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  • 1.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Life cycle assessment of a magazine: part 2: A comparison of print and tablet editions2015In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of information and communications technology (ICT) is providing new ways to access media content. Electronic media are sometimes more advantageous from an environmental perspective than paper-based media solutions, but ICT-based media can also bring environmental burdens. This study compared the potential environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective of a print edition of a magazine and that of its electronic edition read on a tablet device. Important objectives were to identify activities giving rise to the main environmental impacts for both the print and tablet editions, determine the key factors influencing these impacts, and address data gaps and uncertainties. A detailed assessment of the tablet edition is provided in a previous article (part 1), whereas this article compares it with the print edition. The methodology used was life cycle assessment and the environmental impacts assessed included climate change, cumulative energy/exergy demand, metal depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, and fossil depletion. Use of different functional units to compare the print and tablet editions of the magazine resulted in different relative environmental impacts. In addition, emerging (low number of readers and low reading time per copy) and mature (higher number of readers and higher reading time per copy) tablet editions yielded varying results. The emerging tablet edition resulted in higher potential environmental impacts per reader than the print edition, but the mature tablet edition yielded lower impacts per reader in half the impact categories assessed. This illustrates the importance of spreading the environmental impacts over a large number of readers. The electricity mix used in product system processes did not greatly affect the results of tablet/print comparisons, but overall number of readers for the tablet edition, number of readers per copy for the print edition, file size, and degree of use of the tablet device proved crucial for the comparison results.

  • 2.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Life Cycle Assessment of a Magazine: Part I: Tablet Edition in Emerging and Mature States2015In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is providing new ways to access media content. ICT has environmental benefits and burdens. The overall goal of the present study was to assess the environmental impacts of production and consumption of magazines read on tablets from a life cycle perspective. Important goals were to identify the activities giving rise to the main impacts and the key factors influencing the overall environmental impacts. Data gaps and uncertainties were also addressed. The results are compared against those for the print edition of the magazine in a separate article (part 2). The methodology used in the study was life cycle assessment. The environmental impacts assessed included climate change, cumulative energy/exergy demand, metal depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, freshwater/marine eutrophication, fossil depletion, human toxicity, and ecotoxicity. The results indicate that content production can be the major contributor to environmental impacts if readers are few (as for the emerging version of the magazine studied). Assuming more readers (more mature version) or a larger file size for the tablet magazine, electronic storage and distribution may be the major contributor. Thus, in contrast to previous studies on electronic media, which reported a dominant impact of the use phase, this study found a higher impact for content production (emerging version) and electronic storage and distribution (mature version). However, with inefficient, low overall use of the tablet with a mature version of the tablet magazine, the greatest impact was shown to come from the reading activity (i.e., the use phase). In conclusion, the relative impacts of the tablet magazine would decrease considerably with high numbers of readers, their efficient use of the tablet (i.e., for many purposes over a long life of the device), and a smaller magazine file.

  • 3.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Bjuggren, Charlotte
    Dalemo, Magnus
    Sonesson, Ulf
    Planning Biodegradable Waste Management in Stockholm1999In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 43-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impact of the management of biodegradable waste in Stockholm, based mainly on incineration and landfilling, was compared to systems with significant nutrient recycling; large-scale composting, anaerobic digestion, and separate collection and utilization of urine. The systems' emissions, residual products, energy turnover, and resource consumption were evaluated from a life-cycle perspective, using a computerized model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch model).

    Transportation was of relatively low importance to overall environmental impact, even at high rates of nutrient recycling. This is remarkable considering the geographical setting of Stockholm, with high population density and little nearby farmland. Ancillary systems, such as generation of electricity and district heating, were crucial for the overall outcome.

    Increased recycling of nutrients in solid biodegradable waste in Stockholm can reduce net environmental impact, whereas separation of human urine to be spread as fertilizer cannot yet be introduced without increased acidification. Increased nutrient recycling from solid biodegradable waste inevitably increases spreading of metals on arable land. Urine is by far the least contaminated residual product. Spreading of all other residuals would be limited by their metal content.

