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  • 1. Aastrup, T.
    et al.
    Wadsak, M.
    Schreiner, M.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Experimental in situ studies of copper exposed to humidified air2000Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 42, nr 6, s. 957-967Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Three complementary experimental techniques for in situ surface analysis have been combined for the first time in order to explore the chemistry and physics of a copper surface exposed to humidified air. Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy provide a congruent picture of the processes occurring at the surface. At a given relative humidity, cuprous oxide forms according to an approximately logarithmic rate law. In addition, an aqueous adlayer of constant mass physisorbs on the surface. Increased relative humidity stimulates the physisorption of water and enhances the nucleation rate of oxide grains, thereby increasing the formation rate of cuprous oxide.

  • 2. Airiskallio, E.
    et al.
    Nurmi, E.
    Heinonen, M. H.
    Vayrynen, I. J.
    Kokko, K.
    Ropo, M.
    Punkkinen, M. P. J.
    Pitkanen, H.
    Alatalo, M.
    Kollar, J.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad materialfysik.
    Vitos, Levente
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad materialfysik.
    High temperature oxidation of Fe-Al and Fe-Cr-Al alloys: The role of Cr as a chemically active element2010Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 52, nr 10, s. 3394-3404Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Good high-temperature corrosion resistance of Fe-Al alloys in oxidizing environments is due to the alpha-Al2O3 film which is formed on the surface provided temperature is above 900 degrees C and the Al-content of the alloy exceeds the critical value. Ab initio calculations combined with experiments on Fe-13Al, Fe-18Al, Fe-23Al and Fe-10Cr-10Al alloys show that the beneficial effect of Cr on the oxidation resistance is significantly related to bulk effects. The comparison of experimental and calculated results indicates a clear correlation between the Fe-Cr chemical potential difference and the formation of the protective oxide scales. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Anantha, Krishnan Hariramabadran
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Örnek, Cem
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH).
    Ejnermark, Sebastian
    Uddeholms AB, Res & Dev, SE-68385 Hagfors, Sweden..
    Thuvander, Anders
    Uddeholms AB, Res & Dev, SE-68385 Hagfors, Sweden..
    Medvedeva, Anna
    Uddeholms AB, Res & Dev, SE-68385 Hagfors, Sweden..
    Sjostrom, Johnny
    Uddeholms AB, Res & Dev, SE-68385 Hagfors, Sweden..
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Experimental and modelling study of the effect of tempering on the susceptibility to environment-assisted cracking of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel2019Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 148, s. 83-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The resistance to environment-assisted cracking (EAC) of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel (MSS) was investigated in 0.3 M NaCl solution (room temperature) at constant loads for 30 days. The steel tempered at 250 degrees C was superior to the 500 degrees C-temper, which showed corrosion pits favouring cracking. The fracture surface showed faceted grains, cleavage, striations, and inter- and transgranular cracks, suggesting a mixed stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) mechanism as the cause for EAC. Finite element modelling (FEM) indicated strain/stress localization at the mouth of deep pits and at the wall of shallow pits, displaying the favoured locations for pit-to-crack transition.

  • 4.
    Chang, Tingru
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Goidanich, S.
    Sánchez Amaya, J. M.
    Arenas, M. A.
    Le Bozec, N.
    Jin, Y.
    Leygraf, Christopher
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    The role of Sn on the long-term atmospheric corrosion of binary Cu-Sn bronze alloys in architecture2019Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 149, s. 54-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of Sn on the atmospheric corrosion performance of binary Cu-Sn bronze alloys (4–6 wt.% Sn) compared with Cu metal used in outdoor architecture is elucidated in terms of microstructure, native surface oxide composition, patina evolution, corrosion rates, appearance and metal release. Results are presented for non-exposed surfaces and surfaces exposed at different urban and marine sites in Europe up to 5 years and based on multi-analytical findings from microscopic, spectroscopic, electrochemical and chemical investigations. Alloying influenced the corrosion, aesthetic appearance and patina evolution, differently for urban and marine sites, whereas no effects were observed on the release pattern.

  • 5.
    Chang, Tingru
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. Univ Sci & Technol Beijing, Natl Ctr Mat Serv Safety, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Jin, Ying
    Univ Sci & Technol Beijing, Natl Ctr Mat Serv Safety, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China..
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    The golden alloy Cu5Zn5Al1Sn: Patina evolution in chloride-containing atmospheres2018Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 133, s. 190-203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of chloride deposition on the formation, evolution and barrier properties of the patina formed on CuSZn5Al1Sn used for architectural cladding is explored via long-term marine field exposures and laboratory investigations. The presence of Cu2O, ZnO, Al2O3 and SnO2 within the inner part of the patina and intercalation of SnO2, Zn-5(CO3)(2)(OH)(6), Zn6Al2(OH)(16)CO3 center dot 4H(2)O, Zn-5(OH)(8)Cl-2 center dot H2O within its outer part, predominantly composed of Cu-2(OH)(3)Cl, significantly reduce the chloride-induced corrosion compared with Cu metal. The intercalation of zinc-rich corrosion products within the patina and not at the top-surface explain their marginal influence on the runoff process that mainly occurs at the outmost surface.

  • 6.
    Chang, Tingru
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Jin, Ying
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    The golden alloy Cu-5Zn-5Al-1Sn: A multi-analytical surface characterization2018Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 131, s. 94-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The golden alloy Cu-5Zn-5Al-1Sn has found many applications because of its appearance and resistance to tarnishing. The microstructure and multi-component surface oxide of Cu-5Zn-5Al-1Sn have been investigated through a multi-analytical approach. Compared to commercial Cu metal, Cu-5Zn-5Al-1Sn has significantly smaller grains and higher fraction of coherent twin boundaries. The 5-10 nm thick oxide formed after diamond polishing has four identified sub-oxides all contributing to the overall corrosion resistance. Cu2O is mainly located in the outer part, followed by ZnO, SnO2 and Al2O3 closer to the alloy substrate. The latter three possess barrier properties, while Cu2O exhibits a more complex structure.

