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  • 1. Andrikopoulos, Georgios
    et al.
    Nikolakopoulos, George
    Arvanitakis, Ioannis
    Manesis, Stamatis
    Piecewise Affine Modeling and Constrained Optimal Control for a Pneumatic Artificial Muscle2014In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 904-916Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 2.
    Antonello, Riccardo
    et al.
    University of Padova.
    Carraro, Matteo
    University of Padova.
    Peretti, Luca
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Zigliotto, Mauro
    University of Padova.
    Hierarchical scaled–states direct predictive control of synchronous reluctance motor drives2016In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 63, no 8, p. 5176-5185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and experimental validation of a finite-state direct predictive control for synchronous reluctance motor drives. The main features are the hierarchical selection policy of the optimal voltage vector and the dynamic scaling of the voltage amplitude which keeps the current ripple limited even in presence of low switching frequencies, as required by medium and high-power applications. The implementation is simple, intuitive and low-demanding. The study is fully supported by experimental evidences.

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  • 3.
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion. ABB, Sweden.
    Ilves, Kalle
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Global Asymptotic Stability of Modular Multilevel Converters2014In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 603-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modular multilevel converters require that the controller is designed so that the submodule capacitor voltages are equalized and stable, independent of the loading conditions. Assuming that the individual capacitor-voltage sharing is managed effectively, an open-loop strategy has been designed to ensure that the total amount of energy stored inside the converter always will be controlled. This strategy, using the steady-state solutions of the dynamic equations for controlling the total stored energy in each converter arm, has proven to be effective. The intention of this paper is to explain in a rigorous way the mechanism behind the suggested strategy and to prove that, when this open-loop strategy is used, the system becomes globally asymptotically stable. Experimental verification on a three-phase 10-kVA prototype is presented.

  • 4.
    Bessman, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Soares, Rúdi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Vadivelu, Sunilkumar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Svens, Pontus
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Ekström, Henrik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Challenging Sinusoidal Ripple-Current Charging of Lithium-Ion Batteries2018In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 65, no 6, p. 4750-4757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sinusoidal ripple-current charging has previously been reported to increase both charging efficiency and energy efficiency and decrease charging time when used to charge lithium-ion battery cells. In this paper, we show that no such effect exists in lithium-ion battery cells, based on an experimental study of large-size prismatic cells. Additionally, we use a physics-based model to show that no such effect should exist, based on the underlying electrochemical principles.

  • 5.
    Bian, Xiaolei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Wei, Zhongbao
    National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China.
    He, Jiangtao
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, Canada.
    Yan, Fengjun
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, Canada.
    Liu, Longcheng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    A Novel Model-based Voltage Construction Method for Robust State-of-health Estimation of Lithium-ion Batteries2021In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 68, no 12, p. 12173-12184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate estimation of the state-of-health (SOH) is vital to the life management of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). This paper proposes a fusion-type SOH estimation method by combining the model-based feature extraction and data-based state estimate. Particularly, a novel model-based voltage construction method is proposed to eliminate the unfavorable numerical condition and reshape the disturbance-free incremental capacity (IC) curves. Leveraging the modified IC curves, a set of informative features-of-interest are extracted and evaluated, while eventually several cautiously-selected ones are used to estimate the SOH of LIB accurately. Furthermore, the impact of model order on the estimation performance is scrutinized, to give insights into the parameterization in practical applications. Long-term cycling tests on different types of LIB cells are used for evaluation. The proposed method is validated with a good robustness to the cell inconsistency, temperature uncertainty, noise corruption, and a satisfied generality to different battery chemistries.

  • 6.
    Blinov, Andrei
    et al.
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Dept Elect Power Engn & Mechatron, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Korkh, Oleksandr
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Dept Elect Power Engn & Mechatron, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Chub, Andrii
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Dept Elect Power Engn & Mechatron, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Vinnikov, Dmitri
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Dept Elect Power Engn & Mechatron, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Peftitss, Dimosthenis
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, N-7012 Trondheim, Norway..
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Galkin, Ilya i
    Riga Tech Univ, Inst Ind Elect & Elect Engn, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia..
    High Gain DC-AC High-Frequency Link Inverter With Improved Quasi-Resonant Modulation2022In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 1465-1476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a high gain pure sine- wave inverter based on the full-bridge dc-ac high-frequency link cycloconverter topology for telecom or general-purpose applications. The improved quasi-resonant modulation method allows reduction of ringing and turn-off losses of the dc-side switches. This is achieved with minimal energy circulation and requires no multi-mode operation or extra auxiliary clamping circuits. The soft switching can be provided even if relatively large lossless snubber capacitors are connected across the input side transistors. Moreover, two of the switches at the ac side operate at fundamental frequency, while the rest feature zero current turn-off. A 48 V-DC to 230 V-AC, 1.2 kW sine-wave inverter prototype was developed to verify the proposed concept.

  • 7.
    Bolognani, Saverio
    et al.
    University of Padova.
    Bolognani, Silverio
    University of Padova.
    Peretti, Luca
    University of Padova.
    Zigliotto, Mauro
    University of Padova.
    Design and implementation of model predictive control for electrical motor drives2009In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 1925-1936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with a Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm applied to electrical drives. The main contribution is a comprehensive and detailed description of the controller design process that points out the most critical aspects and gives also some practical hints for implementation. As an example, the MPC is developed for a permanent magnet synchronous motor drive. Speed and current controllers are combined together, including all of the state variables of the system, instead of keeping the conventional cascade structure. This way the controller enforces both the current and the voltage limits. Both simulation and experimental results point out the validity of the design procedure and the potentials of the MPC in the electrical drives field.