  • 4. Bocken, Nancy M. P.
    et al.
    Olivetti, Elsa A.
    Cullen, Jonathan M.
    Potting, José
    Lifset, Reid
    Taking the Circularity to the Next Level A Special Issue on the Circular Economy2017In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 476-482Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Brick, Karolina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Svanberg, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Barriers and opportunities for increased use of LCA-based tools for the built environment: Stakeholder responses2008In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6. Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Kok, Rixt
    Indirect and Direct Energy Requirements of City Households in Sweden: Options for Reduction, Lessons from Modeling2005In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 9, no 1-2, p. 221-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to explore the potential for lowering household energy use given existing local support systems, in this case in the Stockholm inner city with the aid of the Dutch energy analysis program (EAP) that was adapted to Swedish conditions and that portrays total energy use for 300 consumption categories. Previously such modeling for Sweden was carried out using only Dutch databases. Our case-study area is well equipped with food stores, local markets, public transportation, and entertainment, facilitating some energy-efficient consumption choices. With maintained expenditure levels but changed consumption patterns, current reduction potentials are on the order of 10-20%. Options concerning diet can lower food indirect energy use by up to 30%, whereas options in other areas have a lower potential. Further reductions will require enhanced local support systems, external as well as internal. The results indicate that it is risky not to use nationally adapted figures for energy efficiency in the production sectors when modeling household energy use, because potential for change may be overlooked. Future work should include foreign energy intensities when modeling imported goods; otherwise, results may be less reliable. The Swedish EAP needs further work before it can be put to use as a modeling tool for everyday behavior but it is already generating important possibilities for producing reliable data that can be used by local energy counselors.

  • 7. Hellweg, S.
    et al.
    Doka, G.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Hungerbuhler, K.
    Assessing the eco-efficiency of end-of-pipe technologies with the environmental cost efficiency indicator - A case study of solid waste management2005In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 189-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of eco-efficiency is increasingly being applied to judge the combined environmental and economic performance of product systems, processes, and/or companies. Eco-efficiency is often defined as the ratio of economic value added to environmental impact added. This definition is not appropriate for end-of-pipe treatment technologies because these technologies aim at improving the environmental performance of technical processes at the cost of financial expense. Therefore, an indicator for the assessment of end-of-pipe technologies has been proposed. This indicator, called environmental cost efficiency (ECE), is defined as the ratio of net environmental benefits to the difference in costs. ECE is applied to four end-of-pipe technologies for the treatment of municipal solid waste: sanitary landfill, mechanical-biological treatment, modern grate incineration, and a staged thermal process (pyrolysis and gasification). A life-cycle assessment was performed on these processes to quantify the net environmental benefit. Moreover, the approximate net costs (costs minus benefits) were quantified. The results show that, relative to grate incineration, sanitary landfills and mechanical-biological treatment are less costly but environmentally more harmful. We calculated the ECE for all combinations of technologies. The results indicate that the staged thermal process may be the most environmentally cost-efficient alternative to all other treatment technologies in the long run, followed by mechanical-biological treatment and grate incineration.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Reducing Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Recycling: Case Study on Dishwashers2010In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 258-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collection and treatment of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is regulated in the European Union by the WEEE Directive. Producers are responsible for take-back and recycling of discarded equipment. Valuable materials are, however, at risk of "getting lost" in current processes. Thus, strategies to minimize losses are sought after. The material hygiene (MH) concept was introduced to address this issue. Structural features, which are important for the outcome of reuse, recovery, and recycling, were investigated in an earlier field study of discarded dishwashers. It was proposed that a prestep, manual removal of copper prior to shredding could increase the purity of recovered material fractions. This article builds on the field study and theoretical reasoning underlying the MH concept. Dishwashers are assumed to be designed for disassembly when the prestep is introduced. A limited life cycle assessment was performed to determine whether the proposed prestep may be environmentally beneficial in a life cycle perspective. Two alternatives were analyzed: Case 1: the current shredding process. Case 2: prestep removal of copper before shredding. Targeted disassembly prior to shredding may reduce the abiotic depletion and global warming potential in a life cycle perspective. The prestep results in increased copper recovery, but, more important, copper contamination of the recovered steel fractions is reduced. The results also highlight the importance of minimizing energy consumption in all process stages.

  • 9.
    Lapko, Yulia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics. Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Trianni, Andrea
    Nuur, Cali
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Donato, Masi
    In pursuit of closed-loop supply chains for critical materials:: An exploratory study in the green energy sector2019In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 182-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) is considered not only an important solution for ensuring sustainable exploitation of materials, but also a promising strategy for securing long-term availability of materials. The latter is especially highlighted in the materials criticality discourse. Critical raw materials (CRMs), being exposed to supply disruptions, create an uncertain operational environment for many industries, particularly for green energy technologies that employ multiple CRMs. However, recycling rates of CRMs are very low and engagement of companies in CLSC for CRM is limited. This study examines factors influencing CLSC for CRM development in photovoltaic panels and wind turbine technologies. The aim is to analyze how the factors manifest themselves in different companies along the supply chain and to identify enabling and bottleneck conditions for implementation of CLSC for CRM. The novelty of the study is twofold: the focus on material rather than product flows, and examination of factors from a multiactor perspective. The evidence obtained suggests that the manufacturing companies and reverse supply-chain operators engaged in the study take different perspectives (product vs. material) regarding development of CLSC for CRM and thus emphasize different factors. The findings underline the need for interactions between supply-chain actors, a sound competitive environment for recycling processes, and investment in technologies and infrastructure development if CLSC for CRM is to be developed. The paper provides implications for practitioners and policy makers for implementation of CLSC for CRM, and suggests prospects for further research.

