia, V.
    Strategic Advantages of Interoperability for Global Manufacturing Using CNC Technology2008In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 699-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the domain of manufacturing, computer numerically controllers (CNC) technology is a major contributor to the production capacity of the enterprises. The advances in CNC technology coupled with enhancements ill computing systems have provided the basis to re-examine the way in which computer-aided systems (CAx) call be used to enable global manufacturing. Interoperability of the various components of the CAx chain is therefore a major prerequisite for manufacturing enterprises for becoming strategically agile and consequently globally competitive. Being interoperable, resources call be utilized interchangeably in a plug-and-produce manner. Over the last 8 years the eminence of a STEP standard for machining entitled STEP-NC (numerical control) has become a well-known vehicle for research to improve the level of information availability at the CNC machine too]. Ill this paper, the authors introduce the background to the evolution of CNC manufacturing over the last 50 years and the Current standards available for programming. A review of the literature in interoperable CNC Manufacturing is then provided relating to Milling, turn-mill and other NC processes. The major part of the paper provides a strategic view of]low interoperability call be implemented across the CAx chain with a range of standards used to regulate the flow of information. Finally, the paper Outlines the advantages and major issues for future developments in interoperability, identifying future key requirements and limiting factors.

  • 10.
    Onori, Mauro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Gröndahl, P
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Langbeck, B
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    The Mark III Flexible Automatic Assembly Cell1997In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Schmidt, Bernard
    et al.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Automatic work objects calibration via a global-local camera system2014In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 678-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a human robot collaborative manufacturing application where a work object can be placed in an arbitrary position, there is a need to calibrate the actual position of the work object. This paper presents an approach for automatic work-object calibration in flexible robotic systems. The approach consists of two modules: a global positioning module based on fixed cameras mounted around robotic workspace, and a local positioning module based on the camera mounted on the robot arm. The aim of the global positioning is to detect the work object in the working area and roughly estimate its position, whereas the local positioning is to define an object frame according to the 3D position and orientation of the work object with higher accuracy. For object detection and localization, coded visual markers are utilized. For each object, several markers are used to increase the robustness and accuracy of the localization and calibration procedure. This approach can be used in robotic welding or assembly applications.

  • 12.
    Theissen, Nikolas Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Laspas, Theodoros
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Archenti, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Closed-force-loop elastostatic calibration of serial articulated robots2019In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 57, p. 86-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel methodology to measure the compliance of articulated serial robots based on the Elastically Linked Systems concept. The idea behind the methodology is to measure serial articulated robots with customized external wrench vectors under a closed-force-loop. The methodology proposes to measure robots in use-case defined configurations to increase the effect of the identified model parameters on their later implementation. The measurement methodology utilizes the Loaded Double Ball Bar to customize wrench vectors and a laser tracker to measure the system response. In particular, the Loaded Double Ball Bar creates the closed-force-loop to create a flow of forces similar to the intended application of the robot. The methodology is applied to an industrial robot with six rotary joints using the LDBB and a laser tracker. Finally, the paper ends on a discussion about the implementation of the model parameters to improve the accuracy of robots as well as challenges to realize a more cost efficient elastostatic calibration.

  • 13.
    Wang, Lihui
    National Research Council of Canada, Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute.
    Integrated Design-to-Control Approach for Holonic Manufacturing Systems2001In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 81-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Next generation manufacturing systems will be integrated networks of distributed resources simultaneously capable of combined knowledge and material processing. These manufacturing systems will be required to be agile, flexible, and fault-tolerant. The objective of this research is to define a generic open architecture for such kind of distributed manufacturing systems, especially for holonic manufacturing systems (HMS). This paper will address issues associated with HMS, and propose a reference architecture based on a design-to-control concept. The primary focus will be given to the collaborative and integrated design-to-control approach based on machining feature, agent technology, and function block standards. Emphasis is also extended and given to metamorphic process planning and control of HMS using multi-agent negotiation and cooperation. The proposed approach, together with the open architecture, shows much promise for improving the entire manufacturing system performance under the ever-changing real-time and distributed shop floor environments.

