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  • 1.
    Ackermann, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, Superseded Departments.
    An overview of wind energy-status 20022002In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 67-128Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Ackermann, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, Superseded Departments.
    Wind energy technology and current status: a review2000In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 315-374Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    A review of turbocompounding as a waste heat recovery system for internal combustion engines2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 49, p. 813-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internal combustion engines waste a large amount of fuel energy through their exhausts. Various technologies have been developed for waste heat recovery such as turbocompounds, Rankine bottoming cycles, and thermoelectric generators that reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Turbocompounding is still not widely applied to vehicular use despite the improved fuel economy, lower cost, volume, and complexity higher exhaust gas recirculation driving capability and improved transient response. This paper comprehensively reviews the latest developments and research on turbocompounding to discover important variables and provide insights into the implementation of a high-efficiency turbocompound engine. Attention should be paid to the optimization of turbocompound engines and their configurations because the major drawback of this technology is additional exhaust back-pressure, which leads to higher pumping loss in the engines. Applying different technologies and concepts on turbocompound engines makes the exhaust energy recovery more efficient and provides more freedom in the design and optimization of the engines. Turbine efficiency plays an important role in the recovery of the wasted heat so turbine design is a crucial issue in turbocompounding. In addition, variability in geometry and rotational speed of power turbines allows for more efficient turbocompound engines in different operating conditions. The conclusion drawn from this review is that turbocompounding is a promising technology for reducing fuel consumption in the coming decades in both light- and heavy-duty engines.

  • 4.
    Akhlaghi, Shahin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Brana, Maria T. Conde
    Bellander, Martin
    Deterioration of automotive rubbers in liquid biofuels: A review2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 43, p. 1238-1248Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns over the fast depletion of fossil fuels, environmental issues and stringent legislation associated with petroleum-based fuels have triggered a shift to bio-based fuels, as an alternative to meet the growing energy demand in the transportation sector. However, since conventional automobile fuel systems are adapted to petroleum-based fuels, switching to biofuels causes a severe deterioration in the performance of currently used rubber components. The degradation of the rubber materials in biofuels is complicated by the presence of different additives in biofuels and rubber compounds, by oxidation of biofuels and by the effects of thermomechanical loadings in the engine. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the effects of different types of biofuels, particularly biodiesel and bioethanol, on the physical, mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of elastomers under different exposure conditions. In addition, the literature data available on the variation of rubbers' resistance to biofuels with the changes in their monomer type and composition, cure system and additives content was also studied. The review essentially focuses on the compatibility of biofuels with acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, fluoroelastomers, polychloroprene rubber and silicon rubber, as the most commonly used automotive rubbers coming into contact with fuels during their service. The knowledge summarized in this study can help to develop a guideline on the selection of rubber for automotive parts designed to withstand biofuels.

  • 5.
    Azuatalam, Donald
    et al.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Elect & Informat Engn, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Paridari, Kaveh
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Ma, Yiju
    Univ Sydney, Sch Elect & Informat Engn, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Foerstl, Markus
    Tech Univ Munich, Inst Elect Energy Storage Technol, Munich, Germany..
    Chapman, Archie C.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Elect & Informat Engn, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Verbic, Gregor
    Univ Sydney, Sch Elect & Informat Engn, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Energy management of small-scale PV-battery systems: A systematic review considering practical implementation, computational requirements, quality of input data and battery degradation2019In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 112, p. 555-570Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The home energy management problem has many different facets, including economic viability, data uncertainty and quality of strategy employed. The existing literature in this area focuses on individual aspects of this problem without a detailed, holistic analysis of the results with regards to practicality in implementation. In this paper, we fill this gap by performing a comprehensive comparison of seven different energy management strategies, each with different levels of practicality, sophistication and computational requirements. We analyse the results in the context of these three characteristics, and also critique the modelling assumptions made by each strategy. Our analysis finds that using a more sophisticated energy management strategy may not necessarily improve the performance and economic viability of the PV-battery system due to the effects of modelling assumptions, such as the treatment of uncertainties in the input data and battery degradation effects.

  • 6. Bartoli, A.
    et al.
    Hamelin, L.
    Rozakis, S.
    Borzęcka, M.
    Brandão, Miguel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Coupling economic and GHG emission accounting models to evaluate the sustainability of biogas policies2019In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 106, p. 133-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate and quantify the impacts of different biogas and related policies on the agricultural sector as well as their performance in terms of climate change mitigation and associated costs. To do so we coupled the partial equilibrium approach simulating the market clearing process with the perspective of Life Cycle Assessment of GHG applying it to the well-documented Lombardy case. Results show that the recent Italian biogas policy – prompting manure utilization and reducing the average subsidy per kWh – effectively increased the environmental sustainability of the system, which only now seems able to counteract global warming. Synergies are observed when the recent Common Agricultural Policy greening reform is simultaneously considered by the model.

  • 7. Bird, Lori
    et al.
    Lew, Debra
    Milligan, Michael
    Carlini, E. Maria
    Estanqueiro, Ana
    Flynn, Damian
    Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio
    Holttinen, Hannele
    Menemenlis, Nickie
    Orths, Antje
    Eriksen, Peter Borre
    Smith, J. Charles
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Sorensen, Poul
    Altiparmakis, Argyrios
    Yasuda, Yoh
    Miller, John
    Wind and solar energy curtailment: A review of international experience2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 65, p. 577-586Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Greater penetrations of variable renewable generation on some electric grids have resulted in increased levels of curtailment in recent years. Studies of renewable energy grid integration have found that curtailment levels may grow as the penetration of wind and solar energy generation increases. This paper reviews international experience with curtailment of wind and solar energy on bulk power systems in recent years, with a focus on eleven countries in Europe, North America, and Asia. It examines levels of curtailment, the causes of curtailment, curtailment methods and use of market based dispatch, as well as operational, institutional, and other changes that are being made to reduce renewable energy curtailment.

  • 8.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Ghaffour, Noreddine
    Mahmoudi, Hacene
    Goosen, Mattheus
    Mushtaq, Shahbaz
    Hoinkis, Jan
    Low-cost low-enthalpy geothermal heat for freshwater production: Innovative applications using thermal desalination processes2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 43, p. 196-206Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is dedicated to exploring different types of low-cost low-enthalpy geothermal and their potential integration with conventional thermal-based water desalination and treatment technologies to deliver energy efficient, environmentally friendly solutions for water desalination and treatment, addressing global water crises. Our in-depth investigation through reviews of various low-enthalpy geothermal and conventional thermal-based technologies suggest that the geothermal option is superior to the solar option if low-cost geothermal heat is available because it provides a constant heat source in contrast to solar. Importantly, the stable heat source further allows up-scaling ( >1000 m(3)/day), which is not currently possible with solar. Solar-geothermal hybrid constellations may also be suitable in areas where both sources are available. The review also discovers that the innovative Membrane distillation (MD) process is very promising as it can be used for many different water compositions, salinity and temperature ranges. Either the geothermal water itself can be desalinated/treated or the geothermal heat can be used to heat feed water from other sources using heat exchangers. However, there are only few economic analyses for large-scale MD units and these are based on theoretical models using often ;uncertain assumptions resulting in a large variety of results.

