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  • 1.
    Alipour, Yousef
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Henderson, Pamela
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Szakalos, Peter
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    The effect of a nickel alloy coating on the corrosion of furnace wall tubes in a waste wood fired power plant2014In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 217-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of waste wood as a fuel in power plants is becoming more widespread in Europe, because it is a renewable energy source with a lower cost than forest fuel. However it is more corrosive than coal and corrosion problems have arisen in the furnace wall area of a low NOx heat and power boiler. The furnace walls are made of a low alloy steel which has been coated in some parts with a nickel alloy to reduce corrosion. In this work, furnace tubes coated with a nickel alloy were compared to the uncoated tubes of the low alloy steel 16Mo3 after 3 years of exposure in the boiler. The nickel alloy coating and uncoated material were also compared with more controlled testing on a corrosion probe lasting for about 6 weeks. The corrosion rates were measured and the samples were chemically analysed by SEM/EDS/WDS and XRD methods. The corrosive environment was also modelled with Thermo-Calc software. The corrosion rates measured from the probe and tube samples of 16Mo3 agreed well with each other, implying linear corrosion rates. The results also showed that the use of nickel alloy coatings changes the corrosion mechanism, which leads to a dramatic reduction in the corrosion rate. The results are discussed in terms of the corrosion mechanisms and thermodynamic stability of the corrosion products.

  • 2. Davoodi, A.
    et al.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Parvizi, R.
    Norgren, S.
    An insight into the influence of morphological and compositional heterogeneity of an individual intermetallic particle on aluminium alloy corrosion initiation2013In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 195-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a multi-analytical in situ and ex situ approach was used to provide information needed to identify the role of an individual heterogeneous intermetallic particle (IMP) in localized corrosion initiation of aluminium alloys. The heterogeneity of the IMP was studied by combining atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEMEDS) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). A complex AlMnFeSi IMP phase with different chemical composition in its inner and outer parts was characterized by SEMEDS analysis. AFM results uniquely revealed a brain-like feature of an IMP with 20nm height variations. Submicron sized galvanic cell induced by morphological and compositional heterogeneity resulted in a localized corrosion attack inside the individual IMP. Various collected current levels measured by SECM were associated to the morphological and compositional heterogeneity of IMPs.

  • 3.
    Elger, Ragna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Swerea KIMAB.
    Magnusson, Hans
    Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Frisk, Karin
    Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Modelling internal nitridation in an alumina-forming austenitic stainless steel2016In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Elger, Ragna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Swerea KIMAB.
    Norling, Rikard
    Swerea KIMAB.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Jernkontoret.
    Corrosion and deposit formation on four steels exposed in the syngas section after a biomass gasifier2016In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Le Bozec, N.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Spatial distribution and formation of corrosion products in relation to zinc release for zinc sheet and coated pre-weathered zinc at an urban and a marine atmospheric condition2013In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 300-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc release data from 5 years of unsheltered exposures in a marine and an urban site is compiled for different zinc material types. The thin surface treatment on zinc materials is gradually detached after approximately 2 years at both sites, revealing the pre-weathered zinc surface unprotected. This consequently increased the release rates of zinc from this surface, whereas the zinc runoff rate from the bare zinc sheet remained relatively stable. Raman studies on bare zinc sheet exposed for 5 years at the marine site revealed zinc oxide of varying crystalline nature and hydrozincite to appear localized and separated from each other.

  • 6.
    Henderson, Pamela
    et al.
    Vattenfall Research and Development.
    Szakalos, Peter
    Swedish Institute for Metals Research.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    Andersson, Christer
    Högberg, Jan
    Reducing superheater corrosion in wood-fired boilers2006In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 128-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major drawbacks to the combustion of 100% biomass in power station boilers is the increase in the fouling and corrosion of superheaters. Experience shows that conventional superheater steels last no more than 20 000 h or four operating years before they must be replaced, if 100% wood-based fuel is used and the steam temperature is higher than 480C. Rapid corrosion of superheaters leads to increased maintenance costs while widespread deposit formation gives rise to a decrease in efficiency of the turbine and an increase in unplanned outages.

    This paper reports on measures taken to reduce superheater corrosion. Most biomass fuels have a high content of alkali metals and chlorine, but they contain very little sulphur compared to fossil fuels. Potassium chloride, KCl, is found in the gas phase, condenses on the superheater tubes and forms complex alkali salts with iron and other elements in the steels. These salts have low melting points and are very corrosive. The corrosion can be mitigated by use of an instrument for in-situ measurement of alkali chlorides in the flue gases, in combination with the addition of ammonium sulphate.  An ammonium sulphate solution, specially developed for the reduction of corrosion was sprayed into the flue gases and effectively converted KCl into potassium sulphate, K2SO4, much less corrosive than KCl.

