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  • 1. Hamawand, I.
    et al.
    Lewis, L.
    Ghaffour, N.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Desalination of salty water using vacuum spray dryer driven by solar energy2017In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 404, p. 182-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses evaporation under vacuum condition with the aid from solar energy and the recovered waste heat from the vacuum pump. It is a preliminary attempt to design an innovative solar-based evaporation system under vacuum. The design details, equipment required, theoretical background and work methodology are covered in this article. Theoretically, based on the energy provided by the sun during the day, the production rate of pure water can be around 15 kg/m2/day. Assumptions were made for the worst case scenario where only 30% of the latent heat of evaporation is recycled and the ability of the dark droplet to absorb sun energy is around 50%. Both the waste heat from the pump and the heat collected from the photovoltaic (PV) panels are proposed to raise the temperature of the inlet water to the system to its boiling point at the selected reduced pressure.

  • 2. Hårleman, C.
    et al.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Rybeck, B.
    The use of a clinoptilolite-based filter in emergency situations2009In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 248, no 1-3, p. 629-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite with exceptional adsorption capacity. Integrated into an appropriate technical Set-Lip it has been tested with raw-water mimicking the situation in emergencies where the requirement of safe drinking water has been critical for the public health. These results have been verified in practice in Chechenya and in Belgrade during the Balkan conflict. More recently the units have been used in Thailand in the aftermath of the tsunami and in Sudan. Future developments in treating water affected by radioactive fallout and arsenic are promising.

  • 3.
    Kullab, Alaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Experimental Evaluation of a Modified Air-gap Membrane Distillation Semi-Commercial PrototypeIn: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modifications were implemented on a semi-commercial Air Gap Membrane Distillation prototype to assess experimentally any improvement in its performance. These modifications were many focused on reducing the conductive heat transfer losses by reducing the physical support in the air gap that separate the membrane from the condensation surface. Several feed channel spacers were tested as well and assessed based in their effect in increasing the mass transfer and imposed pressure drop. Results show that the modifications increased slightly the distillate mass flow rate by 9-11 % and reduced the conductive heat losses by 20-24 %. Spacer effect was found to be mainly in imposed pressure drop within the tested types.

  • 4.
    Kullab, Alaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Guillen-Burrieza, Elena
    CIEMAT-Plataforma Solar de Almeria SPAIN.
    Experimental and Simulation of an Air Gap Membrane Distillation SystemIn: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper covers the details and results of experimental and simulation work carried on an Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) unit, as a part of EU MEDESOL research project. The aim of the experimental work, carried out during a two-week period, was (a) to evaluate the MD performance with saline water (35 g/l NaCl)  establishing an operation data base, and (b) to conduct a system simulation for the design and evaluation of a three-stage MD desalination system. Experimental results shows that production was 30-40% less in the case of using 35 g/l salinity compared with 1 g/l.  Experimental-based simulations of a three step MD system of two arrangement layout were employed to assess the heat demand. Specific thermal energy consumption was calculated as 950 kWht/m3 for a layout without heat recovery, and 850 kWht/m3 for the layout with one stage heat recovery.