  • 7. Chen, Zhuo Yuan
    et al.
    Persson, Dan
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Initial NaCl- Particle Induced Atmospheric Corrosion of Zinc-Effect of CO2 and SO22008Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 50, nr 1, s. 111-123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Initial corrosion and secondary spreading effects during NaCl particle induced corrosion on zinc was explored using in situ and ex situ FTIR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, and SEM/EDAX. The secondary spreading effect which occurs upon introduction of humid air on NaCl deposited zinc surfaces was strongly dependent on the CO2 and SO2 content of the introduced air. Ambient level of CO2 (350 ppm) resulted in a relatively low spreading effect, whereas the lower level of CO2 (<5 ppm) caused a much faster spreading over a larger area. In the presence of SO2, the secondary spreading effect was absent which could limit the cathodic process in this case. At <5 ppm CO2, the corrosion is more localized, with the formation of simonkolleite (Zn5(OH)8Cl2 · H2O), zincite (ZnO) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), and a larger effective cathodic area. At 350 ppm CO2, the corrosion is more general and formation of simonkolleite, hydrozincite (Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2) and sodium carbonate was observed. Sodium carbonate was mainly formed in more alkaline areas, in the inner edge of the electrolyte droplet and in the secondary spreading area. Oxidation of sulphur and concomitant sulphate formation was enhanced in the presence of NaCl particles, due to the formation of a droplet, the separation of the anodic and cathodic areas and the accompanying differences in chemical composition and pH in the surface electrolyte.

  • 8.
    Cheng, Jie
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Pan, J.
    Wang, T.
    Lu, X.
    Micro-galvanic corrosion of Cu/Ru couple in potassium periodate (KIO4) solution2018Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 137, s. 184-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the study of micro-galvanic corrosion of the Cu/Ru couple in KIO4 solution. Practical nobility across the Cu/Ru interface was evaluated by Volta potential mapping, and the morphological changes were monitored by in-situ atomic force microscopy measurements during exposure in a KIO4 solution. Chemical composition of precipitated corrosion product was analyzed by Confocal Raman spectroscopy immediately after the exposure. The results show that Cu is the anode of the Cu/Ru couple, and accelerated dissolution of Cu preferentially occurs near the Cu/Ru interface. However, subsequent formation of insoluble Cu(IO3)2·nH2O leads to precipitation, which impedes further Cu corrosion.

  • 9.
    Cieslik, Monika
    et al.
    Jagiellonian University, Poland; Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Poland.
    Engvall, Klas
    Swerea KIMAB AB, Sweden.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Kotarba, Andrzej
    Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Silane-parylene coating for improving corrosion resistance of stainless steel 316L implant material2011Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 296-301Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The corrosion resistance of a two-layer polymer (silane + parylene) coating on implant stainless steel was investigated by microscopic observations and electrochemical measurements Long term exposure tests in Hanks solution revealed that the coating of 2 mu m can be successfully used for corrosion protection However the addition of H2O2 simulating the inflammatory response of human body environment causes a dramatic destruction of the protective coating Analysis of the experimental data in terms of circuit models enables proposing a deterioration mechanism OH radicals formed at the metal surface attack the polymer thus the deterioration starts from the metal/polymer interface and progress towards the outward surface.

  • 10. Dong, Q.
    et al.
    Hultquist, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Sproule, G. I.
    Graham, M. J.
    Platinum-catalyzed high temperature oxidation of metals2007Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 49, nr 8, s. 3348-3360Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples of At, Cr, Ni, and Zr were sputter-coated with porous Pt-films with a particle size of 20-30 nm. Thermal oxidation of these samples was studied by gas phase analysis (GPA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). SIMS analysis on partly Pt-coated samples of At, Cr, Ni, and Zr at different oxide depths in areas with Pt and in areas away from Pt indicates an enhanced inward oxide growth in the Pt area and mm-ranged distance from Pt-area. Weight gain measurements on Pt-coated Ni samples show a reduced or increased oxidation rate depending on the amount of porous Pt-coating. Pt has two effects on the thermal oxidation of metals and the overall effect of Pt on the oxidation of metals depends on the mechanism of oxide growth in the absence of Pt.

  • 11.
    Ejenstam, Lina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Claesson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Corrosion protection by hydrophobic silica particle-polydimethylsiloxane composite coatings2015Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, nr 99, s. 89-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the time-dependent corrosion protection ability of 10–15 µm thin polydimethylsiloxane -nanoparticle composite coatings was evaluated using mainly open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The best result was obtained for the coating containing 20 wt% hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, where it was possible to achieve protection for almost 80 days in 3 wt% NaCl solution. The protective properties offered by this coating are suggested to be due to a synergistic effect of the hydrophobicity of the polydimethylsiloxane matrix and the prolonged diffusion path caused by addition of hydrophobic silica particles.

  • 12. Femenia, M.
    et al.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Luukkonen, P.
    In situ study of selective dissolution of duplex stainless steel 2205 by electrochemical scanning tunnelling microscopy2001Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 43, nr 10, s. 1939-1951Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective dissolution of duplex stainless steel 2205 in acidic chloride solutions was studied in situ by electrochemical scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). In 0.05 M H2SO4 + 1 M NaCl, no appreciable active dissolution was observed by in situ STM imaging at the corrosion potential (E-corr), but at potentials higher than E-corr + 1000 mV some selective dissolution at the austenite-ferrite boundary region occurred. In 4 M H2SO4 + 1 M HCl, STM images revealed active dissolution of ferrite grains at around E-corr + 50 mV. Dissolution of austenite grains started to occur at around E-corr + 150 mV, exhibiting steps of submicron scale on the edges.

