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  • 1.
    Berglund, Per
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biochemistry and Biotechnology.
    Controlling lipase enantioselectivity for organic synthesis2001In: Biomolecular Engineering, ISSN 1389-0344, E-ISSN 1878-559X, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 13-22Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipases are used frequently as chiral catalysts in the synthesis of various fine chemicals and intermediates. The increasing need of compounds with high stereochemical purity requires catalysts with an improved and controlled performance. This overview emphasizes some important aspects for the control of lipase enantioselectivity and some examples where the enantioselectivity has been altered or reversed are highlighted. However, in several of these cases the complete explanation for the altered or reversed enantioselectivity remains unclear and needs to be solved. Three different strategies (engineering of the reaction medium, the substrate molecule, and the enzyme) for exploring lipase enantioselectivity at a molecular level are discussed and summarized. These three different approaches represent powerful tools for understanding the molecular basis for lipase enantioselective catalysis and can guide the rational improvement and tailoring of catalyst performance. By combining approaches from chemistry and biology much is learnt about the most important parameters controlling lipase enantioselectivity for organic synthesis.

  • 2. Falk, Ronny
    et al.
    Ramstrom, Margareta
    Ståhl, Stefan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    Hober, Sophia
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Approaches for systematic proteome exploration2007In: Biomolecular Engineering, ISSN 1389-0344, E-ISSN 1878-559X, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 155-168Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the completion of the human genome project (HUGO) during recent years, gene function, protein abundance and expression patterns in tissues and cell types have emerged as central areas for the scientific community. A mapped human proteome will extend the value of the genome sequence and large-scale efforts aiming at elucidating protein localization, abundance and function are invaluable for biomarker and drug discovery. This research area, termed proteomics, is more demanding than any genome sequencing effort and to perform this on a wide scale is a highly diverse task. Therefore, the proteornics field employs a range of methods to examine different aspects of proteomics including protein localization, protein-protein interactions, posttranslational modifications and alteration of protein composition (e.g. differential expression) in tissues and body fluids. Here, some of the most commonly used methods, including chromatographic separations together with mass spectrometry and a number of affinity proteomics concepts are discussed and exemplified.

  • 3.
    Norlin, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Leygraf, Christopher
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Investigation of Interfacial Capacitance of Pt, Ti and TiN Coated Electrodes by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy2002In: Biomolecular Engineering, ISSN 1389-0344, E-ISSN 1878-559X, Vol. 19, no 2-6, p. 67-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical processes at the electrode-electrolyte (body fluid) interface are of ultimate importance for stimulating/sensing electrode function. A high electrode surface area is desirable for safe stimulation through double-layer charging and discharging. Pt and Pt-Ir alloys have been the most common electrode materials. The use of TiN coating as the surface layer on the electrode has found increasing interest because of its metal-like conductivity, excellent mechanical and chemical properties, and the fact that it can be deposited with a high surface area. In this work, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which is a sensitive and non-destructive technique and widely used for characterization of electrical properties of electrode-electrolyte interfaces, was applied to investigate pure Pt and Ti, and TiN coated electrodes exposed to a phosphate-buffered-saline (PBS) solution. Platinized Pt and Ti were also studied for comparison. The capacitance value of the electrodes in PBS was obtained through quantitative analysis of the EIS spectra. The results reveal that the capacitance of the TiN coated electrodes with a rough surface is several hundreds times higher than that of a smooth Pt surface. Platinization of Ti can also increase the capacitance to the same extent as platina. EIS has been shown to be a powerful technique for characterization of stimulating/sensing electrodes.

  • 4.
    Odeberg, Jacob
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Wood, T.
    Blucher, A.
    Rafter, J.
    Norstedt, G.
    Lundeberg, Joakim
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    A cDNA RDA protocol using solid-phase technology suited for analysis in small tissue samples2000In: Biomolecular Engineering, ISSN 1389-0344, E-ISSN 1878-559X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    cDNA representational difference analysis (cDNA RDA) is a PCR-based subtractive enrichment procedure for the cloning of differentially expressed genes. In this study, we have further developed the procedure to take advantage of solid-phase technology, and to facilitate the use of RDA when starting material is limited. Several parameters of the PCR-based generation of cDNA representations were investigated, and a solid-phase based purification step was introduced to simplify removal of digested adapter-ends and uncleaved fragments. The use of magnetic particles increased the speed of the method, and also eliminated the risk of carry-over contamination between iterative steps of subtraction and PCR amplification. The modified protocol was evaluated in monitoring differences in gene expression in (i) a rat system consisting of livers with and without growth hormone treatment, and in (ii) a human system consisting of normal colon and colon cancer.

  • 5.
    Odeberg, Jacob
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Wood, T
    Blücher, A
    Rafter, J
    Norstedt, G
    Lundeberg, Joakim
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    A cDNA RDA protocol using solid-phase technology suited for analysis in small tissue samples.2000In: Biomolecular Engineering, ISSN 1389-0344, E-ISSN 1878-559X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    cDNA representational difference analysis (cDNA RDA) is a PCR-based subtractive enrichment procedure for the cloning of differentially expressed genes. In this study, we have further developed the procedure to take advantage of solid-phase technology, and to facilitate the use of RDA when starting material is limited. Several parameters of the PCR-based generation of cDNA representations were investigated, and a solid-phase based purification step was introduced to simplify removal of digested adapter-ends and uncleaved fragments. The use of magnetic particles increased the speed of the method, and also eliminated the risk of carry-over contamination between iterative steps of subtraction and PCR amplification. The modified protocol was evaluated in monitoring differences in gene expression in (i) a rat system consisting of livers with and without growth hormone treatment, and in (ii) a human system consisting of normal colon and colon cancer.

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