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  • 1.
    Claesson, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Doyle, M.
    Manson, J. A. E.
    Rheological behaviour during UV-curing of a star-branched polyester2002In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 63-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a rheometer coupled with an UV-light generator, the viscoelastic behaviour during the fast cure of star-branched polyester is investigated. The 32 arm star polymers consist of a hyperbranched polyester core, Boltorn(TM) and linear grafts of poly(E-caprolactone) (degree of polymerisation: 20-52) with methacrylate end groups. The resins are crystalline and the melting points range from 34 to 50degreesC; films can be formed and cured below 80degreesC. The crossover of G' and G was used as the gel point. The time to reach the gel point, a few seconds, increases linearly with molecular weight.

  • 2.
    Claesson, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Scheurer, Curzio
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Paulus, W.
    Schwalm, R.
    Semi-crystalline thermoset resins: tailoring rheological properties in melt using comb structures with crystalline grafts2004In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 13-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermosetting resins with semi-crystalline grafts have been synthesized. An amorphous resin with epoxide groups was first functionalized with hydroxyl groups using 2,2-bis(methylol) propionic acid, bis-MPA in bulk at 155 degreesC. Functionalization with bis-MPA was monitored using FT-IR, FT-Raman and SEC. The reaction was complete in 30 min. Grafts of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) were then grown from the hydroxyl functional resin and end capped with methacrylate groups. The polymerization Of epsilon-caprolactone, performed in bulk at 110 degreesC using Sn(Oct)(2), was characterized using H-1 NMR and SEC. The obtained molecular weights agreed well with theoretical values. The final end capping was performed using methacrylic anhydride, and monitored with SEC and H-1 NMR, which indicated full substitution. Two combs were synthesized with different arm lengths, DP 10 and 20, and the obtained M-W were close to calculated values. The complex viscosity was measured from low to high temperature for the crystalline resins, the amorphous resin and blends thereof. Rheological data show a rapid decrease in viscosity within a temperature change of 10-15 degreesC for the crystalline resins while the amorphous resin exhibited a slow softening. The blends exhibited a behavior in-between that of the crystalline and the amorphous resin. Films were prepared from the pure resins and the blends. The films were cured using UV irradiation. The comb architecture of these resins has advantages such as crystallinity, high molecular weight and low viscosity, facilitating leveling and resulting in smooth films. The final film properties varied with the ratio of crystalline to amorphous resin, where increase in the amount of crystalline resin correlated with increased the flexibility.

  • 3. Ecco, L. G.
    et al.
    Li, Jing
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Fedel, M.
    Deflorian, F.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    EIS and in situ AFM study of barrier property and stability of waterborne and solventborne clear coats2014In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 600-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various processes can occur when paints are in contact with moisture, such as ingress of water and aggressive ions into the coating. As a consequence, the microstructure and properties of the paints can be affected. The present study combines electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the barrier property of waterborne and solventborne coatings on mild steel, paying particular attention to the occurrences in the first 24 h after contact between the coating surface and electrolyte. The sequential in situ AFM images revealed that changes on the order of hundreds of nanometres at the coating surface have occurred shortly after the exposure to the electrolytes. EIS observations for the clear waterborne alkyd coating revealed a rise in the |Z|0.015Hz and a decrease in the coating capacitance after a few hours of exposure. Evidences that water uptake caused swelling of the coating and promoted the closure/blockage of pores were given by means of in situ AFM. The solventborne alkyd emulsion has demonstrated lower reactivity to the presence of the electrolyte and a correlation between the coating resistance and defects/pores evolution is suggested.

  • 4.
    Fogelström, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Antoni, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    UV-curable hyperbranched nanocomposite coatings2006In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 55, p. 284-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoparticles have been used to reinforce polymer matrices since the late 1980s, with promising results. Hyperbranched polymers are densely branched molecules with a globular structure, leading to lower viscosity and many end-groups, creating property-designing opportunities. Here, the two research areas, nanocomposites and hyperbranched polymers, were combined to investigate the possibility of creating a nanocomposite resin, in order to prepare a UV-curable coating system. Nanocomposites were prepared from the hyperbranched polyester Boltorn (R) H30, acrylated to 30% and 70%, and the unmodified layered silicate Na(+)montmorillonite, added both before and after the acrylation of Boltorn (R) H30. Films prepared from 30% acrylated Boltorn (R) H30 with clay added after the acrylation, having a mainly exfoliated structure according to X-ray and TEM, exhibited the largest property improvement, compared with the unfilled film. These property improvements comprised a harder surface, better scratch resistance, better adhesion to metal substrates and a small improvement in flexibility.