  • 13. Hagman, H.
    et al.
    Boström, D.
    Lundberg, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Backman, R.
    Alloy degradation in a co-firing biomass CFB vortex finder application at 880 °C2019Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 150, s. 136-150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanisms of alloy degradation in a fireside N-S-O-C-H-Cl-Na-K atmosphere at 880 °C were elucidated using SEM-EDS, chemical equilibrium calculations, and XRD. Alloys 310S, 800H/HT, and 600 were studied after 0, 8000, and 16,000 h exposure in a boiler co-firing biomass waste. For 310S and 800H/HT it was shown that nitrogen formed internal Cr nitrides lowering the Cr activity and inhibiting internal alloy Cr permeation, and that NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 reacted with Cr oxide to form chromate and to accelerate the S and the Cl pickup. Alloy 600 showed no nitride or major chromate formation.

  • 14. He, W.
    et al.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    A laboratory study of copper and zinc runoff during first flush and steady-state conditions2001Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 127-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of environmental conditions and corrosion layer characteristics have been investigated on the runoff rate of copper and zinc, used as roofing material. For this purpose, a rain device has been constructed, capable of simulating rain episodes of varying intensity and pH, and used on new and aged copper and zinc panels of varying origin and corrosion product composition. The setup, using artificial rain with a composition resembling the southern and central part of Sweden, has proven to result in realistic runoff rates for all materials investigated. During a rain event, easily soluble corrosion products will be removed in the first rain volume, commonly referred to as the first flush, followed by a more or less constant runoff rate during subsequent rain. The magnitude of the first flush depends on environmental conditions prior Co a rain episode, e.g., length of dry periods and extent of dry deposition, as well as on rain volume and rain intensity. A defect-rich and porous corrosion layer increases the magnitude of the first flush. The total metal runoff quantity increases with decreasing pH for both copper and zinc. In agreement with previous findings outdoors, an effect of patina age can be seen on copper. The laboratory data can be used to explain variations in runoff rate between different sampling periods observed in field data.

  • 15.
    He, Yunjuan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Boluk, Yaman
    Univ Alberta, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Edmonton, AB T6G 1H9, Canada.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Biosci & Mat, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Deltin, Tomas
    PTE Coatings AB, Hammarsvagen 4, SE-59432 Gamleby, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Biosci & Mat, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Corrosion protective properties of cellulose nanocrystals reinforced waterborne acrylate-based composite coating2019Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 155, s. 186-194Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present investigation highlights corrosion protection of carbon steel by a waterborne acrylate-based matrix coating, with and without reinforcement by cellulose nanocrystals, by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 0.1 M NaCl solution over a period of 35 days. Interactions between cellulose nanocrystals and the matrix coating were demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that both coatings have high barrier performance but different protective characteristics during long-term exposure. The differences can be attributed to the reinforcement effect of cellulose nanocrystals caused by hydrogen bonding interactions between cellulose nanocrystals and the matrix coating.

  • 16.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Factors that influence the release of metals from stainless steels exposed to physiological media2006Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 48, nr 8, s. 2120-2132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Release rates of chromium, nickel and iron from grade 304 stainless steel with three different surface finishes, BA, 2B and 2D, have been determined after exposure to artificial lysosomal fluid. Metal release rates are discussed in relation to corrosion resistance, compositional changes of the outermost surface film of the stainless steel and to measurements of the effective surface area and roughness. The total metal release decreased in the following sequence: 2D > 2B approximate to BA, and was primarily related to the electrochemically active surface area. No direct correlation was observed between corrosion resistance and metal release rates.

  • 17.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Metal release from various grades of stainless steel exposed to synthetic body fluids2007Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 103-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Release rates of individual alloy constituents have been determined from seven grades of stainless steels exposed to two synthetic body fluids, used as surrogates for different areas of potential exposure in the lung: "Gamble's solution", (pH 7.4) that represents the interstitial fluid of the deep lung, and artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) that represents the more acidic (pH 4.5-5) milieu of particles following their phagocytosis by macrophages. Total metal release rates from all grades of stainless steel investigated were low (< 5 mu g cm(-2) week(-1)). The more acidic environment of ALF resulted in significantly higher total metal release rates (0.3-4.6 mu g cm(-2) week(-1)) compared to Gamble's solution (< 0.1 mu g cm(-2) week(-1)).

  • 18.
    Hultquist, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Why copper may be able to corrode in pure water2015Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 93, s. 327-329Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In exposure of copper to water molecules there will be relatively strong bonds (reversible traps) between copper and hydrogen. One copper-hydrogen bond corresponds to the thermal energy of a temperature of approximately 250 degrees C and this explains an unusual temperature influence on hydrogen uptake in the metal and in corrosion of copper in pure water-vapour without O-2. This unusual temperature influence is exemplified in exposure of copper at 180 degrees C and 500 degrees C where Cu corrodes more at 180 degrees C than at 500 degrees C.

  • 19.
    Hultquist, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Graham, M. J.
    Kodra, O.
    Moisa, S.
    Liu, R.
    Bexell, U.
    Smialek, J. L.
    Corrosion of copper in distilled water without O2 and the detection of produced hydrogen2015Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 95, s. 162-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on hydrogen pressures measured during ~19,000. h immersion of copper in oxygen-free liquid distilled water. Copper corrosion products have been examined ex-situ by SEM and characterized by XPS and SIMS. XPS strongly indicates a corrosion product containing both oxygen and hydrogen. SIMS shows that oxygen is mainly present in the outer 0.3. μm surface region and that hydrogen penetrates to depths well below the corrosion product. Thermal desorption spectroscopy shows that the reaction product formed near room-temperature is less stable than that formed in air at 350. °C.