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  • 8.
    Bolognani, Silverio
    et al.
    University of Padova.
    Peretti, Luca
    University of Padova.
    Zigliotto, Mauro
    University of Padova.
    Bertotto, Ezio
    REEL S.p.A..
    Commissioning of electromechanical conversion models for high dynamic PMSM drives2010In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 986-993Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 9.
    Ciftci, Baris
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Wang, Xiongfei
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Gross, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Information Science and Engineering.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wireless Control of Modular Multilevel Converter Submodules With Communication Errors2022In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 69, no 11, p. 11644-11653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless control of modular multilevel converter (MMC) submodules can benefit from different points of view, such as lower converter cost and shorter installation time. In return for the advantages, the stochastic performance of wireless communication networks necessitates an advanced converter control system immune to the losses and delays of the wirelessly transmitted data. This paper proposes an advancement to the distributed control of MMCs to utilize in wireless submodule control. Using the proposed method, the operation of the MMC continues smoothly and uninterruptedly during wireless communication errors. The previously proposed submodule wireless control concept relies on implementing the modulation and individual submodule-capacitor-voltage control in the submodules using the insertion indices transmitted from a central controller. This paper takes the concept as a basis and introduces to synthesize the indices autonomously in the submodules during the communication errors. This new approach allows the MMC continue its operation when one, some, or all submodules suffer from communication errors for a limited time. The proposal is validated experimentally on a laboratory-scale MMC.

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  • 10.
    Cui, Chenggang
    et al.
    Shanghai Univ Elect Power, Coll Automat Engn, Intelligent Autonomous Syst Lab, Shanghai 200090, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Tianxiao
    Shanghai Univ Elect Power, Coll Automat Engn, Intelligent Autonomous Syst Lab, Shanghai 200090, Peoples R China..
    Dai, Yuxuan
    Shanghai Univ Elect Power, Coll Automat Engn, Intelligent Autonomous Syst Lab, Shanghai 200090, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Chuanlin
    Shanghai Univ Elect Power, Coll Automat Engn, Intelligent Autonomous Syst Lab, Shanghai 200090, Peoples R China..
    Xu, Qianwen
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Implementation of Transferring Reinforcement Learning for DC-DC Buck Converter Control via Duty Ratio Mapping2023In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 70, no 6, p. 6141-6150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reinforcement learning (RL) control approach with application to power electronics systems has become an emerging topic, while the sim-to-real issue remains a challenging problem as very few results can be referred to in the literature. Indeed, due to the inevitable mismatch between simulation models and real-life systems, offline-trained RL control strategies may sustain unexpected hurdles in practical implementation during the transfer procedure. In this article, a transfer methodology via a delicately designed duty ratio mapping is proposed for a dc-dc buck converter. Then, a detailed sim-to-real process is presented to enable the implementation of a model-free deep reinforcement learning controller. As the main contribution of this article, the proposed methodology is able to endow the control system to achieve: 1) voltage regulation and 2) adaptability and optimization abilities in the presence of uncertain circuit parameters and various working conditions. The feasibility and efficacy of the proposed methodology are demonstrated by comparative experimental studies.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Vasilenko, Oleg
    Ericsson Innovations Russia.
    Saleem, Arshad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Multiagent-Based Distribution AutomationSolution for Self-Healing Grids2015In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 2620-2628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multiagent-based distribution automationsolution is proposed to be used in the distribution of selfhealinggrids to solve the service restoration part of theFault Location, Isolation and Service Restoration (FLISR)task. The solution reduces the grid topology to an undirectedweighted graph and executes a distributed implementationof Prim’s minimum spanning tree algorithm tosolve the problem. The solution is compliant with state-ofthe-art standards within smart grids, including but not limitedto IEC61850. To test the performance of the algorithm,a testbed is assembled consisting of a physical dc gridmodel and several Arduino microcontrollers and RaspberryPi computers. The test results show that the proposedalgorithm can handle complex FLISR scenarios.

  • 12.
    Gradin, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Braun, Stefan
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Wijngaart, Wouter van der
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    SMA Microvalves for Very Large Gas Flow Control Manufactured Using Wafer-Level Eutectic Bonding2012In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 59, no 12, p. 4895-4906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel gas microvalve design concept, in which a flow control gate is opened by a pneumatic pressure and closed by a shape memory alloy actuator, allowing large flow control. Two different design variations were fabricated using a novel wafer-level Au-Si eutectic bonding process for TiNi to silicon integration. The resulting microvalves demonstrate a record pneumatic performance per footprint area; a microvalve with a footprint of only 1 x 3.3 mm(2) successfully controls a flow difference of 3100 sccm at a pressure drop of 70 kPa using a power of 0.35 W.

  • 13. Green, A.
    et al.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Designing for learnability in human-robot communication2003In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 644-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a future scenario where many devices can be controlled using the voice, easy and intuitive access will be crucial for avoiding cognitive overload when users are faced with many different systems and interaction models. We propose a model for interaction with spoken language interfaces applied to heterogeneous tasks for service robots, based on the idea of using a family of lifelike characters,, We argue that we can signal important features of the speech interface by using certain visual cues. The aim is to facilitate learning and transfer between interfaces. We discuss challenges for dialogue design affecting learnability in the light of the speech interface constructed for our full-scale robot prototype CERO.

  • 14.
    Guo, Fanghong
    et al.
    Department of Automation, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China.
    Wang, Lei
    School of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia.
    Wen, Changyun
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Zhang, Dan
    Department of Automation, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China.
    Xu, Qianwen
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Distributed Voltage Restoration and Current Sharing Control in Islanded DC Microgrid Systems Without Continuous Communication2020In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 3043-3053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new distributed control scheme to achieve both accurate voltage restoration and precise current sharing for islanded dc microgrid (MG) system only with limited noncontinuous communication among the distributed generators (DGs). A two-layer multiagent framework is employed for this MG system, which consists of a physical layer and a cyber layer. A distributed voltage restoration control scheme is proposed in the cyber layer, where no overall system information is required and only dc bus voltage feedback is needed. Furthermore, by employing the idea of event-triggered communication, our proposed approach only relies on limited aperiodic communication, which greatly reduces the communication cost in the cyber layer. The stability of proposed method is analyzed through a Lyapunov function based approach and we also demonstrate that the Zeno behavior can be excluded if a proper event-triggered condition is established. Our proposed method is validated in an islanded dc MG test system built in the Simulink environment and an experimental prototype consisting of three DGs simultaneously.

