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  • 1. Chen, Silan
    et al.
    Liu, Jiahong
    Wang, Hao
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Zhang, Jun
    Interaction relationship between urban domestic energy consumption and water use - a case study of Beijing and Shanghai2016In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 670-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy consumption and water use are inextricably linked. Combining research on energy consumption and water use in an urban context provides a scientific basis for the integrated planning of energy and water supply systems. Domestic energy and water are among the most consumed resources in urban environments. Furthermore, domestic resources represent an increasing proportion of the total resources consumed. This paper explores four key indicators of urban energy consumption (UEC) and water use in Beijing and Shanghai for the period of 2000 to 2011. Using correlation analysis, this study establishes the intrinsic relationship between UEC and water use. It also offers an analysis of the consumption trends of these two resources as well as their interactive relationship. The results show that urban domestic energy consumption (UDEC) and water use have a significant linear correlation: UDEC is positively correlated with water use, and the correlation coefficients of Beijing and Shanghai are 0.81 and 0.97, respectively. In Beijing, urban domestic energy and water use per capita are negatively correlated, with the high correlation coefficient of 0.93. In Shanghai, urban domestic energy and water use per capita are positively correlated, with the correlation coefficient of 0.90.

  • 2.
    Marobhe, Nancy
    UCLAS, Dept Environm Engn, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .
    Critical review of water supply services in urban and rural areas of Tanzania2008In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 57-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite several reforms in the water sector coupled with significant external financial assistance for water development projects, a large population in Tanzania faces water supply problems. This paper analyses issues and problems pertaining to urban and rural water supply services in Tanzania by citing examples from Dar es Salaam City and Singida rural district. Desk study, field visits, discussions and personal observations were used for collecting information. Water supply coverage is 73% and 53% for urban and rural areas, respectively. Only 30% of the population in Dar es Salaam is served by piped water. The unserved poorer segments of the population pay higher for water services. The water distribution systems are worn out and account for 60% of water loss. Inadequate coverage of water supply is associated with prevalence of waterborne diseases. Urban water authorities are inefficient in financial management. Water tariffs are low, ranging between US$ 0.25 and US$ 0.35/m(3)/month and unregistered customers exceed 110, 000. Singida rural water sources include dams, shallow and deep wells. About 70% of installed pumps are impaired owing to poor management. Rural populations use polluted sources which are purified using local seeds. Finally the paper gives recommendations for improving water supply services.

  • 3.
    Quin, Andrew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Kjellén, Marianne
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University.
    Difficulties encountered in implementing monitoring and evaluation of rural water supply in Uganda2010In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Singh, Nandita
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Translating human right to water and sanitation into reality: a practical framework for analysis2013In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 943-960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human right to water and sanitation has been most commonly approached from the perspective of legal machinery and mechanisms for its implementation. Perhaps an underlying assumption among human rights practitioners is that once action for implementing the right is undertaken, its realization will be achieved. Often ignored are factors and processes at the micro-level where action for implementing the right actually takes place. This paper aims to propose a practical framework for analyzing this context that influences the action undertaken for realizing the right. The framework derives from an empirical study in India and is based upon an understanding of the micro-level processes at the 'interface' where the duty-bearing agents implementing action come face-to-face with the right-holders in the community. Both are situated in their own local contexts - the 'implementation' and the 'socio-cultural' contexts respectively. The two contexts can in turn be understood as constituted of distinct 'norm-triads' and the interactions between these ultimately lead to 'realization' or 'non-realization' of the right. The paper further contends that in order to translate the human right to water and sanitation into reality, it is necessary to identify the gaps and contradictions between the two contexts and address these appropriately and adequately.

  • 5.
    Singh, Nandita
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water Management.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Gustafsson, Jan Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water Management.
    Gender and water management: Some policy reflections2006In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 183-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of gender concern in water sector is paramount, being seen as the harbinger of greater efficiency and effectiveness as well as equity. Consequently, there has been a continuing trend of designing water management policies with emphasis ranging from promoting participation of women in management of water projects in particular to supporting “gender-balanced” development of the water sector in general. How effective have these policies been in addressing such basic concerns? What are the local water users’ perceptions about effectiveness of the policies in addressing their realistic gendered needs and priorities? While “women” have received much attention, how well does the gender concern in the policies integrate “men”? Do “effectiveness” and “equity” as underlying policy goals reflect the water users’ perceptions as well? The paper attempts to evaluate the existing policies within the context of local communities where these are operational and proposes “facilitation of gender role performance” as a suitable policy alternative.