  • 20.
    Hultquist, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Graham, M. J.
    Smialek, J. L.
    Jonsson, B.
    Hydrogen in metals studied by Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS)2015Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 93, s. 324-326Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This short communication presents Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) of hydrogen desorption from various metals and alloys [Au, Pd, Cu, Ni, Zr, Y, stainless steel and ODS (oxide dispersion strengthened) alloy] after long-term exposure (up to 20 years) to ambient humid air at room-temperature. Of the metals studied only gold does not contain a measurable level of hydrogen. For polycrystalline metals there is a strong correlation between the amount of hydrogen in the metal and the tendency for oxidation of the metal.

  • 21.
    Hultquist, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Graham, M. J.
    Smialek, J. L.
    Kodra, O.
    Response to comment by A. Hedin et al. on "Corrosion of copper in distilled water without oxygen and the detection of produced hydrogen"2016Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 106, s. 306-307Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Hultquist, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Graham, M. J.
    Szakalos, P.
    Sproule, G. I.
    Rosengren, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teoretisk fysik, Kondenserade materiens teori.
    Gråsjö, L..
    Hydrogen gas production during corrosion of copper by water2011Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 310-319Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers the corrosion of copper in water by (1) short term open system weight measurements and (2) long term closed system immersion in distilled water (13 800 h) without O-2 at 21-55 degrees C In the latter experiments the hydrogen gas pressure is measured above the immersed copper and approaches similar to 10(-3) bar at equilibrium This pressure is mostly due to copper corrosion and greatly exceeds that in ambient air Accordingly this measured hydrogen pressure from copper corrosion increases with temperature and has the same dependency as the concentration of OH- in the ion product [OH-] [H+].

  • 23.
    Hultquist, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Kemi.
    Hörnlund, Erik
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Kemi.
    Dong, Qian
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Kemi.
    Platinum-induced oxidation of chromium in O-2 at 800 °C2003Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 45, nr 12, s. 2697-2703Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of porous Pt on the oxidation of Cr at 800degreesC have been studied with the (OSIMS)-O-18 technique, gas phase analysis and XPS. In oxide areas with Pt a pronounced inward oxygen transport takes place and a substantial oxide growth near the Cr substrate is observed. In oxide grown on areas without Pt the counts of CrO ions in SIMS and the binding energy of O (1s) in XPS depend on the distance from the area with Pt. The experimental observations are believed to be a consequence of a high dissociation efficiency of O-2 on areas with Pt in combination with a high diffusivity of O in external and internal oxide surfaces on areas both with and without Pt.

  • 24.
    Johnson, C. Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Böhmler, M.
    Nano-FTIR microscopy and spectroscopy studies of atmospheric corrosion with a spatial resolution of 20 nm2016Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 108, s. 60-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since corrosion commonly occurs heterogeneously over a surface, studies on a microscopic level are desired to obtain a complete picture of the process. Here, we demonstrate the capability of nano-FTIR microscopy to spectroscopically determine the nature of different corrosion products and their spatial distribution with a resolution of 20 nm, two-three orders of magnitude better than conventional IR microscopy. A copper surface was exposed to a humid atmosphere containing formic acid, and in addition to cuprite the corrosion product copper formate was observed to form inhomogeneously in particles of some tens to a few hundreds of nm.

  • 25. Jonsson, T.
    et al.
    Pujilaksono, B.
    Hallström, Samuel
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Ågren, John
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Metallografi.
    Svensson, J. E.
    Johansson, L. G.
    Halvarsson, M.
    An ESEM in situ investigation of the influence of H2O on iron oxidation at 500 degrees C2009Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 51, nr 9, s. 1914-1924Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial oxidation of iron and the effect of different O-2/H2O mixtures have been investigated through ESEM in situ exposure and analysis at 500 degrees C. In dry and wet air a two-layered magnetite forms beneath a thin, fine-grained hematite layer. while only a two-layered magnetite forms in H2O. The two-layered magnetite is separated by a straight interface (in all environments), which is suggested to be the original metal surface. The presence of low levels of water vapour (similar to 1% H2O) produces a thicker hematite layer (compared to dry air), exhibiting a large number of whiskers. At least four different factors are suggested to influence the local growth rate: the surface of the metal grain, the thickness of the hematite layer, the oxide grain size and the exposure environment. The ESEM in situ exposures have in addition been shown to have high quality and reproducibility.

  • 26.
    Jönsson, Martin
    et al.
    Corrosion and Metals Research Institute (KIMAB), Stockholm.
    Persson, Dan
    Corrosion and Metals Research Institute (KIMAB), Stockholm.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Atmospheric corrosion of field exposed magnesium alloy AZ91D2008Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 50, nr 5, s. 1406-1413Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The magnesium alloy AZ91D was exposed in three different types of atmospheric environment, viz. urban, rural and marine exposure sites. Corrosion rates, corrosion products formed, and the influence of the microstructure on the corrosion behaviour of the alloy were investigated. The corrosion rate of AZ91D exposed in the marine environment was 4.2 mu m/year, and in the rural and urban environments 2.2 and 1.8 mu m/year, respectively. The main corrosion product found was magnesium carbonate hydromagnesite (Mg-5(CO3)(4)(OH)(2)center dot 4H(2)O), which was formed at all three exposure sites. The corrosion attack started in the alpha-phase in larger grains at the boundary between the alpha-phase and the eutectic alpha-/beta-phase. Microgalvanic elements were formed with the eutectic alpha-/beta-Mg phase as cathodic site and the alpha-Mg grains as anodes. The Al-Mn particles played a minor roll in the initiation process, even though these particles are the most noble in the microstructure and thus the driving force for a corrosion attack around these particles could be expected to be high. A close resemblance was observed between the corrosion mechanisms operating under the field-exposure conditions described here and the mechanisms operating under the previously reported laboratory conditions.