  • 5.
    Laxman, Karthik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Husain, Afzal
    Sultan Qaboos Univ, Coll Engn, Dept Mech & Ind Engn, POB 33, Muscat 123, Oman..
    Nasser, Asma
    Sultan Qaboos Univ, Nanotechnol Res Ctr, POB 17, Muscat 123, Oman..
    Al Abri, Mohammed
    Sultan Qaboos Univ, Nanotechnol Res Ctr, POB 17, Muscat 123, Oman.;Sultan Qaboos Univ, Petr & Chem Engn Dept, Coll Engn, POB 33, Muscat 123, Oman..
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Tailoring the pressure drop and fluid distribution of a capacitive deionization device2019In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 449, p. 111-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a capacitive deionization (CDI) device is governed by complex relations between the electrode material properties, fluid velocity and fluid distribution within the device. In order to maximize fluid (water) interaction with the electrodes, the relationships between fluid flow and electrode material properties are explored here to develop novel CDI architectures which reduce the pressure drop, improve surface utilization factor and improve the electrode salt adsorption capacity. Using activated carbon cloth (ACC) as the electrode material, the pressure drop across the CDI device is quantified with respect to flow scheme (flow-between and flow-through CDI modes) used. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are developed to study and optimize the fluid velocity and distribution in order to minimize the device fluid pressure losses. The model predictions are verified by constructing the conceptualized CDI devices and correlating the theoretical and experimentally obtained pressure drops, salt adsorption capacities and fluid flow parameters. The results indicate that up to 60% reduction in pressure drop and similar to 35% increase in specific salt adsorption capacity can be achieved by simple changes to the input-output port architecture of the CDI units. The results describe a method to considerably lower energy consumption in commercial CDI devices.

  • 6. Laxman, Karthik
    et al.
    Myint, Myo Tay Zar
    Al Abri, Mohammed
    Sathe, Priyanka
    Dobretsov, Sergey
    Dutta, Joydeep
    Sultan Qaboos University, Oman.
    Desalination and disinfection of inland brackish ground water in a capacitive deionization cell using nanoporous activated carbon cloth electrodes2015In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 362, p. 126-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Desalination of brackish water using capacitive deionization (CDI) poses unique challenges attributed to the microbial, organic and other contaminants in water. By using chemically inert and high surface area activated carbon cloth electrodes, the desalination of water from wells in Oman's Al Musanaah wilayat is demonstrated. The ion adsorption characteristics for well water are compared to that of synthetic water (sodium chloride) and their dependence on the charge, size and concentration is investigated. Disinfection properties of the CDI unit were also demonstrated with a 3-fold decrease in viable bacterial cells upon desalination of well water. The power consumption for well water desalination was lower than that of synthetic water with similar salt concentrations and was calculated to be 0.78kWh/m3. The stated desalting capabilities and small footprint make CDI a viable option for remote ground water desalination.

  • 7. Laxman, Karthik
    et al.
    Myint, Myo Tay Zar
    Khan, Rashid
    Pervez, Tasneem
    Dutta, Joydeep
    Sultan Qaboos University, Oman.
    Improved desalination by zinc oxide nanorod induced electric field enhancement in capacitive deionization of brackish water2015In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 359, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion adsorption in capacitive deionization is a function of the electric field strength present at the electrode surface. We show enhancement in the electric field strength by coating activated carbon cloth (ACC) electrodes with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods, where the effective field was shown to vary with respect to the length, diameter and proximity of the coated ZnO nanorods. Deionization of a 17. mM NaCl solution in a single pass experiment using the composite electrodes showed a desalination efficiency of 35%, a 40% improvement as compared to plain ACC electrodes. The composite electrodes also desalinated at a charge efficiency of 78% with a salt uptake of 7.7. mg/g of the electrode. An enhancement in the ion adsorption rate led to a 30% reduction in the energy consumption per mole of salt removed for the desalination process. A theoretical model showing further enhancement in the desalination efficiency by reducing the diameter of the rods is also discussed.

  • 8. Malek, P.
    et al.
    Ortiz, J. M.
    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Helfrid M. A.
    The University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Decentralized desalination of brackish water using an electrodialysis system directly powered by wind energy2016In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 377, p. 54-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel directly coupled wind-electrodialysis system (wind-ED) with no energy storage was developed. The aim was to perform laboratory experiments, investigating the impact of wind speed (2-10 m/s), turbulence intensities (0-0.6 TI), and periods of oscillation (0-180 s) on desalination performance and energy consumption. The system produced good quality drinking water (<600 mg/L NaCl) over the range of parameters tested. Water production and energy consumption increased with wind speed, until both parameters levelled off at wind speeds above the rated value of the wind turbine (v(rated): 7.9-8.4 m/s). The impact of wind speed fluctuations on system performance was insignificant up to a TI of 0.4 (i.e., moderate fluctuations). The water production declined under high turbulence intensity fluctuations (TIs >= 0.5) and long periods of oscillation (>40 s). The main challenge in direct coupling of ED to wind energy was not the magnitude of fluctuations but the impact of power cycling off during long periods of oscillation and lengthy periods of no wind. Interestingly, the specific energy consumption of the process remained relatively unaffected by the fluctuations, suggesting the system to be an electrically robust and reliable off-grid desalination technique for remote water stressed locations.