  • 9.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH. National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture, Australia .
    Maity, Jyoti Prakash
    Geothermal arsenic: Occurrence, mobility and environmental implications2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 42, p. 1214-1222Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) contamination in geothermal systems has been identified in many areas of the world. Arsenic mobilization from rocks and mineral phases into geothermal fluids depends on available As sources, geochemical conditions and microbiological activity. In deep geothermal reservoirs As mobilization is predominantly from As-bearing pyrite at temperatures of 150-250 degrees C, and at higher temperatures also from arsenopyrite. Highest As concentrations, mostly in the range of thousands to tens of thousands of mu g/L and in case of Los Humeros (Mexico) even of up to 162,000 mu g/L are found in volcanic geothermal systems whereas in low- and high-enthalpy sedimentary geothermal systems they reach only about 2000 mu g/L. At many sites, uprising geothermal waters contaminate shallow water resources. From the geothermal springs, those with NaCl water type have the highest As concentrations; these waters correspond to original reservoir waters which were not significantly altered during its ascent. In the geothermal reservoir and deeper parts of hydrothermal system, As is predominantly present as neutral H3As(III)O-3 (arsenius acid) and under sulfidic conditions also as thioarsenites; close to the earth's surface oxidation through atmospheric oxygen to As(V) species may occur; however, this is a slow process. As(III) emerging in geothermal springs is oxidized quickly through microbial catalysis and often most As is present as As(V), at a distance of few meters from the spring outlet. This review highlights the occurrence and distribution of geothermal As worldwide, its sources and its mobilization and the presence of different As species in geothermal fluids considering different geological settings and processes involving geothermal fluids rising from deep geothermal reservoirs to the earth's surface where it may mix with shallow groundwater or surface waters and contaminate these resources. The microbial diversity of hot spring environments which plays an important role to mobilize the As by oxidation and reduction process in the geothermal system is also addressed.

  • 10.
    Chen, Jianyong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Jarall, Sad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Havtun, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    A review on versatile ejector applications in refrigeration systems2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 49, p. 67-90Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a useful knowledge of ejector working principles and the versatility and diversity of its applications in refrigeration technologies. Various ejector refrigeration systems are described with the associated studies, and categorized as conventional ejector refrigeration system, advanced ejector refrigeration systems, combined refrigeration systems and ejector enhanced vapor compression systems. This paper also presents the important elements that affect the optimum performance of the ejector system, and the results of studies that have generally confirmed their energy saving, great potential for large refrigerating temperature scales and performance enhancement.

  • 11. Coronado, Christian Rodriguez
    et al.
    Tuna, Celso Eduardo
    Zanzi, Rolando
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Vane, Lucas F.
    Silveira, Jose Luz
    Development of a thermoeconomic methodology for optimizing biodiesel production. Part II: Manufacture exergetic cost and biodiesel production cost incorporating carbon credits, a Brazilian case study2014In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 29, p. 565-572Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to carry on a thermoeconomic analysis at a biodiesel production plant considering the irreversibilities in each step (part I: biodiesel plant under study and functional thermoeconomic diagram [1]), making it possible to calculate the thermoeconomic cost in US$/kWh and US$/1 of the biodiesel production, and the main byproduct generated, glycerin, incorporating the credits for the CO2 that is not emitted into the atmosphere (carbon credits). Assuming a sale price for both the biodiesel and the byproduct (glycerin), the annual revenue of the total investment in a plant with a capacity of 8000 t/year of biodiesel operating at 8000 h/year was calculated. The variables that directly or indirectly influence the final thermoeconomic cost include total annual biodiesel production, hours of operation, manufacturing exergy cost, molar ratio in the transesterification reaction, reaction temperature and pressure in the process. Depending on the increase or decrease in sale prices for both biodiesel and glycerin, the payback is going to significantly increase or decrease. It is evident that, in exergy terms, the sale of glycerin is of vital importance in order to reduce the biodiesel price, getting a shorter payback period for the plant under study.

  • 12. Coronado, Christian Rodriguez
    et al.
    Tuna, Celso Eduardo
    Zanzi, Rolando
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Vane, Lucas F.
    Silveira, Jose Luz
    Development of a thermoeconomic methodology for the optimization of biodiesel production-Part I: Biodiesel plant and thermoeconomic functional diagram2013In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 23, p. 138-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work developed a methodology that uses the thermoeconomic functional diagram applied for allocating the cost of products produced by a biodiesel plant. The first part of this work discusses some definitions of exergy and thermoeconomy, with a detailed description of the biodiesel plant studied, identification of the system functions through Physical Diagram, calculation of the irreversibilities of the plant, construction of the Thermoeconomic Functional Diagram and determination of the expressions for the plant's exergetic functions. In order to calculate the exergetic increments and the physical exergy of certain flows in each step, the Chemical Engineering Simulation Software "HYSYS 3.2" was used. The equipments that have the highest irreversibilities in the plant were identified after the exergy calculation. It was also found that the lowest irreversibility in the system refers to the process with a molar ratio of 6:1 and a reaction temperature of 60 degrees C in the transesterification process. In the second part of this. work (Part II), it was calculated the thermoeconomic cost of producing biodiesel and related products, including the costs of carbon credits for the CO2 that is not released into the atmosphere, when a percentage of biodiesel is added to the petroleum diesel used by Brazil's internal diesel fleet (case study).

  • 13.
    Cuvilas, Carlos Alberto
    et al.
    Swedish University for Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Energy and Technology, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Jirjis, R.
    Swedish University for Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Energy and Technology, Sweden .
    Lucas, C.
    Energy situation in Mozambique: A review2010In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 2139-2146Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need to increase energy security and promote development, especially in rural areas has forced many developing countries in southern Africa, like Mozambique to take several actions toward development of several infrastructures and legislations for production and use of liquid biofuels. The main objective of this study is to present the energy situation in Mozambique and assess the potential for energy generation from widely available renewable sources including residues from agricultural crops and forest industry. The country is endowed with great potential for biofuels, solar, hydro and wind energy production. The energy production today is, however, far from fulfilling energy needs of the country, and the majority of people are still not benefiting from these resources. The potential of total residues from agricultural sector and forest industry is estimated to be around 128 PJ. This amount of energy covers almost half of the combined production of charcoal and firewood which amounted to approximately 298 PJ in 2006. However, such amount of energy resources is wasted and is not visible on national energy statistics.

  • 14.
    Darmani, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain .
    Arvidsson, Niklas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Hidalgo, Antonio
    Albors, Jose
    What drives the development of renewable energy technologies?: Toward a typology for the systemic drivers2014In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 38, p. 834-847Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, governments are embarking on the ambitious undertaking of increasing their countries' market share of renewable energy. Political ambitions, however, are just one of the driving forces for energy companies' to engage in innovative climate projects. Energy companies' perceptions of business opportunities are dependent on a set of factors that influence their innovation ambitions. This research operationalizes previous work on the main drivers of the establishment of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs), with the aim of presenting an overview of the typical systemic drivers within a technological innovation system (TIS) framework. This leads to the proposal of a comprehensive typology and categorization of drivers of RETs. The typology is validated empirically by analyzing data on the development of four types of RETs (wind, solar, biomass and wave energy) in eight European countries (EU-7 and Ireland). The study's results shed light on the multilateral drivers behind the development of RETs. Furthermore, a cross-case comparative study reveals the differences between drivers of RETs and the patterns of these drivers in different countries.