  • 27.
    Jönsson, Martin
    et al.
    Corrosion and Metals Research Institute (KIMAB), Stockholm.
    Persson, Dan
    Corrosion and Metals Research Institute (KIMAB), Stockholm.
    Thierry, Dominique
    Institut de la Corrosion, Brest.
    Corrosion product formation during NaCl induced atmospheric corrosion of magnesium alloy AZ91D2007Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 1540-1558Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnesium alloy AZ91D was exposed in humid air at 95% relative humidity (RH) with a deposition of 70 mu g/cm-2 NaCl. The corrosion products formed and the surface electrolyte were analysed after different exposure times using ex situ and in situ FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Ion Chromatography. The results show that magnesium carbonates are the main solid corrosion products formed under these conditions. The corrosion products identified were the magnesium carbonates hydromagnesite (Mg-5 (CO3)(4) (OH)(2)4H(2)O) and nesquehonite (MgCO3 3H(2)O). The corrosion attack starts with the formation of magnesite at locations with higher NaCl contents. At 95% RH, a sequence of reactions was observed with the initial formation of magnesite, which transformed into nesquehonite after 2-3 days. Long exposures result in the formation of pits containing brucite (Mg(OH2)) covered with hydromagnesite crusts. The hydromagnesite crusts restrict the transport of CO2 and O-2 to the magnesium surface and thereby favour the formation of brucite. Analysis of the surface electrolyte showed that the NaCl applied on the surface at the beginning was essentially preserved during the initial corrosion process. Since the applied salt was not bound in sparingly soluble corrosion products a layer of NaCl electrolyte was present on the surface during the whole exposure. Thus, Na+ and Cl- ions can participate in the corrosion process during the whole time and the availability of these species will not restrict the atmospheric corrosion of AZ91D under these conditions. It is suggested that the corrosion behaviour of AZ91D is rather controlled by factors related to the microstructure of the alloy and formation of solid carbonate containing corrosion products blocking active corrosion sites on the surface.

  • 28.
    Jönsson, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Corrosion Institute, Stockholm.
    Thierry, Domnique
    Institut de la Corrosion, Brest.
    LeBozec, N.
    Institut de la Corrosion, Brest.
    The influence of microstructure on the corrosion behaviour of AZ91D studied by scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe2006Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 48, nr 5, s. 1193-1208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    beta-Mg17Al12, eta-Al8Mn5 and an alpha-magnesium phase have been synthesized from pure components by controlled solidification procedures. These phases have been studied using different electrochemical techniques including the scanning Kelvin probe (SKP). From the results; it was possible to determine the nobility and the rate of the cathodic reaction of the different phases. Measurements have also been made on an AZ91D Mg-alloy using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM). The results show that the Volta potentials measured with the scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) on bulk intermetallics are comparable with those recorded with the SKPFM on the AZ91D alloy. It is shown that SKPFM provides information on the local nobility of the different intermetallic particles and phases on the submicron scale. Both the eta-Al8Mn5 phase and the beta-Mg17Al12 phase in AZ91D showed a more noble potential than the alpha-magnesium phase. It is also shown that the aluminium-rich coring along the grain boundaries results in measurable changes in the Volta potential. Finally, the role of the beta-Mg17Al12 phase and the eta-Al8Mn5 phase in the corrosion behaviour of AZ91D is discussed in term of local nobility, surface coverage of the cathode and the cathodic activity of the different phases.

  • 29.
    Kivisäkk, Ulf
    AB Sandvik Steel.
    A test method for dewpoint corrosion of stainless steels in dilute hydrochloric acid2003Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 485-495Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When acid-containing gases condense on a steel surface a phenomenon called dewpoint corrosion can occur. In this case severe attack can appear and the attack cannot be predicted from traditional immersion test data. Dewpoint corrosion can for instance be found in refinery overhead condensers and in waste incineration plants. An experimental set-up consisting of a closed glass loop has been constructed in which stainless steel samples are exposed to condensing conditions simulating a formed condensate of about 1% HCl. In the loop three stainless steels have been tested. For all three materials higher corrosion rates were found in the loop than obtained in immersion tests but in the same range as can be predicted from service experience.

  • 30. Kratschmer, A.
    et al.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    The evolution of outdoor copper patina2002Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 425-450Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A general reaction scheme has been deduced which describes the evolution of the copper patina, including altogether eight compounds, formed upon exposure to outdoor atmospheric environments. The scheme is based on data obtained from altogether 39 exposure sites, using a recently developed method for quantitative X-ray powder diffraction analysis of up to 8 year old patina still adhering to the copper substrate. In all cases, cuprite forms initially and continuously throughout the atmospheric exposure. Three main sequences have been identified on sheltered copper, representing different reaction routes in sulfur- or chlorine-dominated environments. In less sulfur-polluted environments, posnjakite forms on the cuprite as a precursor to brochantite. In more sulfur-polluted environments, strandbergite is a precursor to antlerite. Both reaction routes may operate simultaneously and the main route may change from the more sulfur-polluted to the less polluted route, as a result of decreased pollutant levels. In chlorine-dominated environments the initial cuprite formation is followed by nantokite and atacamite. By far the most dominating sequence on unsheltered copper includes cuprite, followed by posnjakite and brochantite formation.