  • 5.
    Jafar Zadeh, Shadi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Adhikari, Arindam
    Sundall, Per-Erik
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Study of PANI-MeSA conducting polymer dispersed in UV-curing polyester acrylate on galvanized steel as corrosion protection coating2011In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 70, no 2-3, p. 108-115Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization using methane sulfonic acid (MeSA) as dopant and ammonium peroxodisulfate as oxidizer. Coatings of PANI-MeSA dispersed in polyester acrylate resin were applied on galvanized steel and UV-cured. The UV-curing resin base was studied to provide high performance and environmental friendly coating system. Morphology and mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microindentation hardness tests. Long-term open-circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were performed in 3 wt.% NaCl solution. SEM images show dispersion of the PANI particles in the coating, and electrochemical studies show long term active anodic ennoblement introduced to the protective system in the presence of PAN!, shifting OCP value to nobler region. The changes in impedance value of the system during long-term exposure to the electrolyte give useful information about the PANI mechanism of action in corrosion protection and indicate the redox action (changing of states) of PANI under the defects healing process.

  • 6.
    Jafarzadeh, Shadi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Claesson, Per Martin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Sundell, Per-Erik
    Tyrode, Eric
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Active corrosion protection by conductive composites of polyaniline in a UV-cured polyester acrylate coating2016In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 90, p. 154-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyaniline doped with phosphoric acid (PANI-PA) was synthesized and characterized by impedance and Raman spectroscopy. Exposure to UV-light resulted in a slight decrease in the PANI's electrical conductivity and no significant change in the oxidation state (of an emeraldine salt). Composite coatings containing 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt.% PANI-PA in a UV-curable polyester acrylate (PEA) resin were prepared and applied on polished carbon steel. Closely packed PANI-PA particles of several tens of nanometers were observed inside the composite coating by scanning electron microscopy, and a connected conductive network across the film was detected by Peak Force TUNA atomic force-microscopy. The evolution of open circuit potential and impedance data during long-term exposure to 3 wt.% NaCI electrolyte revealed that the short-term barrier-type corrosion protection provided by the insulating PEA coating can be turned into a long-term and active protection by addition of as little as 1 wt.% PANI-PA to the formulation. Stable ennoblement in the corrosive media was observed for the coatings containing conducting polymer up to 3 wt.%. However, higher content of PANI-PA (5 wt.%) led to poorer protective properties, probably due to the hydrophilicity of PANI-PA facilitating water transport in the coating and the presence of potentially weaker spots in the film. An iron oxide layer was found to fully cover the metal surface beneath the coatings containing PANI-PA after final failure observed by electrochemical testing.