  • 15. de Carvalho, Carolina Monteiro
    et al.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    La Rovere, Emilio Lebre
    Iwama, Allan Yu
    Deforested and degraded land available for the expansion of palm oil for biodiesel in the state of Para in the Brazilian Amazon2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 44, p. 867-876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper maps the availability of deforested and degraded land in the state of Para in the eastern Amazon and discusses the feasibility of using this land for the expansion of palm crops for biodiesel production. The ultimate objective is to highlight land that is suitable for palm oil and its availability/distribution, so that the palm oil expansion envisaged by the Brazilian Government's Sustainable Palm Oil Program can be achieved in a sustainable way. The analysis is developed with the support of geoprocessing techniques that pull data together from different sources, including the Agroecological Zoning (ZAE) developed for palm oil in Brazil and degraded land data. The analysis identifies some of the challenges faced when planning and monitoring the expansion of palm oil in the Amazon, including the need for an operational concept to identify and use degraded land.

  • 16.
    Eid, Cherrelle
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Managing electric flexibility from Distributed Energy Resources: A review of incentives for market design2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 64, p. 237-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many electric systems worldwide the penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) at the distribution levels is increasing. This penetration brings in different challenges for electricity system management; however if the flexibility of those DER is well managed opportunities arise for coordination. At high voltage levels under responsibility of the system operator, trading mechanisms like contracts for ancillary services and balancing markets provide opportunities for economic efficient supply of system flexibility services. In a situation with smart metering and real-time management of distribution networks, similar arrangements could be enabled for medium- and low-voltage levels. This paper presents a review and classification of existing DER as flexibility providers and a breakdown of trading platforms for DER flexibility in electricity markets.

  • 17.
    Fischer, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Germany.
    Madani, Hatef
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    On heat pumps in smart grids: A review2017In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 70, p. 342-357Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates heat pump systems in smart grids, focussing on fields of application and control approaches that have emerged in academic literature. Based on a review of published literature technical aspects of heat pump flexibility, fields of application and control approaches are structured and discussed. Three main categories of applications using heat pumps in a smart grid context have been identified: First stable and economic operation of power grids, second the integration of renewable energy sources and third operation under variable electricity prices. In all fields heat pumps - when controlled in an appropriate manner - can help easing the transition to a decentralized energy system accompanied by a higher share of prosumers and renewable energy sources. Predictive controls are successfully used in the majority of studies, often assuming idealized conditions. Topics for future research have been identified including: a transfer of control approaches from simulation to the field, a detailed techno-economic analysis of heat pump systems under smart grid operation, and the design of heat pump systems in order to increase flexibility are among the future research topics suggested.

  • 18. Grottera, Carolina
    et al.
    Barbier, Carine
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. Research Group on Bioenergy, Institute of Energy and Environment, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil.
    Weiss de Abreu, Mariana
    Uchôa, Christiane
    Tudeschini, Luís Gustavo
    Cayla, Jean-Michel
    Nadaud, Franck
    Pereira Jr, Amaro Olimpio
    Cohen, Claude
    Teixeira Coelho, Suani
    Linking electricity consumption of home appliances and standard of living: A comparison between Brazilian and French households2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 94, p. 877-888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions based exclusively on technology are unlikely to fully deliver a transition towards a low-carbon society. Shifts in consumption patterns and lifestyles associated with technological solutions are essential to achieve safe GHG concentration levels. Considering households' consumption patterns, residential electricity consumption represents a major issue, as it is closely related to lifestyle choices and living standards. In this context, this paper discusses how specific electricity requirements may vary across different deciles of living standard in Brazil and France. The present evaluation is based on specific electricity consumption and its corresponding carbon dioxide emissions for different home appliances used for food conservation, lighting, daily chores (e.g. cloth washing), as well as information and leisure. Results ratify, on the one hand, the significant income gap existing between French and Brazilian households. On the other hand, they show that differences regarding specific electricity requirements in the two countries are lower than intuitively expected. Hence, they evidence a converging trend in electricity requirements between the two countries, especially among higher income deciles.

  • 19.
    Gunasekara, Saman Nimali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Martin, Viktoria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Chiu, Justin NingWei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Phase equilibrium in the design of phase change materials for thermal energy storage: State-of-the-art2017In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 73, p. 558-581Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a review of phase equilibrium as a tool for accurately identifying suitable blended phasechange materials (PCMs) to be used for thermal energy storage (TES). PCM storage increases the overall energyefficiency for many applications, however, high cost and complex phase change phenomena in blends oftenundermine the benefits. The study of phase equilibrium as derived from phase diagrams is the key to solve theseissues. It enables the evaluation of PCM-suitability through indication of temperature-composition points, e.g.congruent melting compositions, eutectics and peritectics. To clearly stake out the opportunities of a phaseequilibrium-based design methodology, this paper reviews the state-of-the-art based on findings from fourdecades (1977–2016). On one hand, eutectics, salts-based systems, fatty acids, and alkanes dominate theexisting PCM literature. Here peritectics have often been erroneously praised as suitable PCMs despite the manyproblems depicted from a phase equilibrium point of view. On the other hand, the most PCM-ideal congruentmelting systems, as well as the blends of polyols, fats, metal alloys and organic-inorganic combinations lack fullattention. This work brings forward the knowledge on these insufficiently explored yet extremely suitable phaseequilibrium characteristics. In addition, comprehensive PCM-design thermal properties of these various blendsare presented, as a basis to further extensive explorations, and material category-based predictions.

  • 20.
    Heier, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. Högskolan Dalarna, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Martin, Viktoria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Combining Thermal Energy Storage with Buildings: A Review2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 42, p. 1305-1325Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) has been a topic of research for quite some time and has proven to be a technology that can have positive effects on the energy efficiency of a building by contributing to an increased share of renewable energy and/or reduction in energy demand or peak loads for both heating and cooling. There are many TES technologies available, both commercial and emerging, and the amount of published literature on the subject is considerable. Literature discussing the combination of thermal energy storage with buildings is however lacking and it is therefore not an easy task to decide which type of TES to use in a certain building. The goal of this paper is to give a comprehensive review of a wide variety of TES technologies, with a clear focus on the combination of storage technology and building type. The results show many promising TES technologies, both for residential and commercial buildings, but also that much research still is required, especially in the fields of phase change materials and thermochemical storage.

