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  • 1. Andersson, Henrik C. M.
    et al.
    Seitisleam, Facredin
    Sandstrom, Rolf
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Creep testing of thick-wall copper electron beam and friction stir welds2004In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 824, p. 51-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thick section copper canisters are planned to be used as a corrosion protection of nuclear waste disposal containers for long term underground deposal in Sweden. The copper canisters will have the top and possibly the bottom lid welded to the canister walls using electron beam or friction stir welding. Due to the high external hydrostatic pressure and the relatively high temperature of the waste during the first one hundred years the copper will creep. The creep process will close the manufacturing gap between the cast iron container and the copper canister. The creep ductility must be sufficient to avoid cracking of the weld. Specimens cut from the friction stir welds and the electron beam welds have been creep tested at temperatures ranging from 75 to 175 degreesC. Cross-weld specimens were used for both friction stir and electron beam welds. Weld metal, heat affected zone and base metal were also studied for friction stir welds. The results for the electron beam welds show that the main creep deformation is concentrated to the weld metal where the failure takes place. Weld metal and most cross-weld tests of friction stir weld material show similar creep lives and ductility as base metal tests. Ductility at rupture was found to exceed 30% for friction stir weld specimens, and the Norton power law exponent was determined to be between 30 and 50.

  • 2.
    Butorin, S. M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Shuh, D. K.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Kvashnina, K.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Soroka, Inna L.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Ollila, K.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Roberts, K. E.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Guo, J. -H
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Werme, L.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Nordgren, J.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering studies of U(VI) reduction on iron surfaces2004In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 807, no Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXVII, p. 113-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors report on the spectroscopic anal. of several samples relevant to the processes governing the behavior of oxidized U species in groundwater solns. under anoxic conditions. Both Fe samples with different times of exposure to the U(IV) soln. and Fe metal-soln. interfaces in the liq. cell ex-situ and in-situ, resp. Resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering is sensitive to the chem. state of U. The measurements were performed at a no. of energies of the primary photon beam across the U 5d absorption edge. The results unambiguously indicate the redn. of U(VI) to U(IV) on the Fe surface. [on SciFinder(R)]

  • 3.
    Fornara, Andrea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Recalenda, Alberto
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Qin, Jian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Fei, Ye
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Laurent, Sophie
    University of Mons.
    Muller, Robert
    University of Mons.
    Zou, Jing
    University of Tampere.
    Usama, Abo-RAmadan
    University of Helsinki.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Polymeric/inorganic multifunctional nanoparticles for simultaneous drug delivery and visualization2010In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoparticles consisting of different biocompatible materials are attracting a lot of interest in the biomedical area as useful tools for drug delivery, photo-therapy and contrast enhancement agents in MRI, fluorescence and confocal microscopy. This work mainly focuses on the synthesis of polymeric/inorganic multifunctional nanoparticles (PIMN) based on biocompatible di-block copolymer poly(L,L-lactide-co-ethylene glycol) (PLLA-PEG) via an emulsion-evaporation method. Besides containing a hydrophobic drug (Indomethacin), these polymeric nanoparticles incorporate different visualization agents such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) and fluorescent Quantum Dots (QDs) that are used as contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and fluorescence microscopy together. Gold Nanorods are also incorporated in such nanostructures to allow simultaneous visualization and photodynamic therapy. MRI studies are performed with different loading of SPION into PIMN, showing an enhancement in T2 contrast superior to commercial contrast agents. Core-shell QDs absorption and emission spectra are recorded before and after their loading into PIMN. With these polymeric/inorganic multifunctional nanoparticles, both MRI visualization and confocal fluorescence microscopy studies can be performed. Gold nanorods are also synthesized and incorporated into PIMN without changing their longitudinal absorption peak usable for lased excitation and phototherapy. In-vitro cytotoxicity studies have also been performed to confirm the low cytotoxicity of PIMN for further in-vivo studies.