  • 7.
    Jing, Li
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Ecco, Luiz
    Fedel, Michele
    Ermini, Valentina
    Delmas, Gregory
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    In-situ AFM and EIS study of a solventborne alkyd coating with nanoclay for corrosion protection of carbon steel2015In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 87, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A solventborne alkyd composite coating containing modified montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay was made on carbon steel, and its corrosion protection was investigated by in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 3 wt.% NaCl solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated intercalation of the MMT sheets in the composite coating. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated improved thermal stability of the composite coating due to the modified nanoclay. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and AFM examination revealed dispersion and also some aggregation of the nanoclay particles in the coating. In-situ AFM images show a stable coating surface at nano-scale during relative long time exposure in the NaCl solution, indicating an enhanced stability of the composite coating. The EIS results confirmed that the composite coating provides an enhanced barrier type corrosion protection for carbon steel in the corrosive solution, which could be attributed to the intercalated lamellar MMT sheets in the coating that block the defects and decrease the transport of water and corrosive species.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    A Model Study on Fatty Acid Methyl Esters as Reactive Diluents in Thermally Cured Coil Coating Systems2006In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 382-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model study on the transesterification reaction between fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), e.g. methyl oleate, methyl linoleate, rape seed methyl ester and different alcohols in thin films have been performed. The purpose was to evaluate the possibility to use fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) as reactive diluent in thermally cured coil-coating paints. A reactive diluent must be compatible, act as a diluent, react into the film without affecting the end properties. The transesterification between the methyl ester and hydroxyl functional model compounds was monitored by 1H-NMR and real time IR. The effects addressed in the present study were compatibility, temperature, catalyst, alcohol structure, and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) structure. Competing factors with the transesterification reaction were shown to be evaporation and side reactions i.e. oxidation. The structure of the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) affects the conversion as a higher amount of unsaturations triggers the competing side reaction oxidation. The reaction time and temperature affects both the degree of transesterification conversion, degree of side reactions and the catalyst choice. The present study has shown that a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) fulfils the reactivity part for a reactive diluent in a thermally cured coating system.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Fatty Acid Methyl Ester as Reactive Diluent in Thermally Cured Solvent-Borne Coil-Coatings: The Effect of Fatty Acid Pattern on the Curing Performance and Final Properties2008In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 155-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four different fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs): rape seedmethyl ester (RME), tall oil methyl ester (TOME), and two types of linseed oilmethyl ester (Linutin) have been studied as reactive diluents in thermally cured solvent-borne coil-coatings. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of fatty acid methyl ester structure on the curing performance and final properties of the coating. The permanent incorporation of the reactive diluent via transesterification reaction has been followed with 1H NMR analysis of model systems. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) measurements, of free-standing films, showthat the glass transition temperature (Tg) decreases upon addition of the reactive diluent. Both the amount of incorporated reactive diluent and the final film properties are affected by the number and placement of alkene-bonds in the FAME.

  • 10.
    Johansson, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    The Effect of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters on the Curing Performance and Final Properties of Thermally Cured Solvent-Borne Coil Coatings2007In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 146-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solvent content of a thermally cured coil-coating paint may be reduced by introducing a reactive diluent derived from a vegetable oil and thereby producing a coating partly based on a renewable resource. A reactive diluent acts as a solvent in the liquid paint, lowering the viscosity, and is then incorporated into the film during cure. In the present study, rape seed methyl ester (RME) has been evaluated as reactive diluent in a thermally cured hydroxyl-functional polyester/melamine system. RME has suitable diluting properties and functionality to be incorporated into the dry coating. Dynamic mechanical analysis of free standing films shows that the final film properties are affected by presence of reactive diluent, oven temperature, choice of co-solvent, and flash-off period.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Glauser, Thierry
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Jansson, Andreas
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Claesson, Hans
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Design of coating resins by changing the macromolecular architecture: solid and liquid coating systems2003In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 48, no 2-4, p. 194-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increased demand for new and improved coating systems, both due to environmental as well as performance reasons, have appeared during the last decades. Techniques such low temperature curing powder coatings, radiation curable systems, and high solids have gained an increased interest and obtained significant market shares. Although improved in many aspects, these systems still have limited use in certain applications due to technical reasons. One way to change the properties of thermoset resins that has obtained significant interest during the last decade is by changing the molecular architecture of the resin. An example of polymers which exhibit different properties compared to conventional linear structures are highly branched, dendritic, polymers [1-3]. These polymers, for example, exhibit a higher solubility and lower melt viscosity compared to their linear counterparts. They can also be tailored with respect to functionality and polarity to adjust the properties for certain applications. Coating resins based on hyperbranched polymers have been described both for liquid UV-curable systems as well as powder coatings [4-6]. This presentation will focus on how properties of resins based on dendritic polymers can be tailored and how this can applied to coating systems such as powder coatings, radiation curable resins and no-solvent liquid systems. The correlation between resin structure and its properties both before and after cure will be discussed.

  • 12. Krupicka, A.
    et al.
    Johansson, B.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    The effect of long-term recovery and storage on the mechanical response of ductile poly(urethane) coatings2003In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 14-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this work has been to investigate storage and recovery processes in ductile polymer coatings. The effects of storage have been measured in terms of variations in mechanical response with time. The use of contact tests in combination with sophisticated surface imaging tools offered unique possibilities to monitor deformation recovery over long periods of time. The kinetics of the recovery processes has been monitored. Polyurethane coatings were found to recover in a similar fashion to a viscous liquid. By comparing the time scale of the recovery with transient tests, it was evident that this was not a viscoelastic effect. The effect of exposure to water and humidity on deformation response and recovery was significant for polyurethane coatings. In addition, high amounts of pigmentation had a great effect on recovery processes. Surface-, bulk-, and interfacial-properties were greatly affected by storage time.