  • 14.
    Wang, Lihui
    et al.
    National Research Council of Canada.
    Orban, Peter
    Cunningham, Andrew
    Lang, Sherman
    Remote Real-Time CNC Machining for Web-Based Manufacturing2004In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 563-571Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Wang, Lihui
    et al.
    Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute, National Research Council of Canada.
    Sams, R.
    Verner, M.
    Xi, F.
    Integrating Java 3D Model and Sensor Data for Remote Monitoring and Control2003In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 19, no 1-2, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel approach and a framework for web-based systems that can be used in distributed manufacturing environments. A prototype is developed to demonstrate its application to remote monitoring and control of a Tripod - one type of parallel kinematic machine. It utilizes the latest Java technologies (Java 3D and Java Servlets) as enabling technologies for system implementation. Instead of using a camera for monitoring, the Tripod is modeled using Java 3D with behavioral control nodes embedded. Once downloaded from its server, the 3D model behaves in the same way of its counterpart at client side. It remains alive by connecting with the Tripod through message passing, e.g., sensor signals and control commands transmissions. The goal of this research is to eliminate network traffic with Java 3D models, while still providing users with intuitive environments. In the near future, open-architecture devices will be web-ready having Java virtual machines embedded. This will make the approach more effective for web-based device monitoring and control.

  • 16. Wang, Lihui
    et al.
    Xi, F.
    FAIM 20042005In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 21, no 4-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Wang, Lihui
    et al.
    National Research Council of Canada .
    Xi, F.
    FAIM 20142005In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 21, no 4-5, p. 389-390Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Wang, Lihui
    et al.
    Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute, National Research Council of Canada.
    Xi, Fengfeng
    Zhang, Dan
    A parallel robotic attachment and its remote manipulation2006In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 22, no 5-6, p. 515-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses a 3-dof (degree of freedom) parallel robotic attachment and its remote manipulation. This attachment is designed as a tripod that provides two rotary motions and one linear motion. The attachment can be mounted onto a variety of machines for different applications, including CNC milling machines, industrial robots, and CMM. Java technologies are used to develop a remote manipulation system for the parallel robotic attachment, including remote monitoring and control. The main difference of this system from the existing web-based or internet-based remote systems is the way to control the motion of the machine from a remote site. Instead of using a camera for monitoring, the tripod is modeled using 3D computer graphics with behavioral control nodes embedded.

    Compared with camera-based solutions, network traffic is largely reduced, thereby making real-time remote device manipulation practical on the web. Our parallel robotic attachment is one type of parallel kinematic mechanisms (PKM). With PKM emerging as a new way of building flexible systems or agile machines, its advantage over serial mechanism is also presented.

  • 19.
    Wang, Xi Vincent
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Mohammed, Abdullah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Givehchi, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Ubiquitous manufacturing system based on Cloud: A robotics application2017In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 45, p. 116-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern manufacturing industry calls for a new generation of production system with better interoperability and new business models. As a novel information technology, Cloud provides new service models and business opportunities for manufacturing industry. In this research, recent Cloud manufacturing and Cloud robotics approaches are reviewed. Function block-based integration mechanisms are developed to integrate various types of manufacturing facilities. A Cloud-based manufacturing system is developed to support ubiquitous manufacturing, which provides a service pool maintaining physical facilities in terms of manufacturing services. The proposed framework and mechanisms are evaluated by both machining and robotics applications. In practice, it is possible to establish an integrated manufacturing environment across multiple levels with the support of manufacturing Cloud and function blocks. It provides a flexible architecture as well as ubiquitous and integrated methodologies for the Cloud manufacturing system.