  • 31. Levin, Martina
    et al.
    Wiklund, Per
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Bioorganic compounds as copper corrosion inhibitors in hydrocarbon media2012Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 58, s. 104-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The corrosion protection of copper by four bioorganic compounds; adenine, purine, cysteine and histidine, in hydrocarbon media has been examined by in situ ellipsometry, atom absorption spectroscopy and a standard corrosion test. Adenine and purine were found to irreversibly bind to the copper surface. The amount of dissolved copper was severely lowered and the copper surface appeared unaffected. It was concluded that adenine and purine exhibited a surface passivating effect, whereas the effect of cysteine and histidine was significantly lower. The influence on oxidation stability of the medium by addition of the compounds was examined and found to be minor.

  • 32.
    Leygraf, Christopher
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Chang, Tingru
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    The origin and evolution of copper patina colour2019Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 157, s. 337-346Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The copper patina colour has been systematically explored through a large set of short- and long-term exposed copper metal samples. The initial brown-black appearance is attributed to semiconducting properties of cuprite (Cu2O) and fully attained at thickness 0.8 +/- 0.2 mu m. The characteristic green-blue appearance is due to the colour forming Cu(II)-ion in the outer patina layer which needs to be 12 +/- 2 mu m to fully cover the inner cuprite layer. No significant influence of atmospheric environment on patina colour is discerned. The green-blue patina colour on historic copper was attained after shorter exposures than in modem copper due to more inhomogeneous microstructure.

  • 33. Lindström, Rakel
    et al.
    Johansson, L. G.
    Thompson, G. E.
    Skeldon, P.
    Svensson, J. E.
    Corrosion of magnesium in humid air2004Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 46, nr 5, s. 1141-1158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of ambient concentrations of carbon dioxide on the atmospheric corrosion of magnesium has been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), revealing the development and growth of corrosion products. The surfaces investigated by AFM were prepared by ultramicrotomy, using a diamond knife, to generate a smooth finish without using water or lubricant. Sputter-deposited Mg films were also studied with mechanically polished samples used to monitor the overall corrosion process. The exposures were performed at 22.0 degreesC in a synthetic environment with precise control of relative humidity (95%) and CO2 (0 or 350 ppm). Corrosion is localized in the absence of CO2 and is related to noble inclusions in the metal matrix. After corrosion product removal, relatively deep pits are evident. In contrast, pitting is inhibited in the presence of CO, with relatively uniform corrosion product development; further, the noble inclusions have no effect on the distribution of corrosion. The inhibitive effect of CO2 is also observed in the long-term exposures, showing that CO2 reduces the average corrosion rate. Mechanisms are introduced to explain the effects of CO2 and the roles of the noble inclusions on the corrosion behaviour.

  • 34.
    Midander, Klara
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christopher
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Elaboration of a test method for the study of metal release from stainless steel particles in artificial biological media2006Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 48, nr 9, s. 2855-2866Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on metal release from stainless steel particles can be used in the assessment and quantification of the potential impact of stainless steel on health and the environment. To elaborate a test method suitable for the study of metal release from particles, the experimental parameters particle loading, agitation and separation of particles from the solution were investigated through exposure of 316L powder particles in two artificial biological media. The results suggest that a small particle loading, bi-linear shaking and centrifugation for separation of particles from the solution give the most reproducible results. They also show that metal release rates are strongly influenced by the physico-chemical properties of the test medium and the effective surface area of particles during exposure

  • 35.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Seasonal variations in corrosion rate and runoff rate of copper roofs in an urban and a rural atmospheric environment2001Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 43, nr 12, s. 2379-2396Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the results from an extensive field exposure program implemented to study possible seasonal dependencies of copper corrosion rates and runoff rates. Two-year exposures in one urban and one rural environment were performed at four different starting seasons. An extensive multi-analytical approach was undertaken of all exposed samples. Seasonal differences in corrosion product formation was observed during the first month of exposure and attributed mainly to differences in relative humidity conditions. Seasonal differences in corrosion rate at the rural site could be discerned throughout the whole two-year exposure, again, mainly attributed to differences in relative humidity, No seasonal effect could be observed at the urban site indicating that other parameters influenced the corrosion kinetics at this site. While corrosion rates exhibit a continuous decrease with exposure time. the yearly runoff rates are independent of time. Depending on starting months the yearly copper runoff rates ranged from 1.1 to 1.7 g m(-2) y(-1) for the urban site, and from 0.6 to 1.0 g m(-2) y(-1) for the rural site. These seasonal variations were primarily attributed to differences in precipitation quantity and environmental characteristics. Runoff rates are significantly lower than corrosion rates as long as the adhering copper patina is growing with exposure time. A full risk assessment requires not only information on the total amount of copper in the runoff, but also on its chemical speciation, Under present conditions, 70-90%,, of all copper in runoff water collected immediately after leaving the surface is present as the most bioavailable form, the hydrated cupric ion, Cu(H2O)(6)(2+).

  • 36.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Lu, Jianshu
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Bertling, Sofia
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Release rates of chromium and nickel from 304 and 316 stainless steel during urban atmospheric exposure: a combined field and laboratory study2002Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 44, nr 10, s. 2303-2319Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Release rates of chromium and nickel from pickled and skin passed 304 and 316 stainless steel have been determined during a one-year field exposure in an urban environment (Stockholm, Sweden) and through complementary exposures in artificial rain. Measured annual release rates from 304 stainless steel are 0.25-0.3 mg Cr/m(2) and 0.3-0.4 mgNi/m(2), and slightly higher from 316 stainless steel, 0.35-0.4 mgCr/m(2) and 0.7-0.8 mgNi/m(2). The release rates decrease as the rain pH increases and exhibit no direct influence by rain intensity. Variations in release rates are thought to be a result of a non-uniformly attack.