    Deposit probe tests and long-term corrosion probe tests have been performed in-situ in two biomass-fired fluidised bed boilers. One boiler, 105 MW tot, 540C steam, is the CHP plant in Nyköping,Sweden. The other producing 98 MWtot, 480C steam, is a bark-fired boiler at a pulp and paper mill in Munksund, also in Sweden. Tests have been performed with a range of steel types, ferritic and austenitic, with ammonium sulphate additive and under normal conditions (no additive). Corrosion rates have been measured, deposit chemistry analysed and flue gas chemistry and KCl content measured. The structure and composition of the oxide with and without ammonium sulphate has been investigated. The results show that ammonium sulphate reduced the KCl levels in the flue gases, removed the chlorides from the deposits and the metal/oxide interface, greatly reduced the deposition rates and halved the corrosion rates for superheater materials. The alkali chloride measuring system and the use of ammonium sulphate for the reduction of corrosion have now been patented.

  • 7.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Karlsson, Maria-Elisa
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    A novel method to assess mass loss of aluminium in concrete2018In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel pickling procedure for aluminium is elaborated for successful removal of corrosion products on aluminium embedded and exposed in concrete, allowing subsequent mass loss evaluation. The current recommended standard procedures for mass loss evaluation of aluminium are not sufficiently effective, either leaving significant amounts of concrete and corrosion products on the aluminium surfaces after pickling, or containing hazardous chemicals. Removal of both concrete and corrosion products from the aluminium surfaces require a stepwise combination of an aqueous glycine solution, nitric acid at elevated temperature and careful manual removal of adherent concrete.

  • 8.
    Ipek, Nulifer
    et al.
    Swedish Institute for Metals Research.
    Holm, Benny
    Swedish Institute for Metals Research.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    Swedish Institute for Metals Research.
    Runnsjö, Gunilla
    Outokumpu Stainless AB.
    Karlsson, Maria
    Outokumpu Stainless AB.
    Electrolytic pickling of duplex stainless steel2005In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 56, no 8, p. 521-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pickling of duplex stainless steels has proved to be much more difficult than that of standard austenitic grades. Electrolytic pre-pickling is shown to be a key process towards facilitating the pickling process for material annealed both in the production-line and in laboratory experiments. The mechanism for the neutral electrolytic process on duplex 2205 and austenitic 316 steels has been examined and the oxide scale found to become thinner as a function of electrolytic pickling time. Spallation or peeling of the oxide induced by gas evolution did not play a decisive role. A maximum of about 20% of the current supplied to the oxidised steel surface goes to dissolution reactions whereas about 80% of the current was consumed in oxygen gas production. This makes the current utilisation very poor, particularly against the background of reports that in indirect electrolytic pickling only about 30% of the total current, supplied to the process, actually goes into the strip. A parametric study was therefore carried out to determine whether adjustment of process variables could improve the current utilisation.

  • 9.
    Larsson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jonsson, T.
    Naraghi, R.
    Gong, Y.
    Reed, R. C.
    Ågren, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Oxidation of iron at 600 degrees C - experiments and simulations2016In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pure iron has been oxidized at 600°C and 1bar in dry O2 (oxygen partial pressure 0.05, bal. N2) and the mass gain as well as the thicknesses of the individual oxide phases have been measured. The oxidation process has been simulated using a modified version of the homogenization model as implemented in Dictra; this has helped to rationalize the kinetics of oxide scale formation and in particular the evolution of the hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), and wustite (FeO) which form. Independently assessed thermodynamic and kinetic Calphad databases are needed for the calculations; details of these are given. Reasonable agreement between simulation results and experimental data is obtained, though it is concluded that the large influence of grain boundary diffusion on the oxidation rate needs further consideration.

  • 10. Lindström, Rakel
    et al.
    Johansson, L. G.
    Svensson, J. E.
    The influence of NaCl and CO2 on the atmospheric corrosion of magnesium alloy AZ912003In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 54, no 8, p. 587-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of NaCl and CO2 on the atmospheric corrosion of magnesium alloy AZ91 is studied in the laboratory. Samples were exposed under carefully controlled air and flow conditions; the relative humidity was 95%, the temperature was 22.0degreesC and the concentration of CO2 was <1 ppm or 350 ppm. Different amounts of sodium chloride (0-70 μg/cm(2)) were added before exposure. The corrosion products were analyzed by gravimetry, ion chromatography, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Mass gain and metal loss results are reported. The combination of high humidity and NaCl is very corrosive towards AZ91. However, the NaCl-induced corrosion is inhibited by ambient concentrations of CO2. Exposure in the absence of CO2 gives rise to heavy pitting, with brucite, Mg(OH)(2), being the dominant corrosion product. In the presence of CO2 a layer of hydrated magnesium hydroxy carbonate, Mg-5(CO3)(4)(OH)(2) &BULL; 5H(2)O forms. A tentative corrosion mechanism is presented that explains the behavior in the two environments.