  • 15.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Dynamic Analysis of Modular Multilevel Converters2013In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 2526-2537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory for the dynamics of modular multilevel converters is developed in this paper. It is shown that the sum capacitor voltage in each arm often can be considered instead of the individual capacitor voltages, thereby significantly reducing the complexity of the system model. Two selections of the so-called insertion indices, which both compensate for the sum-capacitor-voltage ripples, are considered. The dynamic systems which respectively result from these selections are analyzed. An effective dc-bus model, which takes into account the contribution from the submodule capacitors, is obtained. Finally, explicit formulas for the stationary sum-capacitor-voltage ripples are derived.

  • 16. Harnefors, Lennart
    et al.
    Jansson, Magnus
    Ottersten, Rolf
    Pietiläinen, Kai
    Unified Sensorless Vector Control of Synchronous and Induction Motors2003In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, IEEE transactions on industrial electronics, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 153-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a unified theory for sensorless fluxestimation and vector control of induction motors and nonsalientpermanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) is developed.It is shown that an estimator and vector controller for one of themotor types can also be applied to the other, with only minormodifications necessary. Two candidate estimators are considered:a variant of the well-known “voltage model” (VM) and aphase-locked-loop-type speed and position estimator. These areapplied to both motor types, and evaluated experimentally. Forthe nonsalient PMSM, an important result is that synchronizationcan be guaranteed from any initial rotor position.

  • 17.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    A general algorithm for speed and position estimation of AC motors2000In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 77-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A computationally efficient speed and position estimation algorithm, generally applicable to AC motor drives, is designed and analyzed. Applications include: (a) sensorless permanent-magnet and reluctance synchronous motor drives using the fundamental excitation as information source; (b) sensorless drives using saliency and signal injection; and (c) sensored drives using resolvers. Particular attention is given for case (a). Low parameter sensitivity in the entire speed range (except at low speeds for the reluctance motor)-implying a small position estimation error-and good dynamic properties at nominal speeds are verified.

  • 18. Harnefors, Lennart
    et al.
    Pietiläinen, Kai
    Gertmar, Lars
    Torque-Maximizing Field-Weakening Control: Design, Analysis, and Parameter Selection2001In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 161-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The torque-maximizing field-weakening controlscheme proposed by Kim and Sul is developed further. Theperformance under imperfect field orientation conditions isinvestigated, and it is shown that an overestimated—rather thanan underestimated—model leakage inductance should be used. Aslightly modified algorithm, which offers better robustness andreduced computational complexity, is presented. The importance,for good performance, of combining the scheme with currentand speed controllers featuring antiwindup and improved disturbancerejection is emphasized. The dynamics of the resultingclosed-loop system are analyzed. Obtained in the process are rulesfor selection of all controller parameters, allowing tuning withouttrial-and-error steps. Good performance of the resulting systemis verified experimentally.

  • 19.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems. ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden .
    Yepes, Alejandro G.
    Vidal, Ana
    Doval-Gandoy, Jesus
    Passivity-Based Controller Design of Grid-Connected VSCs for Prevention of Electrical Resonance Instability2015In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 702-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The time delay in the current control loop of a grid-connected voltage-source converter (VSC) may cause destabilization of electrical resonances in the grid or in the VSC's input filter. Instability is prevented if the input admittance of the VSC can be made passive. This paper presents an analytical controller design method for obtaining passivity. The method is equally applicable to single-and three-phase systems, i.e., in the latter case, for both stationary-and synchronous-frame control. Simulations and experiments verify the theoretical results.

  • 20. Jansson, Magnus
    et al.
    Harnefors, L.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    Leksell, Mats
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Machines and Power Electronics.
    Synchronization at startup and stable rotation reversal of sensorless nonsalient PMSM drives2006In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 379-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a variant of the well-known voltage model is applied to rotor position estimation for sensorless control of nonsalient permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). Particular focus is on a low-speed operation. It is shown that a guaranteed synchronization from any initial rotor position and stable reversal of rotation can be accomplished, in both cases under load. Stable rotation reversal is accomplished by making the estimator insensitive to the stator resistance. It is also shown that the closed-loop speed dynamics are similar to those of a sensored drive for speeds above approximately 0.1 per unit, provided that the model stator inductance is underestimated. Experimental results support the theory.

  • 21.
    Ji, Qinglei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Sustainable Production Systems.
    Chen, Mo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Sustainable Production Systems.
    Zhao, Chun
    Beijing Information Science and Technology University.
    Zhang, Xiran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wang, Xi Vincent
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Sustainable Production Systems.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feedback control for the precise shape morphing of 4D printed shape memory polymer2021In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, p. 12698-12707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four-dimensional printing (4DP) is a newly emerged technology that uses smart materials for additive manufacturing and thus enables shape and/or property change upon stimulus after the printing process. Present study on 4DP has been focused on open loop stimulus, which can hardly ensure high shape precision and predictable final states. In this paper, a new closed loop 4DP (CL4DP) process supplementing 4D printed actuation with closed loop control methods is proposed. Image feedback is used for enhancing the conventional open loop 4DP morphing process and a controller is implemented to regulate the intensity of the stimulus accordingly in real-time. To achieve precise control, a nonlinear affine system model is built by model identification with measurement data to describe the dynamic shape recovery process of the 4D printed Shape Memory Polymer (SMP). Precise shape control is achieved and the effects of controller parameters on the precision of CL4DP are studied. Traditionally, SMP has a discrete number of selected steady states. With CL4DP, such steady states can be continuous and arbitrary.

  • 22.
    Jin, Lebing
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Apostolopoulos, Nikolaos
    Communication-Based Distributed Control of the Stacked Polyphase Bridges Converter2018In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 1011-1020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stacked polyphase bridges converter has gained increasing interest in recent years due to its modular design and easy adaption to different power levels. The real-time control and dynamic data transmission of a stacked polyphase bridges converter consisting of a number of submodules are challenging tasks. For the reason that the distributed control architecture can maintain the benefit of modularity, such an approach dedicated for the stacked polyphase bridges converter is presented in this paper. Suitable communication techniques and synchronization techniques for the presented architecture are discussed. In addition, based on a dynamic model of the converter, the sensitiveness of the distributed control system to communication bandwidth and delay is studied on an experimental prototype.