  • 37.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Verbiest, P.
    He, W.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Effects of exposure direction and inclination on the runoff rates of zinc and copper roofs2000Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 42, nr 8, s. 1471-1487Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of exposure direction and inclination on the runoff rates of both zinc and copper has been studied by field exposures on model roofs. Runoff rates decrease with higher inclinations from horizon and are higher for exposures directed towards the prevailing wind direction. At a given pollution concentration, the metal runoff is largely governed by the precipitation volume impinging on the surface. In this study the field exposure results were compared to laboratory tests on zinc and copper panels with different inclinations. Current literature mainly describes runoff rates for zinc and copper panels inclined 45 degrees facing south. Calculations of the average runoff rate using the runoff rates obtained on the model roofs as well as market information show that the effect of inclination, orientation and degree of sheltering are important parameters to consider while estimating runoff rates from existing buildings.

  • 38.
    Pan, Jinshan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Rosborg, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Tafel slopes used in monitoring of copper corrosion in a bentonite/groundwater environment2005Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 47, nr 12, s. 3267-3279Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The harmonic analysis, the polarization resistance, and the noise resistance methods have been applied in an effort to monitor corrosion of pure copper in a bentonite/groundwater environment with commercially available equipment. Without the need to use a reference electrode, the first method supplies not only an estimate of the corrosion rate, but also estimates of Tafel slopes required by the other methods. The recorded corrosion rate is overestimated but to a varying degree. While the recorded corrosion rates for the first two methods give quite similar values far below 3 lm/year, the electrochemical noise resistance method gives considerably higher values.

  • 39.
    Qadeer, Muhammad I.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Azhdar, Bruska
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Savage, S. J.
    Anomalous high temperature oxidation of Sm 2(Fe,Co,Cu,Zr) 17 particles2012Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 65, s. 453-460Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sm 2Co 17 alloys are attractive as high temperature permanent magnets; however their magnetic properties are prone to degrade by oxidation. The oxidation mechanism is not clearly understood, and inconsistent results are reported in the literature.This work correlates the oxidation of Sm 2(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr) 17 with microstructural and microchemical changes as a consequence of chemical reaction of alloy particles with their environment at high temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis suggests a change in oxidation mechanism occurs at 550°C. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggests this is related to the loss of Sm by sublimation.

  • 40.
    Sababi, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Ejnermark, S.
    Andersson, J.
    Claesson, Per Martin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Microstructure influence on corrosion behavior of a Fe-Cr-V-N tool alloy studied by SEM/EDS, scanning Kelvin force microscopy and electrochemical measurement2013Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 66, s. 153-159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Microstructure influence on corrosion behavior of an N-based tool alloy (Fe-Cr-V-N) has been studied. Electron microscopy analysis showed two types of hard phases in the alloy. One-pass mode scanning Kelvin force microscopy (KFM) was used to investigate relative nobility of the hard phases. Volta potential mapping indicates higher nobility for the hard phases than the alloy matrix, and, the V- and N-rich particles exhibit the highest Volta potential. Post-polarization analysis by SEM revealed localized dissolution initiated in matrix regions adjacent to hard phase particles, and the boundary region surrounding the Cr- and Mo-rich particles is more prone to localized corrosion.

  • 41.
    Sababi, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Augustsson, Per-Erik
    Sundell, Per-Erik
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Influence of polyaniline and ceria nanoparticle additives on corrosion protection of a UV-cure coating on carbon steel2014Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 84, s. 189-197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Influence of a few percents additives of polyaniline doped with phosphoric acid (PAni-PA) and ceria nanoparticle on corrosion protection of a new ultraviolet (UV)-cure polyester acrylate coating have been studied for coil coating on carbon steel by electrochemical measurements during exposure to a NaCl solution. The results demonstrate that the presence of ceria nanoparticles improves the barrier property and stability of the coating. Adding the PAni-PA results in active corrosion protection for carbon steel due to passivation of the steel, and the combination of both additives greatly enhances the protection property over that of the coating matrix alone.

  • 42.
    Sandberg, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Le Bozec, N.
    Corrosion-induced copper runoff from naturally and pre-patinated copper in a marine environment2006Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 48, nr 12, s. 4316-4338Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion-induced copper runoff has been monitored for copper sheet, naturally patinated copper and pre-patinated copper, with and without surface treatments, in a marine environment during one year. The study comprises solution measurements on total copper runoff rates, sulphates and chlorides released from the patina, and parallel surface analytical studies on patina formation, combined with electrochemical impedance measurements on changes in barrier properties during exposure. Bioassay tests and model predictions were applied to elucidate copper bioavailability at the immediate release situation. The runoff rate of copper was significantly lower compared to the corrosion rate throughout the exposure period. At comparable rain quantities, copper runoff rates were significantly 66 lower at the marine site compared to similar data obtained in an urban environment. The bioavailable concentration of released copper was significantly lower compared to the total copper concentration.

  • 43.
    Sathirachinda, Namurata
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Depletion effects at phase boundaries in 2205 duplex stainless steel characterized with SKPFM and TEM/EDS2009Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 51, nr 8, s. 1850-1860Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    2205 duplex stainless steel, which had undergone two different heat treatments, was characterized by means of SEM/EDS, TEM/EDS, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM). In general, paramagnetic austenite was found to exhibit the highest Volta potential, followed by non-magnetic sigma phase and ferromagnetic ferrite. The local Volta potential drop at the phase boundaries is clearly visible in the slowly cooled sample with sigma phase precipitate while it is not notable in the solution-annealed reference sample. Chemical composition line analyses with TEM/EDS showed the depletion of Cr and Mo at the phase boundaries.