  • 11.
    Sandberg, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Odenvall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christopher
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Virta, Marko
    Release and chemical speciation of copper from anti-fouling paints with different active copper compounds in artificial seawater2007In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 165-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Release rates of total copper in artificial seawater (without organic matter) from anti-fouling paints of different active copper compounds range from 0.5 to 75 μg cm-2 day-1. Approximately 80% of the released total copper was determined to be electrochemically active (labile fraction) for all paints investigated. The remaining fraction is more strongly bonded non-bioavailable copper complexes with species released from the paints. Model calculations, using MinteqA2, predicted only a small portion (≈6%) of the total copper released as free cupric ions (Cu(H2O) 62+), the most bioavailable form of copper. Similar results were obtained with bioassay testing using bacteria and yeast on released copper from massive copper sheet exposed at identical conditions. The large difference between the total and the bioavailable copper fraction emphasizes the importance of generating chemical speciation data for accurate decisions of potential adverse effects of copper release from antifouling paints. The observed release of other metals and organic substances from the paint matrix, implies the importance to assess an integrated response from released species from paints of antifouling, and not only from single ingredients.

  • 12.
    Sathirachinda, Namurata
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Wessman, Sten
    Pettersson, Rachel
    Outokumpu Stainless AB, Avesta Research Centre.
    Evaluation of corrosion behaviour in a 317L stainless steel strip welding using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy2011In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 62, no 12, p. 1092-1099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy have been used in combination with SEM/EDS and immersion tests to study a 317L electroslag strip weld which contains austenite and interdendritic ferrite and sigma phase. The individual phases can easily be recognized from the compositional contrast, magnetic pattern and Volta potential variation. Austenite, which is paramagnetic, exhibits the highest Volta potential followed by non-magnetic sigma phase and ferromagnetic ferrite, respectively. Corrosion testing in acidic chloride solutions indicates that the Volta potential measured in air can be related to the tendency to uniform corrosion, while pitting corrosion shows different dependence. In both cases ferrite and sigma phase behaved in a similar manner, indicating that there was no specific detrimental effect of sigma phase on corrosion properties in this material.

  • 13.
    Szakalos, Peter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Mechanisms and driving forces of metal dusting2003In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 54, no 10, p. 752-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms of metal dusting as it appears on different ferritic stainless steels and pure iron have been described in detail. A mechanism for metal dusting (MD) of chromia-forming as well as alumina-forming steels is proposed, based on results from laboratory exposures of 26Cr-steel and FeCrAl-alloy at 600-650 C for up to 5000 h in a synthesis gas tow, in water vapour, 25%CO + 3%H2O + H-2. Metallographical examinations, FEG-SEM, SEM-EDX analysis and X-ray diffraction. as well as thermodynamic calculations were made in order to identify and describe the different metal dusting processes. The work focuses on the role of carbides and oxides to explain the observations and give a description of the metal dusting phenomenon as it appears in engineering alloys. This mechanism was first observed and identified in a study of an austenitic stainless steel. The driving force for steady state MD on pure iron and low alloyed steels is described and a secondary MD-mechanism, carbon nanotube formation. is described in detail. With these additional results it is now possible to extend understanding of the MD-processes to a wide range of engineering alloys.

  • 14. Szakalos, Peter
    et al.
    Hertzman, Staffan N.
    Pettersson, R. F. A.
    Ivarsson, B.
    The effect of surface condition and cold work on the sulphidation resistance of 153MA at 700 degrees C2000In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 313-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The normal grain sized 153MA-sample experienced an almost linear weight gain curve in the sulphidizing environment while modified materials, with a finer grain size or cold worked structure, displayed more parabolic behaviour and lower weight gains. These effects may be related to more effective Cr-diffusion in the modified samples with a higher Cr-grain boundary diffusion in the fine grain-sample and a higher Cr-bulk diffusion rate in the cold worked sample. The sand blasted sample performed exceedingly well with a thin protective oxide layer compared to the etched and ground samples which both suffered significant weight loss and spalling. The deformed surface structure on the sand blasted sample enhances the Cr-bulk diffusion thus promoting a protective Cr-rich oxide formation.

