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  • 1.
    Albero Caro, Jesus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Transport Phenomena.
    Woldehaimanot, Mussie
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Transport Phenomena.
    Rasmuson, Åke Christoffer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Transport Phenomena.
    Semibatch reaction crystallization of salicylic acid2014In: Chemical engineering research & design, ISSN 0263-8762, E-ISSN 1744-3563, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 522-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reaction crystallization of salicylic acid has been investigated by experiments and modeling. In the experimental work, dilute hydrochloric acid has been added to an agitated aqueous solution of sodium salicylate in 1 L scale, and product crystals have been characterized by image analysis. The results show that the product crystal number mean size at first increases with increasing agitation rate but then gradually decreases again at further increase in stirring rate. At lower stirring rate, larger crystals are obtained when the feeding point is located close to the agitator instead of being located out in the bulk solution. The mean crystal size increases with decreasing feeding rate and with decreasing reactant concentrations. There is a decrease in mean size with increasing feed pipe diameter. These trends in the experimental results show great similarity with previous results on benzoic acid. The experimental results have been examined by a population balance model accounting for meso and micro mixing, and crystal nucleation and growth rate dispersion. It is found that the crystallization kinetic parameter estimation is quite complex, and the objective function hyper surface contains many different minima. Hence, parameter estimation has to rely on a combination of mathematical optimization strategies and a scientific understanding of the physical meaning of the parameters and their relation to current theories. As opposed to our previous work on benzoic acid, it has not been possible to find a set of kinetic parameters that provides for a good description of all experimental data.

  • 2. Bebelis, S.
    et al.
    Bouzek, K.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Ferreira, M. G. S.
    Kelsall, G. H.
    Lapicque, F.
    Ponce de León, C.
    Rodrigo, M. A.
    Walsh, F. C.
    Highlights during the development of electrochemical engineering2013In: Chemical engineering research & design, ISSN 0263-8762, E-ISSN 1744-3563, Vol. 91, no 10, p. 1998-2020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last century, electrochemical engineering has contributed significantly to societal progress by enabling development of industrial processes for manufacturing chemicals, such as chlorine and the Nylon precursor adiponitrile, as well as a wide range of metals including aluminium and zinc. In 2011, ca. 17 M tonne Cu p.a. was electro-refined to 99.99%+ purity required by electrical and electronic engineering applications, such as for electrodepositing with exquisite resolution multi-layer inter-connections in microprocessors. Surface engineering is widely practised industrially e.g. to protect steels against corrosion e.g. by electroplating nickel or using more recent novel self-healing coatings. Complex shapes of hard alloys that are difficult to machine can be fabricated by selective dissolution in electrochemical machining processes. Electric fields can be used to drive desalination of brackish water for urban supplies and irrigation by electrodialysis with ion-permeable membranes; such fields can also be used in electrokinetic soil remediation processes. Rising concerns about the consequences of CO2 emissions has led to the rapidly increasing development and deployment of renewable energy systems, the intermittency of which can be mitigated by energy storage in e.g. redox flow batteries for stationary storage and novel lithium batteries with increased specific energies for powering electric vehicles, or when economically viable, in electrolyser-fuel cells. The interface between electrochemical technology and biotechnology is also developing rapidly, with applications such as microbial fuel cells.Some of these applications are reviewed, the challenges assessed and current trends elucidated in the very active area of Chemical Engineering bordering with material science and electrochemistry.

  • 3.
    Gamero, Rafael
    et al.
    Faculty of Chemical Engineering, National University of Engineering (UNI), Managua, Nicaragua.
    Martínez, Joaquín
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Transport Phenomena.
    The use of drying experiments in the study of the effective thermal conductivity in a solid containing a multicomponent liquid mixture2012In: Chemical engineering research & design, ISSN 0263-8762, E-ISSN 1744-3563, Vol. 90, no 11, p. 1765-1778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effective thermal conductivity of a porous solid containing multicomponent liquid mixtures has been studied. To achieve this, the liquid composition, liquid content and temperature distributions have been measured in a cylindrical sample dried by convection from the open upper side and heated by contact with a hot source at the bottom side. A quasi-steady state reached at high source temperatures permits to calculate the total heat flux from temperatures measured on the surface and the gas stream. The simulations performed and compared with experimental data made it possible to estimate the adjusting geometric parameter of Krischer's model for the effective thermal conductivity. The effective thermal conductivity has been widely studied for two-phase systems, mostly with regard to thermal insulation elements. The calculation of this transport parameter includes the contribution to heat transfer of the evaporation–diffusion–condensation mechanism undergone by the multicomponent mixture. The influence of liquid composition and temperature on the thermal conductivity due to the evaporation–diffusion–condensation mechanism and the effective thermal conductivity is described. The results reveal that in this case the resistance to heat transfer seems to correspond to a parallel arrangement between the phases.