  • 23.
    Jin, Lebing
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Staffan, Norrga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Communication-based distributed control of the stacked polyphase bridges converterIn: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stacked polyphase bridges (SPB) converter has gained increasing interest in recent years due to its modular design and easy adaption to different power levels. The realtime control and dynamic data transmission of an SPB converter consisting of a number of submodules are challenging tasks. For the reason that the distributed control architecture can maintain the benefit of modularity, such an approach, dedicated for the SPB converter is presented in this paper. Suitable communication techniques and synchronization techniques for the presented architecture are discussed. In addition, based on a dynamic model of the converter, the sensitiveness of the distributed control system to communication bandwidth and delay is studied on an experimental prototype.

  • 24. Li, S.
    et al.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Iwasaki, M.
    Modeling, Analysis, and Advanced Control in Motion Control Systems - Part III2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 3268-3272, article id 7874293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The April 2017 of IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics presents a Special Section on Modeling, Analysis, and Advanced Control in Motion Control Systems. This part of the Special Section consists of 17 papers which cover different applications on motion control systems. An article provides a novel disturbance observer- based nonlinear triple-step controller to attenuate the influence of cogging torque in low-speed condition for a permanent magnet dc motor. Considering that the cogging torque is a fast time-varying disturbance and changes harmonically, a reduced-order nonlinear observer is designed to estimate it. Another aticle considers the contouring control design problem for an industrial X–Y linear-motor-driven stage system. Based on the global task coordinate frame, combining iterative learning control with adaptive robust control together, a kind of learning adaptive robust control method is developed to suppress parametric uncertainties and disturbances. One article develops a novel controller based on adaptive servomechanism to achieve precise tracking for pneumatic muscle actuators whose model has nonlinear and time-varying characteristics. The driving force allocation and control problem for electric vehicles with multiple driving motors are studied in another paper. One paper focuses on a control system design for the oil well sonic logging device. The removal of ringing is desirable for acoustic logging as too much ringing can interfere with the processing of formation data.

  • 25.
    Li, Shufei
    et al.
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Dept Ind & Syst Engn, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Zheng, Pai
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Dept Ind & Syst Engn, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Fan, Junming
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Dept Ind & Syst Engn, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Sustainable Production Systems.
    Toward Proactive Human-Robot Collaborative Assembly: A Multimodal Transfer-Learning-Enabled Action Prediction Approach2022In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 69, no 8, p. 8579-8588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-robot collaborative assembly (HRCA) is vital for achieving high-level flexible automation for mass personalization in today's smart factories. However, existing works in both industry and academia mainly focus on the adaptive robot planning, while seldom consider human operator's intentions in advance. Hence, it hinders the HRCA transition toward a proactive manner. To overcome the bottleneck, this article proposes a multimodal transfer-learning-enabled action prediction approach, serving as the prerequisite to ensure the proactive HRCA. First, a multimodal intelligence-based action recognition approach is proposed to predict ongoing human actions by leveraging the visual stream and skeleton stream with short-time input frames. Second, a transfer-learning-enabled model is adapted to transfer learnt knowledge from daily activities to industrial assembly operations rapidly for online operator intention analysis. Third, a dynamic decision-making mechanism, including robotic decision and motion control, is described to allow mobile robots to assist operators in a proactive manner. Finally, an aircraft bracket assembly task is demonstrated in the laboratory environment, and the comparative study result shows that the proposed approach outperforms other state-of-the-art ones for efficient action prediction.

  • 26.
    Li, Zhaokai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Huang, Xiaoyan
    Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Electrical Machine Systems, College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Peretti, Luca
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    The Scalable Analytical Model for Calculating the Magnetic Field of Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet Motor2024In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article develops a scalable analytical model that builds a relationship between any surface-mounted permanent magnet (SPM) motor and a general motor with variable slot-opening and air-gap length, considering both the saturation effect and slotting effect. It can not only give the performance of the single SPM motor but also show internal connection among different SPM motors regardless of the motor power and dimension. To account for the iron saturation, the equivalent saturation current combined with simplified BH curves of iron is introduced to directly present the iron magnetic potential distribution without an iterative process. Thus, the proposed model can be used as the surrogate model in the motor design with little computation and provide great insight into the relationship among motors with different power and dimension. Both finite-element analysis and experiment are carried out to validate the proposed model.

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  • 27.
    Liu, Ang
    et al.
    Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Electrical Machine Systems, College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Huang, Xiaoyan
    Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Electrical Machine Systems, College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Chen, Zhuo
    Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Electrical Machine Systems, College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Yu, Yelong
    Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Electrical Machine Systems, College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Li, Zhaokai
    Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Electrical Machine Systems, College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Zhang, Jian
    Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Electrical Machine Systems, College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    A Natural Position Observer with Vertical Detection Coil for FSCW Machines2023In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Liu, Kun
    et al.
    Fridman, Emilia
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Xia, Yuanqing
    Quantized Control Under Round-Robin Communication Protocol2016In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 63, no 7, p. 4461-4471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the exponential stability of a discrete-time linear plant in feedback control over a communication network with N sensor nodes, dynamic quantization, large communication delays, variable sampling intervals, and round-robin scheduling. The closedloop system is modeled as a switched system with multiple-ordered time-varying delays and bounded disturbances. We propose a time-triggered zooming algorithm implemented at the sensors that preserves exponential stability of the closed-loop system. A direct Lyapunov approach is presented for initialization of the zoom variable. The proposed framework can be applied to the plants with polytopic type uncertainties. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated on cart-pendulum and quadruple-tank processes.