  • 21.
    Hesaraki, Arefeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Haghighat, Fariborz
    Seasonal thermal energy storage with heat pumps and low temperatures in building projects-A comparative review2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 43, p. 1199-1213Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Application of seasonal thermal energy storage with heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings has received much consideration in recent decades, as it can help to cover gaps between energy availability and demand, e.g. from summer to winter. This has the potential to reduce the large proportion of energy consumed by buildings, especially in colder climate countries. The problem with seasonal storage, however, is heat loss. This can be reduced by low-temperature storage but a heat pump is then recommended to adjust temperatures as needed by buildings in use. The aim of this paper was to compare different seasonal thermal energy storage methods using a heat pump in terms of coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump and solar fraction, and further, to investigate the relationship between those factors and the size of the system, i.e. collector area and storage volume based on past building projects including residences, offices and schools.

  • 22.
    Karakaya, Emrah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Hidalgo, Antonio
    Nuur, Cali
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Diffusion of eco-innovations: A review2014In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 33, no May, p. 392-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature in the field of eco-innovations often focuses on policy, regulations, technology, market and firm specific factors rather than diffusion. However, understanding of diffusion of eco-innovations recently has gained more importance given the fact that some eco-innovations are already at a mature stage. This paper aims to clarify the concept of diffusion of eco-innovation and provide a current overview of this emerging literature. Within this review framework, we identify the most cited relevant publications and corresponding research streams. We also describe the strengths and limitations of these research streams in the concept of diffusion of eco-innovations. The results summarize insights from different research streams in different disciplines and outline an entry point for researchers new to the emerging field of diffusion of eco-innovations.

  • 23.
    Karakaya, Emrah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.). Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Hidalgo, Antonio
    Nuur, Cali
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Motivators for adoption of photovoltaic systems at grid parity: A case study from Southern Germany2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 43, p. 1090-1098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In some countries, photovoltaic (PV) technology is at a stage of development at which it can compete with conventional electricity sources in terms of electricity generation costs, i.e., grid parity. A case in point is Germany, where the PV market has reached a mature stage, the policy support has scaled down and the diffusion rate of PV systems has declined. This development raises a fundamental question: what are the motives to adopt PV systems at grid parity? The point of departure for the relevant literature has been on the impact of policy support, adopters and, recently, local solar companies. However, less attention has been paid to the motivators for adoption at grid parity. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the diffusion of PV systems, explaining the impact of policy measures, adopters and system suppliers. Anchored in an extensive and exploratory case study in Germany, we provide a context-specific explanation to the motivations to adopt PV systems at grid parity.

  • 24.
    Karakaya, Emrah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Sriwannawit, Pranpreya
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Barriers to the adoption of photovoltaic systems: The state of the art2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 49, p. 60-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although photovoltaic (PV) systems have become much more competitive, the diffusion of PV systems still remains low in comparison to conventional energy sources. What are the current barriers hindering the diffusion of PV systems? In order to address this, we conducted an extensive and systematic literature review based on the Web of Science database. Our state-of-the-art review shows that, despite the rapid development and maturity of the technology during the past few years, the adoption of PV systems still faces several barriers. The wide adoption of PV systems—either as a substitute for other electricity power generation systems in urban areas or for rural electrification—is a challenging process. Our results show that the barriers are evident for both low- and high-income economies, encompassing four dimensions: sociotechnical, management, economic, and policy. Although the barriers vary across context, the lessons learned from one study can be valuable to others. The involvement of all stakeholders—adopters, local communities, firms, international organizations, financial institutions, and government—is crucial to foster the adoption.

  • 25.
    Khan, MD. Ershad Ullah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Martin, Andrew R.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Review of biogas digester technology in rural Bangladesh2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 62, p. 247-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bangladesh has been facing severe energy crises (lack of electricity and gas supply network) during the last three decades, especially in rural areas. These areas are characterized by their often inefficient use of woody biomass, mainly for cooking purposes. To avoid the resulting environmental degradation and achieve sustainable development, access to clean and affordable energy is essential. Upgrading existing biomass resources (i.e., animal manure, crop residues, kitchen waste and green wastes) to biogas shows significant promise in this respect. This article presents a review of the current status of biogas digester technology in Bangladesh with focus on households in rural areas, covering 75% of the total population. Currently there exists a substantial gap between technical and cost-effective potential and the achievable potential due to lack of technical knowledge, high installation and operation costs, feedstock availability and limited end user applications. As a result only one percent of the overall biogas potential, estimated at 14.5x106 m3/yr, has been achieved despite government programs for promoting digester installation. Via in-field surveys this review has identified problems in the construction, maintenance and operation of biogas digesters, particularly in overall performance of household digesters. Based on these results a number of operational and technology improvements are suggested. Three digester implementation scenarios are introduced, and performance and cost estimates are projected to 2040. The most ambitious scenario leads to a five-fold increase in biogas output as compared to today’s levels; levelized energy costs can be halved with proper choice of digester technology.

  • 26.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Net energy balance of molasses based ethanol: The case of Nepal2009In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 2515-2524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates life cycle energy analysis of molasses based ethanol (MOE) in Nepal. Net energy value (NEV), net renewable energy value (NREV) and energy yield ratio are used to evaluate the energy balance of MOE in Nepal. Total energy requirements in sugarcane farming, cane milling and ethanol conversion processes are estimated and energy allocation is made between co-products (molasses and sugar) as per their market prices. The result shows negative NEV (−13.05 MJ/L), positive NREV (18.36 MJ/L) and energy yield ratio (7.47). The higher positive value of NREV and energy yield ratio reveal that a low amount of fossil fuels are required to produce 1 L of MOE. However, negative NEV reveals that the total energy consumption (both fossil and renewables) to produce the ethanol is higher than its final energy content. Nevertheless, the renewable energy contribution amounts to 91.7% of total energy requirements. The effect of the increased price of molasses and reduced energy consumption in the sugarcane milling and ethanol conversion are found to be significant in determining the energy values and yield ratio of MOE. In addition, there are clear measures that can be taken to improve efficiency along the production chain. Finally, energy security, scarcity of hard currency for importing fossil fuels and opportunities for regional development are also strong reasons for considering local renewable energy options in developing countries.

  • 27. Koponen, Kati
    et al.
    Soimakallio, Sampo
    Kline, Keith L.
    Cowie, Annette
    Brandao, Miguel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, Poland.
    Quantifying the climate effects of bioenergy - Choice of reference system2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 81, p. 2271-2280Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to understand the climate effects of a bioenergy system, a comparison between the bioenergy system and a reference system is required. The reference system describes the situation that occurs in the absence of the bioenergy system with respect to the use of land, energy, and materials. The importance of reference systems is discussed in the literature but guidance on choosing suitable reference systems for assessing climate effects of bioenergy is limited. The reference system should align with the purpose of the study. Transparency of reference system assumptions is essential for proper interpretation of bioenergy assessments. This paper presents guidance for selecting suitable reference systems. Particular attention is given to choosing the land reference. If the goal is to study the climate effects of bioenergy as a part of total anthropogenic activity the reference system should illustrate what is expected in the absence of human activities. In such a case the suitable land reference is natural regeneration, and energy or material reference systems are not relevant. If the goal is to assess the effect of a change in bioenergy use, the reference system should incorporate human activities. In this case suitable reference systems describe the most likely alternative uses of the land, energy and materials in the absence of the change in bioenergy use. The definition of the reference system is furthermore subject to the temporal scope of the study. In practice, selecting and characterizing reference systems will involve various choices and uncertainties which should be considered carefully. It can be instructive to consider how alternative reference systems influence the results and conclusions drawn from bioenergy assessments.

