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  • 1. Bi, Z.M.
    et al.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde.
    Energy Modelling of Machine Tools for Optimisation of Machine Setups2012In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 607-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a new energy model is developed based on the kinematic and dynamic behaviors of a chosen machine tool. One significant benefit of the developed energy model is their inherited relationship to the design variables involved in the manufacturing processes. Without radical changes of the machine tool's structure, the proposed model can be readily applied to optimize process parameters to reduce energy consumption. A new parallel kinematic machine Exechon is used as a case study to demonstrate the modeling procedure. The derived energy model is then used for simulation of drilling operations on aircraft components to verify its feasibility. Simulation results indicate that the developed energy model has led to an optimized machine setup which only consumes less than one-third of the energy of an average machine setup over the workspace. This approach can be extended and applied to other machines to establish their energy models for green and sustainable manufacturing.

  • 2. Civera, Javier
    et al.
    Ciocarlie, Matei
    Aydemir, Alper
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Bekris, Kostas
    Sarma, Sanjay
    Special Issue on Cloud Robotics and Automation2015In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 396-397Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The articles in this special section focus on the use of cloud computing in the robotics industry. The Internet and the availability of vast computational resources, ever-growing data and storage capacity have the potential to define a new paradigm for robotics and automation. An intelligent system connected to the Internet can expand its onboard local data, computation and sensors with huge data repositories from similar and very different domains, massive parallel computation from server farms and sensor/actuator streams from other robots and automata. It is the potential and also the research challenges of the field that become the focus on this special section. The goal is to group together and to show the state-of-the-art of this newly emerged field, identify the relevant advances and topics, point out the current lines of research and potential applications, and discuss the main research challenges and future work directions.

  • 3.
    Ebadat, Afrooz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Bottegal, Giulio
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Varagnolo, Damiano
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Regularized Deconvolution-Based Approaches for Estimating Room Occupancies2015In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 1157-1168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We address the problem of estimating the number of people in a room using information available in standard HVAC systems. We propose an estimation scheme based on two phases. In the first phase, we assume the availability of pilot data and identify a model for the dynamic relations occurring between occupancy levels, CO2 concentration and room temperature. In the second phase, we make use of the identified model to formulate the occupancy estimation task as a deconvolution problem. In particular, we aim at obtaining an estimated occupancy pattern by trading off between adherence to the current measurements and regularity of the pattern. To achieve this goal, we employ a special instance of the so-called fused lasso estimator, which promotes piecewise constant estimates by including an l(1) norm-dependent term in the associated cost function. We extend the proposed estimator to include different sources of information, such as actuation of the ventilation system and door opening/closing events. We also provide conditions under which the occupancy estimator provides correct estimates within a guaranteed probability. We test the estimator running experiments on a real testbed, in order to compare it with other occupancy estimation techniques and assess the value of having additional information sources.

  • 4. Falkman, Petter
    et al.
    Nielsen, Johan
    Lennartson, Bengt
    von Euler-Chelpin, Astrid
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Computer Systems for Design and Manufacturing.
    Generation of STEP AP214 models from discrete event systems for process planning and control2008In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 113-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to show how the international standard STEP-AP214 can be used for communication and storing of process specifications. Even though there are several software tools available for the generation of both product and resource information systems, there is still a lack of tools related to the STEP standard for producing process information, e.g., sequence of operations and system capabilities for resource allocation. Therefore, such a tool is suggested, which makes use of a high-level language for discrete-event systems based on process algebra and Petri nets. This language, called process algebra Petri net), has been developed in accordance with the process relations defined in STEP-AP214. More specifically, it is shown how process specifications created with the PPN tool can be mapped to the STEP AP-214 format. Note to Practioners-Rapidly changing market needs is making demands on flexibility and ability to shorten lead times. Standards for exchanging information, as well as formal methods for automatic development of programmable controller code have been important research topics for many years. There are a lot of software tools available for the generation of both product- and resource information, but there is still a lack of tools for producing process information. Moreover, the connection between information exchange standards and such tools is absent, which makes the development of programmable controller code an isolated activity. This activity is often time consuming and performed in an ad hoc manner resulting in unnecessary production delay. The aim of this paper is to show how the international standard STEP-AP214 (a standard for exchange of product-, process-, and resource related information) can be used for communicating and storing process specifications. In order to achieve this, a tool which makes use of a formal high-level language is suggested. This tool can be used for automatic control generation and has been developed in accordance with the process relations defined in STEP-AP214. A further aim is to shown how the mentioned tool can be used to specify complex systems in a compact, yet highly readable manner, which is a crucial incentive for industry to use formal methods. The presented method will guarantee-that expected information is delivered quickly and without errors caused by the human factor, something that is very important in our ambition to achieve shortened lead times. The quick information exchange also makes it possible to perform simulation, supervisor synthesis, and verification early in the development phase. This is a first attempt at using a formal language for creating a tool that can automatically generate specifications in accordance with the international STEP-standard.