  • 29.
    Luo, Cheng
    et al.
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Elect Engn, State Key Lab Elect Insulat & Power Equipment, Xian 710049, Peoples R China.;Aalborg Univ, AAU Energy, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark..
    Liu, Teng
    Elect Power Res Inst China Southern Power Grid, Guangzhou 510663, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Xiongfei
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems. Aalborg Univ, Dept Energy AAU Energy, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark..
    Ma, Xikui
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Elect Engn, State Key Lab Elect Insulat & Power Equipment, Xian 710049, Peoples R China..
    Design-Oriented Analysis of DC-Link Voltage Control for Transient Stability of Grid-Forming Inverters2024In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 71, no 4, p. 3698-3707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the parametric effect of the dc-link voltage controller (DVC) on the transient stability of grid-forming (GFM) inverters. It is found that the decrease of the proportional gain of DVC may lead to the loss of synchronism (LOS) even if the system is locally stable at the new equilibrium point (EP) after disturbance. Its physical insight is attributed to the unstable limit cycle (ULC) in the phase space according to the bifurcation theory. The GFM inverters whose operating point locates outside of ULC will lose synchronism with the grid. The decrease of the proportional gain of DVC will diminish the ULC, resulting in fewer operating points converging to the new EP and a higher risk of LOS. This bifurcation-based analysis provides a novel perspective for investigating the mechanism of parametric effect for the high-order nonlinear system, which is the article's main contribution. The parametric effect of the integral gain of DVC is also analyzed. A holistic parametric space partition for designing DVC is then drawn from the analysis, and a parametric configuration guideline is provided. The theoretical findings are validated by experimental tests.

  • 30.
    Massmoudi, N.
    et al.
    LEII, Département de Génie Electrique, École Nationale d'Ingenieurs de Sfax.
    M'baïri, Felix D.
    LEII, Département de Génie Electrique, École Nationale d'Ingenieurs de Sfax.
    Allard, B.
    CEGELY CNRS UPRESA 5005, INSA de Lyon.
    Morel, H.
    CEGELY CNRS UPRESA 5005, INSA de Lyon.
    On the validity of the standard SPICE model of the diode for the simulation in power electronics2001In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 864-867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic study of the standard SPICE model of the diode in the case of simulations of power diodes in power electronic applications shows the limits of accuracy with respect to experiments. Therefore, the interest in such a model in power electronic applications is comparable to the high-low resistance model.

  • 31.
    Meng, Xiangqi
    et al.
    Taiyuan Univ Technol, Shanxi Key Lab Power Syst Operat & Control, Taiyuan 030024, Peoples R China..
    Jia, Yanbing
    Taiyuan Univ Technol, Shanxi Key Lab Power Syst Operat & Control, Taiyuan 030024, Peoples R China..
    Xu, Qianwen
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Ren, Chunguang
    Taiyuan Univ Technol, Shanxi Key Lab Power Syst Operat & Control, Taiyuan 030024, Peoples R China..
    Han, Xiaoqing
    Taiyuan Univ Technol, Shanxi Key Lab Power Syst Operat & Control, Taiyuan 030024, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Peng
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Singapore 639798, Singapore..
    A Novel Intelligent Nonlinear Controller for Dual Active Bridge Converter With Constant Power Loads2023In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 2887-2896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of dual active bridge converter (DAB) is threatened when feeding the constant power loads (CPLs). This article proposes a deep reinforcement learning-based backstepping control strategy to solve this problem. First, a nonlinear disturbance observer is adopted to estimate the large-signal nonlinear disturbance. Then, a backstepping controller is used to stabilize the voltage response of the DAB under the large-signal disturbance. Finally, a compensation method based on deep reinforcement learning is developed to intelligently minimize output voltage tracking error and improve the operating efficiency of the system. The proposed controller can guarantee system stability under the large-signal disturbance of the CPL and achieve a fast dynamic response with accurate voltage tracking; it is more adaptive by using the deep reinforcement learning technique through the learning of its neural networks. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified by experiments.

  • 32.
    Millinger, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems. Atlas Copco Industrial Technique AB.
    Bacco, Giacomo
    Manzolini, Virginia
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Bianchi, Nicola
    Design and Evaluation of a Short-Circuit Rotor-Ring for Enhanced Self-Sensing Capability in a Slotless PM Motor2020In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 67, no 5, p. 3462-3471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the design and evaluation of a short-circuit rotor-ring for enhanced self-sensing capability in a 2-pole slotless permanent-magnet motor. High-frequency rotor anisotropy is enabled by adding as hort-circuited rotor-ring. Optimal ring-dimensions are determined by parametric numerical studies. An effective high-frequency saliency of up to 1.8 is demonstrated. The steady-state estimation error is within ±2◦, practically unaffected by current level (in contrast to slotted self-sensing electrical machinery) due to the large effective air-gap. The proposed observer performs properly also during dynamic load changes. Fall-times from 3000 to 0 rpm in less than 50 ms with negligible overshoot are demonstrated. Also parasitic effects such as power losses, heating and torque ripple are analyzed.

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  • 33.
    Millinger, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Soulard, Juliette
    Warwick University.
    Investigation of Harmonic Losses in a 2-PoleSlotless Permanent-Magnet Motor due to WideBand-Gap Inverter Supply2019In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent emerge of wide band-gap powerdevices enables higher switching frequencies in electric motor drives. The subsequent possibility for higher efficiencyand smaller size requires accurate prediction of harmonic losses in motors. Therefore this paper presents an original analysis of harmonic losses arising in inverter-fed 2-pole slotless permanent-magnet machines with axially segmented ring magnets. The developed three-dimensional time-efficient numerical model is successfully validated under high-speed no-load operation using a silicon-carbide based three-phase inverter and rotors carrying a broad range of magnet segment thicknesses (3–12.6 mm). The model enables harmonic loss prediction capability (including loss separation) with an accuracy of 15 % over a wide frequency range (8–120 kHz), which is a unique contribution. The sensitivity analysis primarily emphasizes the importance of taking into account the axial segmentation, and secondarily the rotor-shaft magneto-elasticity effects for accurate modeling of harmonic losses. The conducted case-study demonstrates that wide band-gap transistors effectively can contribute to eliminating the need for inductive filters in motor drives.