  • 28.
    Leelaruji, Rujiroj
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    State-of-the-art in the industrial implementation of protective relay functions, communication mechanism and synchronized phasor capabilities for electric power systems protection2012In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 4385-4395Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protective systems in electricity delivery networks have a major role to play in the increasing of renewable energy systems, and a broad understanding of their current a future application can aid into better taking them into account for achieving future energy networks that adapt for the incorporation of renewable energy generation sources. This paper provides a survey in the state of the art of protective relaying technology and its associated communications technology used in todays power transmission systems. The paper also provides the fundamental knowledge concerned with power system relaying communications. The unifying theme of this paper is to highlight that the future potential of these devices lies in realizing the possibility of going beyond their traditional application as stand-alone equipments with the single role of acting the last line of defense so that they can be handled with the increment of renewable energy power delivery systems in near future.

  • 29.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Sanches-Pereira, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Swedish resource potential from residues and energy crops to enhance biogas generation2013In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 21, p. 298-314Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper verifies the plausibility of existing assessments of the biogas potential in Sweden and whether a target of 1.1 TWh of biogas for transport, as per defined by Swedish authorities, can be met within the next ten years. We estimate that the Swedish resource potential for biogas generation from residues and energy crops amounts to 8.86 TWh in the midterm, equivalent to around 9% of the current domestic transport energy consumption. A large share of this potential remains unrealized and there is uncertainty regarding the existing resource potential, especially concerning energy crops. Nevertheless, the remaining biogas potential can make an important contribution to meet targets of an increased share of renewables in transport.  The study concludes that not only it is possible to meet the increased demand expected for gas in transport until 2020 but the existing potential could justify more ambitious goals than presently set by Swedish authorities.

  • 30.
    Mahzouni, Arian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies. Univ Freiburg, Inst Environm Social Sci & Geog, Chair Environm Governance, Freiburg, Germany..
    The role of institutional entrepreneurship in emerging energy communities: The town of St. Peter in Germany2019In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 107, p. 297-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides insights from the extant literature on institutional entrepreneurship in emerging fields which could enable us to understand how the innovative idea of 'energy community' arose, became new practices, and has been institutionalized over time. In August 2008, the people of St. Peter, a Black Forest rural town in Germany, decided to build their own energy co-operative for the operation of the biomass District Heating Plant (DHP). The key driving forces for this comprised a wide range of sustainability-related discourses, such as climate protection, energy supply security, and regional economic development. The biomass DHP, as an environmentally-friendly heating system, has become a taken-for-granted practice and has been presented as an `inspirational' example to other communities in the region. The main contribution of this study is to develop and use a multi-level analytical framework to elucidate the process of legitimation and sense-making of the notion of the energy community St. Peter. The key conclusions are that institutional entrepreneurs are dispersed across space, social status, sector, and governance levels; their agency is distributed among multiple levels of action and multiple stages of development; and they use a range of social skills to justify their action for institutional change. Therefore, community-based initiatives should draw on multiple discourses that address both individual interests (stable prices and supply security) and collective concerns (environmental protection). In this way, wide public support for transforming existing energy practices into more renewable ones can be achieved.

  • 31.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Using a sustainability index to assess energy technologies for rural electrification2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 41, p. 1351-1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a method for evaluating the sustainability performance of energy technologies applied in rural electrification, using the multivariate technique called Principal component analysis (PCA).The sustainability is assessed in terms of energy technology sustainability index (ETSI). The ETSI has been used for assessing the sustainability performance of ten different energy systems in the case of India. Since this method is static in nature, the sustainability performance analysis is made for three different years (2005, 2010 and 2015) to capture technological advancements and changes in market conditions for the various technologies over time. The result shows that mature technologies such as biomass gasifiers, biogas and microhydro technologies have relatively better sustainability performance among the options analyzed. There is slight increment in their sustainability performance in the ten year period considered. Emerging technologies such as solar and wind have fairly good improvement in the sustainability performance over the studied time but still have difficulties competing with the mature technologies and conventional technologies without policy support. Analysis has been made with probable, minimum and maximum capital costs, operational and fuel costs to capture uncertainty among the input assumptions, and sensitivity has been reflected in the analysis of energy technology sustainability index (ETSI). This ETSI could help improve energy technology assessments, particularly when it comes to the feasibility of available alternatives.

  • 32.
    Mota-Babiloni, Adrián
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration. Universitat Jaume I, Spain.
    Navarro-Esbrí, J.
    Makhnatch, Pavel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Molés, F.
    Refrigerant R32 as lower GWP working fluid in residential air conditioning systems in Europe and the USA2017In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 80, p. 1031-1042Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because air conditioning and heat pump systems contribute greatly to greenhouse gas emissions, equipment with both lower global warming potential (GWP) working fluids and a higher level of performance should be used. R32 (difluoromethane) has been proposed to substitute R410A, particularly in residential air conditioning (RAC) systems. This study collected the most relevant and recent researches into R32 as a refrigerant so as to assess its viability in RAC systems in both Europe and the USA, as compared to R410A and other lower GWP RAC alternatives. The R32 value of GWP is 677, which is below the F-gas regulation limit in RAC equipment (750). According to ASHRAE standard 34, R32 is less flammable than hydrocarbons, and the amount of charge permitted for R32 is above the necessary level in RAC equipment. It can be concluded that R32 has significantly good heat transfer characteristics and a level of performance that make it acceptable at low condensing temperatures, thereby avoiding overly high compressor discharge temperatures. Its performance is very similar to that of R410A across the entire operating range, and it is therefore believed that R32 will be utilized in RAC systems in the remaining countries that prioritize lower GWP fluids but are less strict in their security regulations. To replace R410A under extreme conditions, some system modifications can be conducted, or R32 mixtures with hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs) can be used. Such mixtures achieve a lower performance than R32, but are acceptable replacements when considering their lower GWP compared to that of R32, and similar level of flammability. Finally, other (R32-based) alternative mixtures have also been developed and their behaviours studied under a wide range of operating conditions.

  • 33. Nikolakakis, Thomas
    et al.
    Chattopadhyay, Deb
    Bazilian, Morgan
    KTH.
    A review of renewable investment and power system operational issues in Bangladesh2017In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 68, p. 650-658Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generation investments, especially large-scale variable renewable energy, requires careful scrutiny of the state of the power system. Power system planning and operations in a developing country like Bangladesh can often achieve significant" improvements in economics and security of supply, through modest and prudent investments. A review of the Bangladesh power sector is presented in this paper that highlights: (a) changes to dispatch protocols to undertake fuel-constrained dispatch optimization and ancillary services co-optimization and pricing; (b) issues related to the allocation of natural gas between sectors; and (c) a technology neutral investment framework. The study uses an hourly dispatch and ancillary services co-optimization model that also optimizes short to medium term investment decisions. The results demonstrate Bangladesh can: (a) reduce its production costs by 63% through more efficient dispatch; (b) reduce production costs by 77% by using an additional natural gas quota of 212 mmcfd (or a 23% increase); and (c) should have invested in power import and baseload gas/coal rather than expensive solar PV projects (proposed in 2011 at substantially higher cost at the time). When a carbon price is imposed in the model, the implied break even cost to justify the solar program is very high - in excess of $150/tonne.