  • 4. Mattsson, Tuve
    et al.
    Martinez, Eduard Laguarda
    Sedin, Maria
    Theliander, Hans
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Local solidosity of microcrystalline cellulose during dead-end filtration and sedimentation2013In: Chemical engineering research & design, ISSN 0263-8762, E-ISSN 1744-3563, Vol. 91, no 6, p. 1155-1162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid-liquid separation by filtration and sedimentation are important operations used in a wide range of industries. One important characteristic of both the filtration and sedimentation processes is the solidosity of the filter cake/sediment that is formed, affecting the efficiency and design of the separation. In this study local solidosity was investigated using a gamma-attenuation method during both filtration and sedimentation experiments for microcrystalline cellulose, a highly crystalline cellulose with particles of about 2-80 mu m in diameter. Constitutive relationships for the solidosity were investigated using both filtration (i.e. cake build-up and expression) and sedimentation data for experiments at different pH and suspension concentrations. The sedimentation behaviour under these different conditions was also investigated. It was found that a three parameter empirical model could be used to describe the constitutive relationship between local solidosity and local solid compressible pressure for the sediment formed and the filter cake after both cake build-up and expression. This correlation worked well for the material investigated even at low solid compressible pressures.

  • 5. Menya, E.
    et al.
    Olupot, P. W.
    Storz, H.
    Lubwama, M.
    Kiros, Yohannes
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Production and performance of activated carbon from rice husks for removal of natural organic matter from water: A review2018In: Chemical engineering research & design, ISSN 0263-8762, E-ISSN 1744-3563, Vol. 129, p. 271-296Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adsorption by activated carbon has great potential to improve natural organic matter (NOM) removal from water. However, the high production and regeneration costs limit its wide scale application. To address these limitations, research efforts have been focused on finding low cost materials that can be transformed into activated carbon. Rice husk is one of such materials of research focus, especially in the developing countries, where over 96% of rice husks are generated globally. Although numerous investigations have been made concerning the production of activated carbon from rice husks, the existing scientific information still remains widely scattered in literature. Furthermore, the scientific information regarding performance of rice husk activated carbon during NOM removal from water still remains poorly documented. This review article therefore provides ample information on efforts made by various researchers concerning production of activated carbon from rice husks and its adsorption performance in relation to NOM removal from water. Properties and pretreatment of rice husks in relation to production of activated carbon are discussed. Activation of rice husks by physical and chemical methods under numerous conditions is reviewed. Factors affecting NOM adsorption by activated carbon are briefly discussed. Adsorption performance of rice husk activated carbon is also reviewed with respect to NOM removal from water, and where possible compared with other source derived activated carbons. The data from literature revealed that NOM removal by rice husk activated carbon can be as effective as commercial activated carbon. Consequently, rice husk activated carbon has potential to serve as an alternative to commercial activated carbon.

  • 6. Uus-Penttila, M. S.
    et al.
    Rasmuson, Åke C.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Experimental study for agglomeration behaviour of paracetamol in acetone-toluene-water systems2003In: Chemical engineering research & design, ISSN 0263-8762, E-ISSN 1744-3563, Vol. 81, no A4, p. 489-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agglomeration behaviour of paracetamol was studied in acetone-toluene-water systems. The aim was to experimentally determine how the solvent composition influences the agglomeration tendency of paracetamol. It was found that for the chosen solvent system there is one main region where paracetamol agglomerates: the region with large amounts of acetone (>65 wt%) and very small amounts of water (<4 wt%). The same behaviour can be observed both within the one-phase region and within the two-phase region. The experimental agglomeration results were compared with molecular simulations from literature. Both methods indicate that it is more likely for paracetamol crystals to agglomerate in organic systems than in aqueous systems.

  • 7. Vendel, M.
    et al.
    Rasmuson, Åke C.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Initiation of incrustation by crystal collision2000In: Chemical engineering research & design, ISSN 0263-8762, E-ISSN 1744-3563, Vol. 78, no A5, p. 749-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Initiation of incrustation by collision between crystals and a solid surface is investigated. The suspension flow towards the vessel wall in a crystallizer is simulated by laboratory experiments. A liquid jet of supersaturated suspension impinges on a plate at well defined hydrodynamics, supersaturation and parent crystal size. Experiments have been carried out with succinic acid/water. The results indicate that crusts may be initiated at supersaturation well below the metastable limit. Crusts are initiated on both Teflon(TM) and steel. More crust nuclei are formed by collision initiation on sanded stainless steel than on polished stainless steel or Teflon(TM). The results support the hypothesis that collision initiation of crusts is of industrial importance, and suggest that attention should be devoted to the hydrodynamics of crystallizers.

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