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  • 34.
    Modeer, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    High-Voltage Tapped-Inductor Buck Converter Utilizing an Autonomous High-Side Switch2015In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 2868-2878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-voltage tapped-inductor buck converter utilizing a novel autonomous high-voltage valve is presented in this paper. Its application as auxiliary power supply for high-power cascaded-converter submodules is discussed, followed by a presentation of the most challenging problems in designing a low-power high-voltage step-down converter. The TI-buck converter topology is analyzed, which together with the novel autonomous high-voltage valve overcomes most of the problems. Analytical expressions describing the operation as well as circuit simulations are presented. Finally, an experimental evaluation of a 3-kV 70-W prototype converter utilizing the proposed autonomous high-voltage valve with series-connected super-junction MOSFETs is presented.

  • 35.
    Moghaddam, Reza Rajabi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Machines and Power Electronics.
    Magnussen, Freddy
    Sadarangani, Chandur
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Machines and Power Electronics.
    Theoretical and Experimental Reevaluation of Synchronous Reluctance Machine2010In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 6-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper theoretically introduces and develops a new operation diagram (OPD) and parameter estimator for the synchronous reluctance machine (SynRM). The OPD demonstrates the behavior of the machine's main performance parameters, such as torque, current, voltage, frequency, flux, power factor (PF), and current angle, all in one graph. This diagram can easily be used to describe different control strategies, possible operating conditions, both below- and above-rated speeds, etc. The saturation effect is also discussed with this diagram by finite-element-method calculations. A prototype high-performance SynRM is designed for experimental studies, and then, both machines' [corresponding induction machine (IM)] performances at similar loading and operation conditions are tested, measured, and compared to demonstrate the potential of SynRM. The laboratory measurements (on a standard 15-kW Eff1 IM and its counterpart SynRM) show that SynRM has higher efficiency, torque density, and inverter rating and lower rotor temperature and PF in comparison to IM at the same winding-temperature-rise condition. The measurements show that the torque capability of SynRM closely follows that of IM.

  • 36. Mosskull, Henrik
    et al.
    Galic, Johann
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Stabilization of induction motor drives with poorly damped input filters2007In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 2724-2734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient torque control of induction motor drives in combination with resonant dc-link input filters can lead to a type of stability problem that is known as negative impedance instability. An often-proposed solution to this problem is the nonlinear system stabilizing controller (NSSC). Stability is usually analyzed under the simplifying assumption of perfect torque control. This indicates that the NSSC stabilizes the drive at any operating point. In this paper, however, we show power laboratory experiments where the NSSC stabilization fails. An improved framework for stability analysis and synthesis of stabilization, based on a linear. feedback model of the drive, is therefore proposed. With this approach, effects of time delays can easily be included, and stability margins can be directly established from measurements. To solve the indicated problems with NSSC, a stabilization controller that considers the practical limitations of torque control is derived. In the design of the stabilization controller, the tradeoff between damping and acceptable torque control is also explicitly taken into account. The proposed stabilization scheme is implemented and evaluated on a hardware-in-the-loop simulator as well as in a power laboratory. The results show that the proposed method outperforms the NSSC method.

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    IR-EE-RT_2007_039
  • 37.
    Nategh, Shafigh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Krings, Andreas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Leksell, Mats
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Evaluation of Impregnation Materials for Thermal Management of Liquid-Cooled Electric Machines2014In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 61, no 11, p. 5956-5965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the thermal impact of using different impregnation materials on high-performance liquid-cooled electric machines is studied. In this regard, varnish, Epoxylite, and a silicone-based thermally conductive material are considered. To study thermal effects of using different impregnation materials in theory, an advanced lumped-parameter thermal model of the studied electric machines is developed. In addition to the simulation studies, three identical induction machines using the aforementioned materials are manufactured and evaluated. Experimental tests are carried out at a wide range of current magnitudes and cooling conditions. A good agreement between the temperature measurements and corresponding simulation results is observed. It is demonstrated that using innovative thermally conductive materials in the stator slots and the end winding bodies of liquid-cooled electric machines results in a significant reduction in the winding hot spot temperature. Additionally, the influence of the critical parameters on the impregnation material performance, e. g., impregnation goodness and slot fill factor, is studied.

  • 38. Nategh, Shafigh
    et al.
    Zhang, Hui
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Aldo, Boglietti
    Nassen, Tobias
    Bombardier Transportat, SE-72214 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Bazant, Martin
    Bombardier Transportat, CH-8050 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Transient thermal modeling and analysis of railway traction motors2018In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 79-89, article id 8328892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a practical approach to modeland analyze transient thermal effects in open air-cooled electrictraction motors. The developed thermal modeling method enablesaccurate estimation of temperature in critical parts of the motorincluding winding and bearing. Advantages of both numericaland analytical modelling methods are exploited with the aim ofrealizing accurate estimation of hot spot temperatures in tractionmotors while keeping the computation time within a reasonablerange. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations arecarried out to model the cooling fan’s performance and airflow distribution in the motor in order to provide heat transferboundary inputs to the developed combined finite element (FE)and lumped parameter (LP) thermal model. The combinationof the FE and LP models keeps the size of the model relativelysmall and enables running transient calculations reasonably fast.Also, the developed model provides the possibility to studythe influence of stator and rotor duct blockages on the motorthermal performance which is a common root of failure intraction applications during operation in dirty environments. Theproposed thermal model is verified using experimental results ona traction motor equipped with temperature sensors in motorcritical parts and a good agreement between estimated andmeasured temperatures is achieved. Finally, a calibrated fullyanalytical model using the abovementioned developed model isimplemented to further reduce simulation running time andcalculate motor temperature under normal running condition.