  • 6.
    Singh, Nandita
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Water Management.
    Wickenberg, Per
    Dept. of Sociology of Law, Lund University, Lund.
    Åström, Karsten
    Dept. of Sociology of Law, Lund University, Lund.
    Hydén, Håkan
    Dept. of Sociology of Law, Lund University, Lund.
    Accessing water through a rights-based approach: problems and prospects regarding children2012In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 298-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The right to water has been recently recognized as a fundamental human right by the United Nations, thereby clarifying its status as 'legally binding', making it 'justiciable' and enforceable. This development has been heralded as a key that holds great potential to change the lives of the billions who still lack access to clean water. Many of those deprived of enjoyment of the right are children, who constitute up to a third of the population in the developing world. What is the value added of the rights-based approach for access to water, especially for children? Would recognition of the right to water as legally binding deliver real benefits to children in improving their access to water? Does it really offer anything new that can help them realize their right to water more effectively? These questions will be explored in this paper using empirical evidence from India, where water has been legally interpreted as a fundamental right, and as a welfare state, where there has been consistent effort on part of the state to improve children's access to water.

  • 7.
    Suleiman, Lina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Civil Society: A Revived Mantra in the Development Discourse2011In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 87-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an assumption that the inclusion of civil society in governance processes promotes democratic performance and contributes to 'good governance', in the sense of pluralism, accountability and transparency. This paper refers to the governance process of the water utility in Accra involving the private sector, and examines the validity of the assumed roles regarding the inclusion of civil society in the governance process. For the purposes of this study, civil society is defined as 'non-state and non-market organisations that can, or have the potential to, champion democratic governance reforms and act as agents for political and socio-economic change'. Contrary to assumptions made about the inclusion of civil society, the analysis herein shows that the inclusion of civil groups in the governance process of the water utility led to hostile and undemocratic processes and to weak indicators of 'good governance'. The main concern of the key actors was centred on how to build consensus around the privatisation programme of the water utility. 'Managing consensus', however, is an inappropriate planning measure. It is argued here that the focus should rather be on how to design governance structures and arrangements, mobilised by legitimate and committed political leadership, to build and enhance the capacity of governance processes.

  • 8.
    Suleiman, Lina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Institutional Perspective to Understanding the Governance of Urban Water in GhanaIn: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper challenges the operational approach of the new policy paradigm of “good governance” thatdischarges the concept of governance from political substance and reduces it to the level of an efficientpublic service authority. The paper therefore develops an alternative analytical framework tounderstand and assess good governance based on institutional perspectives. Accordingly, governanceand good governance notions are re-defined. Using the case of urban water reform policies in Ghanathe validity of the analytical framework is tested. The analysis shows that the framework is useful andhas meaningful contribution to understand governance processes. The assessment of the reform policyreveals into different and entangled institutional constraints at multilevel and in different spheres thatcontinue to hinder the performance of the water utility. To design appropriate public policies toenhance water governance aspects of the water utility require addressing all of these constraints.

  • 9.
    Suleiman, Lina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Water supply governance in Accra: "authentic" or "symbolic"2010In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 272-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a governance theory framework to analyse the introductory process for the private sector managing and operating the public water utility Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL). The analysis was performed from three standpoints: process inputs, process conduct and process outcomes. The consultation process on involvement of the private sector was hostile and resulted in a "light" form of private sector participation in the form of a management contract that can be considered a de facto compromise, although not deliberate, by stakeholders. The challenges in improving the water sector performance and water supply services are profound. Because of continuing institutional, social, political and legal constraints, the involvement of the private sector per se is not the solution to providing long-term improvement in water services. The article concludes that it is misleading to leapfrog from government to governance, calling for the transmission of a governance "recipe", as conceptualised in the Western context, and to assume that it can work in an unaccommodating institutional context.

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