  • 13. Krupicka, A.
    et al.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Use and interpretation of scratch tests on ductile polymer coatings2003In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 32-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use and interpretation of contact scratch tests on polymer coatings has been investigated. The influences from test parameters such as scratch speed, contact geometry and load on the deformation response were examined. Two ductile polymer coatings of commercial grade tailored for pre-painted steel applications were used as model systems. The residual deformation pattern was examined with optical microscopy, white-light interferometry, and atomic force microscopy. Free-standing coating films were also subjected to static, transient and dynamic tensile testing to find a correlation between the intrinsic coating properties and the scratch behavior. The results indicate that the use of a single set of contact parameters is insufficient to reflect the overall response of a coating material to real contact conditions. A well-designed scratch test will however give a substantial amount of useful information.

  • 14. Krupicka, A.
    et al.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Wanstrand, O.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Mechanical response of ductile polymer coatings to contact and tensile deformation2003In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ductile polymer coatings were investigated in terms of their response to uniaxial deformation and contact deformation with respect to indentation and scratching. The effects of pigmentation, contact geometry, load and speed on the mechanical response were studied. The materials have been tested with extended spherical contacts deep into the coating layer and concentrated conical contacts close to the surface. The residual deformation pattern was examined with optical microscopy, white-light interferometry and atomic force microscopy. In the case of extended spherical contacts, corresponding to small effective strains, there was a correlation between the magnitude of residual deformation and the tensile strength. In the case of concentrated conical contacts, corresponding to larger strains, the materials were ranked differently. Reproducible failure transitions were detected with increased scratch load for the conical contacts. These failure transitions could not be directly linked to uniaxial break parameters. Stratification appears to be an issue in pigmented coatings. The effect of pigmentation was increased tensile stiffness and improved scratch resistance.

  • 15. Lowenhielm, P.
    et al.
    Nystrom, D.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Aliphatic polycarbonate resins for radiation curable powder coatings2005In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 269-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermosetting resins based on semi-crystalline poly(dimethyl trimethylene carbonate) (PDTC) were synthesised and characterised. Polymers with linear and branched architectures were synthesised through cationic ring opening polymerisation (CROP) of dimethyl trimethylene carbonate (DTC) using a series of polyols as initiators and fumaric acid as catalyst. The best powders were stable during storage at 45 degrees C for one week and could subsequently form films at temperatures between 100 and 115 degrees C. Functionalisation of the resins with methacrylic anhydride enabled curing by UV-initiated radical polymerisation. Rheology measurements showed that the architecture had a significant effect on the melt viscosity, which shows that the rheological properties can be tuned for use as low temperature curing powder coatings.

  • 16.
    Ohlsson, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Bergman, Tina
    Sundell, Per-Erik
    Deltin, Tomas
    Tran, Irina
    Svensson, Martin
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Novel coil coating systems using fatty acid based reactive diluents2012In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 73, no 4, p. 291-293Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limitation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions has lead to the development of new coil coating systems with reduced solvent content. Reactive diluents derived from vegetable oils have been used to substitute up to 40% of the white spirit. The use of vegetable oil derivatives further reduces the handling of solvents improving the workplace environment and safety, enhances the film properties, and introduces a renewable resource in the final coating. The concept can be described as a melamine crosslinkable alkyd which is formed in parallel to the crosslinking process.

  • 17.
    Pagès, Guilhem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Salehi Movahed, Alireza
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Dvinskikh, Sergey V.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Industrial NMR Centre.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Furó, Istvan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Industrial NMR Centre.
    Vegetable oil reactions within wood studied by direct 13C excitation with 1H decoupling and magic-angle sample spinning (MAS) NMR2012In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 75, no 3, p. 259-263Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite having been used for ages to protect wood against the influence of outdoor elements, the chemistry of vegetable oils within wood is poorly known. We propose a method based on solid-state magic-angle sample spinning NMR to in situ characterize oil oxidation as well as its immobilization. To eliminate signal coming from wood molecules but to keep signal from the oil, direct 13C excitation is performed with low-power 1H decoupling during signal acquisition. To suppress the effect of anisotropic spin-interactions and magnetic field inhomogeneity, the sample is spun at the magic-angle. Mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid derivatives show a difference in their oxidation process: the monounsaturated methyl oleate reacts with wood components and becomes immobilized while the polyunsaturated methyl linoleate becomes oxidized and form oligomers but does not seem to bind to wood. Linola ® oil behaves as would be expected on the basis of its composition by monounsaturated and polyunsaturated chains. This method can be generalized to all coating treatments to characterize chemical pathways and reactions. A better understanding of coating effects on wood is a crucial step to design more efficient protective mixtures.