  • 9.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sakalova, H.
    Yatchyshyn, Y.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Malovanyy, M.
    Concentration of ammonium from municipal wastewater using ion exchange process2013In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 329, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this study is concentration of ammonium from municipal wastewater using ion exchange process. Four types of ion exchange materials were tested in packed bed columns, namely strong and weak acid cation exchange resins and natural and synthetic zeolites. In total 23 runs of saturation and regeneration were done using synthetic wastewaters of different kinds and pretreated municipal wastewater. Due to its high exchange capacity and fast regeneration strong acid cation exchange resin was found to be the most suitable for ammonium concentration under condition that selectivity of ammonium removal is not of a main concern and it allows concentrating ammonium from 27 to 580mg NH4-N/L. If selective ammonium removal is required, natural zeolite should be used instead. Regeneration with 0.17M HCl and 0.17-0.51M NaCl was tested and suitability of different regenerants for different technologies of spent regenerant treatment was discussed. It was shown that electric conductivity measurements can be used for detection of breakthrough and estimation of ammonium concentration in outflow from an ion exchange column. Breakthrough curve fitting with Thomas and Adams-Bohart models was performed which gave information about the maximum exchange capacity of materials and kinetics of ion exchange.

  • 10. Myint, M. T. Z.
    et al.
    Dutta, Joydeep
    Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand.
    Fabrication of zinc oxide nanorods modified activated carbon cloth electrode for desalination of brackish water using capacitive deionization approach2012In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 305, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a promising technique for removing dissolved ions from saline water. This method works on electrochemical control to remove ions from aqueous solution upon electrically charging the electrodes (anode and cathode). In this work, highly porous and conducting activated carbon cloth (ACC) material modified with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (ACC:ZnO) was used as base substrate in a flow through capacitor configuration. Simple and low temperature hydrothermal method was used to grow ZnO nanorods on ACC surface in an aqueous media. The desalination process was conducted using 100 ppm sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with the flow rate of 2 ml/min under an applied potential of 1.2 V. Enhancement of salt removal (desalination) and regeneration efficiency of 34% and 24% were achieved respectively.

  • 11. Myint, Myo Tay Zar
    et al.
    Al-Harthi, S. H.
    Dutta, Joydeep
    Sultan Qaboos University, Oman.
    Brackish water desalination by capacitive deionization using zinc oxide micro/nanostructures grafted on activated carbon cloth electrodes2014In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 344, p. 236-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fabrication of electrodes grafted with zinc oxide (ZnO) micro/nanomaterials (nanoparticles, nanorods, microsheets and microspheres) on activated carbon cloth (ACC) for water desalination by capacitive deionization (CDI) is reported. ZnO micro/nanomaterials were hydrothermally grown on ACC and used as electrodes in a flow cell for brackish water desalination. Morphology of ZnO structures on ACC surfaces was found to affect salt removal efficiency. The desalination experiments were carried out using 100 ppm sodium chloride (NaCl) solution employing a flow rate of 2 ml/min in a parallel plate configuration with an electrode area of similar to 8.4 cm(2) under an applied potential of 1.2 V (DC). Enhanced salt removal efficiency of 22% for ZnO microsheet grafted ACC electrodes as well as ZnO nanorod grafted ACC electrodes was achieved.