  • 10.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Redwood, Michael
    Puig, Rita
    Frostell, Bjorn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Measuring the Environmental Footprint of Leather Processing Technologies2017In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1180-1187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The selection of materials and manufacturing processes often determines most of the environmental impact that a product will have during its life cycle. In directing consumption toward products with the least impact on the environment, measuring and comparing material alternatives with site-specific data is a fundamental prerequisite. Within the apparel and footwear industry, some famous brands have recently been basing their advertising on the claim that vegetable-tanned leather is more environmentally friendly than chromiumtanned leather. However, there is a lack of scientific research assessing and comparing vegetable-and chromium-tanned leather in a wider context than the toxicity of chromium. To fill this gap, this study measured and compared the carbon, water, and energy footprint of vegetable and chromium leather processing technology and intermediate processing stages in 12 selected tanneries in seven different countries worldwide. Each tannery proved to be very individual, and therefore attempting to perform this type of analysis without simply producing meaningless generalities is a challenge for companies, researchers, and regulators. The variability in results demonstrates that secondary data for the tanning phase should be utilized with caution in a decision-making context. The use of primary data would be advisable for life cycle assessment studies of leather goods. No significant differences were found in the footprint of vegetable and chromium leather processes, but these are only indicative findings and need confirmation in further studies. An important area needing investigation is then how a fair comparison can be made between renewable natural materials and nonrenewable materials used in both leather-processing technologies.

  • 11.
    Malmodin, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lundén, Dag
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. TeliaSonera, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Andersson, Greger
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. TeliaSonera, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. TeliaSonera, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Life Cycle Assessment of ICT: Carbon Footprint and Operational Electricity Use from the Operator, National, and Subscriber Perspective in Sweden2014In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 829-845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is growing throughout society, and new products and solutions are developed at an increasing rate. To enable environmental assessment of specific ICT products and other products that rely on ICT in some way, a more complete, detailed, and up-to-date study based on real measurements is needed. To date, similar studies have not been readily available or fully comprehensive. This study assessed the overall operational electricity use and life-cycle-based carbon footprint (CF) relating to ICT in Sweden, including activities not commonly addressed previously, such as shared data transport networks and data centers and manufacturing of network infrastructure. Specific, detailed inventory data are presented and used for assessment of the Internet Protocol core network, data transmission, operator activities, and access network. These specific data, in combination with secondary, more generic data for end-user equipment, allow a comprehensive overall assessment. The majority of the ICT network CF is the result of end-user equipment, mainly personal computers, followed by third-party enterprise networks and data centers and then access networks. The parts closest to the user proved to be clearly responsible for the majority of the impact. The results are presented for Swedish ICT networks and for ICT networks in general based on a global average electricity mix.

  • 12.
    Malmodin, Jens
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Lundén, Dag
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Lövehagen, Nina
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Greenhouse gas emissions and operational electricity use in the ICT and entertainment & media sectors2010In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 770-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The positive and negative environmental impacts of information and communication technology (ICT) are widely debated. This study assesses the electricity use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the ICT and entertainment & media (E&M) sectors at sector level, including end users, and thus complements information on the product level. GHGs are studied in a life cycle perspective, but for electricity use, only the operational use is considered. The study also considers which product groups or processes are major contributors. Using available data and extrapolating existing figures to the global scale for 2007 reveals that the ICT sector produced 1.3% of global GHG emissions in 2007 and the E&M sector 1.7%. The corresponding figures for global electricity use were 3.9% and 3.2%, respectively. The results indicate that for the ICT sector, operation leads to more GHG emissions than manufacture, although impacts from the manufacture of some products are significant. For the E&M sector, operation of TVs and production of printed media are the main reasons for overall GHG emissions. TVs as well as printed media, with the estimations made here, led to more GHG emissions on a global level in 2007 than PCs (manufacture and operation). A sector study of this type provides information on a macro scale, a perspective easily lost when considering, for example, the product-related results of life cycle assessments. The macro scale is essential to capture changes in total consumption and use. However, the potential of the ICT sector to help decrease environmental impacts from other sectors was not included in the assessment.