  • 18.
    Qadeer, Muhammad Ifran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Ceramics.
    Azhdar, Bruska
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Savage, Steven J.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Ceramics.
    Improved oxidation resistance of SmCo magnetic alloy powders by silanization2013In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 94-100Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal stability of Sm2Co17 powders coated with four different silanes was studied between 25 degrees C and 500 degrees C and isothermally at 400 degrees C. Thermogravimetry data indicated that the silane-based coatings provided improved oxidation resistance. The microstructural analysis of uncoated powders oxidized for 10 h at 400 degrees C revealed the formation of a featureless ca. 10 mu m thick shell, surrounding the unreacted core. The development of this shell was attributed to the inward diffusion of oxygen, decomposition of intermetallic phases and redistribution of alloying elements. The EDS elemental maps revealed that the shell was rich in O, Fe and Co, and depleted in Sm, Zr and Cu. In the presence of the silane-based coatings the thickness of the shell was reduced by more than 80% (to less than 2 mu m) and the redistribution of alloying elements was insignificant. Based on the thermogravimetric analysis at or above ca. 400 degrees C and the nnicrostructural analysis it was possible to assess the relative effectivity of the different silanes in preventing the oxidation of the SmCo powder. Methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS), which also formed the thinnest coating, was the best silane. (3-Glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane, forming a thicker coating, was less effective than MTMS, but superior to the two amine-functionalized silanes ((3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane and (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane).

  • 19. Rentzhog, Maria
    et al.
    Fogden, Andrew
    Print quality and resistance for water-based flexography on polymer-coated boards: Dependence on ink formulation and substrate pretreatment2006In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 183-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of water-based acrylic flexographic inks laboratory printed on three different polymer-coated boards, namely coated with LDPE, OPP and PP, have been analysed and interpreted. The print quality and resistance properties obtained were related to varying ink formulation, in particular choice of emulsion polymer and presence of silicone additive in the vehicle, as well as varying levels of corona pretreatment. Print mottle and adhesion were worst on PP, while wet (water) rub and scratch resistance were worst on OPP and PE, respectively. However, these properties could be greatly influenced by the ink formulation, more so than corona level. In general addition of silicone improved scratch resistance, due to reduction in polar energy component of the print surface, but at the expense of worsened wet rub resistance. The emulsion polymer giving best resistance performance was generally found to give poorest optical properties, presumably due to more limited resolubility on press.

  • 20.
    Salehi Muhaved, Alireza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Pages, Guilhem
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Furo, Istvan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Oxidation of methyl linoleate in the presence of lignin2011In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 325-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to develop new wood modifications using vegetable oils to obtain improved durability of wood materials in an environmentally friendly way. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies were used to study oxidation and possible chemical coupling reactions between polyunsaturated fatty acids and model lignin compounds in order to better understand the interactions between oxidatively drying systems such as vegetable oils or alkyds with the lignin part in wood. This was done by studying mixtures of different model lignin compounds and methyl linoleate. The oxidation process was analyzed at 70 °C both in methyl linoleate alone and in combination with 20 wt% of lignin model compounds. The effects of those compounds on the oil polymerization processes were monitored by NMR (both 13C and 1H experiments) and the domain specific reactivity and patterning were then combined with FT-IR data. No covalent bonds having formed between the oil and the model compounds were detected by combination of several 13C/1H 2D NMR methods. From the spectra, the oxidation degrees of model compounds were calculated, and for some lignin model compounds alcohols were oxidized to carbonyls during the process. Those results were in excellent agreement with FT-IR data and oxidation mechanisms were proposed. The combination of both analytical techniques was necessary to have a better understanding of these systems: NMR demonstrated the absence of chemical bond and quantified oxidation degree of model lignin molecules while FT-IR focused on oil oxidation.