  • 4.
    Isheden, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Seger, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Formation of Ni mono-germanosilicide on heavily B-doped epitaxial SiGe for ultra-shallow source/drain contacts2003In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 745, p. 117-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of Ni germanosilicides during solid-state interaction between Ni and heavily B-doped strained epitaxial Si1-xGex films with x=0.18, 0.32 and 0.37 is studied. No NiSi2 is found in these samples even after annealing at 850 degreesC, which can be compared to the formation of NiSi2 at 750 T on Si(I 00). Resistance and diffraction studies for the Si0.82Ge0.18 sample indicate that NiSi0.82Ge0.18 forms and the NiSi0.82Ge0.18/Si0.82Ge0.18 structure is stable from 400 to 700 degreesC. For the NiSi1-uGeu formed in all Si1-xGex samples, where u can be different from x, a strong film texturing is observed. When the Ge fraction is increased from 18 at.% to 32-37 at.%, the morphological stability of the film is degraded and a substantial increase in sheet resistance occurs already at 600 degreesC. The contact resistivity for the NiSi0.8Ge0.2/Si0.8Ge0.2 interface formed at 550 T is determined as 1.2x10(-7) Omegacm(2), which satisfies the ITRS contact resistivity requirement for the 70 nm technology node.

  • 5.
    Jonsson, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemistry.
    Ekeroth, Ella
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemistry.
    Roth, Olivia
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemistry.
    Dissolution of UO2 by one- and two-electron oxidants2004In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 807, p. 77-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the efficiency of one- and two-electron oxidants in oxidative dissolution Of UO2 has been investigated. This was accomplished by measuring the U(VI)-concentration in solution after exposing UO2-powder to controlled amounts of oxidants in aqueous solution. The oxidants used in this study are H2O2, IrCl62-, CO3.- and OH..H2O2 acts as a two-electron oxidant while the remaining three oxidants are one-electron oxidants. CO3.- and OH. were generated using gamma-radiolysis. The results clearly show that the dissolution yields for one-electron oxidants (per electron pair) are lower than the yields for two-electron oxidants. Furthermore, the yields for one-electron oxidants increase with increasing amount of oxidant (especially at low amounts of oxidant). The rationale for this is that U(VI) is the main soluble species which is formed directly upon two-electron oxidation. For one-electron oxidants the primary oxidation product is U(V) which can form U(VI) upon reaction with a second oxidant. The probability for a second oxidation is however low at low concentrations of oxidant.

  • 6.
    Juhasz, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Kleimann, Pascal
    Size reduction of silicon nanopillars by photo-electrochemical etching2001In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 638, p. F851-F855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon nanopillars, formed by electron beam lithography, were electrochemically etched to provide controlled size reduction. The smallest dimensions achieved were pillars of 15 nm in diameter, restricted mainly by the scanning electron microscope used for characterization. The etch rate was mainly determined by the photogeneration of carriers, by the HF concentration and by the applied voltage bias. The applied bias also controlled the resulting shape of the pillars such that a high bias resulted in etching of the pillar top whereas a negative bias caused etching only at the pillar base. For 0 V, a relatively conform etching of the pillar was observed. We discuss these phenomena in terms of electropolishing or pore formation effects on a local scale.

  • 7.
    Khartsev, Sergiy
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Grishin, Michael A.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Nilsson, Kenth
    Grishin, Alexander M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Thin PZT film pressure microsensor2001In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 666, p. F8121-F8126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a ferroelectric film pressure sensor fabricated on the top of 4 mm long and 1.4 mm in diameter Pt80Ir20 (PtIr) rod-shaped tip. It consists of a PZT(0.5 μm)/LSMO(0.1 μm) film heterostructure, deposited by pulsed laser ablation of stoichiometric ceramic targets PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 and La0.67Sr0.33MnO3, and a circular, ∅ = 1.2 mm, Au electrode on the top of the PZT film. The Au/PZT/LSMO/PtIr thin-film capacitor demonstrates good ferroelectric properties: dielectric constant of 762 and loss tanδ =0.008 @ 5 kHz, induced polarization as high as 32 μC/cm2 at electric field of 250 kV/cm. Piezoelectric test, performed in a hydrostatic pressure chamber, exhibits the piezoelectric constant to be as high as 67 pC/N. This is 20% higher than 56 pC/N shown by a polarized bulk PZT sensor fabricated from the ceramics used as the target in the pulsed laser deposition process. Such an increase of the piezoelectric constant we attribute to the preferential (001) orientation of the PZT film grown on the PtIr bulk substrate. The resolution of the thin PZT film pressure microsensor was found to be about 1 mbar.