  • 13. Manoochehri, John
    Comment on "What Is Resource Consumption and How Can It Be Measured?"2009In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 638-639Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14. Moll, Henri C
    et al.
    Noorman, Klaas Jan
    Kok, Rixt
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Trone-Holst, Harald
    Clark, Charlotte
    Pursuing More Sustainable Consumption by Analyzing Household Metabolism in European Countries and Cities2005In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 9, no 1-2, p. 259-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bringing about more sustainable consumption patterns is an important challenge for society and science. In this article the concept of household metabolism is applied to analyzing consumption patterns and to identifying possibilities for the development of sustainable household consumption patterns. Household metabolism is determined in terms of total energy requirements, including both direct and indirect energy requirements, using a hybrid method. This method enables us to evaluate various determinants of the environmental load of consumption consistently at several levels - the national level, the local level, and the household level. The average annual energy requirement of households varies considerably between the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Sweden, as well as within these countries. The average expenditure level per household explains a large part of the observed variations. Differences between these countries are also related to the efficiency of the production sectors and to the energy supply system. The consumption categories of food, transport, and recreation show the largest contributions to the environmental load. A comparison of consumer groups with different household characteristics shows remarkable differences in the division of spending over the consumption categories. Thus, analyses of different types of households are important for providing a basis for options to induce decreases of the environmental load of household consumption. At the city level, options for change are provided by an analysis of the city infrastructure, which determines a large part of the direct energy use by households (for transport and heating). At the national level, energy efficiency in production and in electricity generation is an important trigger for decreasing household energy requirements

  • 15. Palm, Viveka
    et al.
    Wadeskog, Anders
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Swedish experience using environmental accounts data for integrated product policy issues2006In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 57-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article quantifies and ranks the environmental pressure caused by different product groups consumed in Sweden. This is done using information from economic and environmental statistics. An analysis for the year 1998 is performed for approximately 50 product groups using input-output analysis. This type of analysis has some major advantages for integrated product policy (IPP) purposes: the underlying data are regularly updated, the data systems are being harmonized by international standards, and the connection between environmental goals and IPP goals can be investigated. This article summarizes two Swedish reports, one for the Producer Responsibility Committee and one for the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency The results show that the volume of consumption is an important factor in environmental pressure from products as well as impact intensities. The most important product categories for private consumption are petroleum products, electricity, construction, and food and beverages, as well as transport. Possibilities of building indicators for IPP are also discussed.

  • 16.
    Shahrokni, Hossein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Årman, Louise
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Nilsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Implementing Smart Urban Metabolism in the Stockholm Royal Seaport: Smart City SRS2015In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 917-929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For half a century, system scientists have relied on urban metabolism (UM) as a pragmatic framework to support the needed transition toward sustainable urban development. It has been suggested that information and communication technology (ICT) and, more specifically, smart cities can be leveraged in this transition. Given the recent advances in smart cities, smart urban metabolism (SUM) is considered a technology-enabled evolution of the UM framework, overcoming some of its current limitations. Most significantly, the SUM framework works at high temporal (up to real-time) and spatial (down to household/individual) resolutions. This article presents the first implementation of SUM in the Smart City Stockholm Royal Seaport R&D project; it further analyzes barriers and discusses the potential long-term implications of the findings. Four key performance indicators (KPIs) are generated in real time based on the integration of heterogeneous, real-time data sources. These are kilowatt-hours per square meter, carbon dioxide equivalents per capita, kilowatt-hours of primary energy per capita, and share of renewables percentage. These KPIs are fed back on three levels (household, building, and district) on four interfaces, developed for different audiences. The most challenging barrier identified was accessing and integrating siloed data from the different data owners (utilities, building owners, and so forth). It is hard to overcome unless a significant value is perceived. A number of long-term opportunities were described in the SUM context; among those, it is envisioned that SUM could enable a new understanding of the causalities that govern urbanism and allow citizens and city officials to receive feedback on the system consequences of their choices.