  • 21.
    Salehi Movahed, Alireza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Effect of wood carbohydrates on the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids2013In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 76, no 7/8, p. 1068-1074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to better understand the oxidation mechanism of the fatty acids applied on wood surfaces. In the present study, model hemicellulose compounds were used to measure the effect of polysaccharides on auto-oxidation of methyl linoleate utilizing infrared spectroscopy (RT-IR). The auto-oxidation process of methyl linoleate was measured in combination with 1 wt% reducing and non-reducing hemicellulose model compounds (HMC) at 70 degrees C. The effect of HMC on the methyl linoleate auto-oxidation process was also compared with the effects of glycerol and glyceraldehyde, using same analytical method and reaction conditions. The IR-spectra of methyl linoleate with 1 wt% carbohydrates before and after oxidation were analyzed and peak intensity variations during oxidation in the region of 3010 cm(-1), 990 cm(-1), and 970 cm(-1) were calculated during oxidation process. It was observed that lactose and sucrose accelerated the radical reactions; however, glycerol has an anti-oxidative effect on the fatty acids oxidation. An interaction mechanism for these findings is proposed and discussed.

  • 22.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Sundell, P. E.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Synthesis and polymerization of a radiation curable hyperbranched resin based on epoxy functional fatty acids2004In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 193-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A radiation curable resin has been synthesized from a hydroxy functional hyperbranched polyether onto which an epoxy functional fatty acid, vernolic acid, has been attached. The resin was cationically polymerized in presence of different amounts of vernolic acid methyl ester as a reactive diluent. The coating mixtures contained up to 30 wt.% methyl ester and all formulations polymerized readily and formed crosslinked films with T-g's between 16 and -18degreesC, where the addition of the reactive diluent lowered the T-g with approximately 10degreesC for each 10 wt.% diluent added. The viscosities of the coating mixtures were also heavily influenced by the presence of the reactive diluent, from the pare hyperbranched epoxy functionalized polymer with a viscosity of 4 100 mPa s to the formulation containing 30 wt.% methyl ester with a viscosity of 460 mPa s. The viscosities of the mixtures and the hardness of the films were also compared with a model oil based on trimethylol propane, i.e. a structurally similar resin without a polyether core. The model oil was found to have a lower viscosity than the other mixtures and produced a soft film with a low T-g (-21degreesC) after polymerization.

  • 23. Sobhani, Sarah
    et al.
    Bastani, Saeed
    Gedde, Ulf W
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Sari, Morteza Ganjaee
    Ramezanzadeh, Bahram
    Network formation and thermal stability enhancement in evolutionary crosslinked PDMS elastomers with sol-gel-formed silica nanoparticles: Comparativeness between as-received and pre-hydrolyzed TEOS2017In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 113, p. 117-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filler formation and crosslinking normally take place in PDMS/TEOS elastomers yielded via sol-gel technique, while a few was reported about the competitiveness between such phenomena. A combined rheological/thermogravimetric analysis was applied in this work varying the curing time (8, 24, 48, 72, and 168 h) to track and compare silica formation as well as three-dimensional elastomer networks in PDMS matrices treated with as received and pre-hydrolyzed TEOS. It was found that use of pre-hydrolyzed TEOS facilitates nanosilica formation leading to in-situ formation of nanocomposites exhibiting higher thermal stability and mechanical properties, as compared with the reference elastomers prepared at stoichiometric ratio. Silica formation was detected by means of TEM. Experimental results showed that during the first 8 h of the reaction between PDMS and as received TEOS a three-dimensional network was formed, while silica precipitation was dominant when PDMS was treated with pre-hydrolyzed TEOS. Tensile measurements reveal that silica precipitation in non-stoichiometric samples enhances tensile strength and elongation at break compared to the samples prepared at stoichiometric ratio, especially for samples cured with pre-hydrolyzed TEOS. Silica domain size was ca. 150 and 200 nm for the networks cured with TEOS and pre-hydrolyzed TEOS, respectively.