  • 5.
    Guo, Meng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Task and Motion Coordination for Heterogeneous Multiagent Systems With Loosely Coupled Local Tasks2017In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 797-808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a multiagent system that consists of heterogeneous groups of homogeneous agents. Instead of defining a global task for the whole team, each agent is assigned a local task as syntactically cosafe linear temporal logic formulas that specify both motion and action requirements. Interagent dependence is introduced by collaborative actions, of which the execution requires multiple agents' collaboration. To ensure the satisfaction of all local tasks without central coordination, we propose a bottom-up motion and task coordination strategy that contains an off-line initial plan synthesis and an online coordination scheme based on real-time exchange of request and reply messages. It facilitates not only the collaboration among heterogeneous agents but also the task swapping between homogeneous agents to reduce the total execution cost. It is distributed as any decision is made locally by each agent based on local computation and communication within neighboring agents. It is scalable and resilient to agent failures as the dependence is formed and removed dynamically based on agent capabilities and their plan execution status, instead of preassigned agent identities. The overall scheme is demonstrated by a simulated scenario of 20 agents with loosely coupled local tasks.

  • 6. Liu, Xu
    et al.
    Li, Yingguang
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Combining Dynamic Machining Feature With Function Blocks for Adaptive Machining2016In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 828-841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feature-based technologies are widely researched for manufacturing automation. However, in current feature models, features once defined remain constant throughout the whole manufacturing lifecycle. This static feature model is inflexible to support adaptive machining when facing frequent changes to manufacturing resources. This paper presents a new machining feature concept that facilitates responsive changes to the dynamics of machining features in 2.5/3D machining. Basic geometry information for feature construction of complex parts with various intersecting features is represented as a set of meta machining features (MMF). Optimum feature definition is generated adaptively by choosing optimum merging strategies of MMFs according to the capabilities of the selected machine tool, cutter, and cutting parameters. A composite function block for dynamic machining feature modelling is designed with Basic Machining Feature Function Block, Meta Machining Feature Extraction Function Block and Feature Interpreter Function Block. Once changes of the selected machining resources occur, they are informed as input events and machining features are then updated automatically and adaptively based on the event-driven model of function blocks. An example is provided to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of the developed methodology.

  • 7.
    Mahler, Jeffrey
    et al.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Berkeley, CA 94705 USA..
    Pokorny, Florian T.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Niyaz, Sherdil
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Berkeley, CA 94705 USA..
    Goldberg, Ken
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Berkeley, CA 94705 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Ind Engn & Operat Res, Berkeley, CA 94705 USA..
    Synthesis of Energy-Bounded Planar Caging Grasps Using Persistent Homology2018In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 908-918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For applications such as manufacturing, caging grasps restrict object motion without requiring complete immobilization, providing a robust alternative to force-and form-closure grasps. Energy-bounded cages are a new class of caging grasps that relax the requirement of complete caging in the presence of external forces such as gravity or constant velocity pushing in the horizontal plane with Coulomb friction. We address the problem of synthesizing planar energy-bounded cages by identifying gripper and force-direction configurations that maximize the energy required for the object to escape. We present Energy-Bounded-Cage-Synthesis-2-D (EBCS-2-D), a sampling-based algorithm that uses persistent homology, a recently-developed multiscale approach for topological analysis, to efficiently compute candidate rigid configurations of obstacles that form energy-bounded cages of an object from an alpha-shape approximation to the configuration space. If a synthesized configuration has infinite escape energy then the object is completely caged. EBCS-2-D runs in O(s(3) + sn(2)) time, where s is the number of samples and n is the number of object and obstacle vertices, where typically n << s. We observe runtimes closer to O(s) for fixed n. We implement EBCS-2-D using the persistent homology algorithms toolbox and study performance on a set of seven planar objects and four gripper types. Experiments suggest that EBCS-2-D takes 2-3 min on a 6 core processor with 200 000 pose samples. We also confirm that an rapidly-exploring random tree* motion planner is unable to find escape paths with lower energy. Physical experiments on a five degree of freedom Zymark Zymate and ABB YuMi suggest that push grasps synthesized by EBCS-2-D are robust to perturbations. Data and code are available at http://berkeleyautomation.github.io/caging/.