  • 34.
    Nurdiawati, Anissa
    et al.
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Dept Transdisciplinary Sci & Engn, Meguro Ku, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Tokyo 1528550, Japan..
    Zaini, Ilman Nuran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Irhamna, Adrian Rizqi
    Inst Teknol Bandung, Fac Mech & Aerosp Engn, Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia..
    Sasongko, Dwiwahju
    Inst Teknol Bandung, Dept Chem Engn, Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia..
    Aziz, Muhammad
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Ind Sci, Meguro Ku, 4-6-1 Kornaba, Tokyo 1538505, Japan..
    Novel configuration of supercritical water gasification and chemical looping for highly-efficient hydrogen production from microalgae2019In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 112, p. 369-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study proposes a novel system to efficiently produce hydrogen from microalgae, based on supercritical water gasification and syngas chemical looping, and its conversion to methylcyclohexane. The process consists of a gasifier, a syngas chemical looping reactor, and a methylcyclohexane synthesis reactor as the main units. Microalgae are converted to syngas in the supercritical water gasification reactor. Thereafter, the produced syngas is introduced into the syngas chemical looping module to produce pure hydrogen and a separated carbon dioxide stream. The hydrogen is then reacted with toluene through the hydrogenation reaction to produce methylcyclohexane as a hydrogen carrier. The heat released from the methylcyclohexane synthesis module and chemical looping combustor is utilized to sustain the thermal balance of the supercritical water gasification unit. The system performance is observed under different feed moisture contents, operating temperatures in the supercritical water gasification unit, and operating pressures in the syngas chemical looping unit. A steady-state process simulation of Aspen Plus software is used for this purpose. The proposed integrated system exhibits of approximately 13.7%, 45.3%, and 59.1% for power generation efficiency, hydrogen production efficiency, and total energy efficiency, which demonstrates an efficient process of hydrogen production. The preliminary economic assessment shows that more than half of the operating cost accounts for microalgae production. This indicates the microalgae feedstock is one of the critical cost drivers in the microalgae-to-hydrogen production system.

  • 35.
    Pang, Xi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Brown, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Energy models from a strategic environmental assessment perspective in an EU context: What is missing concerning renewables?2014In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 33, p. 353-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change and security of energy supply are main sustainability issues today and an energy systems shift towards renewable energy sources is therefore urgent. However, unless environmental impacts of such a shift are carefully taken into account, imposed resource and land use changes may counteract other sustainability goals, such as preserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) provides a comprehensive framework for assessment of policies and plans where a full range of environmental issues are addressed. The aim of this article was to find possibilities for comprehensive sustainability assessment among published energy-environment models and the linking of renewable energy analysis to landscape and biodiversity issues through land use concerns. Based on the review of relevant energy, environmental and linking models, a survey on publications and a case study on the EU Energy Roadmap 2050, the results show that existing energy models and research have low concerns on land use, landscapes and biodiversity. Consequently, it would be difficult to provide comprehensive decision support by using only these tools. However, suitable energy models, ecological assessment models and multi-criteria approaches exist with great potential for inter-linking. The development of energy models could thus have new orientations, connecting them to involve renewable energy options with land use, landscape and biodiversity concerns, which could be advanced into powerful SEA tools for integrated policy assessment. This will enable the development of more comprehensive decision support tools for assessing future energy scenarios, integrating main policy concerns when assessing renewable energy options.

  • 36.
    Pardo Martinez, Clara Inés
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Analysis of energy use and CO2 emission in service industries: Evidence from Sweden2012In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 5285-5294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the trends in energy use and CO2 emissions for 19 sub-sectors in the Swedish service sectors following the classification of the International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC) at the 2-digit level of aggregation over the period 1993-2008. This empirical study intends to examine energy use, energy efficiency and CO2 emissions using data envelopment analysis (DEA) and panel data techniques. DEA is applied to assess energy efficiency within a production framework. Panel data techniques are used to determine which variables influence energy efficiency. The results show that Swedish services industries have increased energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the period 1993-2008. The results from the DEA show significant variation in energy efficiency across service industries. The results also indicate that this sector has increased technical efficiency and energy efficiency while decreasing CO2 emissions, especially in the later years of our sample period. The results of panel data techniques show that higher energy taxes, electricity consumption, investments and labour productivity generate higher energy efficiency, while higher fossil fuel consumption leads to lower energy efficiency. All findings of this study are important for developing effective energy policies that encourage better energy use and energy management in the service industries.

  • 37.
    Poppi, Stefano
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Sommerfeldt, Nelson
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Madani, Hatef
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Lundqvist, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Techno-economic review of solar heat pump systems for residential heating applications2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 81, p. 22-32Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar heat pump systems (SHPs) have been investigated for several decades and have been proven to increase the share of renewable energy and reduce electric energy demand in residential heating applications. Many review articles have been published on the subject, however literature discussing the techno-economics of different solar technologies (thermal, photovoltaic and hybrid thermal/photovoltaic) in combination with heat pumps is lacking, and thus to directly compare the merits of different SHPs is not an easy task. The objectives of this study are: a) review the different system boundaries and the main performance indicators used for assessing energetic and economic performances; b) review techno-economic studies in the literature and identify which studies give enough information and are compatible enough for making an economic inter-comparison; c) present an economic inter-comparison based on the identified systems. The results show that there is a lack of studies including an economic assessment of solar photovoltaic and heat pump systems. Additionally, there are no consistent boundaries or approaches to the study structures, making comparisons between systems difficult. In conclusion, a standardized or broadly accepted definition of technical and economic performance for SHPs is needed. Despite this, the study has shown that there are clear trends for decreasing payback times for SHPs, both solar thermal (ST) and photovoltaic (PV), with decreasing heating degree-days and with increasing solar resource.

  • 38. Rabinovich, Mikhail L.
    et al.
    Fedoryak, Olesya
    Dobele, Galina
    Andersone, Anna
    Gawdzik, Barbara
    Lindstrom, Mikael E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Sevastyanova, Olena
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Carbon adsorbents from industrial hydrolysis lignin: The USSR/Eastern European experience and its importance for modern biorefineries2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 57, p. 1008-1024Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the origin, distribution and composition of hydrolysis lignin, a large-scale by-product of the hydrolysis industry that operated in the Soviet Union and several eastern European countries from 1930s to the end of 1990s. The fundamental and industrial aspects of the production of various types of powdered and granular carbon adsorbents from hydrolysis lignin are considered through the prism of future large-scale production of biofuels and platform chemicals from renewable lignocellulosic resources. The advantages and drawbacks of hydrolysis lignin as a feedstock for the production of carbon adsorbents are compared with other types of feedstock, and the application of lignin-based carbons is discussed. 