  • 24. Soucek, Mark
    et al.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Alkyds for the 21st century2012In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 73, no 4, p. 273-273Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Ståhlberg, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Junestam, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Gamstedt, Kristofer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Relaxation properties of particle filled coatings: Experimental study and modelling of a screw joint2006In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 112-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes the mechanical behaviour of powder coatings used under very high compressive loads in clamping force joints. Carboxyl functional polyester powder coatings cured with hydroxyl functional P-hydroxyalkylamides with variations in amount of filler have been studied. The coatings were subjected to relaxation tests in tension and in compression. The tests in compression were performed in specially designed tests developed to study the behaviour of powder coatings under compressive loads in clamping force joints. The relaxation results for the matrix were used in a unit cell in micromechanical finite element (FE) model to predict the homogenised viscoelastic properties of the particle composite. These constitutive properties were subsequently used to evaluate the behaviour on a macromechanical scale in a screw joint. The model corresponds well with experimental data at ambient temperature. When increasing the temperature above the glass transition of the coating, however, the model predictions and experimental data differ. Experiments in compression show a much lower relaxation its compared to the FE model. The relaxation simulations of the coating under compressive loads from screw joints showed a significant sensitivity to the Poisson's ratio of the polymer matrix. As the Poisson's ratio approaches 0.5, the matrix becomes hydrostatically incompressible, which resulted in a negligible relaxation of the coating at the screw joint.

  • 26. Tondi, Gianluca
    et al.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. SP Tecnical Research Institute of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Trey, Stacy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. SP Tecnical Research Institute of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Tannin based foams modified to be semi-conductive: Synthesis and characterization2015In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 78, p. 488-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to modify highly insulative and lightweight biorenewable foam thermosets to be semi-conductive for primarily building material applications. The foams were formed and then posttreated with in-situ polymerization of polyaniline, both doped and undoped, adsorbing and possibly absorbing (observed by SEM-EDX) to the foam structure at levels of 100-120 wt%. The modified tannin foams were shown to be semi-conductive in comparison to the highly insulative structure prior to polyaniline modification. While the 50% protonated polyaniline modified foams, or doped foams, had a higher conductivity than the undoped polyaniline modified foams, the acid used in fabrication of the foams provided some degree of conductivity to the undoped PANI modified foams. Moreover, the modified foams had an increased volume of 15% after modification, were more sensitive to moisture, and the polyaniline did not affect the degradation temperature of the foams.

  • 27.
    Trey, Stacy M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lundstrom, Mikael
    Stahlberg, Daniel
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Effects of thiol additives on urethane acrylate UV primers for SMC applications2009In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 64, no 2-3, p. 238-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sheet molded compound (SMC) is a highly filled, glass fiber reinforced, thermoset material used in trim and body panel automotive parts. When SMC-substrates are coated with conventional thermally cured paints, inherent porosity and entrapped volatiles of the substrate result in popping ("paint pops") defects. UV-curable primers (UVP) provide an order of magnitude reduction of paint defects in SMC coatings, but typically have poor adhesion. Mercaptan polymers have a long history, dating back to 1928. of use in adhesives and sealant applications. The present study investigates a series of UVPs, showing the effect of resin functionality and thiol functional additive content on the adhesion of the coatings to SMC substrates. The SMC formulation is also considered when evaluating UVP adhesion, regarding variables such as surface chemistry, morphology, and surface area. The present study brings to light how adhesion of acrylate UVP can be enhanced with mercaptan moieties in additive amounts. The effect is most apparent on SMC substrates that have been treated to expose inorganic fillers as opposed to untreated surfaces of polyester. Additionally annealing the films boosts adhesion, but only in thiol containing formulations. This is a result of the decrease in T(g)s and modulus of the films with the addition of mercaptans, thus providing better contact with the substrate in comparison to non-thiol containing formulations.