  • 39.
    Onori, Mauro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Barata da Oliveira, Jose
    UNINOVA.
    Evolvable Production Systems: New domains within mechatronic production equipment2010In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, p. 2653-2657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current major roadmapping efforts have all clearly underlined that true industrial sustainability will require far higher levels of systems’ autonomy and adaptability. In accordance with these recommendations, the Evolvable Production Systems (EPS) has aimed at developing such technological solutions and support mechanisms. Since its inception in 2002 as a next generation of production systems, the concept is being further developed and tested to emerge as a production system paradigm. Characteristically, Evolvable systems have distributed control, and are composed of intelligent modules with embedded control. A concerted effort is being exerted through European research projects in collaboration with manufacturers, technology/equipment suppliers, and universities. After introducing EPS, this paper presents current developments and applications, with specific emphasis on principles and mechatronic applications.

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  • 40. Park, Pangun
    et al.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Cross-Layer Optimization for Industrial Control Applications Using Wireless Sensor and Actuator Mesh Networks2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 3250-3259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When multiple control processes share a common wireless network, the communication protocol must provide reliable performance in order to yield stability of the overall system. In this paper, the novel cross-layer optimized control (CLOC) protocol is proposed for minimizing the worst case performance loss of multiple industrial control systems. CLOC is designed for a general wireless sensor and actuator network where both sensor to controller and controller to actuator connections are over a multihop mesh network. The design approach relies on a constrained max-min optimization problem, where the objective is to maximize the minimum resource redundancy of the network and the constraints are the stability of the closed-loop control systems and the schedulability of the communication resources. The optimal operation point of the protocol is automatically set in terms of the sampling rate, scheduling, and routing, and is achieved by solving a linear programming problem, which adapts to system requirements and link conditions. The protocol has been experimentally implemented and evaluated on a testbed with off-the-shelf wireless sensor nodes, and it has been compared with a traditional network design and a fixed-schedule approach. Experimental results show that CLOC indeed ensures control application stability and fulfills communication constraints while maximizing the worst case redundancy gain of the system performance.

  • 41. Pietiläinen, Kai
    et al.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    Petersson, Andreas
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    DC-Link Stabilization and Voltage Sag Ride-Through of Inverter Drives2006In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 1261-1268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous results concerning instability of the dc linkin inverter drives fed from a dc grid or via a rectifier are extended.It is shown that rectifier–inverter drives equipped with small (film)dc-link capacitors may need active stabilization. The impact oflimited bandwidth and switching frequency in the inverter–motorcurrent control loop is considered, and recommendations forselection of the dc-link capacitor, the switching frequency, andthe dc-link stabilization control law in relation to each other aregiven. This control law is incorporated in a field-weakening (toenhance voltage sag ride-through) current controller for whichdesign recommendations are presented.

  • 42.
    Pirsto, Ville
    et al.
    Aalto Univ, Dept Elect Engn & Automat, FI-00076 Espoo, Finland..
    Kukkola, Jarno
    Aalto Univ, Dept Elect Engn & Automat, FI-00076 Espoo, Finland..
    Hinkkanen, Marko
    Aalto Univ, Dept Elect Engn & Automat, FI-00076 Espoo, Finland..
    Harnefors, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems. ABB Corp Res, SE-72178 Västerås, Sweden..
    Intersample Modeling of the Converter Output Admittance2021In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 68, no 11, p. 11348-11358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of the converter-grid interconnection can be studied by analyzing the product of the converter output admittance and the grid impedance. For reliable stability analysis, it has been of interest to obtain accurate converter output admittance models for a wide range of frequencies, ideally also around and above the Nyquist frequency of the converter system. This article presents a modeling method for the output admittance of power converters defined in the Laplace domain that takes into account the discrete nature of the control system. The modeling method is based on analyzing the intersample behavior of sampled-data systems, a class of systems that includes the modern digitally controlled power converters. The proposed method is compared to conventional admittance modeling methods, and its accuracy is validated by means of simulations and experiments.

  • 43.
    Sadik, Diane
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Colmenares, Juan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Lim, Jang-Kwon
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, S-16440 Kista, Sweden..
    Bakowski, Mietek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, S-16440 Kista, Sweden..
    Comparison of Thermal Stress During Short-Circuit in Different Types of 1.2-kV SiC Transistors Based on Experiments and Simulations2021In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 2608-2616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature evolution during a short-circuit (SC) fault in the dies of three different silicon carbide (SiC) 1200-V power devices is presented in this article. Transient electrothermal simulations are performed based on the reconstructed structure of commercially available devices. The simulations reveal the location of the hottest point in each device. The nonisothermal electrical analysis supports the necessity to turn-off SC events rapidly to protect the immunity of the device after a fault. The analysis also reveal differences in delay required to turn-off devices depending on their type. A thorough analysis of the temperature rise in the die of the SiC metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET) device is also presented, where the maximum temperature with regards to different fault cases and circuit characteristics is presented. The impact of the gate resistance, circuit inductance, detection time, drain-source voltage, and gate-source voltage are considered.

  • 44.
    Sadik, Diane-Perle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Colmenares, Juan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Tolstoy, Georg
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Peftitsis, Dimosthenis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Bakowski, Mietek
    Rabkowski, Jacek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Short-Circuit Protection Circuits for Silicon Carbide Power Transistors2016In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, ISSN 0278-0046, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 1995-2004, article id ITIEDArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental analysis of the behavior under short-circuit conditions of three different siliconcarbide (SiC) 1200-V power devices is presented. It is found that all devices take up a substantial voltage, which is favorable for detection of short circuits. A transient thermal device simulation was performed to determine the temperature stress on the die during a short-circuit event, for the SiC MOSFET. It was found that, for reliability reasons, the short-circuit time should be limited to values well below Si IGBT tolerances. Guidelines toward a rugged design for short-circuit protection (SCP) are presented with an emphasis on improving the reliability and availability of the overall system. A SiC device driver with an integrated SCP is presented for each device-type, respectively, where a shortcircuit detection is added to a conventional driver design in a simple way. The SCP driver was experimentally evaluated with a detection time of 180 ns. For all devices, short-circuit times well below 1 µs were achieved.