  • 39.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Akram, N.
    Javed, M. S.
    Rafique, A.
    Ullah, K.
    Ali, A.
    Saleem, M.
    Ahmed, R.
    Fuel cell technology for sustainable development in Pakistan - An over-view2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 53, p. 450-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel cell technology holds the combination of benefits, which are barely offered by any other energy generating technology. Because the fuel used in this technology is found in abundance in nature and can also be renewed/sustained. Pakistan is blessed with renewable energy resources which are suitable for fuel cell technology. Therefore, fuel cell technology offers a great opportunity to meet the demand of energy and for the sustainable development of Pakistan. The energy research group at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Lahore has made efforts to study the technical aspects of fuel cell technology and its commercial benefits. The research group is interested in finding ways and means of generating and storing the energy produced by using fuel cells. In this paper, the research activities on fuel cell technology in Pakistan have been reviewed and it is also discussed how this technology can resolve the current energy crises in Pakistan and can be the source of sustainable energy. It has been also reviewed that the country would greatly benefit from fuel cells and fuel cell hybrid system (environmental friendly technology), which could be the best solution for electricity production as well for automobile industry.

  • 40.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    González, Miguel
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Energy Potential of Coconut and Palm Oil Residues: Selected Case Studies from Latin America and Small Island Developing StatesIn: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural residues continue to attract interest for energy recovery purposes as a renewable, CO2 neutral and increasingly cost competitive alternative to traditional fossil fuels. The possibility of trigeneration in already established industries such as palm oil mills and coconut processing plants is very attractive especially when residues that otherwise represent a disposal problem can be utilized efficiently. Different technological scenarios for the production of electricity, process heat and biodiesel are analyzed using coconut and palm oil residues. Environmental aspects are also included in the analysis. Studies were conducted considering various scenarios to evaluate the feasibility of using these residues for energy purposes. The residues were considered to be combusted directly in steam boilers while steam turbines were used to generate electricity. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of palm oil/coconut oil. The required process heat for palm oil or coconut oil processing as well as the steam required for biodiesel production is supplied by the combustion of the residues.  The results show that palm oil mills/coconut processing industries can be independent of fossil fuels.  Furthermore, they can contribute positively to the energy balance of the communities by helping reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and reducing simultaneously greenhouse gas emissions. 

  • 41.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Savola, Tuula
    Helsinki University of Technology.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fogelholm, Carl-Johan
    Helsinki University of Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Small-scale biomass CHP plants in Sweden and Finland2011In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 4451-4465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass continues to attract much interest as a renewable, low-CO2, and increasingly cost competitive alternative to traditional fossil fuels for heat and/or electric power generation. At the same time, deregulation of electricity markets offer new opportunities for small-scale decentralized power plants (<20 MWe) in an area where traditional centralized technologies mostly dominate. These factors represent a strong driving force for the development of innovative small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants based on biofuels. This paper provides an overview of small-scale CHP with biomass as a fuel. A survey of existing plants in Sweden and Finland is presented, along with an overview of major energy conversion technologies under development. Information is provided related to energy taxation along with an outlook on future prospects.

  • 42.
    Sanches-Pereira, Alessandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Tudeschini, L. G.
    Coelho, S. T.
    Evolution of the Brazilian residential carbon footprint based on direct energy consumption2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 54, p. 184-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As one of the leading nations on climate negotiations, Brazil has to go beyond its voluntary commitment to reduce its carbon footprint and become a more constructive and less low-key player in the UNFCCC negotiations. In this context, the studys main objective was to evaluate the Brazilian residential energy consumption, its regional specificity, and the related carbon emissions. The results show that the poor coming out of poverty affects the size of the increase in energy demand. Especially in the case of carbon emission from direct energy consumption for cooking, in which as the poor come out of poverty their demand for high efficiency energy carriers increases leading to lower emissions or vice versa. Also, the results show that the country must ratifies its commitments to the global efforts to combat climate change not only by elaborating but also by conducting more ambitious initiatives to reduce carbon emissions from its own territory.

  • 43.
    Sarfati, Mahir
    et al.
    KTH.
    Hesamzadeh, Mohammad Reza
    KTH.
    Biggar, D. R.
    Baldick, R.
    Probabilistic pricing of ramp service in power systems with wind and solar generation2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 90, p. 851-862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a probabilistic pricing which achieves efficient operation of and investment in ramp-service providers in power systems with a large amount of wind or solar generation. The proposed pricing differs from the existing literature in that it focuses exclusively on the efficient dispatch of electrical energy with no exogenous consideration of the need for reserves or balancing services. The proposed optimal dispatch task determines both the efficient level of any preventive actions taken before a contingency event occurs and the efficient response of the power system - i.e., corrective actions - once an event occurs. We show analytically that the efficient dispatch outcome can be achieved in a decentralized market mechanism provided the market participants are profit-maximizers and price-takers. We show how the total economic benefit of an investment can be decomposed into two components (a) the normal dispatch cost benefit and (b) the economic value of the investment in contributing ramp service to the power system. In order to study different aspects of the probabilistic pricing, the IEEE 30-node example system is deliberately modified. The results show the efficiency of the proposed pricing and the use of the investment model to assess the economic value of ramp-service providers.

  • 44.
    Silveira, Jose Luz
    et al.
    Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Campus Guaratinguetá.
    Braga, Lucia Bollini
    Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Campus Guaratinguetá.
    Caetano de Souza, Antonio Carlos
    Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Campus Guaratinguetá.
    Antunes, Julio Santana
    Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Campus Guaratinguetá.
    Zanzi, Rolando
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    The benefits of ethanol use for hydrogen production in urban transportation2009In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 2525-2534Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the benefits of sugar cane ethanol in Brazil, appointing the productivity of this type of fuel based on hectares of plantation, its carbon dioxide cycle and the contribution to reduce the greenhouse effect. In the following step the uses of ethanol for hydrogen production by steam reforming is analyzed and some comparison with natural gas steam reforming is performed. The sugar cane industry in Brazil, in a near future, in the hydrogen era, could be modified according to our purpose, since besides the production of sugar, and ethylic and anhydric alcohol, Brazilian sugar cane industry will also be able to produce biohydrogen. Fuel cells appear like a promising technology for energy generation. Among several technologies in the present, the PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) is the most appropriate for vehicles application, because it combines durability, high power density, high efficiency, good response and it works at relatively low temperatures. Besides that it is easy to turn it on and off and it is able to support present vibration in vehicles. A PEMFC's problem is the need of noble catalysts like platinum. Another problem is that CO needs to be in low concentration, requiring a more clean hydrogen to avoid fuel cell deterioration. One part of this paper was developed in Stockholm, where there are some buses within the CUTE (clean urban transport for Europe) project that has been in operation with FC since January 2004. Another part was developed in Guaratingueta, Brazil. Brazil intends to start up a program of FC buses. As conclusion, this paper shows the economical analysis comparing buses moved by fuel cells using hydrogen by different kinds of production. Electrolyze with wind turbine, natural gas steam reforming and ethanol steam reforming.