  • 28.
    Trey, Stacy M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nilsson, Camilla
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Thiol-ene networks and reactive surfaces via photoinduced polymerization of allyl ether functional hyperbranched polymers2010In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 348-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of allyl ether functionalized hyperbranched (HB) polyester of three generations was synthesized from commercially available Boltorn (R). These modified HB polymers were homopolymerized to form films with a large number of residual allyl ether groups available for post film formation reactions. Additionally, the polyester Multifunctional molecules were cured with a di and tetrathiol monomer in a one to one molar ratio to determine the effect of conversion on the resulting network thermal and physical properties. The same UV-cure chemistries were carried out with a similar second generation polyester dendrimer for comparison. This was in an effort to determine if there is any significant difference in the film chemical conversion and properties with dendrimers in comparison to HB molecules. The highly crosslinked films were obtained and characterized with respect to physical (DMTA) and thermal (DSC and TGA) properties. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 29.
    Trey, Stacy M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nilsson, Camilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Thiol-ene networks and reactive surfaces via photoinduced polymerization of allyl ether functional hyperbranched polymers2010In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 68, no 1-2, p. 151-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of allyl ether functionalized hyperbranched (HB) polyester of three generations was synthesized from commercially available Boltorn (R). These modified HB polymers were homopolymerized to form films with a large number of residual allyl ether groups available for post-film formation reactions. Additionally, the polyester multifunctional molecules were cured with a di and tetrathiol monomer in a one to one molar ratio to determine the effect of conversion on the resulting network thermal and physical properties. The same UV-cure chemistries were carried out with a similar second generation polyester dendrimer for comparison. This was in an effort to determine if there is any significant difference in the film chemical conversion and properties with dendrimers in comparison to HB molecules. The highly crosslinked films were obtained and characterized with respect to physical (DMTA) and thermal (DSC and TGA) properties.

  • 30.
    Trey, Stacy M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Sidenvall, Peter
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Alavi, Kamyar
    Stahlberg, Daniel
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Dual cure (UV/thermal) primers for composite substrates-Effect of surface treatment and primer composition on adhesion2009In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 489-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It can be concluded by the Study of UV primer formulations on sheet molding compound (SMC) substrates that all studied formulation parameters affect adhesion. Moreover, the dual cure approach can result in acceptable adhesion of UV primers on SMC substrates if the coating procedure and composition are well designed. Adhesion of UV cure primers as determined by the cross-cut test is significantly improved in formulations containing solvent. This is a result of enhanced wetting and interaction of the solvent with the SMC Substrate, confirmed by contact angle and gravimetric swelling studies. Furthermore, sanded SMC surfaces demonstrated superior UV primer adhesion. This results from the increased surface area of the topography, confirmed by CSLM and the exposure of more oxygen moieties such as pigments and silanols at the air-substrate interface as confirmed by AFM and XPS, The UV films have a higher modulus with increasing resin functionality and resulting cross-link density which correlated with reduced adhesion in formulations without an added isocyanate functional UV monomer. This indicates that cure shrinkage may play a role in the adhesion of UV cure primers and will be investigated further. Also, the added adhesion that an isocyanate functional UV monomer provides results in a significant increase in the glass transition temperature (T-g) giving a glassier film at room temperature.

  • 31.
    Öhman, Maria
    et al.
    KIMAB.
    Persson, Dan
    KIMAB.
    Jacobsson, Dan
    KIMAB.
    In situ studies of conversion coated zinc/polymer surfaces during exposure to corrosive conditions2010In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates the hidden interface between a conversion-coated zinc surface and a polymer coating upon exposure to an electrolyte by simultaneous in situ ATR-FTIR and EIS. Various system properties were distinguished, such as the ingress of electrolyte constituents, and an active process of water-induced alterations of the conversion layer. The interface between a polymer film and a surface treated metal surface is of considerable fundamental and technical interest in many areas of application, and the results obtained open up the use of this method for a wide range of important applications.

  • 32.
    Öhman, Maria
    et al.
    Kimab.
    Persson, Dan
    Kimab.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    In situ ATF-FTIR studies of the aluminium/polymer interface upon exposure to water and electrolyte2006In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 78-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with the Kretschmann configuration was applied for in situ studies of the transport of water and ionic species through a polymer film to an aluminium/polymer interface. The time dependent intensity changes of the infrared bands of water were used to follow the transport of water to the aluminium/polymer interfacial region and a NaSCN solution was employed as model electrolyte to follow the transport and accumulation of thiocyanate ions. Apart from water sorption and ion transport, the main processes identified were corrosion/oxidation of the aluminium surface and swelling of the polymer film. The method proved to be useful for detailed in situ studies of changes at a polymer coated metal surface, such as oxidation and surface film formation on the metal. It should also be possible to study the effects of defects and pores in the polymer film on the transport properties of water and ions to the metal/polymer interface, as well as adsorption and other chemical reactions and physical interactions in the metal/polymer interfacial region.

1 - 32 of 32
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