  • 8.
    Paridari, Kaveh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Parisio, Alessandra
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Robust Scheduling of Smart Appliances in Active Apartments With User Behavior Uncertainty2015In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 247-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a robust approach for scheduling of smart appliances and electrical energy storages (EESs) in active apartments with the aim of reducing both the electricity bill and the CO2 emissions. The proposed robust formulation takes the user behavior uncertainty into account so that the optimal appliances schedule is less sensitive to unpredictable changes in user preferences. The user behavior uncertainty is modeled as uncertainty in the cost function coefficients. In order to reduce the level of conservativeness of the robust solution, we introduce a parameter allowing to achieve a trade-off between the price of robustness and the protection against uncertainty. Mathematically, the robust scheduling problem is posed as a multi-objective Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP), which is solved by using standard algorithms. The numerical results show effectiveness of the proposed approach to increase both the electricity bill and CO2 emissions savings, in the presence of user behavior uncertainties. Mathematical insights into the robust formulation are illustrated and the sensitivity of the optimum cost in the presence of uncertainties is investigated. Although home appliances and EESs are considered in this work, we point out that the proposed scheduling framework is generally applicable to many use cases, e.g., charging and discharging of electrical vehicles in an effective way. In addition, it is applicable to various scenarios considering different uncertainty sources, different storage technologies and generic programmable electrical loads, as well as different optimization criteria.

  • 9.
    Wang, Lihui
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. University of Skövde.
    Cai, Ningxu
    Feng, Hsi-Yung
    Ma, Ji
    ASP: An Adaptive Setup Planning Approach for Dynamic Machine Assignments2010In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 2-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a decision-making approach towards adaptive setup planning that considers both the availability and capability of machines on a shop floor. It loosely integrates scheduling functions at the setup planning stage, and utilizes a two-step decision-making strategy for generating machine-neutral and machine-specific setup plans at each stage. The objective of the research is to enable adaptive setup planning for dynamic job shop machining operations. Particularly, this paper covers basic concepts and algorithms for one-time generic setup planning, and run-time final setup merging for dynamic machine assignments. The decision-making algorithms validation is further demonstrated through a case study. Note to Practitioners-With increased product diversification, companies must be able to profitably produce in small quantities and make frequent product changeovers. This leads to dynamic job shop operations that require a growing number of setups in a machine shop. Moreover, today's customer-driven market and just-in-time production demand for rapid and adaptive decision making capability to deal with dynamic changes in the job shop environment. Within the context, how to come up with effective and efficient setup plans where machine availability and capability change over time is crucial for engineers. The adaptive setup planning approach presented in this paper is expected to largely enhance the dynamism of fluctuating job shop operations through adaptive yet rapid decision makings.

  • 10. Xu, X.W.
    et al.
    Wang, Lihui
    Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute, London, UK.
    Rong, Yiming
    STEP-NC and function blocks for interoperable manufacturing2006In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 297-308Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Zhang, Huimin
    et al.
    Guangxi Normal University.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Li, Zhiwu
    Control of Black-Box Embedded Systems by Integrating Automaton Learning and Supervisory Control Theory of Discrete-Event Systems2019In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an approach to the control of black-box embedded systems by integrating automaton learning and supervisory control theory (SCT) of discrete-event systems (DES), where automaton models of both the system and requirements are unavailable or hard to obtain. First, the system is tested against the requirements. If all the requirements are satisfied, no supervisor is needed and the process terminates. Otherwise, a supervisor is synthesized to enforce the system to satisfy the requirements. To apply SCT and automaton learning technologies efficiently, the system is abstracted to be a finite-discrete model. Then, a C* learning algorithm is proposed based on the classical L* algorithm to infer a Moore automaton describing both the behavior of the system and the conjunctive behavior of the system and the requirements. Subsequently, a supervisor for the system is derived from the learned Moore automaton and patched on the system. Finally, the controlled system is tested again to check the correctness of the supervisor. If the requirements are still not satisfied, a larger Moore automaton is learned and a refined supervisor is synthesized. The whole process iterates until the requirements hold in the controlled system. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is manifested through two realistic case studies.

  • 12.
    Zhang, Huimin
    et al.
    School of Electro-Mechanical Engineering, Xidian University.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wu, Naiqi
    Institute of Systems Engineering, Macau University of Science and Technology.
    Li, Zhiwu
    School of Electro-Mechanical Engineering, Xidian University.
    Integration of Learning-Based Testing and Supervisory Control for Requirements Conformance of Black-Box Reactive Systems2018In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 2-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental requirement of the supervisory control theory (SCT) of discrete-event systems is a finite automaton model of the plant. The requirement does not hold for black-box systems whose source code and logical model are not accessible. To apply SCT to black-box systems, we integrate automaton learning technology with SCT and apply the new method to improve the requirements conformance of software reuse. If the reused software component does not satisfy a requirement, the method adds a supervisor component to prevent the black-box system from reaching ''faulty sections.'' The method employs learning-based testing (LBT) to verify whether the reused software meets all requirements in the new context. LBT generates a large number of test cases and iteratively constructs an automaton model of the system under test. If the system fails the test, the learned model is applied as the plant model for control synthesis using SCT. Then, the supervisor is implemented as an executable program to monitor and control the system to follow the requirement. Finally, the integrated system, including the supervisory program and the reused component, is tested by LBT to assure the satisfiability of the requirement. This paper makes two contributions. First, we innovatively integrate LBT and SCT for the control synthesis of black-box reactive systems. Second, software component reuse is still possible even if it does not satisfy user requirements at the outset.

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