  • 45.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Ethanol production and fuel substitution in Nepal—Opportunity to promote sustainable development and climate change mitigation2010In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 1644-1652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potential for ethanol production and fuel substitution in Nepal based on established sugarcane production, installed capacity for sugar and ethanol production, economic opportunities for the national economy, and potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At present conditions, 18,045 m3 ethanol can be annually produced in Nepal without compromising the production of food products from sugar cane such as sugar, chaku and shakhar. The effects for the country can be manifold. As much as 14% of gasoline import reduction, and annual savings of US$ 10 million could be achieved through the introduction of the E20. The activity can provide an incentive for improved yields in sugarcane production, and help develop the industrial sector. This, in turn, will have a positive effect in terms of job and income generation in the rural areas where 85% of the population live. Improvement of agricultural practices for sugarcane could also have an indirect and positive effect on improving other agriculture activities. Furthermore, the use of ethanol in the transport sector will have a positive environmental effect while reducing CO2 emissions and combating pollution in the Kathmandu Valley. Finally, the substitution of ethanol in transport will imply lower imports of oil products and less draining of resources from the Nepalese economy.

  • 46.
    Sommerfeldt, Nelson
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Madani Larijani, Hatef
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Revisiting the techno-economic analysis process for building-mounted, grid-connected solar photovoltaic systems: Part one - Review2017In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 74, p. 1379-1393Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The market for solar photovoltaic systems is growing rapidly into a mature industry, while at the same time policies which have spurred the growth (e.g. feed-in tariffs or net metering) are beginning to fade away. These policies made techno-economic studies relatively simple for engineers, analysts, and owners, however investing in a deregulated market requires more advanced tools than the traditional engineering economics which dominate the literature. The objective of part one in this paper is to catalogue and critique the range of methods and models relevant to techno-economic analysis for PV systems in the context of distributed, grid-connected buildings. This is accomplished by; developing a system modeling framework for prosumer PV investment analysis, reviewing relevant energy, economics, and finance literature to identify mathematical models which can be applied, and cataloging the use of the reviewed techniques in the relevant literature. Also included is a qualitative discussion of the benefits and practicality of the review techniques, where Monte Carlo analysis is highlighted as an exemplary method. This review is useful as a reference for analysts, researchers, and engineers developing PV integration solutions for building energy systems in a post early adopter PV market.

  • 47.
    Sommerfeldt, Nelson
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Madani Larijani, Hatef
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Revisiting the techno-economic analysis process for building-mounted, grid-connected solar photovoltaic systems: Part two - Application2017In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 74, p. 1394-1404Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Part One in this two part paper identified Monte Carlo analysis as an improved approach over traditional deterministic techno-economic methods for solar PV prosumers in deregulated markets. In this paper a novel Monte Carlo methodology is described and demonstrated through a case study for the Swedish residential sector, which includes a review of relevant market, climate, and policy conditions, their use in determining inputs, and the probabilistic results. The probability of profitability (PoP) is introduced as an indicator in conjunction with result distributions. The results show that under current policy conditions, Swedish PV investors with well positioned buildings have a 71% chance of making a 3% real return on investment, and virtually no chance of losing their original investment. Without subsidies the PoP drops to 8%. In none of the simulated cases was any of the original investment lost. The PoP is most sensitive to the capital subsidy and the uncertainty of market based, long-term support is less critical to the chances of a successful investment. Given the current market conditions, Swedish PV prosumers can expect a return on investment. The decision to install will also depend on the probability of achieving their desired profitability, which Monte Carlo analysis quantifies well.

  • 48. Sun, Q.
    et al.
    Li, H.
    Yan, J.
    Liu, Longcheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Yu, Z.
    Yu, X.
    Selection of appropriate biogas upgrading technology-a review of biogas cleaning, upgrading and utilisation2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 51, p. 521-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is experiencing a period of rapid development and biogas upgrading is attracting increasing attention. Consequently, the market for biogas upgrading is facing significant challenges in terms of energy consumption and operating costs. Selection of upgrading technology is site-specific, case-sensitive and dependent on the biogas utilisation requirements and local circumstances. Therefore, matching the technology selected for use to specific requirements is significantly important. This paper systematically reviews the state-of-the-art of biogas cleaning and upgrading technologies, including product purity and impurities, methane recovery and loss, upgrading efficiency and the investment and operating costs. In addition, the potential utilisation of biogas and the corresponding requirements on gas quality are investigated in depth. Based on the results of comparisons between the technical features of upgrading technologies, the specific requirements for different gas utilizations and the relevant investment and operating costs, recommendations are made regarding appropriate technology. CO2

  • 49.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lund, P. D.
    Koduvere, H.
    Bolkesjø, T. F.
    Rossebø, G. H.
    Rosenlund-Soysal, E.
    Skytte, K.
    Katz, J.
    Blumberga, D.
    A review of demand side flexibility potential in Northern Europe2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 91, p. 654-664Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of regional and national power systems with a high share of wind and solar power in the world is quickly increasing. The background for this development is improved technology, decreasing costs, and increased concern regarding environmental problems of competing technologies such as fossil fuels. For the future there are large possibilities for increasing the renewable electricity share. However, variable renewable power production has to be balanced. Demand side flexibility offers an interesting approach to the balancing issues. The aim of this paper is to compare flexibility potentials and how they were estimated in seven Northern European countries in order to compare general challenges and results as well as the connection between used method and results. The total flexibility is estimated to 12–23 GW in a system with a total peak load of 77 GW.

  • 50. Toivanen, Hannes
    et al.
    Novotny, Michael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    The emergence of patent races in lignocellulosic biofuels, 2002–20152017In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 77, no 9, p. 318-326Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does increasing economic and technological interest in biofuels shape the nature of the intellectual property rights (IPR) in the industry? Is the technological nature of biofuel patents and inventions, as well as the business itself undergoing a transformation? This article provides a patent analysis of lignocellulosic biofuels with U.S. patent publications between 2002 and 2015 in order to shed light on the broader economic and regulatory factors affecting the development of new technologies in the area. Patent applications in the technology have increased about eightfold in this period and count about 130–150 per year currently, and could soon reach 200 annual filings. Specifically, we analyse in what ways the nature of lignocellulosic biofuel technologies is changing, and our results suggest that this business is indeed being transformed by increasing research and development (R&D) and IPR efforts, material in an evident patent race. We document a relatively small, but nascent technology, with some key technology areas increasing between four- and tenfold, over the last decade. Technologically leading countries are the U.S., followed by Germany, Japan, France and the U.K. We argue that intensified global and industry-wide claims for IPR reveal an ongoing patent race with multiple implications for the industry and engineering community. Most importantly, industry's technological interdependence is likely to increase as the likelihood for broad, exclusive patent regimes diminishes, making the industry more likely to explore increasingly collaborative technological solutions when carrying out R&D and investing in new production facilities in the future.

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