  • 15. Tabeshian, A.
    et al.
    Persson, D.
    Arnberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM). Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway.
    Aune, R. E.
    Corrosion behavior of bulk amorphous and crystalline Zr-based alloys in simulated body fluid with and without additions of protein2016In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 67, no 7, p. 748-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the present study has been to investigate the electrochemical behavior of, and oxide film formation on, the bulk amorphous Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 alloy and the crystalline counterpart in simulated body fluid. Different analytical methods, e.g., polarization and electrochemical impedance measurements, were used to compare the results of the samples when exposed to, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), with or without the addition of protein (albumin). Moreover, the influence of pH on the corrosion behavior of the materials was also investigated. Pitting corrosion was observed to exist on both amorphous and crystalline samples after exposure to the PBS solution, but the passivity region was much smaller for the crystalline material. The addition of protein to the PBS solution improved passive behavior and led to higher pitting potential in the case of the crystalline samples, while the pitting corrosion potential decreased slightly in the case of the amorphous samples. Furthermore, a decrease in the pH level accelerates the dissolution rate of both materials when exposed to the PBS environment, however, in the presence of albumin the pitting corrosion potential increased in the case of both materials.

  • 16. Talus, A.
    et al.
    Alipour, Yousef
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Norling, R.
    Henderson, Pamela
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Effect of sewage sludge addition on initial corrosion of 16Mo3 and 310S when exposed in a used wood fired boiler2016In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With an expanding use of low quality bio fuels, corrosion problems on water wall tubes are increasing. In this study, the possible corrosion reducing effect when adding digested sewage sludge to the fuel in a used wood (also known as waste or recycled wood) fired furnace has been evaluated. The low alloyed steel 16Mo3 and the stainless steel 310S were exposed for 14.25h at the furnace wall position when firing only used wood and used wood with sewage sludge additions. The exposures were performed in a bubbling fluidized bed boiler and the metal temperature of the test samples was controlled to 350°C. Chemical analysis of the deposits and microscopic evaluation of the metallic samples showed reduced amount of alkali metals and chlorine in the deposit together with reduced initial corrosion for both materials when co-firing with digested sewage sludge. In the corrosion process, metal chlorides were formed for both materials when firing only used wood, iron chlorides for the low alloyed steel, and chromium chlorides for the stainless steel. When co-firing with sewage sludge, this behavior was suppressed.

  • 17. Tang, L.
    et al.
    Zhang, E. Q.
    Fu, Ying
    KTH.
    Schouenborg, B.
    Lindqvist, J. E.
    Covercrete with hybrid functions - A novel approach to durable reinforced concrete structures2012In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 63, no 12, p. 1119-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete structures, the concrete with low water-cement ratio (w/c), high cement content, and large cover thickness is conventionally used for prolonging the passivation period of steel. Obviously, this conventional approach to durable concrete structures is at the sacrifice of more CO2 emission and natural resources through consuming higher amount of cement and more constituent materials, which is against sustainability. By placing an economically affordable conductive mesh made of carbon fiber or conductive polymer fiber in the near surface zone of concrete acting as anode we can build up a cathodic prevention system with intermittent low current density supplied by, e.g., the solar cells. In such a way, the aggressive negative ions such as Cl-, CO3 2-, and SO4 2- can be stopped near the cathodic (steel) zone. Thus the reinforcement steel is prevented from corrosion even in the concrete with relatively high w/c and small cover thickness. This conductive mesh functions not only as electrode, but also as surface reinforcement to prevent concrete surface from cracking. Therefore, this new type of covercrete has hybrid functions. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of feasibility of this approach and discusses the potential durability problems and possible solutions to the potential problems.

  • 18.
    Zhou, Nian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Schönning, Mikael
    Lin Peng, Ru
    Influence of surface grinding on corrosion behavior of ferritic stainless steels in boiling magnesium chloride solution2018In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of grinding operations on surface properties and corrosion behavior of a ferritic stainless steel (FSS), EN 1.4509, has been investigated and limited comparisons also made to the grade EN 1.4622. Surface grinding was performed along the rolling direction of the material. Corrosion tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride solution according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and under four‐point bend loading. The surface topography and cross‐section microstructure before and after exposure were investigated, and residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after corrosion tests using X‐ray diffraction. In addition, in situ surface stress measurements were performed to evaluate the actual surface stresses of specimens subject to four‐point bend loading according to ASTM G39. Micro‐pits showing branched morphology initiated from the highly deformed ground surface layer which contained fragmented grains, were observed for all the ground specimens but not those in the as‐delivered condition. Grain boundaries under the surface layer appeared to hinder the corrosion process. No macro‐cracking was found on any specimen after exposure even at high calculated applied loads.

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