  • 17.
    Song, Xingqiang
    et al.
    Arctic Univ Norway, Fac Biosci Fisheries & Econ, Tromso, Norway.;Ecoloop AB, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Liu, Ying
    Dalian Ocean Univ, Sch Marine Sci & Environm Engn, Dalian 116023, Peoples R China..
    Pettersen, Johan Berg
    Arctic Univ Norway, Fac Biosci Fisheries & Econ, Tromso, Norway.;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Ind Ecol Programme, Trondheim, Norway..
    Brandao, Miguel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ma, Xiaona
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Oceanol, Qingdao, Shandong, Peoples R China..
    Roberg, Stian
    Arctic Univ Norway, Fac Biosci Fisheries & Econ, Tromso, Norway..
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Life cycle assessment of recirculating aquaculture systems: A case of Atlantic salmon farming in China2019In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1077-1086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are an alternative technology to tackle the major environmental challenges associated with conventional cage culture systems. In order to systematically assess the environmental performance of RAS farming, it is important to take the whole life cycle into account so as to avoid ad hoc and suboptimal environmental measures. So far, the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) in aquaculture, especially to indoor RAS, is still in progress. This study reports on an LCA of Atlantic salmon harvested at an indoor RAS farm in northern China. Results showed that 1 tonne live-weight salmon production required 7,509 kWh farm-level electricity and generated 16.7 tonnes of CO2 equivalent (eq), 106 kg of SO2 eq, 2.4 kg of P eq, and 108 kg of N eq (cradle-to-farm gate). In particular, farm-level electricity use and feed product were identified as primary contributors to eight of nine impact categories assessed (54-95% in total), except the potential marine eutrophication (MEU) impact (dominated by the grow-out effluents). Among feed ingredients (on a dry-weight basis), chicken meal (5%) and krill meal (8%) dominated six and three, respectively, of the nine impact categories. Suggested environmental improvement measures for this indoor RAS farm included optimization of stocking density, feeding management, grow-out effluent treatment, substitution of feed ingredients, and selection of electricity generation sources. In a generic context, this study can contribute to a better understanding of the life cycle environmental impacts of land-based salmon RAS operations, as well as science-based communication among stakeholders on more eco-friendly farmed salmon.

  • 18. Thiebaud (Mueller), Esther
    et al.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. University of Zürich, Switzerland.
    Schluep, Mathias
    Widmer, Rolf
    Faulstich, Martin
    Service Lifetime, Storage Time, and Disposal Pathways of Electronic Equipment A Swiss Case Study2018In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 196-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product lifetime is an essential aspect of dynamic material flow analyses and has been modeled using lifetime distribution functions, mostly average lifetimes. Existing data regarding the lifetime of electronic equipment (EE) are based on diverging definitions of lifetime as well as different temporal and regional scopes. After its active use, EE is often not disposed of immediately, but remains in storage for some time. Specific data on the share of EE that is stored and the time they remain in storage are scarce. This article investigates the service lifetime, storage time, and disposal pathways of ten electronic device types, based on data from an online survey complemented by structured interviews. We distinguish between new and secondhand devices and compute histograms, averages, and medians of the different lifetimes and their change over time. The average service lifetime varies from 3.3 years for mobile phones to 10.8 years for large loudspeakers, the average storage time from 0.8 years for flat panel display televisions to 3.6 years for large loudspeakers. Most service lifetime histograms are positively skewed and show substantial differences among device types. The storage time histograms, being more similar to one another, indicate that the storage behavior is similar for most device types. The data on disposal pathways show that a large proportion of devices are stored and reused before they reach the collection scheme.

  • 19.
    Toller, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Wadeskog, A
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Carlsson, Annica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Energy Use and Environmental impacts of the Swedish Building and Real Estate Management Sector2011In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 394-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key features of environmental policy integration in Sweden is sectorresponsibility. The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning is responsible for the building and real estate management sector and should, as a part of this responsibility, assess the environmental impacts of this sector. The aim of this study is to suggest and demonstrate a method for such an assessment. The suggested method is a life cycle assessment, based on an input-output analysis. The method can be used for regular monitoring and for prioritization between different improving measures. For the assessment to sufficiently cover the Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives, complementary information is needed, in particular with respect to the indoor environment. According to the results, the real estate management sector contributes between 10% and 40% of Swedish energy use; use of hazardous chemical products; generation of solid waste; emissions of gases contributing to climate change; and human toxicological impacts, including nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulates. Transport and production of nonrenewable building materials contribute significantly to several of the emissions. Heating of buildings contributes more to energy use than to climate change, due to the use of renewable energy sources. To reduce climate change, measures should therefore prioritize not only heating of buildings but also the important upstream processes.

  • 20.
    Zapico, Jorge L.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Turpeinen, Marko
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231).
    Environmental Metrics The Main Opportunity from ICT for Industrial Ecology2010In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 703-706Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 20 of 20
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