  • 45. Sun, T
    et al.
    Liu, C
    Lian, Binbin
    Wang, P
    Song, Y
    Calibration for Precision Kinematic Control of an Articulated Serial Robot2020In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robot calibration to provide an accurate kinematic model is widely adopted in the advanced controller development of articulated serial robot performing complicated tasks. Conventional calibration methods mainly focus on the complete, continuous and minimal error modeling. The generation and accumulation of errors have not been explicitly explained. In addition, the error identification and compensation sometimes are not practical for controller establishment. This paper presents a robot calibration method using finite and instantaneous screw (FIS) theory. From the differentiation of finite screw, the errors are defined by the deviations of instantaneous screws at initial pose. The error modeling is explicit. We also propose an advanced optimization algorithm based identification method and regard the geometry of redundant errors as constraints. The identified instantaneous screw errors are then converted to the joint actuation errors. Without modifying existing motion controller, errors are compensated by modified inputs. A UR3 robot is taken as an example to illustrate the calibration method. Simulation and experiment are implemented for verification. Comparing with the accuracy before calibration, the position and orientation accuracy of UR3 robot after calibration has improved by 94.75% and 89.29%. The results also show that modified inputs can be conveniently connected to controller development. 

  • 46.
    Tan, Kaige
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Engineering Design, Mechatronics and Embedded Control Systems.
    Ji, Qinglei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production engineering. Volvo Cars Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Innovative Centre for Embedded Systems, ICES. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Engineering Design, Mechatronics and Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Engineering Design, Mechatronics and Embedded Control Systems.
    Edge-enabled Adaptive Shape Estimation of 3D Printed Soft Actuators with Gaussian Processes and Unscented Kalman Filters2023In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft actuators have the advantages of compliance and adaptability when working with vulnerable objects, but the deformation shape of the soft actuators is difficult to measure or estimate. Soft sensors made of highly flexible and responsive materials are promising new approaches to the shape estimation of soft actuators, but suffer from highly nonlinear, hysteresis, and time-variant properties. A nonlinear and adaptive state observer is essential for the shape estimation from soft sensors. Current state estimation methods rely on complex nonlinear data-fitting models, and the robustness of the estimation methods is questionable. This study investigates the soft actuator dynamics and the soft sensor model as a stochastic process characterized by the Gaussian Process (GP) model. The unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is applied to the GP model for more reliable variance adjustment during the sequential state estimation process than conventional methods. In addition, a major limitation of the GP model is its computational complexity during online inference. To improve the real-time performance while guaranteeing accuracy, we introduce an edge server to decrease the onboard computational and memory overhead. The experiments showcase a significant improvement in estimation accuracy and real-time performance compared to baseline methods.

  • 47. Wallmark, Oskar
    et al.
    Harnefors, L.
    Carlson, O.
    An improved speed and position estimator for salient permanent-magnet synchronous motors2005In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 255-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an improved phase-locked-loop-type speed and position estimator for permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives is considered. Particular attention is put on salient-rotor PMSMs with fast mechanical dynamics. A method is presented, whereby significantly improved tracking is achieved. While saliency makes nominal-speed stability more difficult to guarantee (an analysis of this is presented), a benefit is that signal-injection methods can be used at low speeds for accurate position estimation, which is also included in the modified estimator.

  • 48. Wallmark, Oskar
    et al.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    Sensorless control of salient PMSM drives in the transition region2006In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 1179-1187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers speed and position estimation of salient permanent-magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs). An estimator of phase-locked loop (PLL) type is considered. Signal injection techniques are used in the zero-speed and low-speed regions, while information found in the back electromotive force (EMF) is used for higher speeds. Particular focus is put on the transition region, i.e., the speed region where the estimator switches between signal-injection and back-EMF-based methods. It is shown that the estimator may become unstable for certain setups of machine parameters and operating conditions if the transition region is determined incorrectly. To avoid this instability, design rules for how the transition region should be determined, as well as recommended selections for all parameters introduced, are given. The results of the analysis are also supported with experimental results.

  • 49.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Machines and Power Electronics.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    Carlson, Ola
    Control algorithms for a fault-tolerant PMSM drive2007In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 1973-1980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes control algorithms for a fault-tolerant permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive. In order to improve the reliability of the drive, an algorithm for achieving a sensorless control that operates properly also in fault mode is proposed. Furthermore, it is shown how a closed-loop field-weakening controller needs to be modified in order to operate properly in fault mode. Automotive applications are in mind and the algorithms presented are verified with experimental results using an in-wheel PMSM. With the proposed modifications, the reliability of the drive can be improved.

  • 50.
    Wang, Jian
    et al.
    Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Chengdu 611731, Sichuan, Peoples R China..
    Guo, Shize
    Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Chengdu 611731, Sichuan, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Zhe
    Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Chengdu 611731, Sichuan, Peoples R China..
    Li, Yubai
    Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Chengdu 611731, Sichuan, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Zhonghai
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Embedded systems, Electronic and embedded systems.
    A New Parallel CODEC Technique for CDMA NoCs2018In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 6527-6537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Code division multiple access (CDMA) network-on-chip (NoC) has been proposed for many-core systems due to its data transfer parallelism over communication channels. Consequently, coder-decoder (CODEC) module, which greatly impacts the performance of CDMA NoCs, attracted growing attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose a new parallel CODEC technique for CDMA NoCs. In general, by using a few simple logic circuits with small penalties in area and power, our new parallel (NPC) CODEC can execute the encoding/decoding process in parallel and thus reduce the data transfer latency. To reveal the benefits of our method for on-chip communication, we apply our NPC to CDMA NoCs and perform extensive experiments. From the results, we can find that our method outperforms existing parallel CODECs, such as Walsh-based parallel CODEC (WPC) and overloaded parallel CODEC (OPC). Specifically, it improves the critical point of communication latency (7.3% over WPC and 13.5% over OPC), reduces packet latency jitter by about 17.3% (against WPC) and 71.6% (against OPC), and improves energy efficiency by up to 41.2% (against WPC) and 59.2% (against OPC).

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