  • 8. Kleimann, Pascal
    et al.
    Linnros, Jan
    Juhasz, Robert
    A New Way to Form Three-Dimensional Microstructures by Electrochemical Etching of Silicon2001In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 638, p. F821-F826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new technique of bulk micromachining using anodic etching of (100)-oriented n-type silicon is presented. For particular conditions the transition regime between porous silicon formation and electropolishing enables the formation of high aspect ratio microtips which correspond to inverted macropore structures. This unusual property can be explained by the distortion of currant lines near the basis of formed structures. The distortion, which prevents the tip dissolution, is due to the electrical field in the space charge region at the silicon-electrolyte interface. The same property can be used to form three-dimensional microstructures. The position and shape of the structures can be defined by forming steps of a few microns depth, prior to the electrochemical etching. Then the etching parameters (HF concentration, light intensity, etching current density) are adjusted in order to electropolish the sample except where vertical walls are needed. This enables to form microstructures without a periodic pattern. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated by forming 100 μm wide pores, free-standing beams as well as high aspect ratio micro-needles and micro-tubes.

  • 9.
    Li, Yunguo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Lousada, Patricio Claudio Miguel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Korzhavy, Pavel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Electronic structures and optical properties of cuprous oxide and hydroxide2014In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 1675, p. 185-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The broad range of applications of copper, including areas such as electronics, fuel cells, and spent nuclear fuel disposal, require accurate description of the physical and chemical properties of copper compounds. Within some of these applications, cuprous hydroxide is a compound whose relevance has been recently discovered. Its existence in the solid-state form was recently reported. Experimental determination of its physical-chemical properties is challenging due to its instability and poop crystallinity. Within the framework of density functional theory calculations (DFT), we investigated the nature of bonding, electronic spectra, and optical properties of the cuprous oxide and cuprous hydroxide. It is found that the hybrid functional PBEO can accurately describe the electronic structure and optical properties of these two copper(I) compounds. The calculated properties of cuprous oxide are in good agreement with the experimental data and other theoretical results. The structure of cuprous hydroxide can be deduced from that of cuprous oxide by substituting half Cu∗ in Cu2O lattice with protons. Compared to CU2O, the presence of hydrogen in CuOH has little effect on the ionic nature of Cu-O bonding, but lowers the energy levels of the occupied states. Thus, CuOH is calculated to have a wider indirect band gap of 2.73 eV compared with the Cu2O band gap of 2.17 eV.

  • 10.
    Odell, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Delin, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Ab Initio Study of Switching Properties of Photochromic Dithienylethene Molecules2006In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 965, p. 296-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report an ab initio study of a photochromic dithienylethene derivative. The mechanisms for switching between open and closed conformations are investigated based on total energy calculations for the ground and first excited state. An explanation for the central ring closure based on relaxation of the excited state is presented.

  • 11.
    Qadeer, Muhammad Ifran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Ceramics.
    Azhdar, Bruska
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Savage, Steven J.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Ceramics.
    The Effect of Silanisation on Microstructural Stability and Magnetic Properties of the Intermetallic Sm2(Co, Fe, Cu, Zr)172011In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 1295, p. 443-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of silanising using the coupling agent γ-glycidoxpropyltrimethoxysilane on microstructural stability and magnetic properties of Sm-Co powder particles have been investigated. The silanisation provides structural stability by improving the oxidation resistance at 400oC for 10 hours. The untreated particles undergo microchemical changes by redistribution of alloying elements which mainly accumulate in parallel black and grey streaks in the interior of the particles. The silanised particles after heat treatment show coercivity of 836 Oe and the untreated particles show a much lower coercivity of 376 Oe. The difference in magnetic properties of uncoated particles is caused by diffusion of oxygen and microstructural instability.

  • 12.
    Riazanova, Anastasia V.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Engineering Material Physics.
    Mulders, Johannes J. L.
    FEI Electron Optics.
    Belova, Lyubov M.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Engineering Material Physics.
    Creation of Patterned Gold Nanostructures via Electron-Beam-Induced Deposition2013In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 1546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the methods to grow nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) Au patterns is to perform local electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) using the Me2Au(acac) precursor inside the chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). However, due to the organometallic nature of the chemical, the concentration of the metallic constituent in the as-deposited structure is dramatically low, at around 10 at. % of Au. Ex-situ post-annealing of Me2Au(acac) EBIDs is a very promising purification approach, resulting in an Au content of > 92 at. % after annealing at 600 °C. However, in most of the cases it also distorts the geometrical shape of the heat-treated structure, preserving of which is essential for the application. In this paper we present a systematic study of the dependence between the annealing parameters and resulting purity in combination with the shape of the Au structure. Optimized heat treatment conditions for the creation of well-purified high aspect ratio Au pillar array are presented; and for planar continuous structures, the importance of the parameter height to area ratio is identified.

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