  • 12.
    Tomaszewska, Barbara
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Mineral & Energy Econ Res Inst, Wybickiego 7 Str, PL-31261 Krakow, Poland.;AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Mickiewicza 30 Ave, PL-30059 Krakow, Poland..
    Pajak, Leszek
    Polish Acad Sci, Mineral & Energy Econ Res Inst, Wybickiego 7 Str, PL-31261 Krakow, Poland.;AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Mickiewicza 30 Ave, PL-30059 Krakow, Poland..
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH. University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Bujakowski, Wieslaw
    Polish Acad Sci, Mineral & Energy Econ Res Inst, Wybickiego 7 Str, PL-31261 Krakow, Poland..
    Low-enthalpy geothermal energy as a source of energy and integrated freshwater production in inland areas: Technological and economic feasibility2018In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 435, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an innovative approach to freshwater production using geothermal aquifers as a water and energy source. The main parameters which can potentially influence the results of the analysis were selected to investigate their effect on the proposed schemes, e.g. feed water quality, quality of the geothermal resource, concentrate utilisation and cost of freshwater production. A technical and economic feasibility study demonstrates that effective use of geothermal resources can include direct utilisation of geothermal energy in the heating system and the use of the cooled water as a source of freshwater obtained in a desalination unit. The comparison of the costs of freshwater from current freshwater resources in Poland (groundwater and surface water) with those calculated for the geothermal option showed that the costs of the latter are equal to the former. The treatment of geothermal water can bring an improved water balance for drinking purposes. In areas of high water deficit, the solution presented is a good example of the rational management of geothermal resources.

  • 13. Westin, K. J.
    et al.
    Rasmuson, Åke C.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Precipitation of calcium carbonate in the presence of citrate and EDTA2003In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 159, no 2, p. 107-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of process conditions such as feed rate, calcium/carbonate ratio, pH, complexing agents [ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citrate (CIT)] and their concentration on the average particle size and shape of precipitated calcium carbonate was studied. The precipitation was performed in a semi-batch operated agitated vessel at constant pH by adding sodium hydrogen carbonate to a solution containing calcium chloride. In the absence of a complexing agent, agglomerates of needle-shaped crystals, probably aragonite, are obtained. Increasing feed time and the calcium/carbonate ratio increases the average particle size, whereas the opposite effect is observed for increasing pH. The observations can be related to the level of supersaturation. In the presence of complexing agents and at a concentration ratio of calcium vs. a complexing agent of 6, differently shaped and smaller particles were obtained. Furthermore, the effect of the other parameters on particle size becomes much weaker in the presence of complexing agents. In the presence of EDTA mostly spherical particles were obtained, and in the presence of citrate mainly rhombic particles corresponding to calcite were obtained. The effect on particle shape and size is attributed to interactions of the complexing agents with the faces of the crystalline calcium carbonate.

  • 14.
    Öman, Cecilia B.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Klutsé, A.
    Rabbani, G.
    Edward, Rumila
    KTH.
    Strategy for strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries on water and sanitation related issues2009In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 248, no 1-3, p. 658-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally accepted that scientific research offers a tool for meeting the development demands in the area of water and sanitation. It is stressed by the authors that research should be performed by researchers in the countries most affected, on topics identified by these researchers and in their own environment. For researchers in developing countries the resources and scientific infrastructure constitutes a hindrance to scientific research. To address the situation this paper presents a strategy for scientific capacity strengthening. The strategy builds on a number of activities including; training courses on scientific methodology, literature review, fundraising, sampling, laboratory practices, statistical methods, experimental designs, participatory approaches, oral presentation, posters and manuscript development, as well as thematic workshops, workshop for revision of proposals, contacts with end-users, research grants, networks, purchasing and maintaining scientific equipment and scientific conferences. The strategy builds heavily on collaboration with local organisations. It has been concluded through assessments of activities arranged in Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Togo that the strategy has been successful.

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