  • 44.
    Sathirachinda, Namurata
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    Wessman, Sten
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Study of nobility of chromium nitrides in isothermally aged duplex stainless steels by using SKPFM and SEM/EDS2010Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 52, nr 1, s. 179-186Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative nobility of Cr2N in duplex stainless steels (DSSs) was investigated in isothermally aged 2205 and 2507 DSSs using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) and SEM/EDS. The specimens contained nitrides, austenite and sigma phase but no ferrite. In these materials, Cr2N exhibits a higher Volta potential than sigma phase and austenite, implying the highest practical nobility of Cr2N compare to the surrounding phases. The composition and alloying effect can explain the relative nobility of the phases. The apparent "size effect" of small Cr2N on the measured Volta potential difference is probably due to the influence of surrounding matrix.

  • 45.
    Szakalos, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Lundberg, M.
    Pettersson, R.
    Metal dusting on an alumina forming Ni-base alloy2006Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 48, nr 7, s. 1679-1695Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-performance commercial alumina-forming Ni-base alloy was studied after a 2 years field exposure at 540 degrees C in a methanol plant with a gas composition of 10-20%CO and 20-40%H2O, with some CO2 and the remainder H-2. The same material was also used in laboratory studies performed at 650 degrees C Using a gas mixture With higher CO and lower H-2,O content: 50%CO + 3%H2O + 47H(2) (carbon activity a(c) = 39). Post-exposure metallographic examinations together with thermodynamic calculations were used to identify and describe the metal dusting processes. A growth mechanism for metal dusting in nickel base alloys, which is independent of metal bulk diffusion, is identified. The process involves it separation of the carbon-saturated metal into a network of discontinuous precipitated carbides and a depleted Ni-austenite matrix followed by selective oxidation of the carbide network. The corrosion product consists of Cr-depleted Ni-particles, Cr-rich oxides and free carbon. The estimated metal dusting corrosion rate in the field exposure was 20-25 mu m/year. based on metallography and it was correlated to a theoretical model based on boundary diffusion processes.

  • 46.
    Szakalos, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Pettersson, R.
    Hertzman, Staffan N.
    An active corrosion mechanism for metal dusting on 304L stainless steel2002Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 44, nr 10, s. 2253-2270Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A mechanism for metal dusting of chromia-forming stainless steels is proposed, based on results from laboratory exposures of 304L stainless steel at 650 degreesC for 1000 h in a synthesis gas low in water vapour, 25%CO + 3%H2O + H. The work focuses on the role of carbides and oxygen to explain the different corrosion mechanisms and give a description of the metal dusting phenomenon as it appears in engineering alloys. Metallographical examinations, FEG-SEM, SEM-EDX analysis and X-ray diffraction, as well as thermodynamic calculations were made in order to identify the proposed metal dusting mechanism.

  • 47.
    Szakalos, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Åkermark, T.
    Rost & Ratt, Ugglev 32C, S-13141 Nacka, Sweden..
    Leygraf, Christopher
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Comments on the paper "Copper in ultrapure water, a scientific issue under debate" by M. Ottosson, M. Boman, P. Berastegui, Y. Andersson, M. Hahlin, M. Korvela, and R. Berger2018Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 142, s. 305-307Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 48. Wadsak, M.
    et al.
    Aastrup, T.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Schreiner, M.
    Multianalytical in situ investigation of the initial atmospheric corrosion of bronze2002Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 791-802Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) were used for in situ investigations of the initial atmospheric corrosion of bronze. In addition ex situ XPS investigations were carried out on the samples before and after the exposure, as well as on the sputtered bronze sample. Investigations were carried out in synthetic air with 80% relative humidity (RH) and synthetic air with 80% RH with 250 ppb SO2. At 80% RH, small features covering the surface were observed with AFM, whereas IRAS detected that more water is adsorbed on the bronze sample surface compared to pure copper. Large features on top of smaller features were observed with AFM on the bronze surface exposed to SO2-containing humidified air. These large features were identified as copper sulfite. Furthermore, cuprous oxide was detected approximately 500 min after the introduction Of SO2. This fact and the XPS results indicate the formation of a protective lead oxide layer already during the preparation of the sample, which is destroyed by the SO2-containing environment and leads to the formation of cuprous oxide and copper sulfite.

  • 49. Wallinder, D.
    et al.
    Hultquist, Gunnar
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Tveten, B.
    Hornlund, E.
    Hydrogen in chromium: influence on corrosion potential and anodic dissolution in neutral NaCl solution2001Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 43, nr 7, s. 1267-1281Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of hydrogen charging, outgassing, pickling and passivation of mechanically polished chromium was investigated with respect to corrosion potential and anodic dissolution in 0.3 M NaCl solution. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements were used to detect hydrogen after hydrogen charging by means of cathodic polarization. The results show that hydrogen in chromium decreases the corrosion potential and increases the anodic dissolution rate. Passivation in HNO3 and pickling in HNO3 + HF increases the corrosion potential, whereas no significant effect on the anodic dissolution could be observed, probably due to a hydrogen uptake in these surface treatments.

  • 50. Wallinder, D.
    et al.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Delblanc-Bauer, A.
    Electrochemical investigation of pickled and polished 304L stainless steel tubes2000Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 42, nr 8, s. 1457-1469Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of two pickling methods and mechanical polishing on polarization resistance, passive current density and break-down potential of 304L tubes was investigated by EIS and potentiodynamic measurements in 0.05 M H2SO4 + 0.05 M NaCl solution. The electrochemical cell was specially designed to separately measure outer and inner surfaces of tubes. The results demonstrated that the outer and inner surfaces of tubes could be separately evaluated by the electrochemical measurements using the cell configuration. Differences in the electrochemical behavior were observed between pickled and polished tubes, between the inner and outer surface of tubes, and between the two pickling methods.

12 1 - 50 av 61
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