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  • 1. Abbasalizadeh, Aida
    et al.
    Malfliet, Annelies
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Sietsma, Jilt
    Yang, Yongxiang
    Electrochemical Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Magnets: Conversion of Rare Earth Based Metals into Rare Earth Fluorides in Molten Salts2017In: Materials transactions, ISSN 1345-9678, E-ISSN 1347-5320, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 400-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, selective extraction of rare earth (RE) metals from NdFeB magnets is investigated by studying the effects of various fluxes, viz. AlF3, ZnF2, FeF3 and Na3AlF6 in the LiF-NdFeB system. The aim is to convert RE from RE magnet into the fluoride salt melt. The results show the complete selective separation of neodymium (also dysprosium) from the magnet and formation of rare earth fluoride, leaving iron and boron unreacted. The formed rare earth fluoride can subsequently be processed in the same reactor through an electrolysis route so that RE can be deposited as a cathode product. The results of XRD and EPMA analysis of the reacted samples indicate that AlF3, ZnF2 and FeF3 can act as strong fluorinating agents for extraction of rare earth from NdFeB magnet, converting the RE to REF3. The results confirm the feasibility of the rare earth metals recovery from scrap NdFeB magnet as raw material. The fluoride conversion- electrolysis route suggested in the present work enables the extraction of rare earth metals in a single step using the above-mentioned fluxes.

  • 2. Chen, Q.
    et al.
    Sundman, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Computation of partial equilibrium solidification with complete interstitial and negligible substitutional solute back diffusion2002In: Materials transactions, ISSN 1345-9678, E-ISSN 1347-5320, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 551-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple numerical scheme is presented to simulate partial equilibrium solidification with complete interstitial and negligible substitutional solute back diffusion in multi-component and multi-phase systems. Based on this scheme, a computing tool capable of using Thermo-Calc databases directly has been developed for the estimation of solidification behavior of steels and other interstitial-containing alloys. Agreements between calculated and experimental as well as DICTRA results have been obtained on the microsegregation, fraction of eutectic, and freezing range of several steels, This suggests that the partial equilibrium assumption and proposed numerical scheme are reasonable and satisfactory, and confirms that the carbon back diffusion plays a very important role in the solidification of steels.

  • 3.
    Karasev, Andrey V.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Inoue, Ryo
    Simultaneous Determination of the Composition and Size of Oxide Particles in Solid Materials by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry2009In: Materials transactions, ISSN 1345-9678, E-ISSN 1347-5320, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 341-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been used for the determination of the composition and size of oxide particles consisting of SiO2, MnO, Al2O3, MgO and CaO on the surface of a glass or metal sample. The composition and size of multicomponent oxide particles such as MnO-SiO2, CaO-Al2O3 and CaO-Al2O3-MgO evaluated by LA-ICP-MS are compared with those obtained by chemical analysis and by SEM observation. It is confirmed that LA-ICP-MS method has prospects to be applied for quick and simultaneous measurement of the composition and size of particles on the surface of metals in steelmaking industry. The difference between the particle size determined by LA-ICP-MS and that by SEM ranges from 6 to 13% on an average in the range of d(V) = 7 similar to 40 mu m.

  • 4. Mahmoudi, J.
    et al.
    Vynnycky, M.
    Sivesson, P.
    Fredriksson, Hasse
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    An experimental and numerical study on the modelling of fluid flow, heat transfer and solidification in a copper continuous strip casting process2003In: Materials transactions, ISSN 1345-9678, E-ISSN 1347-5320, Vol. 44, no 9, p. 1741-1751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental and numerical study was carried out to investigate the solidification process in a copper continuous strip casting process. Heat flow and solidification process has been experimentally studied. Cooling curves during solidification were registered using a thermocouple of type K connected to a data acquisition system. Temperature measurements in the mould and cooling water were also performed. The numerical model considers a generalized set of mass, momentum and heat equations that is valid for the solid, liquid and solidification interval in the cast. A k - epsilon turbulence model, produced with the commercial program CFX, is used to analyse the solidification process of pure copper in the mould region of the caster. The fluid flow, temperature and heat flux distributions in the mould region of the caster were computed. The shape and location of the solidification front were also determined. The effects of the parameters such as heat transfer coefficient, casting speed, casting temperature. heat of fusion and specific heat on the shape and location of the solidification front and the heat transport at the mould-cast interface were investigated. The predicted temperature and heat flux distributions were compared with experimental measurements, and reasonable agreement was obtained.

  • 5. Ohtani, H.
    et al.
    Matsumoto, S.
    Sundman, Bo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Computational Thermodynamics.
    Sakuma, T.
    Hasebe, M.
    Equilibrium between fluorite and pyrochlore structures in the ZrO2-Nd2O3 system2005In: Materials transactions, ISSN 1345-9678, E-ISSN 1347-5320, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 1167-1174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase diagram of the ZrO2-Nd2O3 system has been characterized showing isolated two-phase regions for a cubic fluorite-type ZrO2 solid solution and Nd2Zr2O7 with a pyrochlore-type structure. A thermodynamic analysis was carried out to elucidate the origin of this interesting phase equilibrium. A compound energy model with the formula (Zr4+,Nd3+)(0.5)(Nd3+,Zr4+)(0.5)(O2-,va)(2) was applied to describe the Gibbs energy for these phases in consideration of the ordering of the cation sites in the structure. The ordering arrangement on the anion sites was not taken into account. The Gibbs energy for the liquid was described using an ionic solution model, while the binary compounds, such as tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO2, and cubic and hexagonal Nd2O3, were treated as stoichiometric solid phases. The thermodynamic assessment was based on the experimental phase boundaries as well as the evaluated formation energy for the stoichiometric Nd,2Zr2O7 phase. The phase diagram calculations showed that the peculiar feature of this phase diagram was reproduced well in our work. The results strongly suggest that the two-phase boundaries between the cubic fluorite-type ZrO2 solid solution and the pyrochlore-type structure occur due to the ordering of the Zr4+ and Nd3+ cations.

  • 6. Ortega-Hertogs, R. J.
    et al.
    Inoue, A.
    Rao, K. V.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Coexistence of various Nd-rich and Fe-rich Fe-Nd short range orderings in bulk glassy Nd60Fe30Al10 hard magnets2001In: Materials transactions, ISSN 1345-9678, E-ISSN 1347-5320, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 1547-1551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bulk Nd60Fe30Al10 metallic glasses are found to exhibit a complex magnetic behavior at very low temperatures related to the coexistence of various Nd-rich and Fe-rich magnetic short range orderings, as evidenced by AC-susceptibility studies in combination with hysteretic loops at fields up to 30 T. Above 80 K the magnetic behavior is shown to correlate with Stoner-Wohlfarth hysteresis loops with pronounced thermal activation effects. These observations suggest the existence of an Fe-rich Fe-Nd hard magnetic 'phase' formed by an ensemble of randomly oriented uniaxial magnetic nanoentities embedded in a Nd-rich matrix. The exchange coupling and development of a large axial crystal field anisotropy at very low temperatures and the uncoupling above 70 K of the Fe-rich Fe-Nd hard magnetic phase to the Nd-rich matrix appears to be at the origin of the observed overall magnetic behavior.

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