  • 20.
    Wang, Xi Vincent
    et al.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Xu, X W
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    An Interoperable Solution for Cloud Manufacturing2013In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 232-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud manufacturing is a new concept extending and adopting the concept of Cloud computing for manufacturing. The aim is to transform manufacturing businesses to a new paradigm in that manufacturing capabilities and resources are componentized, integrated and optimized globally. This study presents an interoperable manufacturing perspective based on Cloud manufacturing. A literature search has been undertaken regarding Cloud architecture and technologies that can assist Cloud manufacturing. Manufacturing resources and capabilities are discussed in terms of Cloud service. A service-oriented, interoperable Cloud manufacturing system is proposed. Service methodologies are developed to support two types of Cloud users, i.e., customer user and enterprise user, along with standardized data models describing Cloud service and relevant features. Two case studies are undertaken to evaluate the proposed system. Cloud technology brings into manufacturing industry with a number of benefits such as openness, cost-efficiency, resource sharing and production scalability.

  • 21.
    Yao, Bitao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. Wuhan University of Technology, China.
    Zhou, Z.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Xu, W.
    Liu, Q.
    Liu, A.
    Sensorless and adaptive admittance control of industrial robot in physical human−robot interaction2018In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 51, p. 158-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As industrial robots are applied in manufacturing industry on a large-scale and human intelligence is regarded as an important part in manufacturing, physical human−robot interaction (pHRI) which integrates the strength and accuracy of robot with human operator's ability of task cognition has drawn the attention of both academia and industry. However, an industrial robot without extra force/torque sensor for interacting force monitoring cannot be used directly in pHRI, and research on pHRI of industrial robots remains a challenge. In this research, a comprehensive dynamic model of an industrial robot in both dynamic mode and quasi-static mode is obtained to calculate the external force produced by human operator in pHRI and enables sensorless pHRI for industrial robots even in the environment with ambient vibration. Particularly, the dynamics in the process of mode switching which has not been investigated by researchers is studied and compensated by an empirical but effective method. Admittance control is used to transfer the detected force into reference position and velocity of the robot. RBF (Radial Basis Function) network is used to update the damping parameter online in order to reduce the contact force change and the contact force which makes pHRI more natural and easier. The stability of the controller is also discussed. The proposed methods of external force detection and adaptive admittance control show satisfactory behaviour in the experiments.

  • 22. Zhang, Dan
    et al.
    Wang, Lihui
    Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute, National Research Council of Canada.
    Conceptual Development of an Enhanced Tripod Mechanism for Machine Tool2005In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 21, no 4-5, p. 318-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a spatial three degrees of freedom parallel mechanism enhanced by a passive leg is proposed. The proposed parallel mechanism can be used in several applications, e.g. motion simulator, micromanipulator and machine tools. First, the geometric model of the three degrees of freedom parallel mechanism is addressed, in which a fourth kinematic link—a passive link connecting the base center to the platform center—is introduced. This last link is used to constrain the motion of the platform to only three degrees of freedom, i.e. the degree of freedom of the mechanism depends on the passive leg. The passive leg also enhances the global stiffness of the structure and distributes the torque from machining. Second, the kinematic analysis with the consideration of link flexibility is conducted. A kinetostatic model of the three degrees of freedom parallel mechanism with a passive link is then established and analyzed using lumped-parameter model. With the proposed method, a significant effect of the link flexibility on the mechanism's precision has been demonstrated. The influence of the change of structure parameters, including material properties, on the system behavior is discussed. Compliance mapping is also illustrated. The kinetostatic model proposed in the paper can be extended for optimal design and control of parallel kinematic machines. Finally, design optimization is conducted using genetic algorithms and some design guideline is given.

  • 23.
    Zhang, Dan
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Lihui
    Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute, National Research Council of Canada .
    Esmailzadeh, E.
    Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute, National Research Council of Canada.
    PKM Capabilities and Applications Exploration in a Collaborative Virtual Environment2006In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 384-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces an integrated validation system that consists of the following modular components: kinematic/dynamic analysis module, kinetostatic model, CAD module, FEM module, CAM module, optimization module and virtual environment for remote control. In this paper, authors focus mainly on the modules of kinetostatic modeling, dynamic modeling, PKM design optimization and remote control realization. The prototype of a 3-dof Parallel Kinematic Machine (PKM) developed at the Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute of National Research Council of Canada (NRC-IMTI) is used as ail example throughout this paper.

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